Parties and witnesses were put on oath.
Then they spend all their time at parties instead of studying.
He said in a small town like Ouray, it was an exception when the jury didn't know half the parties in his court.
A few Christmas parties, that sort of thing.
"A peace deal depends on two parties, not one," A'Ran reminded him.
Two parties had developed with the growth of the Church.
Parties were formed, some accusing Pierre of Illuminism, others supporting him.
To clear up this last point for himself, Prince Andrew, utilizing his position and acquaintances, tried to fathom the character of the control of the army and of the men and parties engaged in it, and he deduced for himself the following of the state of affairs.
She was, as always at evening parties, wearing a dress such as was then fashionable, cut very low at front and back.
The relations were now very strained between the reforming princes and Maximilian, who, unable to raise an army, refused to attend the meetings of the council at Nuremberg, while both parties treated for peace with France.
Scotland was divided mainly into two parties, one in favour of alliance with England, and the other with France.
The case, as represented by the offended parties, was that, after seizing the transports, Major Denisov, being drunk, went to the chief quartermaster and without any provocation called him a thief, threatened to strike him, and on being led out had rushed into the office and given two officials a thrashing, and dislocated the arm of one of them.
The bride-price varied much, according to the position of the parties, but was in excess of that paid for a slave.
Other parties had previously colonized the islands but none had remained permanently.
The next few days will be nothing but feasts and parties in celebration of our marriage!
In theory these agreements may result from the spontaneous and pacific initiative of the contracting parties, but in reality their object has almost always been to terminate more or less acute conflicts and remedy more or less disturbed situations.
Both parties must win for the trade to occur.
As a result of the hostility between Kutuzov and Bennigsen, his Chief of Staff, the presence of confidential representatives of the Emperor, and these transfers, a more than usually complicated play of parties was going on among the staff of the army.
He then allotted the reconstruction of wall and gates to different parties of workmen, and his narrative describes the portion of wall upon which each of these was employed.'
"We here in Moscow are more occupied with dinner parties and scandal than with politics," said he in his quiet ironical tone.
According to Mr. Cooms everything was accomplished through third parties without him ever knowing our names.
Even if he wasn't directly involved, it's a small high school and booze parties are probably common knowledge.
The bombshell blonde always threw good dinner parties with fun themes; this theme had been Disco Night, complete with lava lamps, disco ball, tacky '70s music that still jammed out the open windows, and costumes for those who chose to wear them.
Everyone wins in trade, because goods are reallocated in a way that increases utility to all parties involved.
From among all these parties, just at the time Prince Andrew reached the army, another, a ninth party, was being formed and was beginning to raise its voice.
In the higher command there were two sharply defined parties: Kutuzov's party and that of Bennigsen, the chief of staff.
Apart from the extremists on Develop- one side or the other, frank reactionaries on the De ment of Right and Socialists on the Left, two main divisions political of opinion revealed themselves in the congresses of parties.
offered a fair hearing to all religious parties in the Empire.
During the sedition of the "green" and "blue" parties of the circus (known as the Nika sedition, 532) he did Justinian good service, effectually crushing the rebels who had proclaimed Hypatius emperor.
The prince, after vainly endeavouring to obtain the recall of the generals, restored the constitution with the concurrence of all the Bulgarian political parties (September 18, 1883).
In the war of independence it was repeatedly subjected to pillage and slaughter by both parties in the strife, and did not recover its losses for many years.
The party is, however, formed on a broader basis than the state parties, the solidarity pledge extends only to votes upon which the fate of a government depends.
The party was very successful and quite like other parties he had seen.
Since concordats are contracts they give rise to that special mutual obligation which results from every agreement freely entered into; for a contract is binding on both parties to it.
The judge saw the plea, called the other parties before him and sent for the witnesses.
We have a beautiful house and lots of parties.
Xander was right about hook-ups being expected at these parties.
Rouvier was able to make a statement of the whole proceedings in the chamber, which received the assent of all parties.
A suspension of hostilities then took place, and negotiations were opened between the contending parties.
It was publicly sealed and witnessed by professional witnesses, as well as by collaterally interested parties.
Adultery was punished with the death of both parties by drowning, but if the husband was willing to pardon his wife, the king might intervene to pardon the paramour.
their affairs were managed by Manfred and by Charles of Anjou, the supreme captains of the parties, under whose orders acted the captains of the people in each city.
Growing up out of the captain of the people or signore of the commune, the tyrant annihilated both parties for his own profit and for the peace of the state.
It was with their own militia that the burghers won freedom in the war of independence, subdued the nobles, and fought the battles of the parties.
The tyrants, as we have already seen, established themselves as captains of the people, vicars of the empire, vicars for the church, leaders of the Guelph and Ghibelline parties.
much wrangling between the French and Spanish parties, the duchy was confirmed in 1586 to Ottaviano Farnese and his son Alessandro, better known as Philip II.s general, the prince of Parma.
All parties, however, were agreed in favor of war against Austria, for which the peoples forced their unwilling rulers to prepare.
He ended by dominating the cabinet, but owing to his having negotiated a union of the Right Centre and the Left Centre (the Con nubio) in the conviction that the country needed the moderate elements of both parties, he quarrelled with DAzeglio (who, as an uncompromising conservative, failed to see the value of such a move) and resigned.
The AustroGerman alliance of 1879 formally guaranteed the territory of the contracting parties, but Austria could not count upon effectual help from Germany in case of war, since Russian attack upon Austria would certainly have been followed by French attack upon Germany.
The tsar, Alexander III., under the impression of the assassination of his father, desired, however, the renewal of the Dreikaiserbund, both as a guarantee of European peace and as a conservative league against revolutionary parties.
five years, to -have pledged the contracting parties to join in resisting attack upon the territory of any one of them, and to have specified the military disposition to be adopted by each in case attack should come either from France, or from Russia, or from both simultaneously.
constitutional parties by intimacy with strong monarchical states such as Germany and Austria.
It became clear that neither the influence of the regular clergy, of which the Society of Jesus is the most powerful embodiment, nor that of foreign clerical parties, which largely control the Peters Pence fund, would ever permit renunciation of the papal claim to temporal power.
Pressed by Cavallotti, Rudini in March 1897 dissolved the Chamber and conducted the general election in such a way as to crush by government pressure the partisans of Crispi, and greatly to strengthen the (Socialist, Republican and Radical) revolutionary parties.
The general election of June 1900 not only failed to reinforce the cabinet, but largely increased the strength of the extreme parties (Radicals, Republicans and Socialists), who in the new Chamber numbered nearly 100 out of a total of 508.
The extreme parties now began to direct especial attention to propaganda in the army, with a view to destroying its cohesion and thus paralysing the action of the government.
The weakness of the government in dealing with the strike riots caused a feeling of profound dissatisfaction, and the so-called experiment of liberty, conducted with the object of conciliating the extreme parties, proved a dismal failure.
The municipal elections in several of the larger cities, which had hitherto been regarded as strongholds of socialism, marked an overwhelming triumph for tJic constitutional parties, notably in Milan, Turin and Genoa, for the strikes had wrought as much harm to the working classe1 as to the bourgeoisie.
in the West expressly provided that bishops were not to be permitted to be judges (that is, of course, in temporal causes), save by the consent of the parties.
The canon provides that any clerk having a complaint against another clerk must not pass by his own bishop and turn to secular tribunals, but first lay b a re his cause before him, so that by the sentence of the bishop himself the dispute may be settled by arbitrators acceptable to both parties.
"Officialites," Fournier, pp. 65-125); or, after the 14th century, where both parties were clerks.
The performances of Los Comuneros were attended by members of the different parties; the utterances of the different characters were taken to represent the author's personal opinions, and every speech which could be brought into connexion with current politics was applauded by one half of the house and derided by the other half.
The Russian Captain Vassili Chitschakov in 1765 and 1766 made two persevering attempts to penetrate the ice north of Spitsbergen, and reached 80° 30' N., while Russian parties twice wintered at Bell Sound.
The question of the use of the vernacular or of Hebrew is bound up with the differences between the orthodox and the liberal or reform parties, complicated by the many problems involved.
Documents were drawn up in such and so many of these tongues as was convenient for the parties concerned; not a few private documents add a fourth tongue, and are drawn up in Greek, Arabic, Latin and Hebrew.
Not that the regime in Russia had become in any true sense constitutional, far less parliamentary; but the " unlimited autocracy " had given place to a " self-limited autocracy," whether permanently so limited, or only at the discretion of the autocrat, remaining a subject of heated controversy between conflicting parties in the state.
All the proceedings were conducted in writing, and the judges were not confronted with either the parties or the witnesses until they emerged to deliver judgment.
The acting justice sits normally alone to hear causes in his canton of the peace (uchastok), but, at the request of both parties to a suit, he may call in an honorary justice as assessor or substitute.
All civil cases involving less than z oo roubles value were within their competence, and more important cases by consent of the parties.
What constituted in this primitive system of inheritance the strength of a claim was often not easily determined, and even when the legal question was clear enough the law was not always respected by the contending parties.
Meanwhile the political parties which were to divide the new Duma had taken shape.
The government had done wisely in obscuring the passion for democratic ideals by an appeal to Russian chauvinism, an appeal soon to bear fruit in disuniting the revolutionary parties.
As queen-mother she played the part of a mediator between her sons and political parties.
Meanwhile a series of petty civil wars greatly interfered with the prosperity of the native population, who grouped themselves into two opposing political parties.
Both parties in the state in 1888 declared in favour of free coinage, and in 1892 instructed their delegates to the national conventions to oppose any candidate who did not favour this policy.
In the election of 1896 all the parties in the state declared in favour of the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1.
The Democratic and Silver parties united, with the result that the state's electoral vote went to Bryan and Sewall, the Democratic nominees, while the Silver party retained most of the state offices.
The Democratic and the Silver parties again united, and subsequently dominated the politics of the state.
It may be regarded as, in various important respects, the lineal predecessor of the American Whig and Republican parties.
Hence these measures became the issues on which the first American parties were formed.
In 1883 he resigned his seat in parliament owing to the reactionary measures of the government, which made it impossible for him to continue his former co-operation with Bismarck, but returned in 1887 to support the coalition of national parties.
Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.
2 1913); although a Giolittian majority was again returned, his opponents, not only among the Socialists but also among the constitutional parties, were now more numerous, and he felt that opposition to his rule was growing in the country at large even more than in Parliament.
He succeeded in forming a Cabinet which comprised a number of non-Giolittians of all parties, but only a few of his own "old guard," so that he won the support of a considerable part of the Chamber, although the Socialists and the Popolari (Catholics) rendered his hold somewhat precarious.
This failure seems to have convinced Bacchides that it would be well to recognize Jonathan and to secure a balance of parties.
Within Judaism itself two parties were formed, the Liberals and the Conservatives, and as time went on these tendencies definitely organized themselves.
The judges are chosen without regard to religious belief, and precautions have been taken to render them independent of political parties.
Later he took refuge in Paris, where he pleaded for a national reunion of all parties against the Red tyrants.
tioned, combined with the more exact reconnaissance of native surveyors and of those exploring parties which have recently been working in the interests of commercial projects, have left little to future inquiry.
War broke out between the two parties at Gibeon a few miles north of Jerusalem.
But this is just where his epoch-making importance lies, that all the later parties in the church learned from him.
And this is true not only of the dogmatic parties; solitary monks and ambitious priests, hard-headed critical exegetes,' allegorists, mystics, all found something congenial in his writings.
He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded peace with Lubeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for 2 Hence another of the names - " hurricane-bird " - by which this species is occasionally known.
She added that all the parties except the Jacobins were full of confidence; and that the nobles now cherished hopes of a reaction, seeing that the reduction of the number of rulers from five to three pointed towards monarchy.
Its duration was from the 3rd of July 1778 to the assembly of the congress of Teschen on the 10th of March 1779,and its total cost £4,350,000 and 20,000 men to all parties.
The external menace to their independence had welded together the place and the people; the same pressure had brought about the fusion of the conflicting parties in the lagoon townships into one homogeneous whole.
A peace, honourable to both parties, was brought about by Matteo Visconti, lord of Milan, in that same year.
In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.
It must be borne in mind, however, that the designation " Catholic " was equally claimed by all the warring parties within the church at various times; thus, the followers of Arius and Athanasius alike called themselves Catholics, and it was only the ultimate victory of the latter that has reserved for them in history the name of Catholic, and branded the former as Arian.
In 1420 the emperor Sigismund made the city the base for his unsuccessful attack on the Taborites; Kuttenberg was taken by Ziika, and after a temporary reconciliation of the warring parties was burned by the imperial troops in 1422, to prevent its falling again into the hands of the Taborites.
- To constitute the relationship of landlord and tenant in the mode under consideration, it is necessary not only that there should be parties capable of entering into the contract, but that there should be a letting, as distinct from a mere agreement to let, and that the right conveyed should be a right to the exclusive possession of the subject of the letting and not a simple licence to use it.
But under the Statute of Frauds (1677), ss., 1, 2) leases, except those the term of which does not exceed three years, and in which the reserved rent is equal to two-thirds at least of the improved value of the premises, were required to be in writing signed by the parties or their lawfully authorized agents; and, under the Real Property Act 1845, a lease required by law to be in writing is void unless made by deed.
- This tenancy is created by an express contract between the parties and never by implication, as in the case of tenancy from year to year and tenancy at will.
- This tenancy may be created by express agreement between the parties, or by implication as, e.g.
Where there is no express stipulation creating a yearly tenancy, if the parties have contracted that the tenant may be dispossessed by a notice given at any time, effect will be given to this provision.
- A tenancy at will is one which endures at the will of the parties only, i.e.
The component parts of a lease are the parties, the recitals (when necessary) setting out such matters as the title of the lessor; the demise or actual letting (the word " demise " is ordinarily used, but any term indicating an express intention to make a present letting is sufficient); the parcels in which the extent of the premises demised is stated; the habendum (which defines the commencement and the term of the lease), the reddendum or reservation of rent, and the covenants and conditions.
- A covenant is said to " run with the land " when the rights and duties which it creates are not merely personal to the immediate parties (in which case a covenant is said to be " collateral "), but pass also to their assignees.
But the assignees of both parties were placed on the same footing by a statute of Henry Viii.
It may be added that, if a lessee covenants to pay rates and taxes, no demand by the collector apparently is necessary to constitute a breach of the covenant; where a rate is duly made and published it is the duty of the parties assessed to seek out the collector and pay it.
But the respective obligations of parties where repairs are, as they always are in leases for years, the subject of express covenant, may vary indefinitely.
The relationship of landlord and tenant may be altered either voluntarily, by the act of the parties, or involuntarily, by the operation of law, and may also be dissolved.
The custom of the district, in the absence of stipulations between the parties, would be imported into their contract - the tenant going out on the same conditions as he came in.
This again is a matter which the parties may, if they please, regulate for themselves.
But, with advancing civilization and the consequent increase in the number of the conditions to be imposed on both parties, leases became mutual contracts, bilateral in form.
There is practically no limitation, but the will of the parties, as to the persons to whom a lease may be granted.
In the absence of such notice, the parties are held, if there be nothing in their conduct or in the lease inconsistent with this presumption, to renew their agreement in all its terms, and so on from year to year till due notice is given.
The relationship of landlord and tenant is created, altered and dissolved in the same way, and the rights and duties of parties are substantially identical.
A lease must contain, either in itself or by clear reference, all the terms of a complete contract - the names of the parties, description of the property let, the rent (see Rent) and the conditions.
In the United States, as in England, the covenant for quiet enjoyment only extends, so far as relates to the acts of third parties, to lawful acts of disturbance in the enjoyment of the subject agreed to be let.
But a verbal lease presents this disadvantage that, if it is unperformed and one of the parties denies its existence, it cannot be proved by witnesses.
A word must be added as to letting by cheptel (bail a cheptel) - a contract by which one of the parties gives to the other a stock of cattle to keep under conditions agreed on between them (Art.
1804); (ii.) cheptel by moiety (cheptel d moietie) - here each of the contracting parties furnishes half of the stock, which remains common for profit or loss (Art.
The split in the market so caused was so damaging to both parties that a satisfactory arrangement was eventually agreed upon, and both institutions were absorbed in the Liverpool Cotton Association.
Without the active intervention of a strong body of interested parties it is sometimes unlikely that new industries will be undertaken even in places well suited for them.
During the latter part of the War of Independence Peekskill was an important outpost of the Continental Army, and in the neighbourhood several small engagements were fought between American and British scouting parties.
He hoped, by presenting facts as they were, to win the adhesion of all parties.
The chiefs have jurisdiction in cases affecting natives, but there is a right of appeal to the courts of the commissioners, who try all cases in which any of the parties are European.
A few years later, in 1836-1837, large parties of emigrant Boers settled north of the Orange, and before long disputes arose between them and Moshesh, who claimed a great part of the land on which the white farmers had settled.
On both sides was civil war, urged as fiercely as that against the common enemy, in which the parties sought allies indiscriminately among Christians and Mahommedans.
By legislative enactment whites and blacks living in adultery are to be punished by imprisonment or fine; divorces may be secured only after two years' residence in the state and on the ground of physical incapacity, adultery, extreme cruelty, habitual indulgence in violent temper, habitual drunkenness, desertion for one year, previous marriage still existing, or such relationship of the parties as is within the degrees for which marriage is prohibited by law.
16-18, be not over-righteous (over-attentive to details of ritual and convention) or over-wicked (flagrantly neglectful of established beliefs and customs); here "righteous" and "wicked" appear to be technical terms designating two parties in the Jewish world of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C., the observers and the non-observers of the Jewish ritual law; these parties represent in a general way the Pharisees and the Sadducees; viii.
The reign of Herod, a period of despotism and terror, and of strife between Jewish religious parties, is preferred by some scholars (Gratz, Cheyne and others) as best answering to the social situation depicted in the book, while still others (as Renan) decide for the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (10478 B.
In 1793 he was chosen United States senator from Pennsylvania by the votes of both political parties.
Whibley, Political Parties at Athens (Cambridge, 1889); G.
Hammond, History of Political Parties in the State of New York (2 vols., Albany, 1842).
The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
Douroucoulis live in parties, and are purely nocturnal, sleeping during the day in hollow trees, and coming out at night to feed on insects and fruits, when they utter piercing cat-like screams.
In 1905 the Italians effected an arrangement apparently satisfactory to all parties (see § Italian Somaliland).
In 1904 negotiations were opened with the mullah by the Italians, and by arrangement with the sultan of Obbia and the sultan of the Mijertins the territory between Ras Aswad and Ras Bowen, which was claimed by both parties, was handed over to the mullah.
In modern slavery, on the other hand, where the occupations of both parties were industrial, the existence of a servile class only guaranteed for some of them the possibility of self-indulgent ease, whilst it imposed on others the necessity of indigent idleness.
This vacillation put an end to all hope of a reconciliation of parties in the island.
Harcourt while at the Inland Revenue, marked him out as one in whom all parties might have confidence.
By 1863 two parties had arisen among the loyal classes: one of radicals, who demanded the calling of a constitutional convention and the abolition of slavery; the other of conservatives.
In 1878-1895 political parties had a complex development.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
Political parties were forming without very evident basis for differences outside questions of political patronage and the good 'or ill use of power; and, in the absence of the laws just mentioned, the Moderates, being in power, used every instrument of government to strengthen their hold on office.
At the third Congress in 1905 it led to the formation of two parties, the Bolsheviks meeting in London, and the Mensheviks in Geneva.
For its privileges the regie has to pay a rent of £T750,000 per annum to the government (assigned to bondholders), " even if it has no revenues at all," and after the payment of a dividend of 8% to its shareholders, and certain other deductions, it has to share profits with the government and the bondholders according to a sliding scale agreed upon between the three parties.
They may be disposed of under certain conditions to third parties, and they may be inherited.
No longer haughtily imposed on the vanquished, as was the case with former treaties, it was submitted to the examination and discussion of both parties before being signed.
10, 1664), by which a twenty years' truce " was agreed upon; Transylvania was evacuated by both parties, but remained tributary to Turkey.
But this was a mere legal formality, and on the whole the marriage seems to have met the views of both parties, 'neither of whom had any affection for the other.
He succeeded in carrying his project through with but slight modifications, and without dividing the parties upon whose support he relied.
A French tribunal alone is competent to settle disputes where one of the parties is not a native.
In July 1857 a convention chosen to form a state constitution was found on assembling to be so evenly divided between the Republican and Democratic parties that organization was impossible, and the members proceeded to their work in two separate bodies.
They comprised two parties: (1) the followers of Capito, Carlstadt and Bucer, who at the diet of Augsburg presented the Confessio Tetrapolitana from Strassburg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen; (2) the followers of the Swiss reformer Zwingli, who to the same diet presented his private confession of faith.
This dual government was a constant cause of friction between the Servians and the Turks, and on the occasion of one conflict between the two parties the Turkish commander of the fortress bombarded the Servian part of the town (June 1862).
His memoirs, to 1834, remain unpublished, but an Inquiry into the Origin and Course of Political Parties in the United States was compiled from it by his sons and published in 1867.
C. Smith's Parties and Slavery (the last three in the "American Nation Series") give much attention to Van Buren's public career.
He also presided, as an eminent constitutional lawyer, over a committee set up in that year to consider the reconstruction of the House of Lords, and spent much labour in a task which all parties were disposed to shirk.
In the war of 1868-78 it was an insurgent stronghold; near it was fought one of the most desperate conflicts of the war, and it was nearly destroyed by the opposing parties.
Subsequently he received the nominations of the People's and National Silver parties.
The combined result from both these methods is 8.857", while the combination of all the contact observations made by all the parties gave the much smaller result, 8.794".
Next year Patenotre signed with Li Hung Chang a treaty of peace at Tien-tsin, by which the French protectorate in Annam and Tongking was recognized, and both parties agreed to remain within their own borders in the future.
Its obligation rests on the good faith of the parties to the reference, and on the fact that, with the help of a world-wide press, public opinion can always be brought to bear on any state that seeks to evade its moral duty.
The history of international arbitration is dealt with in the article Peace, where treaties of general arbitration are discussed, both those which embrace all future differences thereafter to arise between the contracting parties, and also those more limited conventions which aim at the settlement of all future differences in regard to particular subjects, e.g.
Of the governments which were parties in these several cases Great Britain heads the list in point of numbers, the United States of America being a good second.
If the votes are equally divided the selection of the chief arbitrator is to be entrusted to a third power to be named by the parties.
The tribunal is to sit at the Hague when practicable, unless the parties otherwise agree.
These may be summarized as follows: - The initial step is the making by the parties of a special agreement clearly defining the subject of the dispute.
The members of the tribunal have the right of putting questions to the counsel and agents of the parties and to demand from them explanation of doubtful points.
3 French was the official language throughout, but the parties were allowed to make any communication to the tribunal, in French, English, German or Japanese.
4 French was again the official language, but the counsel and agents of both parties were allowed to address the tribunal in English.
This treaty contains reservations of all questions involving the vital interests, the independence or the honour of the contracting parties.
Some of these differences may be slight, while others may be vital, or (which amounts to the same thing) may seem to the parties to be so.
The foreign ministers then arranged a compromise between the contending parties, according to which President Peixoto was to place no artillery in the city, while Admiral Mello was to refrain from bombarding the town, which was thus saved from destruction.
The anticipated agreement, however, was not attained; and the result of the council was simply to embitter the relations between the two great religious parties, and those between the Western and Eastern halves of the Empire.
The Ghibellines were on several occasions expelled from the city, and, even when a temporary reconciliation of the two parties allowed them to return, they failed to regain their former influence.
As a senator he stood in the front rank in a body distinguished for ability; his purity of character and courteous manner, together with his intellectual gifts, won him the esteem of all parties; and he became more and more the leader of the Southern Democrats.
In the latter part of the 18th century and the first years of the 19th it was constantly the scene of bloody dissensions between two rival parties, one led by the local janissaries, the other by the sherifs (religious); and the Ottoman governors took the side, now of one, now of the other, in order to plunder a distracted city, too far removed from the centre to be controlled by the sultans, and too near the rebellious pashalik of Acre and the unsettled district of Lebanon not to be affected by the disorders natural to a frontier province.
With certain exceptions reserved for the provincial court (such as insolvency, ownership of immovable property and divorce), the native high court exercises jurisdiction when all parties to the suit are natives; it also has jurisdiction when the complainant is not a native, but all other parties to the suit are natives.
The Anglicans are divided into two parties - those belonging to " the Church of the Province of South Africa," the body in communion with the Church of England, and those who act independently and constitute " the Church of England in Natal."
The Zulu forces crossed the Tugela the same day, and the most advanced parties of the Boers were massacred, many at a spot near where the town of Weenen now stands, its name (meaning wailing or weeping) commemorating the event.
He did more than any one to mould the minds * of the rising generation, and he carried them with him even in his violent attacks on all opinions and all parties which appeared in any way to be injurious to the rising power of Germany.
On the 1st of July 1771 Home obtained at Cambridge, though not without some opposition from members of both the political parties, his degree of M.A.
The traditions of his Sunday parties have lasted unimpaired to this day, and the most pleasant pages penned by his biographer describe the politicians and the men of letters who gathered round his Tool hospitable board.
The interval between the diet of 1843 and that of 1847 saw a complete disintegration and transformation of the various political parties.
parties had not come about naturally, was an additional difficulty.
Broadly speaking, there have been in Hungary since 1867 two parties: those who accept the compromise with Austria, and affirm that under it Hungary, so far from having surrendered any of her rights, has acquired an influence which she previously did not actually possess, and secondly, those who see in the compromise an abandonment of the essentials of independence and aim at the restoration of the conditions established in 1848.
The various parties meanwhile had split up into some half a dozen sub-sections; but the expected fusion of the party of independence and the government fell through, and the barren struggle continued till the celebration of the millennium of the foundation of the monarchy produced for some months a lull in politics.
His successor, Kalman Szell, obtained an immense but artificial Szell, majority by a fresh fusion of parties, and the minority pledged itself to grant an indemnity for the extra parliamentary financial decrees rendered necessary by Hungary's understanding with Austria, as well as to cease from obstruction.
This was at once followed by an anti-ministerial fusion of the extremists of all parties, including seceders from the government (known as the T C Constitutional party); and when the diet reassembled, the opposition broke into the House by force and wrecked all the furniture, so that a session was physically impossible (Jan.
The issue of a programme so liberal, and notably the inclusion in it of the idea of universal suffrage, entirely checkmated the opposition parties.
That this condition of things could not be allowed to continue was, indeed, recognized by all parties; the fundamental difference of opinion was as to the method by which it was to be ended.
The dominant Magyar parties were committed to the principle of franchise reform; but they were determined that this reform should be of such a nature as not to imperil their own hegemony.
Those ministers who belonged to the constitutional and popular parties, i.e.
homo regius apart from parties, to construct a government out of any elements that might be persuaded to co-operate with him.
Its object was to resist the anti-clerical tendencies of the Liberals, and for this purpose it appealed to the " nationalities " against the dominant Magyar parties, the due enforcement of the Law of Equal Rights of Nationalities (1868) forming a main item of its programme.
On the 12th Mr de Justh resigned the presidency of the Lower House and sought re-election, so as to test the relative strength of parties.
It was hoped that, in the circumstances, Dr Lukacs, a financier of experience, might be able to come to terms with Mr de Justh, on the basis of dropping the bank question for the time, or, failing that, to patch together out of the rival parties some sort of a working majority.
14 the Croat and Serb parties in the Diet of Dalmatia publicly affirmed the principle that " the Croats and Serbs are one nation ": and this standpoint has never since been abandoned.
The Trialist solution (which would have united the Yugoslav provinces of Austria-Hungary in a third state enjoying equality with the two existing partners) rapidly lost popularity, even among the clerical parties, which had been attracted by the prospect of Catholic predominance in such a State.
Meanwhile the opposition parties openly allied themselves with the Yugoslav Club in Austria, which agitated for complete national unity, but saved itself from prosecution by occasional references to the dynasty and absolute silence regarding Serbia.
- After some weeks of negotiation the so-called " Declaration of Corfu " was signed on July 20 1917, between Pasic as Serbian Premier (and in this case as the mouthpiece of all the Serbian parties) and Dr. Trumbic as president of the Yugoslav Committee.
Among the latter were the mayor of Zagreb, the poet Vojnovic, and prominent Serb, Croat and Slovene deputies of all parties, including the peasant leader Stephen Radic and the future minister Pribicevic. Their resolutions, though necessarily vague, amounted to a pledge of mutual support in the cause of unity and independence.
This only precipitated the collapse, and while Count Tisza voiced Hungarian public opinion in declaring the basis of the Dual system to be shattered, the Yugoslav National Council was transplanted from Ljubljana to Zagreb and strengthened by the inclusion of representatives of all parties (Oct.
g the Declaration of Geneva was signed by Pasic as Serbian Premier, Father Korosec, Doctor Cingrija (mayor and deputy of Ragusa) and Doctor Zerjav (a Slovene Progressive) for .the Zagreb Council, Trumbic and four others for the Yugoslav Committee, and Trifkovic, Draskovic and Marinkovic as chiefs of the Serbian opposition parties.
It further expressed its inability to believe that the Powers wished to impose " a treaty concluded unknown to it by third parties, and whose clauses have never been communicated to it."
After their passage the Adriatic question was again allowed to stagnate, the Powers resuming their negative attitude, while advocating direct discussion between the two parties.
During 1919 internal politics centred in a struggle between the Radicals, who still possessed the best party machine and stood for a narrowly Serbian as opposed to a Yugoslav programme, and the newly constituted Democratic party, which absorbed most of the Serbian Opposition parties, the old Serbo-Croat coalition of Zagreb, and the Slovene Liberals.
Under his weaker but more neutral guidance, and aided by the unifying force of the Adriatic crisis, the parties reached agreement upon a new parliamentary franchise, based on universal suffrage.
Of the two parties who joined in it Retz could only depend on the bourgeoisie of Paris.
In January 1864 a conference, which lasted six days, was held between the parties and an agreement was reached.
The decision was in favour of Waterboer, who had, on the 25th of August 1870, before the appointment of the arbitration court, offered his territory to Great Britain, and it was understood by all the parties interested that that offer would be accepted.
Alfred Milner to meet President Kruger at Bloemfontein, hoping to be able to exert pressure on both parties and to arrange a settlement as favourable as possible to Bioem- the Transvaal.
Nevertheless, on economic as well as political grounds, the leaders of both parties in the Transvaal were prepared to consider favourably the proposals put forward by Dr Jameson at the close of 1906 for a closer union of all the self-governing colonies, and the first direct step to that end was taken at an inter-colonial conference held in May 1908.
Thereupon the Union ministry was urged by the British government to effect a permanent settlement acceptable to all parties.
In 1864 he divided Venezuela into twenty states and formed them into a Federal republic. The twenty parties whose struggles had caused so much strife and bloodshed were the Unionists, who desired a centralized government, and the Federalists, who preferred a federation of semiautonomous provinces.
in 1311, and was a prey to struggles between the two parties, until Galeazzo Visconti took possession of it in 1322.
This was creditable to both parties, for Lamartine, both as a distinguished man of letters and as a past servant of the state, had every claim to the bounty of his country.
Healy had said that he tried to govern Ireland with Scottish jokes), Sir Henry had already earned the general respect of all parties, and in April 1895, when Mr Speaker Peel retired, his claims for the vacant post were prominently canvassed; but his colleagues were averse from his retirement from active politics and Mr Gully was selected.
But the urgent need of pressing forward at once was not realized by the attacking side, and the opposition offered by the parties of Osmanlis close to the bay was taken too seriously after daylight.
The last parties of the Anzac force were to ship at Anzac Cove but for a detachment on the extreme left, which would embark with the Suvla troops.
Finally the parties still in the trenches slipped away, and when dawn broke the Turks, who had first ascertained that something unusual was afoot from the explosion of a vast mine in the Anzac area, and from conflagrations on the beaches where the few stores to be abandoned were being destroyed, discovered that the invaders were gone.
Neither the superintendents nor the assistant superintendents have power to try civil suits, whether the parties are Shans or not.
It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.
The Sudan government, however, sent engineering parties to remove the sudd blocks and open out a continuous waterway.
In politics, while he held aloof from the clubs, and even from parties, he was an ardent defender of the new institutions.
Alterations and exceptions were, as a matter of fact, suggested by the interested parties themselves, and chiefly by the Church.
Peace is considered not so much a state of equilibrium and friendly relations between parties, but rather as the rule of a third within a certain region - a house, an estate, a kingdom.
Aramaic endorsements on business documents repeating in Aramaic transliteration the names of parties mentioned in the texts have also been of service in fixing the phonetic readings of names.
Fortunately, in the case of a large number of names occurring on business documents as the interested parties or as scribes or as witnesses - and it is through these documents that we obtain the majority of the Babylonian-Assyrian proper names - we have variant readings, the same name being written phonetically in whole or part in one instance and ideographically in another.
In 1279 Pope Nicholas sent his nephew, the friar preacher Latino Frangipani Malabranca, whom he had created cardinal bishop of Ostia the same year, to reconcile the parties in Florence once more.
In 1779 he published an important investigation of the laws of friction (Theorie des machines simples, en ayant regard au frottement de leurs parties et a la roideur des cordages), which was followed twenty years later by a memoir on fluid resistance.
About 1540 the Reformation gained an entrance into the town, which was taken by both parties during the Thirty Years' War.
At that time the officers of the Frency navy were divided into two parties - the reds or nobles, and the blues or roturiers.
10 -12 we read of four parties in the Corinthian church, of which two attached themselves to Paul and Apollos respectively, using their names, though the "division" can hardly have been due to conflicting doctrines.
The first article declared that " The high contracting parties engage to take such measures as shall constitute an absolute and complete guarantee that no open or disguised bounty shall be granted on the manufacture or exportation of sugar."
On the 1st of August 1907 the Belgian minister in London transmitted to Sir Edward Grey a draft, additional act prepared by the commission for carrying out the proposal of His Britannic Majesty's government, and on the 28th of August following an additional act was signed at Brussels by the plenipotentiaries of the contracting parties, by which they undertook to maintain the convention of the 5th of March 1902 in force for a fresh period of five years.
On the other hand, at Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) the powers, in response to the representations of the aggrieved parties, admonished the German sovereigns to respect the rights of the mediatized princes subject to them.
The people have to work on the chief's plantations and fisheries, and also work in parties for each other, breaking up new land, &c. This often ends in feasting and in dances (pilu pilu), which include allegorical representations of events or ideas.
2, 1410) prevented the outbreak of hostilities, inasmuch as the parties were enjoined by its terms to return to their estates; but in 1411, in consequence of ravages committed by the Armagnacs in the environs of Paris, the duke of Burgundy was called back to Paris.
In the wars of 1848 and 1864 Schleswig was an important strategical point on account of its proximity to the Dannewerk and was occupied by the different contending parties in turn.
Although occasionally seen in large flocks, the mara is more commonly found in small parties or in pairs, the parties commonly moving in single file.
In the ceremony of homage and investiture, which is the creative contract of feudalism, the obligations assumed by the two parties were, as a rule, not specified in exact terms. They were determined by local custom.
Both parties visited many sites where Himyaritic remains and inscriptions were found, but the hostile attitude of the natives, more particularly of the Seyyids, the religious hierarchy of Hadramut, prevented any adequate examination, and much of archaeological interest undoubtedly remains for future travellers to discover.
Owing to the disturbed state of the country, due to the presence of raiding parties from Nejd, Wellsted was unable to carry out his original intention of exploring the country to the west, and after an excursion along the Batina coast to Sohar he returned to India.
In these cities the rival parties were composed of the most energetic fighting men, who were brought into the most intimate contact with one another, and who kept up their quarrels from the home land.
C. Baur was his teacher, he did not attach himself to the Tubingen school; in reply to the contention that there are traces of a sharp conflict between two parties, Paulinists and Petrinists, he says that "we find variety coupled with agreement, and unity with difference, between Paul and the earlier apostles; we recognize the one spirit in the many gifts."
This decision at first gave offence to the Bolivians, but friendly overtures from Peru led to its acceptance by both parties with the understanding that modifications would be made in locating the line wherever actual settlements had been made by either party on territory awarded to the other.
The Austrian advanced guard engaged at daybreak, and the French in Telnitz made a vigorous defence; both parties were reinforced, and Legrand drew upon himself, in fulfilling his mission, the whole weight of the allied attack.
On the same day Cutler and Sargent " for themselves and associates " transferred to William Duer, then Secretary of the Treasury Board, and his associates " one equal moiety of the Scioto tract of land mentioned in the second contract," it being provided that both parties were to be equally interested in the sale of the land, and were to share equally any profit or loss.
Marriages in the great majority of cases are arranged with little reference to the feelings of the parties concerned.
Japan had not yet any political parties, but the ferment that preceded their birth was abroad.
The year 1881 saw the nation divided into political parties and within measured distance of constitutional government.
The Political journals, while fighting continuously against each Parties.
Even the task of transmitting to the central government provincial taxes paid in kind had to be discharged by specially organized parties, and this journey from the north-eastern districts to the capital generally occupied three months.
Drawn between various influences, that of Marguerite d'Angouleme, the du Bellays, and the duchesse d'Etampes, who was in favour of the Reformation or at least of toleration, and the contrary influence of the uncompromising Catholics, Duprat, and then Montmorency and de Tournon, he gave pledges successively to both parties.
Burgersdyk divides the logicians of his day into the Aristotelians, the Ramists and the Semi-Ramists, who endeavoured, like Goclenius of Marburg, to mediate between the contending parties.
The parties of the Left in the chamber, united upon this question in the Bloc republicain, supported Combes in his application of the law of 1901 on the religious associations, and voted the new bill on the congregations (1904), and under his guidance France took the first definite steps toward the separation of church and state.
He was opposed with extreme violence by all the Conservative parties, who regarded the secularization of the schools as a persecution of religion.
His policy was still carried on; and when the law of the separation of church and state was passed, all the leaders of the Radical parties entertained him at a noteworthy banquet in which they openly recognized him as the real originator of the movement.
The struggle between the two parties gave fresh life to the literature of the country but German criticism of the higher sort can only be said really to begin with Lessing.
The emperor's most important act was a severe reprimand addressed to Herr von Puttkamer, the reactionary minister of the interior, which caused his resignation; in the distribution of honours he chose many who belonged to classes and parties hitherto excluded from court favour.
In this, for the first time, he showed the unlucky independence which, in so many other instances, united all parties against him.
He seems, in fact, to have agreed with the foreign policy of the Tories and with the home policy of the Whigs, and naturally incurred the reproach of time-serving and the hearty abuse of both parties.
In his lifetime, Defoe, as not belonging to either of the great parties at a time of the bitterest party strife, was subjected to obloquy on both sides.
During the forty-five years after the death of Omar (he died in 1822) the khanate of Khokand was the seat of continuous wars between the settled Sarts and the nomad Kipchaks, the two parties securing the upper hand in turns, Khokand falling under the dominion or the suzerainty of Bokhara, which supported Khudayar-khan, the representative of the Kipchak party, in 1858-1866; while Alim-kul, the representative of the Sarts, put himself at the head of the gazawat (Holy War) proclaimed in 1860, and fought bravely against the Russians until killed at Tashkent in 1865.
In his view the best way to govern was to have both parties represented in the ministry, so that, as Whig and Tory fell out, the king came by his own.
The controversy was carried by the rival parties into the pulpit, and occasioned such keen feeling that the king interposed to stop it.
The Excise Bill in 1733 and the Septennial Bill in the following year offered opportunities for further attacks on the government, which Bolingbroke supported by a new series of papers in the Craftsman styled "A Dissertation on Parties"; but the whole movement collapsed after the new elections, which returned Walpole to power in 1735 with a large majority.
His two extant works are more valuable as artistic studies of the rival parties in the state and of personal character than as trustworthy narratives of facts.
The first to secede were the land powers of Greece proper, whose subordination Athens had endeavoured to guarantee by supporting the democratic parties in the various states.
The contracting parties were to retain their names, laws, administrative institutions, financial and military organizations.
In the beginning of March 1921, direct negotiation between Poland and Lithuania under the aus p ices of the League of Nations, to be followed by arbitration on unsettled points, was proposed in lieu of the plebiscite and agreed to by all parties.
The Peasants' party combined with the Popular Socialist party, while the "Workers' Federation" and the "Yeomen's Union" (these being but the small landowners) formed part of the Christian Socialist governing bloc. Legally recognized parties which were not represented in the Seim were: (a) the Progressive party (Pajanga); (b) the Liberal party (known as the Santara Union); (c) " Landlords' Association" (which comprised only large landed proprietors).
The Social Revolutionary and the Communist parties were not legally recognized and were unrepresented.
The Government which took office in June 1920 was a coalition Cabinet of the Christian Democrat and Popular Socialist parties plus three ministers who did not belong to any party.
The Opposition was formed of the Social Democrat and the Polish parties.
The archbishop had formerly exclusive jurisdiction in all causes of wills and intestacies, where parties died having personal property in more than one diocese of the province of Canterbury, and he had concurrent jurisdiction in other cases.
During the wars of Scottish independence the possession of Ayr and its castle was an object of importance to both the contending parties, and the town was the scene of many of Wallace's exploits.
It is hunted by the Arabs for its flesh and to test the speed of their horses and greyhounds; it is during these hunting parties that the young are captured for menagerie purposes.
After the death of Queen Philippa he fell entirely under the influence of a greedy mistress named Alice Perrers, while the Black Prince and John of Gaunt became the leaders of sharply divided parties in the court and council of the king.
The fifteenth article, treating of the Lord's Supper, defines the ground common to both parties even in this debateable region, recognizing the necessity of participation in both kinds, and rejecting the sacrifice of the Mass.
In this he was helped by his legal training, and it was doubtless this fact which made the Constitutional History one of the text-books of English politics, to which men of all parties appealed, and which, in spite of all the work of later writers, still leaves it a standard authority.
under cover of darkness; Beaucamp was once more secured, Highland Ridge was carried by storm, and parties pushed forward to Welsh Ridge which was cleared of the enemy by 6 P.M.
of Cantaing, and her parties succeeded in getting over the obstacle and establishing themselves there despite the counter-attacks of the enemy.
After the formation of parties he became allied with the Democratic-Republicans rather than with the Federalists.
In 1650 he was sent against Montrose, who was defeated and captured by Major Strachan, Leslie's advanced guard commander; and later in the year, all parties having for the moment combined to support Charles II., Leslie was appointed to the -chief command of the new army levied for the purpose on behalf of Charles II.
But although Colombia was, to all external appearance, restored to tranquillity, the nation was divided into two parties.
Mediation may also take place after war has broken out, with a view to putting an end to it on terms. In either case the mediating power negotiates on behalf of the parties who invoke or accept its aid, but does not go farther.
Thus we may say that a third power renders "good offices" when it brings the parties together so as to make diplomatic negotiations between them possible; whilst if it takes an active part in those negotiations it becomes for the time being a mediator.
By the peace of Antalcidas the Persian supremacy was proclaimed over Greece; and in the following wars all parties, Spartans, Athenians, Thebans, Argives continually applied to Persia for a decision in their favour.
From then until 1850 it was controlled by the Federalist or Whig parties.
This arbitrary sentence was obeyed in the first instance by both parties, and Norfolk never returned.
His own experiences in the Reichstag, and the close contact with the political parties which his advocacy of successive naval bills had involved, made him a master of political intrigue.
His fame as a reformer brought him to the governor's chair in 1874, and he at once gave his attention to a second set of plunderers - the "canal ring," made up of members of both parties who had been systematically robbing the state through the maladministration of its canals - and succeeded in breaking them up. In 1876 the Democrats nominated him for the presidency, the Republicans nominating Rutherford B.
There were now among the so-called Anabaptists four parties, the favourers of the Munster faction, the Batenburgers, extremists, the Melchiorites and the Obbenites.
On the National Insurance bill in 1911 he pointed out that a fundamental change of opinion had taken place, both parties now accepting the principle that social welfare was the care of the State.
He was active in the summer of 1917 in promoting the participation of representatives of the English Labour and Socialist parties in an International Socialist Conference at Stockholm, to which German representatives were coming, and he went to Paris with bIr.
The unusual provision that two-thirds of each house shall constitute a quorum would probably prove inconvenient, if the political parties were approximately equal in strength.
The resignation of Lafayette and Dupont de l'Eure still further undermined the government, which, incapable even of keeping order in the streets of Paris, ended by being discredited with all parties.
But he came to the capital, where he was soon the most popular spokesman of the extreme parties.
The unceasing intrigues of the king, the incapacity of the moderate parties and the hysterical excitement of the mob combined to make anarchy worse daily.
It was his plan to fill the more important offices with Republicans, as they had been excluded from appointive office during the Federalist ascendancy, and to divide the smaller places between the parties somewhat in accordance with their relative strength.'
Lugard then endeavoured to settle some of the burning disputes relative to the division of lands and chiefships, &c., and to gain the confidence of both parties.
and Bute immediately proceeded to accomplish their long-projected plans, the conclusion of the peace with France, the break-up of the Whig monopoly of power, and the supremacy of the monarchy over parliament and parties.
managed to have the marriage annulled, on the plea of kinship between the parties (1123 or 1124).
The conspiracies were repeatedly betrayed and the guilty parties terribly punished.
An unsuccessful effort was made at the conference of Poissy to bring the two religious parties together; Beza had an opportunity to defend the Calvinistic cause, and Lainez, the general of the Order of Jesus, that of the bishop of Rome.
Ordinary consciousness ignores these " latent fires "; ordinary discussion brings them to light and divides men into factions and parties over them; philosophy not because it denies but because it acknowledges the law of non-contradiction as supreme is pledged to seek a point of view from which they may be seen to be in essential harmony with one another as different sides of the same truth.
In the settlement of labour disputes conciliatory methods were successful in the formative period, when the parties to disputes adopted customary attitudes of hostility and fought to the end unless they were reconciled by the Board to a final agreement or to an agreement to arbitrate.
From 1887-1900, out of 290 cases settled, only 107 were formal arbitrations, 124 agreements were effected by the mediation of the Board, Ioo were effected otherwise while proceedings were pending, and in 59 cases the Board interposed when the parties preferred hostilities.
The Federalist domination had been succeeded by Whig rule in the state; but after the death of the great Whig, Daniel Webster, in 1852, all parties disintegrated, re-aligning themselves gradually in an aggressive anti-slavery party and the temporizing Democratic party.
They associate in parties and are mainly arboreal, leaping from bough to bough with an agility that suggests flying through the air.
ii., thus describes the attitude of the male birds at one of those "sacaleli," or dancing parties, as the natives call them; "their wings," he says, "are raised vertically over the back, the head is bent down and stretched out, and the long plumes are raised up and expanded till they form two magnificent golden fans striped with deep red at the base, and fading off into the pale brown tint of the finely-divided and softly-waving points; the whole bird is then overshadowed by them, the crouching body, yellow head, and emerald green throat, forming but the foundation and setting to the golden glory which waves above."
Both political parties were committed to this policy, and strong passions were aroused whenever it was called in question.
Hammond's History of Political Parties in the State of New York (2 vols., Albany, 1842) and D.
This first coalition had now accomplished its temporary purpose, but so closely were parties divided at this period, that the defeat and reinstatement of governments followed each other in rapid succession.
At this critical period a proposal was made for a coalition of parties in order to carry out a broad scheme of British-American confederation.
On these strongly defined issues the two parties appealed to the people in 1878.
This conference had no influence in reconciling the opposing parties, and another, held at Delft in the year 1613, was equally unsuccessful.
In 1614, at the instance of the Arminian party, an edict was passed by the states-general, in which toleration of the opinions of both parties was declared and further controversy forbidden; but this act only served, by rousing the jealousy of the Calvinists, to fan the controversial flame into greater fury.
The turning-point of his career came 1755, when he accepted an invitation to the country-house of Freiherr von Furnberg, an accomplished amateur who was in the habit of collecting parties of musicians for the performance of chamber-works.
They were followed in 1836 by the first parties of the Great Trek.
The emigrants soon came into collision with Mosilikatze, raiding parties of Zulus attacking Boer hunters who had crossed the Vaal without seeking permission from that chieftain.
Those that remained were divided into several parties intensely jealous of one another.
Their effect was to precipitate collisions between all three parties.
The year in which the treaty with Moshesh was made several large parties of Boers recrossed the Drakensberg into the country north of the Orange, refusing to remain in Natal when it became a British colony.
Both parties laid claims to land beyond the Warden line, and each party had taken possession of what it could, the Basutos being also expert cattle-lifters.
The Free State, however, did not abandon its claims. The matter involved no little irritation between the parties concerned until July 1876.
It was noteworthy that the programmes of the two parties were very similar, the real difference between them being the attitude with which they regarded the British connexion.
The ceremonies were attended by the President and Vice-President of the United States, the Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, and a large number of eminent public men of both parties, who followed the hearse in a solemn procession, preceded by the mayor and other civic authorities, down Broadway.
Thus while the armies in Manchuria faced one another with every appearance of confidence, behind them the situation was exceedingly grave for both parties.
Upon application of either or both of the parties, provided the employees be not less than twenty, this board is required to inquire into the cause of the dispute, with the aid of two expert assistants, who shall be nominated by the parties, and to render a decision, which is binding for at least six months upon the parties to the application.
So alarming did the growth appear, that the other parties combined, and on the 28th of March 1896 a new electoral law was passed, introducing indirect election and a franchise based on a triple division of classes determined by the amount paid in direct taxation.
This was, however, far from satisfying the parties of the extreme Left, and the strength of Social Democracy in Saxony was even more strikingly displayed in 1909 when, in spite of plural voting, under a complicated franchise, 25 Socialist members were returned to the Saxon diet.
Papers were found on Bennett Island showing that he left it for the south in November 1902, but he never returned home, and two relief parties in 1903 failed to find traces of him.
Apart from this system of compulsory reference by the praetor, Roman law recognized a voluntary reference (compromissum) to an arbiter or arbitrator by the parties themselves.
A submission is defined as a written agreement (it need not be signed by both parties) to submit present or future differences to arbitration, whether a particular arbitrator is named in it or not.
As an arbitrator is chosen by the parties themselves the question of his eligibility is of comparatively minor importance; and where an arbitrator has been chosen by both parties, the courts are reluctant to set the appointment aside.
Under the law prior to the act of 1889 (a) an agreement to refer disputes generally, without naming the arbitrators, was always irrevocable, and an action lay for the breach of it, although the court could not compel either of the parties to proceed under it; (b) an agreement to refer to a particular arbitrator was revocable, and if one of the parties revoked that particular arbitrator's authority he could not be compelled to submit to it; (c) when, however, the parties had got their tribunal fixed, and were proceeding to carry out the agreement to refer, the act 9 and io Will.
c. 15 provided that the submission might be made a rule of court, a provision which gave the court power to assist the parties in the trial of the case, and to enforce the award of the arbitrators; (d) the statute 3 and 4 Will.
The former of these sections deals with the power of the court, the latter with the power of the parties to a reference, to appoint an arbitrator in certain circumstances.
Section 5 provides that where a reference is to be to a single arbitrator, and all the parties do not concur in appointing one, or an appointed arbitrator refuses to act or becomes incapable of acting, or where the parties or two arbitrators fail, when necessary, to appoint an umpire or third arbitrator, or such umpire or arbitrator when appointed refuses to act, or becomes incapable of acting, and the default is not rectified after seven clear days' notice, the court may supply the vacancy.
The court may compel parties to carry out an arbitration, not only in the above cases by directly appointing an arbitrator, &c., or by allowing one appointed by a party to proceed alone with the reference, but also indirectly by staying any proceedings before the legal tribunals to determine matters which come within the scope of the arbitration.
An arbitrator (and the following observations apply mutatis mutandis to an umpire after he has entered on his duties) has power to administer oaths to, or take the affirmations of, the parties and their witnesses; and any person who wilfully and corruptly gives false evidence before him may be prosecuted and punished for perjury (Arbitration Act 1889, sched.
An arbitrator or umpire ought not, however, to state his award in such a way as to deprive the parties of their right to challenge the amount charged by him for his services; and accordingly where an umpire fixed for his award a lump sum as costs, including therein his own and the arbitrators' fees, the award was remitted back to him to state how much he allotted to himself and how much to the arbitrators (in Re Gilbert v.
An award may, however, be set aside where the arbitrator has misconducted himself (an arbitrator may also be removed by the court on the ground of misconduct), or where it is ultra vires, or lacks any of the other requisites - above mentioned - of a valid award, or where the arbitrator has been wilfully deceived by one of the parties, or some such state of things exists.
An entire action may be referred, if all parties consent, or if it involves any prolonged examination of documents, or scientific or local examination, or consists wholly or partly of matters of account.
Formerly, where no oversman was named in the submission, and no power given to the arbiters to name one, the proceedings were abortive if the arbiters disagreed, unless the parties consented to a nomination.
If this date is left blank, practice has limited the arbiter's power of deciding to a year and a day, unless, having express or clearly implied power in the submission, he exercises this power, or the parties expressly or tacitly agree to its prorogation.
Under the common law of Scotland, a submission of future disputes or differences to an arbiter, or arbiters, unnamed, was ineffectual except where the agreement to refer did not contemplate the decision of proper disputes between the parties but the adjustment of some condition, or the liquidation of some obligation, contained in the contract of which the agreement to submit formed a part.
The court may name a sole arbiter, where provision is made for one only and the parties cannot agree (Arbitration [Scotland] Act 1894, s.
When an action is in court the parties may at any stage withdraw it from judicial determination, and refer it to arbitration.
The court has no power to compel parties to enter into a reference of this kind, and it is doubtful whether counsel can bind their clients in such a matter.
50, a provision is introduced whereby parties to an action in the supreme court may refer judicially any issue for trial to one, three, five or seven persons, who shall sit as a jury, and decide by a majority.
At common law, a submission is generally revocable at any time before award; and it is also, in the absence of stipulation to the contrary, revoked by the death of one of the parties.
In cases of mercantile partnerships, arbitration was formerly compulsory; but in 1856 (law of the 17th of July 1856) jurisdiction in disputes between parties was conferred on the Tribunals of Commerce (as to which see Code de Commerce, arts.
This power may be exercised whether order of the parties desire it or not.
Awards cannot be set up against third parties (art.
No attack on Henry appears to have been contemplated by Frederick to whom both parties carried their complaints, and a day was fixed for the settlement of the dispute at Worms. But neither then, nor on two further occasions, did Henry appear to answer the charges preferred against him; accordingly in January 1180 he was placed under the imperial ban at Wizrzburg, and was declared deprived of all his lands.
After a short period of German government, which was highly beneficial to the country, Galicia received after the Constitution of 1867 an exceptional position which was gradually consolidated; the German officials were removed, and the Polish members in the Reichsrat (who represented 71 votes) held the balance between the parties, which brought Galicia, without any effort, great financial advantages at the cost of the other Crown territories.
They were not, however, without quiet success, for these committees worked so intensively to create a public opinion favourable to woman's suffrage that immediately after the proclamation of the Austrian Republic in 1918 the vote was unanimously conceded to women, even the conservative parties agreeing to this.
The reason for this was that every party had cause to fear parliamentary oppression at the hands of other nationalities, and this was why it was long impossible to reconcile the principal parties in the House to any effective remedy.
All parties were agreed that an Italian faculty of laws should be created; the difficulty lay in the choice of the place.
They tried to arrive at it by negotiations with the parties, and by admitting to the Cabinet representatives of every nationality willing to cooperate.
On this account, especially after the death of Lueger (on March 10 1910), a dominating personality who had held all parties together, opinion in Vienna and other towns turned against the Christian Socialists, who were accused of refusing all active measures of relief.
He too could attempt nothing more than to take up as objective an attitude as possible above parties.
of the civil code provided that " the tie of a valid marriage between Catholic persons can be dissolved only by the death of one of the parties.
15 the Czech parties in Moravia issued a patriotic manifesto.
The procedure of the Poles was similar; all the Polish parties united in a joint central committee which issued a manifesto in favour of performing their duty to the state (Aug.
At his instigation exploring parties were sent out, and one of these discovered the Brisbane river which was named after him.
The duke had acquired a position above parties, and was the trusted adviser of all statesmen and of the court in emergencies.
Eventually, on 31st January 1854, Lord John Russell took occasion to deny most emphatically that Prince Albert interfered unduly with foreign affairs, and in both houses the statesmen of the two parties delivered feeling panegyrics of the prince, asserting at the same time his entire constitutional right to give private advice to the sovereign on matters of state.
It was only to please the queen that he consented to take the title of Prince Consort (by letters patent of June 25, 1857), and he only did this when it was manifest that statesmen of all parties approved the change.
There, again, a conflict between the two houses was imminent, and the queen's wish for a settlement had considerable weight in bringing about the curious but effective conference of the two parties, of which the first suggestion, it is believed, was due to Lord Randolph Churchill.
The temporary removal of the common peril, moreover, let loose all the sectional and personal jealousies, which even in face of the enemy had been with difficulty restrained, and the year 1823 witnessed the first civil war between the Greek parties.
These negotiations bore important fruit in the Anglo-French convention of 1896, the chief provision of which was the neutralization by the contracting parties of the central portion of Siam, consisting of the basin of the river Menam, with its rich and fertile land, which contains most of the population and the.
A few days afterwards (June 26th or 27th) John of Antioch arrived, and efforts were made by both parties to gain his ear; whether inclined or not to the cause of his former co-presbyter, he was naturally excited by the precipitancy with which Cyril had acted, and at a conciliabulum of forty-three bishops held in his lodgings shortly after his arrival he was induced by Candidian, the friend of Nestorius, to depose the bishops of Alexandria and Ephesus on the spot.
It split the citizens into two parties; the Eidgenots relying on the Swiss, while the Mamelus (mamelukes) supported the duke.
Yet from the first the leaders of the two parties stood in avowed opposition, in the Jacobin Club as in the Assembly.
The antagonism of the opposition parties was even more pronounced.
The persecutions, sometimes revolting in their cruelty, to which (on account of their pro-Ally sympathies) the Czechs were subjected during the first two years of the war, had the effect of uniting all the different political parties into one single national block; and when the Austrian Parliament was at length convoked in May 1917 the Czech parties made a unanimous declaration that it was their aim to work for the union of Czechs and Slovaks as one people in an independent state.
Its members, 236 in number, were selected from all the different political parties in proportion to their strength as shown by the last parliamentary election previous to the war.
The Czechoslovaks had 199 representatives in the House of Deputies and 103 in the Senate, and this total of 302 members was divided among no less than nine parties.
Of the German parties the strongest was again the Social Democratic party, originally numbering 31 deputies and 16 senators, but having subsequently lost three deputies who formed a German Communist party acting more or less in concert with the Czechoslovak Communists.
1921 the Government of the republic had remained in the hands of a Coalition Cabinet, or (as at the latter date) of a Cabinet composed of permanent officials supported by a coalition of parties.
Nationalization of the coal-mines and the great industrial concerns was one of the main items on the programme of the Socialist parties.
Within the Zollverein, after 1834, there was an almost unceasing struggle between the protectionist and Free Trade parties, Prussia supporting in the main a Liberal policy, while the South German states supported a Protectionist policy.
In 1853 a treaty between the Zollverein and Austria brought about reciprocal reductions of duty between these two parties.
This alarmed both parties.
The religious difficulty, meanwhile, had been adjusted to the satisfaction of all parties by the compact of Warsaw (Jan.
Occasionally he is didactic, as in Worek Judaszow (The Bag of Judas) and Victoria deorum, where, under the allegory of the gods of Olympus, he represents the struggles of parties in Poland, not without severely satirizing the nobility and ecclesiastics.
But they were gradually dividing into two unreconcilable parties upon the Saxon-Polish question.
As national parties became clearly defined, he associated himself with the Democratic-Republicans.
His death left the parties of Marie, the queen, and Margaret, the queen-mother, to struggle for the mastery.
But neither of the two great parties in the educational world was satisfied; and great expectations were aroused when the question of reform was taken up by the German emperor, William II., in 1890.
The chief of the bureau of labour statistics is directed in case of danger of a strike or lockout to seek to mediate between the parties and if unsuccessful in that, then to endeavour to secure their consent to the formation of a board of arbitration.
As between political parties the state has usually been quite equally divided.
Having treated with, and received lavish promises from, both parties, he appears to have hoped for the dignity for himself; but when the election came he turned to the winning side and voted for Charles.
When, however, surveillance became blockade, prizes could only with difficulty be brought into port, and, since the parties interested gained nothing by burning merchantmen, privateering soon died out, and was replaced by commerce-destroying pure and simple, carried out by commissioned vessels of the Confederate navy.
" The Bible, the Bible alone, is the religion of Protestants " 2 did really express the watchword of the anti-Romanist parties, especially towards the close of the acuter struggle.
This precipitated a bitter campaign States and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special purposes, delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving each state to itself the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated powers its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force: That to this compact each state acceded as a state, and is an integral party, its co-states forming, as to itself, the other party: That the government created by this compact was not made the exclusive or final judge of the extent of the powers delegated to itself, since that would have made its discretion, and not the Constitution, the measure of its powers; but that, as in all other cases of compact among parties having no common judge, each party has an equal right to judge for itself as well of infractions as of the mode and measure of redress.
But henceforth there were two parties among the prophets of Yahweh themselves, the new prophets accusing the old of imposture and disloyalty to Yahweh, and these retaliating with charge of disloyalty to Israel.
But the apparent hopelessness of any ending to the conflict, together with the frequent outrages of both parties on foreigners, afforded strong reasons for foreign intervention.
health, to remain., He yielded on condition that a congress of all parties should be summoned to decide the fate of the empire..
It arose incidentally out of a Conference Version, between the High Church and the Low Church parties convened by James I.
Both parties then appealed to the king, and in 1741 the king in council confirmed the decision of the commission in regard to the eastern boundary and decided that the southern boundary should be a line corresponding to the course of the Merrimac from 3 m.
In January 1872 he formally tendered his resignation; and though it was refused, almost all parties disliked him, while his chief supporters - men like Remusat, Barthelemy Saint-Hilaire and Jules Simon - were men rather of the past than of the present.
Some of them were double spies, sold to both parties, whose real sentiments are still conjectural; but Walsingham was more successful in seducing Catholic spies than his antagonists were in seducing Protestant spies, and most of his information came from Catholics who betrayed one another.
Payne took part in the conferences of the Bohemian parties in 1443-1444, and again in 1452.
But as contributions accumulated, it was found possible to send a number of Doukhobor emigrants to Canada, whither they arrived in two parties, numbering above 4000, in January 1899.
Although both parties had declared the Compromise of 1850 a finality, the Democrats alone were thoroughly united in support of this declaration, and therefore seemed to offer the greater prospect of peace.
Although the states-general issued an edict tolerating both parties and forbidding further dispute, the conflict continued, and the Remonstrants were assailed both by personal enemies and by the political weapons of Maurice of Orange, who executed and imprisoned their leaders for holding republican views.
The Marriage Act 1898 dispensed with the necessity of the attendance of a registrar at marriages celebrated at a nonconformist place of worship, substituting in place thereof a person duly authorized by the trustees of the place of worship, if the persons intending to be married so desire; but the parties may, if they wish, still require the presence of the registrar.
The parties concerned were three clergymen, who appealed from the direction of their respective diocesans, the bishops of St Albans and Peterborough and the archbishop of York: in the two former cases the archbishop (Temple) of Canterbury was the principal and the archbishop of York (Maclagan) the assessor, whilst in the latter case the functions were reversed.
Practically they are selected by caucuses of the majority and minority parties.
Thus the election is virtually an electiov by states, and the struggle concentrates itself in the large states, where the great parties are often nearly equally divided, e.g.
Although political parties were originally mere private organizations, little objection seems to have been felt to giving them statutory recognition and placing the proceedings at them under full official control.
Ostrogorski, Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties (ibid., 2 vols., 1902; the second volume, revised and enlarged, was published in 1910 as Democracy and the Party System in the United States); J.
Woodburn, American Politics: Political Parties and Party Problems in the United States (ibid., 1903); Lucy M.
and in Dec. cavalry had 'small affairs with enemy reconnoitring parties in which the latter were driven off.
He was chiefly identified with the Socialists in England and the Social Democratic parties on the Continent; but he was regarded by men of all opinions as an agitator whose motives had always been pure and disinterested.