Particles sentence example

particles
  • He remarks that it is impossible to suppose that the particles of mastic are in the form of bubbles.
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  • The light scattered from small particles is of a much richer blue than the blue of the first order as reflected from a very thin plate.
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  • The only motion in the air was that of the dripping, microscopic particles of drizzling mist.
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  • Consider the particles which occupy a thin stratum dx perpendicular to the primary ray x.
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  • The same is true in the case of a liquid such as water; it can be divided into drops and these again into smaller drops, or into the finest spray the particles of which are too small to be detected by our unaided vision.
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  • One has suggested, that if such a "leach-hole" should be found, its connection with the meadow, if any existed, might be proved by conveying some colored powder or sawdust to the mouth of the hole, and then putting a strainer over the spring in the meadow, which would catch some of the particles carried through by the current.
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  • If the particles were away, the wave would pass on unbroken and no light would be emitted laterally.
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  • So long as the precipitated particles are very fine, the light dispersed in a perpendicular direction is sky-blue and fully polarized.
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  • Certain difficulties that he met with in his speculations led him to the conclusion that the particles of any one kind of gas, though all of them alike, must differ from those of another gas both in size and weight.
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  • It is evident that the normal blue is more or less diluted with extraneous white light, having its origin in reflections from the grosser particles of foreign matter with which the air is usually charged.
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  • Even with the particles retarding the motion of the aether, the same will be true if, to counterbalance the increased inertia, suitable forces are caused to act on the aether at all points where the inertia is altered.
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  • Sir William Abney has found that the above law agrees remarkably well with his observations on the transmission of light through water in which particles of mastic are suspended (Prot.
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  • Following Newton, he believed a gas to be made up of particles or atoms, From Dalton's Hydrogen Gas.
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  • On account of the smallness of the particles, the forces acting throughout the volume of any individual particle are all of the same intensity and direction, and may be considered as a whole.
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  • The atomist would say, "Yes, it is broken up into its atoms, and these are distributed throughout the spaces between the particles of water."
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  • The laws which govern particles of matter in the inorganic world govern them likewise if they are joined into an organism.
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  • The rival philosopher, who believes water to be continuous and without spaces between its particles, has a greater difficulty in accounting for the disappearance of the sugar; he would probably say that the sugar, and the water also, had ceased to exist, and that a new continuous substance had been formed from them, but he could offer no picture of how this change had taken place.
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  • These plasm particles of carbon pigment.
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  • At a further stage of their growth the particles disperse in the perpendicular direction a light which is no longer fully polarized.
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  • Held between the thumb and fingers of the right hand, they are used as tongs to take up portions of the food, which is brought to table cut up into small and convenient pieces, or as means for sweeping the rice and small particles of food into the mouth from the bowl.
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  • It must not be forgotten, too, that a very moderate increase of dimensions may carry the particles beyond the reach of our approximations.
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  • It is obvious that the aerial particles are illuminated not only by the direct solar rays, but also by light dispersed from other parts of the atmosphere and from the earth's surface.
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  • Conceive a beam of plane polarized light to move among a number of particles, all small compared with any of the wavelengths.
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  • A fire without light, compared to the heat which gathers in a haystack when the hay has been stored before it was properly dry - heat, in short, as an agitation of the particles - is the motive cause of the contraction and dilatations of the heart.
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  • Whatever may be the shape or size of the particles, there is no scattered light in a direction parallel to the primary electric displacements.
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  • Dust particles interfere with conduction near the ground, so the relative conductivity in the upper layers may be much greater than that calculated.
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  • So long as the particles are all very small in comparison with the wave-length, there is complete polarization in the perpendicular direction; but when the size is such that obliquity sets in, the degree of obliquity will vary with the size of the particles, and the polarization will be complete only on the very unlikely condition that the size is the same for them all.
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  • It is practically impossible to work with the sensitive film in contact with the reseau-film, not only because dust particles and contact would injure the silver film, but also because the plate-glass used for the photographic plates is seldom a perfect plane.
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  • In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.
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  • He showed that the heat motion of particles, which is too small to be perceptible when these particles are large, and which cannot be observed in molecules since these themselves are too small, must be perceptible when the particles are just large enough to be visible and gave complete equations which enable the masses themselves to be deduced from the motions of these particles.
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  • If we consider a number of particles which all lie upon a primary ray, we see that the phases of the secondary vibrations which issue along this line are all the same.
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  • Moreover, small particles do not seem to exist in the water until it is broken up; so far as we can see, the material of the water is continuous not granular.
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  • The portion of the lachrymal duct communicating with the cavity of the nose has, on the other hand, been abnormally developed, apparently for the purpose of cleansing that chamber from particles of sand which may obtain an entrance while the animal is burrowing.
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  • A third form of matter is produced from the original particles.
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  • dirt particles into the nozzle of the cleaner.
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  • If we examine such a substance as sugar we find that it can be broken up into fine grains, and these again into finer, the finest particles still appearing to be of the same nature as sugar.
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  • In the first place, with a given size of particles, the direction of complete polarization indicated by (23) is a function of the colour of the light, the value of 0 being 3 or 4 times as large for the violet as for the red end of the spectrum.
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  • It banished the spirits and genii, to which even Kepler had assigned the guardianship of the planetary movements; and, if it supposes the globular particles of the envelope to be the active force in carrying the earth round the sun, we may remember that Newton himself assumed an aether for somewhat similar purposes.
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  • In doing what he did, Descartes actually exemplified that reduction of the processes of nature to mere transposition of the particles of matter, which in different ways was a leading idea in the minds of Bacon, Hobbes and Gassendi.
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  • The phenomenon is due to very fine particles of dust suspended in the high regions of the atmosphere that produce a scattering effect upon the component parts of white light.
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  • By considering only the particles of air found in a right line, he reduced the problem of the propagation of sound to the solution of the same partial differential equations that include the motions of vibrating strings, and demonstrated the insufficiency of the methods employed by both his great contemporaries in dealing with the latter subject.
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  • III.), are carried into the tissues, where they set up chronic irritation of a more or less serious nature according to the nature of the inhaled particles.
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  • If AP =p, the element of volume is dx2xpdp, and the number A of particles to be found in it is deduced by the introduction of the factor n.
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  • An intelligent creature, or "demon," possessed of unlimited powers of vision, is placed in charge of each door, with instructions to open the door whenever a particle in A comes towards it with more than a certain velocity V, and to keep it closed against all particles in A moving with less than this velocity, but, on the other hand, to open the door whenever a particle in B approaches it with less than a certain velocity v, which is not greater than V, and to keep it closed against all particles in B moving with a greater velocity than this.
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  • By the aid of one front leg it places consecutive heaps of loosened particles upon its head, then with a smart jerk throws each little pile clear of the scene of operations.
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  • Comparison is effected by the use of particles.
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  • Growing specimens of good colour and in fruit are if possible selected, and cleansed as much as practicable from adhering foreign particles, either in the sea or a rocky pool.
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  • Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage von Ernst Haeckel, 19(34) has restored the conditions existing in the lagoons and atoll reefs of the Jurassic sea of Solnhofen in Bavaria; he has traced the process of gradual accumulation of the coral mud now constituting the fine lithographic stones in the inter-reef region, and has recognized the periodic laying bare of the mud surfaces thus formed; he has determined the winds which carried the dust particles from the not far distant land and brought the insects from the adjacent Jurassic forests.
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  • dispersion of q particles hardens the a phase.
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  • There is a display made by Canon that uses nano-composites, but they are metallic particles and not quantum dots.
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  • doughnutre composed of energetic charged particles trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field, which surrounds the Earth like a ring donut.
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  • But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.
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  • Erosional processes have transported small soil particles downslope, while larger rocks and artifacts remained at or near the top of the knoll.
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  • Dredging the seabed: The most contaminated areas of the seabed would be dredged and the particles separated for storage and disposal.
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  • There is no such thing really as a vacuum, any more than there are atoms or ultimate indivisible particles.
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  • As the small filings produced by friction seek to pass through the interstices between the rapidly revolving spherical particles in the vortex, they are detained and become twisted and channelled in their passage, and when they reach the edge of the inner ocean of solar dust they settle upon it as the froth and foam produced by the agitation of water gathers upon its surface.
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  • Francis Bacon expressed his conviction that heat consists of a kind of motion or "brisk agitation" of the particles of matter.
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  • But, as Branly showed, it is not universally true that the action of an electric wave is to reduce the resistance of a tube of powdered metal or cause the particles to cohere.
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  • The current from the battery passes from one of the carbon disks to the other through the particles of granulated carbon which fill the space between them.
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  • The peculiarity of organic and sentient bodies is due to the minuteness and shape of their particles, and to their special motions and combinations.
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  • So, too, mind consists but of extremely fine particles of matter, and dissolves into air when the body dies.
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  • At the apex of a root, covering and protecting th~ delicate tissue of the growing point, is a special root-cap consistinf of a number of layers of tissue whose cells break down into mucilagi towards the outer surface, thus facilitating the passage of the ape~ as it is pushed between the particles of soil.
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  • The stretching of the cell wall by the hydrostatic pressure is fixed by a secretion of new particles and their deposition upon the original wall, which as it becomes slightly thicker is capable of still greater extension, much in the same way as a thick band of indiarubber is capable of undergoing greater stretching than a thin one.
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  • The root is made to press its way into the darker cracks and crannies of the soil, so bringing its root-hairs into better contact with the particles round which the hygroscopic water hangs.
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  • If too closely packed, the soil particles present mechanical obstacles to growth; if too retentive of moisture, the root-hairs suffer, as already hinted; if too open or over-drained, the plant succumbs to drought.
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  • The water content of the soil, its mineral content, its humus content, its temperature, and its physical characteristics, such as its depth and the size of its component particles are all edaphic factors.
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  • It is clear, however, that an equal quantitative division and distribution of the chromatin to the daughter cells is brought about; and if, as has been suggested, the chromatin consists of minute particles or units which are the carriers of the hereditary characteristics, the nuclear division also probably results in the equal division and distribution of one half of each of these units to each daughter cell.
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  • These layers arc secreted by the protoplasm by the direct apposition of substances on those already in existence; and they may go on increasing in thickness, both by apposition and by the intussusception of particles probably carried in through the protoplasmic fibres, which penetrate the cell-wall as long as the cell lives.
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  • As results of Roberval's labours outside the department of pure mathematics may be noted a work on the system of the universe, in which he supports the Copernican system and attributes a mutual attraction to all particles of matter; and also the invention of a special kind of balance which goes by his name.
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  • As the sun loses heat it contracts, and every pair of particles in the sun are nearer to each other after the contraction than they were before.
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  • Gauss had shown how to reduce all the phenomena of statical electricity to mere attractions and repulsions exerted at a distance by particles of an imponderable on one another.
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  • He treated the resultant electric force at any point as analogous to the flux of heat from sources distributed in the same manner as the supposed electric particles.
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  • But this was based upon the assumption of a distance-action between electric particles, the intensity of which depended on their relative motion as well as on their position.
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  • - As in the other Semitic languages, these stand almost entirely outside the system of triliteral roots, being mainly derived from certain demonstrative letters or particles.
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  • Morgan sums up a discussion on Lubbock's experiments in which the ants failed to utilize particles of earth for bridge-making, with the suggestive remark that " What these valuable experiments seem to show is that the ant, probably the most intelligent of all insects, has no claim to be regarded as a rational being."
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  • Having arrived at the conclusion that the food of plants consists of minute particles of earth taken up by their rootlets, it followed that the more thoroughly the soil in which they grew was disintegrated, the more abundant would be the " pasture " (as he called it) to which their fibres would have access.
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  • After examining several hypotheses, he decides this to be fine particles of earth.
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  • The last two are sometimes indicated by particles or auxiliary verbs; but these are generally dispensed with if the meaning is sufficiently plain without them.
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  • particles which are incapable of existing alone, but may exist in combination.
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  • Dry steam is steam free from mechanically mixed water particles; wet steam, on the other hand, contains water particles in suspension.
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  • These headings are: "Geometry and Kinematics of Particles and Solid Bodies"; "Principles of Rational Mechanics"; "Statics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "Kinetics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "General Analytical Mechanics"; "Statics and Dynamics of Fluids"; "Hydraulics and Fluid Resistances"; "Elasticity."
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  • The colloidal particles are electrically charged and become discharged by the ions of sodium, magnesium and calcium present in the sea-water.
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  • the solution dilute enough) for the intermolecular forces between the dissolved particles to be inappreciable.
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  • (I) In very dilute solutions of simple substances, where only one kind of dissociation is possible and the dissociation of the ions is complete, the number of pressure-producing particles necessary to produce the observed osmotic effects should be equal to the number of ions given by a molecule of the salt as shown by its electrical properties.
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  • (2) As the concentration of the solutions increases, the ionization as measured electrically and the dissociation as measured osmotically might decrease more or less together, though, since the thermodynamic theory only holds when the solution is so dilute that the dissolved particles are beyond each other's sphere of action, there is much doubt whether this second relation is valid through any appreciable range of concentration.
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  • The freezing point curve usually lies below the electrical one, but approaches it as dilution is increased.2 Returning once more to the consideration of the first relation, which deals with the comparison between the number of ions and the number of pressure-producing particles in dilute solution, one caution is necessary.
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  • Corresponding with this result we find that the freezing point of dilute solutions indicates that two pressure-producing particles per molecule are present.
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  • 43) has found that solutions of diphenylamine in methyl cyanide possess an excess of pressure-producing particles and yet are non-conductors of electricity.
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  • It should be pointed out that no measurements on osmotic pressures or freezing points can do more than tell us that an excess of particles is present; such experiments can throw no light on the question whether or not those particles are electrically charged.
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  • That question can only be answered by examining whether or not the particles move in an electric field.
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  • A body containing an excess of these particles is negatively electrified, and is positively electrified if it has parted with some of its normal number.
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  • The leading products of the blast-furnace are argentiferous lead (base bullion), matte, slag and flue-dust (fine particles of charge and volatilized metal carried out of the furnace by the ascending gas current).
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  • Thomson has demonstrated the existence under many different conditions of particles more minute than anything previously known to science.
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  • A magnetizable substance was supposed to consist of an indefinite number of spherical particles, each containing equivalent quantities of the two fluids, which could move freely within a particle, but could never pass from one particle to another.
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  • Interesting observations upon particles, ultra-microscopic in the above sense, have been recorded by H.
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  • In order to the formation of a well-defined corona it is essential that the particles be exclusively, or preponderatingly, of one size.
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  • The gold is found in minute particles arid in the richest ores the metal is rarely in visible quantities before treatment.
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  • The subsequent experiments of Snellen, Senftleben, and, more lately, of Turner, seem to show that if the eyeball be protected from the impingement of foreign particles, an accident to which it is liable owing to its state of anaesthesia, the ulceration may be warded off indefinitely.
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  • III.) are fraught with the greatest danger, owing to the destructive influence exerted upon the lungs by the inhaled particles.
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  • Among the most dangerous of the last class (the pneumokonioses) is perhaps that in which the dust particles take the form of finely divided freestone, as in stone-dressing and the dry-polishing on the grindstone of steel.
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  • The particles in this case set up a form of fibrosis of the lung, which, either of itself or by rendering the organ liable to tubercular infection, is extremely fatal.
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  • Melanine particles formed in the spleen in malaria, which pass along with the blood through the liver, are appropriated by the endothelial cells of the hepatic capillaries, and are found embedded within their substance.
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  • Phagocytes act as scavengers in ridding the body of noxious particles, and more especially of harmful bacteria.
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  • The "intestine movement of particles" in every body, or fermentation, was the explanation of many of the processes of life and disease.
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  • The sensible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations of these particles.
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  • Grains of gold or particles of ore may be detected by washing samples of gravel in a prospector's 1 Of doubtful origin.
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  • If in the process of glass manufacture a glass vessel is suddenly cooled, the constituent particles are unable to arrange themselves and the vessel remains in a state of extreme tension.
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  • cooling the manufactured objects sufficiently slowly to allow the constituent particles to settle into a condition of equilibrium, is of vital importance.
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  • These bubbles arise partly from the air enclosed between the particles of raw materials and partly from the gaseous decomposition products of the materials themselves.
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  • Thus the dimensions of the largest glass tanks greatly exceed those of the largest steel furnaces; glass furnaces containing up to 250 tons of molten sible to work glass-tanks continuously for many months together; on the other hand, glass is not readily freed from foreign bodies that may become admixed with it, so that the absence of detachable particles is much more essential in glass than in steel melting.
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  • 4 c), and has particles of sand adhering to it, as if the vessel had been filled with sand and subjected to heat, and the inside of the neck has the impression of a metal rod (Plate I.
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  • The roughened inner surface and the adhering particles of sand may also be accounted for.
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  • Avanturine glass, that in which numerous small particles of copper are diffused through a transparent yellowish or brownish mass, was not invented until about 1600.
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  • Parallel experiments with layers of dough or sand plus some connecting material proved that the particles in all cases moved along the same tracks as would be followed by a flowing cylinder of liquid.
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  • If F (x, y, z, t) =o represents the equation of a always the same particles of fluid, DF =o, or dF {-u dx-rzd { w d d = o, Trt y _ which is called the differential equation of the bounding surface.
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  • But turbulence in the motion will vitiate the principle that a bounding surface will always consist of the same fluid particles, as we see on the surface of turbulent water.
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  • = -dQ+1dg2, and integrating round a closed curve (udx+vdy+wdz) =0, and the circulation in any circuit composed of the same fluid particles is constant; and if the motion is differential irrotational and due to a velocity function, the circulation is zero round all reconcilable paths.
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  • The circulation being always zero round a small plane curve passing through the axis of spin in vortical motion, it follows conversely that a vortex filament is composed always of the same fluid particles; and since the circulation round a cross-section of a vortex filament is constant, not changing with the time, it follows from the previous kinematical theorem that aw is constant for all time, and the same for every cross-section of the vortex filament.
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  • Since the specific gravity of hot liquor is less than that of cold liquor, and since the specific gravity of the scum and particles of.
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  • solid matter in suspension varies so slightly with the temperature that practically it remains constant, the hot liquor rises to the top of the vessel, and the scums 'and particles of solid matter in suspension separate themselves from it and fall to the bottom.
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  • The soil through being acted upon by the air, heat, frost and other agencies usually consists of finer particles than those.
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  • Moreover the rain penetrates into the small interstices between its particles and dissolves out some of the materials which bind the whole into a solid stone, the surface then becoming a loose powdery mass which falls to the ground below or is carried away by the wind.
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  • The work has been going on for ages, and the finely comminuted particles of rocks form the main bulk of the soil which covers much of the earth's surface, the rest of the soil being composed chiefly of the remains of roots and other parts of plants.
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  • There are transported or drift soils, the particles of which have been brought from other areas and deposited over the rocks below.
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  • Sand consists of grains of quartz or flint, the individual particles of which are large enough to be seen with the unaided eye or readily felt as gritty grains when rubbed between the finger and thumb.
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  • When a little soil is shaken up with water in a tumbler the sand particles rapidly fall to the bottom and form a layer which resembles ordinary sand of the seashore or river banks.
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  • The word " clay " used in the agricultural sense denotes a sticky intractable material which is found to consist of exceedingly fine particles (generally less than.
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  • Most of the material termed " sand " in such analyses consists of particles ranging in diameter from .5 to.
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  • 05 mm., and the " silt " from 05 to 005 mm., the " clay " being composed of particles less than .005 mm.
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  • the space between the particles composing the soil, varies with the size of these particles and with the way they are arranged or packed.
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  • This is the case in " puddled " clays, but in ordinary clay soils the excessively minute particles of which they largely consist tend to form groups of comparatively large composite grains and it is in such natural soils that the pore-space is largest.
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  • The water-holding capacity of a soil depends upon the amount of free space between the particles of which it is composed into which water can enter.
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  • The movement of water into the root-hairs is brought about by the osmotic action of certain salts in their cell-sap. Crops are, however, unable to absorb all the water present in the soil, for when the films become very thin they are held more firmly or cling with more force to the soil particles and resist the osmotic action of the root-hairs.
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  • In clays whose particles are exceedingly minute the water travels very slowly but may ultimately reach a height of many feet above the level of the " water-table " below.
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  • A deep porous bed in the upper layers is essential, and this should consist of fine particles which lie close to each other without any tendency to stick together and " puddle " after heavy showers.
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  • The lime causes the minute separate particles of clay to flocculate or group themselves together into larger compound grains between which air and water can percolate more freely.
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  • The amount of moisture retained depends mainly upon the absorbability of the soil, and as it depends largely on capillary action it varies with the coarseness or fineness of the pores of the soil, being greater for soils which consist of fine particles.
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  • In the rich display of the 12th of November 1833, the average distance of the particles was computed as about 15 m., in that of the 27th of November 1885 as about 20 m., and in that of the 27th of November 1872 as about 35 m.
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  • He noticed that when ice melts it takes up a quantity of heat without undergoing any change of temperature, and he argued that this heat, which as was usual in his time he looked upon as a subtle fluid, must have combined with the particles of ice and thus become latent in its substance.
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  • Vast p PRINTED If ouds of dust and stones, blown out of the crater and funnel of ie volcano, were hurled into the air and carried for hundreds miles, the finer particles falling to the earth even.
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  • Gold is washed from the river sand in small particles.
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  • It would seem, indeed, that any process by which the particles of two metals are intimately mingled and brought into close contact, so that diffusion of one metal into the other can take place, is likely to result in the formation of an alloy.
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  • When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.
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  • The larvae known as caddis-worms are aquatic. The mature females lay their eggs in the water, and the newly-hatched larvae provide themselves with cases made of various particles such as grains of sand, pieces of wood or leaves stuck together with silk secreted from the salivary glands of the insect.
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  • The fact that there is no electric force in the interior of such a closed electrified shell is one of the most certainly ascertained facts in the science of electrostatics, and it enables us to demonstrate at once that particles of electricity attract and repel each other with a force which is inversely as the square of their distance.
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  • - If particles of matter attract one another according to the law of the inverse square the attraction of all sections of a cone for a particle at the vertex is the same.
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  • Except in the larger nuggets, which may be more or less angular, or at times even masses of crystals, with or without associated quartz or other rock, gold is generally found bean-shaped or in some other flattened form, the smallest particles being scales of scarcely appreciable thickness, which, from their small bulk as compared with their surface, subside very slowly when suspended in water, and are therefore readily carried away by a rapid current.
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  • These are paved with stone blocks or lined with mercury riffles, so that from the greatly reduced velocity of flow, due to the sudden increase of surface, the finer particles of gold may collect.
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  • Similar plates are often used to catch any particles of gold that may be thrown back, while the main operation is so conducted that the bulk of the gold may be reduced to the state of amalgam by bringing the two metals into intimate contact under the stamp head, and remain in the battery.
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  • boards covered with canvas or sacking, the gold and heavier particles becoming entangled in the fibres.
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  • One of the greatest difficulties in the treatment of gold by amalgamation, and more particularly in the treatment of pyrites, arises from the so-called " sickening " or " flouring " of the mercury; that is, the particles, losing their bright metallic surfaces, are no longer capable of coalescing with or taking up other metals.
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  • Similar effects are produced along the boulder-clay cliffs of the Baltic. Where the force of the waves on the beach produces its full effect the coarser material gets worn down to gravel, sand and silt, the finest particles remaining long suspended in the water to be finally deposited as mud in quiet bays.
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  • The most abundant of the terrigenous materials are the finest particles of clay and calcium carbonate as well as fragments derived from land vegetation, of which twigs, leaves, &c., may form a perceptible proportion as far as 200 m.
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  • The floors of the Caribbean, Cayman and Mexican Basins in the Central American Sea are covered with a white calcareous ooze, which is clearly distinguished from the eupelagic pteropod and globigerina oozes by the presence of abundant large mineral particles and the remains of land plants.
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  • This fact, together with the extraordinarily rare occurrence of such remains and meteoric particles in globigerina ooze, although there is no reason to suppose that at any one time they are unequally distributed over the ocean floor, can only be explained on the assumption that the rate of formation of the epilophic deposits through the accumulation of pelagic shells falling from the surface is rapid enough to bury the slowgathering material which remains uncovered on the spaces where the red clay is forming at an almost infinitely slower rate.
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  • Fol and Sarasin detected the last traces of sunlight in the western Mediterranean at a depth of 254 to 260 fathoms, and Luksch in the eastern Mediterranean at 328 fathoms and in the Red Sea at 273 fathoms. The chief cause of the different depths to which light penetrates in sea-water is the varying turbidity due to the presence of mineral particles in suspension or to plankton.
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  • When a quantity of a fine white powder is thrown in, the light reflected by the white particles as they sink assumes an intense blue colour, and the experiments of J.
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  • The penetration of warmth from the surface is effected by direct radiation, and by convection by particles rendered dense by evaporation increasing salinity.
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  • Further, all water particles when moving undergo a deviation from a straight path due to the forces set up by the rotation of the earth deflecting them towards the right as they move in the northern hemisphere and towards the left in the southern.
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  • When the wind acts on the surface of the sea it drives before it the particles of the surface layer of water, and, as these cannot be parted from those immediately beneath, the internal friction of the fluid causes the propelling impulse to act through a considerable depth, and if the wind continued long enough it would ultimately set the whole mass of the ocean in motion 'right down to the bottom.
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  • There is generally a tendency in coals towards cleaving into cubical or prismatic blocks, but sometimes the cohesion between the particles is so feeble that the mass breaks up into dust when struck.
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  • The doctrine that matter can be divided into, or regarded as composed of, discrete particles (termed " atoms " by early writers, and " molecules " by modern ones) has at all times played an important part in metaphysics and natural science.
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  • He seems to admit, however, that the Deity might make certain particles of matter indivisible in this sense, that no creature should be able to divide them.
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  • These particles, however, would be still divisible by their own nature, because the Deity cannot diminish his own power, and therefore must retain his power of dividing them.
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  • It appears tolerably safe to conclude that, whatever errors 'may have affected the determination, the diameter or distance of the particles of water is between the two thousand and the ten thousand millionth of an inch " (= between 125 X I o 8 and 025 X 10 -8 cms.).
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  • Such a mass of imaginary matter as we are now considering may be compared to a collection of heavy particles held in position relatively to one another by a system of light spiral springs, one spring being supposed to connect each pair of adjacent particles.
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  • C. Such a velocity ought accordingly to be set up in a part i cle of -12 grammes mass immersed in air or liquid at 0° C., by the continual jostling of the surrounding molecules or particles.
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  • Robert Boyle, who made many researches on the origin and nature of fire, regarded the increase as due to the fixation of the particles of fire.
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  • In 1677 he described and illustrated the spermatozoa in dogs and other animals, though in this discovery Stephen Hamm had anticipated him by a few months; and he investigated the structure of the teeth, crystalline lens, muscle, &c. In 1680 he noticed that yeast consists of minute globular particles, and he described the different structure of the stem in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.
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  • "We can now easily conceive," he says, "that in all rain-water which is collected from gutters in cisterns, and in all waters exposed to the air, animalcules may be found; for they may be carried thither by the particles of dust blown about by the winds."
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  • In regard to the purification of water, filtration was long looked upon as merely a mechanical process of straining out the solid particles, whereby a turbid water could be rendered clear.
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  • OSMIUM [[[symbol]] Os., atomic weight 190.9 (0= 16)], in chemistry, a metallic element, found in platinum ore in small particles, consisting essentially of an alloy of osmium and iridium and known as osmiridium.
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  • In the case, therefore, of any solid whose cross-section at distance x from one end is a quadratic function of x, the position of the crosssection through the centroid is to be found by determining the position of the centre of gravity of particles of masses proportional to So, S2, and 4S 1, placed at the extremities and the middle of a line drawn from one end of the solid to the other.
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  • The centroid of a hemisphere of radius R, for instance, is the same as the centroid of particles of masses 0, 7rR 2, and 4.
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  • The losses are caused by volatilization, by the absorption of metal by the crucible, stirring rod, &c., and by occasional projection of particles from the pot into the furnace.
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  • The inner surface of their cup-shaped mouth is armed with pointed teeth, with which they perforate the integuments of the fish attacked, scraping off particles of the flesh and sucking the blood.
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  • We may easily satisfy ourselves that, in every instance in which the sensation of sound is excited, the body whence the sound proceeds must have been thrown, by a blow or other means, into a state of agitation or tremor, implying the existence of a vibratory motion, or motion to and fro, of the particles of which it consists.
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  • The loudness of the sound brought by a train of waves of given wave-length depends on the extent of the to and fro excursion of the air particles.
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  • Experiments, referred to later, have been made to find the amplituae of swing of the air particles in organ pipes.
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  • When a wave of sound travelling through one medium meets a second medium of a different kind, the vibrations of its own particles are communicated to the particles of the new medium, so that a wave is excited in the latter, and is propagated through it with a velocity dependent on the density and elasticity of the second medium, and therefore differing in general from the previous velocity.
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  • When the displacement is represented by Ahbkc the particles on each side of B are displaced towards it 6 7 ?.
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  • When the displacement is represented by AH'BK'C the particles on each side of B are displaced from it, giving an extension, and since the slope is again the steepest, the extension is a maximum.
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  • The tangent to the displacement curve is always parallel to the axis, that is, for a small distance the successive particles are always equally displaced, and therefore always occupy the same volume.
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  • We shall then obviously be led to the following results: If the two waves are of equal length X, and are in the same phase (that is, each producing at any given moment the same state of motion in the air particles), their combined effect is equivalent to that of a wave of the same length X, but by 2 which the excursions of the particles are increased, being the sum of those due to the two component waves respectively, as in fig.
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  • If the two interfering waves, being still of same length X, be in opposite phases, or sõ that one is in advance of the other by 2X, and consequently one produces in the air the opposite state of motion to the other, then the resultant wave is one of the same length X, but the excursions of the particles are decreased, being the difference between those due to the component waves as in fig.
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  • Suppose the two notes to correspond to 200 and 203 vibrations per second; at some instant of time, the air particles, through which the waves are passing, will be similarly displaced by both, and consequently the joint effect will be a sound of some intensity.
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  • But, after this, the first or less rapidly vibrating note will fall behind the other, and cause a diminution in the joint displacements of the particles, till, after the lapse of onesixth of a second, it will have fallen behind the other by half a vibration.
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  • At this moment, therefore, opposite displacements will be produced of the air particles by the two notes, and the sound due to them will be at a minimum.
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  • He further supposed that the elements were ultimately composed of particles of various sorts and sizes, into which, however, they were not to be resolved in any known way.
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  • They will alter the shape of mineral particles by broadening them in a direction at right angles to the principal pressures, while they are thinned in the direction in which the pressure acted.
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  • This flowage will help to orientate the particles in the direction of movement, and, operating conjointly with the flattening above explained,will accentuate the liability to cleave in a definite set of planes.
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  • In the moist and plastic slate the mineral particles slowly enlarged by the addition of new crystalline molecules.
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  • flattening of particles by compression, orientation of particles by flow and formation of laminar crystals, the fundamental explanation of slaty cleavage is found.
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  • The size of the individual particles may be approximately one-five-hundredth of an inch.
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  • In the east portion of the mountainous region the soil so well adapted to peach culture contains much clay, together with particles of Cambrian sandstone.
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  • The latter's system of interpretation was based upon an extremely literal treatment of the text, according to which the smallest words or particles, and sometimes even the letters of scripture, were invested with divine authority.
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  • The trochus forms the powerful currents for locomotion, and for the supply of food material, while the cingulum produces a local current round the upper rim of the corona to bring the food particles direct to the mouth, which is displaced through a postero-ventral gap in the trochus to lie behind the disk, just as occurs in the more specialized Ciliata.
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  • glandular ciliated pit between the mouth and the chin into which the overflow water 0 passes by a pair of gutters, and in which fine particles are aggregated into pellets, which the animal deposits.
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  • The stomach is generally large; its wall consists of a layer of very large ciliated cells, which often contain fat globules and yellowish-green or brown particles, and outside these a connective tissue membrane; muscular fibrillae have also been described.
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  • Probably a straining of water from solid particles is effected by the lattice-work of the ctenidia or gill-plates.
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  • In Filibranchia and many Protobranchia the otocyst (or statocyst) contains numerous particles (otoconia).
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  • All streams, from the tiniest rill to the greatest river, are continually engaged in transporting downstream solid particles of rock, the product of weathering agencies in the area which they drain.
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  • Each molecule need not radiate with increased energy, but the more brilliant emission of light may be due to the greater number of particles forming similar vibrating systems.
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  • These rays are apparently the trajectories of positively charged particles having masses of the order of magnitude of the gaseous molecules.
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  • In combustion the particulae nitro-aereae - either pre-existent in the thing consumed or supplied by the air - combined with the material burnt; as he inferred from his observation that antimony, strongly heated with a burning glass, undergoes an increase of weight which can be attributed to nothing else but these particles.
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  • In respiration he argued that the same particles are consumed, because he found that when a small animal and a lighted candle were placed in a closed vessel full of air the candle first went out and soon afterwards the animal died, but if there was no candle present it lived twice as long.
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  • It is also necessary, he inferred, for all muscular movements, and he thought there was reason to believe that the sudden contraction of muscle is produced by its combination with other combustible (salino-sulphureous) particles in the body; hence the heart, being a muscle, ceases to beat when respiration is stopped.
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  • Animal heat also is due to the union of nitro-aerial particles, breathed in from the air, with the combustible particles in the blood, and is further formed by the combination of these two sets of particles in muscle during violent exertion.
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  • p. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."
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  • Such portion, small enough for the position and motion of each to be sufficiently specified by those of a point, are called "particles."
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  • Suppose two small smooth spherical bodies which can be regarded as particles to be brought into collision, so that the velocity of each, relative to any base which is unaffected by the collision, is suddenly changed.
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  • When, as in the case of contact, a mutual relation is perceived between the motions of two particles, the changes of velocity are in opposite directions, and the ratio of their magnitudes determines the ratio of the masses of the particles; the motion being reckoned relative to any base which is unaffected by the change.
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  • It is found that this gives a consistent result; that is to say, if by an experiment with two particles A and B we get the ratio of their masses, and by an experiment with B and a third particle C we get the ratio of the masses of B and C, and thus the ratio of the masses of A and C, we should get the same ratio by a direct experiment with A and C. For the numerical measure of mass that of some standard body is chosen as a unit, and the masses of other bodies are obtained by comparison with this.
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  • The Galileo-Newton theory of motion is that, relative to a suitably chosen base, and with suitable assignments of mass, all accelerations of particles are made up of mutual (so-called) actions between pairs of particles, whereby the two particles forming a pair have accelerations in opposite directions in the line joining them, of magnitudes inversely proportional to their masses.
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  • The total acceleration of any particle is that obtained by the superposition of the component accelerations derived from its association with the other particles of the system severally in accordance with this law.
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  • The mutual action between two particles is specified by means of a directed quantity to which the term "force" is appropriated.
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  • A force is said to act upon each of two particles forming a pair, its magnitude being the product of mass and component acceleration of the particle on which it acts, and its direction that of this component acceleration.
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  • It is defined by the property that relative to it all accelerations of particles correspond to forces.
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  • Such corrections may be made by the device of applying additional unpaired, or what we may call external, forces to particles of the system.
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  • These are needed only so far as they introduce differences of accelerations of the several particles.
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  • On the fundamental hypotheses of the molecular theory, Value we must regard a solution as composed of a number osmotic of separate particles of solute, scattered through- p out the solvent.
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  • The result of our consideration, therefore, is that the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution of a volatile solute must have the same value as the gaseous pressure the same number of solute particles would exert if they occupied as gas a volume equal to that of the solution.
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  • When the solution ceases to be dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the word, that is, when the spheres of influence of the solute particles intersect each other, this reasoning ceases to apply, and the resulting modification of the gas laws as applied to solutions becomes a matter for further investigation, theoretical or experimental.
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  • If we assume that a certain minimum electric charge must be brought into contact with a group of colloid particles to produce coagulation, twice as many univalent ions must collect to produce the same effect as a number of divalent ions, and three times as many as an effective number of trivalent ions.
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  • A natural electric charge on the particles would oppose this tendency, and tend to increase the free surface and thus promote disintegration and solution.
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  • At the neutral point, when the particles possessed no charge, their stability was destroyed, and they were precipitated.
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  • The size of the suspended particles in colloidal solutions varies greatly.
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  • In yet other solutions, the particles are smaller again, and seem to approach in size the larger molecules of crystalloid substances.
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  • To ensure this being properly done, the lumps of lime should be broken up small, and enough water to slake them should be added, the lime then being allowed to rest for about forty-eight hours, when the water changes the particles of quicklime to hydrate of lime, and breaks up the hard lumps into a powder.
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  • Whatever matrix is used, it is almost invariably "diluted" with sand, the grains of which become coated with the finer particles of the matrix.
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  • It should be free from dirt - that is to say, free from clay or soft mud, for instance, which prevents the cement adhering to its particles, or again from sewage matter or any substance which will chemically destroy the matrix.
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  • In order to avoid the uncertainty arising from the lack of vowels to distinguish forms consisting of the same consonants (for the vowel-points were not yet invented), the aramaising use of the reflexive conjugations (Hithpa`el, Nithpa`el) for the internal passives (Pu'al, Hoph`al) became common; particles were used to express the genitive and other relations, and in general there was an endeavour to avoid the obscurities of a purely consonantal writing.
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  • This question I have duly considered, and though I am not able to satisfy myself completely I am nearly persuaded that the circumstance depends on the weight and number of the ultimate particles of the several gases."
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  • It appears, then, that, confronted with the "problem of ascertaining the relative diameter of the particles of which, he was convinced, all gases were made up, he had recourse to the results of chemical analysis.
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  • Assisted by the assumption that combination always takes place in the simplest possible way, he thus arrived at the idea that chemical combination takes place between particles of different weights, and this it was which differentiated his theory from the historic speculations of the Greeks.
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  • de Phys., 1811), in which he enunciated the hypothesis known by his name (Avogadro's rule) that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of smallest particles or molecules, whether those particles consist of single atoms or are composed of two or more atoms of the same or different kinds.
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  • It is taken up from the interstices between the particles of soil exclusively by the finest subdivisions of the fibrils, and in many cases by the extremely delicate thread-like cells which project from them and which are known as root-hairs.
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  • If the finer earthy sands only are obtainable, they must be rendered sharper by washing away the earthy particles.
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  • When sifting is had recourse to, the fibrous matter should be rubbed through the meshes of the sieve along with the earthy particles.
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  • The same end, that of keeping the finer particles of the soil from mixing with the drainage crocks, may be attained by shaking in a little clean moss.
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  • Beyond this, wrought iron, and certain classes of steel which then were important, necessarily contained much slag or " cinder," because they were made by welding together pasty particles of metal in a bath of slag, without subsequent fusion.
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  • Just as a granite is a conglomerate or mechanical mixture of distinct crystalline grains of three perfectly definite minerals, mica, quartz, and felspar, so iron and steel in their usual slowly cooled state consist of a mixture of microscopic particles of such definite quasiminerals, diametrically unlike.
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  • 13) should be much more effective in starting cracks under distortion than that of the far more minute particles of cementite which lie embedded, indeed drowned, in the sixfold greater mass of ferrite with which they are associated in the pearlite itself.
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  • The first particles of austenite to freeze contain about o 33% of carbon (p).
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  • The heat evolved by this process of solidification retards the fall of temperature; but after this the rate of cooling remains regular until T (750°) on the line Sa (Ar 3) is reached, when a second retardation occurs, due to the heat liberated by the passage within the pasty mass of part of the iron and carbon from a state of mere solution to that of definite combination in the ratio Fe 3 C, forming microscopic particles of cementite, while the remainder of the iron and carbon continue dissolved in each other as austenite.
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  • The reason is that the particles of temper graphite which are thus formed within the solid casting in its long annealing are so finely divided that they do not break up the continuity of the mass in a very harmful way; whereas in grey cast iron both the eutectic graphite formed in solidifying, and also the primary graphite which, in case the metal is hypereutectic, forms in cooling through region 3 of fig.
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  • From its top down, the walls of the furnace slope outward at an angle of between 3° and 8°, partly in order to ease the descent of the charge, here impeded by the swelling of the individual particles of ore caused by the deposition within them of great quantities of fine carbon, by the reaction of 2C0=C+C02.
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  • into rough 80-16 balls, each like a sponge of metallic iron particles with its pores filled with the still molten cinder.
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  • Where the carbon, in thus diffusing inwards, meets particles of the slag, a basic ferrous silicate which is always present in wrought iron, it forms carbonic oxide, FeO+ C = Fe+CO, which puffs the pliant metal up and forms blisters.
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  • Till Huntsman developed the crucible process in 1740, the only kinds of steel of commercial importance were blister steel made by carburizing wrought iron without fusion, and others which like it were greatly injured by the presence of particles of slag.
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  • finer; while the pro-eutectoid and eutectoid graphite, if they exist, are probably in very fine particles.
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  • The rolls thus both draw the piece forward like the pincers of a wire die, and themselves are a die which like a river ever renews or rather maintains its fixed shape and position, though its particles themselves are moving constantly forward with " the piece " which is passing between them.
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  • - Conduction of heat implies transmission by contact from one body to another or between contiguous particles of the same body, but does not include transference of heat by the motion of masses or streams of matter from one place to another.
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  • Faster-moving particles diffusing from A to B carry their momentum with them, and tend to accelerate B; an equal number of slower particles diffusing from B to A act as a drag on A.
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  • It is necessary in upward or subterranean irrigation to send the water on and to take it off very gently, in order to avoid the displacement and loss of the finer particles of the soil which a forcible current would cause.
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  • When the tide is first admitted the heavier particles, which are pure sand, are first deposited; the second deposit is a mixture of sand and fine mud, which, from its friable texture, forms the most valuable soil; while lastly the pure mud subsides, containing the finest particles of all, and forms a rich but very tenacious soil.
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  • In such theories not only animals and plants but even the smallest particles of matter are regarded as having some rudimentary kind of sensation or "soul," which plays the same part in relation to their objective activities or modifications as the soul does in the case of human beings.
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  • Birkeland (19) supposes the ultimate cause to be cathode rays emanating from the sun; C. Nordmann (24) replaces the cathode rays by Hertzian waves; while Svante Arrhenius (25) believes that negatively charged particles are driven through the sun's atmosphere by the Maxwell-Bartoli repulsion of light and reach the earth's atmosphere.
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  • For the size and density of particles which he considers most likely, Arrhenius calculates the time required to travel from the sun as forty-six hours.
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  • The soil of the Delta is a dark grey fine sandy soil, becoming at times almost a stiff clay by reason of the fineness of its particles, which consist almost wholly of extremely small grains of quartz with a few other minerals, and often numerous flakes of mica.
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  • From this it will be seen that the desert in Egypt is mainly a rock desert, where the surface is formed of disintegrated rock, the finer particles of which have been carried away by the wind; and east of the Nile this is almost exclusively the case.
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  • It is varied by the addition of particles, &c., n, In, ~lr, tw, thus: i~m-f, he hears; .idm-w-f, he is heard (p1.
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  • In the earliest inscriptions the use of determinatives is restricted to the ~, ~, &c., after proper names, but it developed immensely later, so that few words beyond th,e particles were written without them in the normal style after the Old Kingdom.
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  • It has now been firmly established, both experimentally and mathematically, that coronae are due to diffraction by the minute particles of moisture and dust suspended in the atmosphere, and the radii of the rings depend on the size of the diffracting particles.
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  • But the severity of the treatment would tear the material asunder if rearrangement of the particles were not obtained by frequent annealing (q.v.).
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  • The unavoidable contamination with muddy particles of vat-waste is removed by allowing the vatliquor to rest for some hours in a separate tank and settling out the mud.
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  • The female constructs on a stone a series of cells, built of cement, which she compounds of particles of earth, minute stones and her own saliva.
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  • He found that pressure increases luminosity, so that hydrogen, for example, the flame of which in normal circumstances gives no light, burns with a luminous flame under a pressure of ten or twenty atmospheres, and the inference he drew was that the presence of solid particles is not the only factor that determines the light-giving power of a flame.
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  • Apart from this, the chief meaning, the word is used of the malt refuse of brewing and distilling, and of many hard rounded small particles, resembling the seeds of plants, such as "grains" of sand, salt, gold, gunpowder, &c. "Grain" is also the name of the smallest unit of weight, both in the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
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  • And thus from an incredible distance we may read the smallest letters, and may number the smallest particles of dust and sand, by reason of the greatness of the angle under which we see them....
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  • per second, and rendering luminous as it reached them the particles of a pre-existing nebula, whose own light had been too faint to be visible.
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  • For example, from the evidence of molar changes due to the obvious parts of bodies, science first comes to believe in molecular changes due to imperceptible particles, and then tries to conceive the ideas of particles, molecules, atoms, electrons.
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  • As Bacon would say, it is a belief that all individual bodies qua hot are individually but similarly moving in their particles.
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  • Gray explains the higher value found by Regnault over the higher range as due to the presence of particles of moisture in the steam, which he thinks " would not be evaporated up to 524° C., but would be more likely to be evaporated in the higher range of temperature."
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  • By this motion things are gradually constructed not entirely of homogeneous particles (the homoeomere, oµoLo t ccpi 7) but in each thing with a majority of a certain kind of particle.
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  • The verbs usually have no inflexions to express relations of voice, mood, tense, number of person - such distinctions being indicated by particles.
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  • All have verbal directive particles.
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  • Statics of a system of particles.
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  • Kinetics of a system of discrete particles.
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  • Statics of a System of ParticlesWe assume that the mutual forces between the pairs of particles, whatever their nature, are subject to the Law of Action and Reaction (Newtons Third Law); i.e.
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  • The problem of determining the possible configurations of equilibrium of a system of particles subject to extraneous forces which are known functions of the positions of the particles, and to internal forces which are known functions of the distances of the pairs of particles between which they act, is in general determinate For if n be the number of particles, the 3n conditions of equilibrium (three for each particle) are equal in number to the 351 Cartesian (or other) co-ordinates of the particles, which are to be found.
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  • A number of particles attached at various points of a string are acted on by given extraneous forces Pi, P, P3.
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  • they may be the weights of the several particles.
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  • For if we have an assemblage of particles whose mutual distances are small compared with the dimensions of the earth, the forces of gravity on them constitute a system of sensibly parallel forces, sensibly proportional to the respective masses.
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  • Hence there is a certain point, fixed relatively to the assemblage, through which the resultant of gravitational action always passes; this resultant is moreover equal to the sum of the forces on the several particles.
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  • The principle can of course be extended to any system of particles or rigid bodies, connected together in any, way, provided we take into account the internal stresses, or reactions, between the various parts.
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  • be the weights of a system of particles, whose depths below a fixed horizontal plane of reference are z~, 12,..
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  • In the application to mechanics these coefficients are the masses of particles situate at the respective points, and are therefore all positive.
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  • It is easily seen that, in the process of determining the masscentre, any group of particles may be replaced by a single particle whose mass isequal to that of the group, situate at the mass-centre of the group.
    0
    0
  • Again, if G be the mass-centre of four particles a, $, 7, situate at the vertices of a tetrahedron ABCD, we find a: ~ :~: tet GBCD: tetUGCDA: tetGDAB: tetGABC, and by suitable determination of the ratios on the left hand we can make G assume any assigned position in space.
    0
    0
  • If we have a continuous distribution of matter, instead of a system of discrete particles, the summations in (6) are to be replaced by integrations.
    0
    0
  • As particular cases: the mass-centre of a uniform thin triangular plate coincides with that of three equal particles at the corners; and that of a uniform solid tetrahedron coincides with that of four equal particles at the vertices.
    0
    0
  • It is easily seen from (6) that if the configuration of a system of particles be altered by homogeneous strain (see ELASTICITY) the new position of the mass-centre will be at that point of the strained figure which corresponds to the original mass-centre.
    0
    0
  • F,, represent two configurations of the series of particles, then Z(m.
    0
    0
  • be the perpendicular distances of the particles from any fixed plane, the sum ~(mh2) is the quadratic moment with respect to the plane.
    0
    0
  • If we divide any of the above quadratic moments by the total mass ~(m), the result is called the mean square of the distances of the particles from the respective plane, axis or pole.
    0
    0
  • and expresses that the mean square of the distances of the particles from 0 exceeds the mean square of the distances from G by 0G2.
    0
    0
  • The mass-centre is accordingly that point the mean square of whose distances from the several particles is least.
    0
    0
  • GP2), (20) provided the summation ~ on the left hand be understood to include each pair of particles once only.
    0
    0
  • This, theorem, also due to Lagrange, enables us to express the mean square of the distances of the particles from the centre of mass in terms of the masses and mutual distances.
    0
    0
  • The graphical methods of determining the moment of inertia of a plane system of particles with respect to any line in its plane may be briefly noticed.
    0
    0
  • 59 p is the line with respect to which moments are to be taken, and the masses of the respective particles are indicated by the ft Z a corresponding segments of a line in the force-diagram, E drawn parallel to p. The A funicular ZABCD.
    0
    0
  • - -, responding to any pole 0 is c n constructed for a system of - - ..---, forces acting parallel to p L - / through the positions of the N particles and proportional to -- / the respective masses; and its - successive sides are produced K, ~ to meet p in the points H, K,
    0
    0
  • If some of the particles lie on one side of p and some on the other, the quadratic moment of each set may be found, and the results added.
    0
    0
  • If the particles start from rest at a finite distance c, we have in (I6), C = 2p1C, and therefore ~=u=_,/~2M ~ (fr)
    0
    0
  • It follows from the formula 15 (10) for the internal kinetic energy of a system of particles that as a result of the impact this energy is diminished by the amount i m1mi 2(1 _ei)m+m(ui_uf)1.
    0
    0
  • which refer to two particles falling independently into two distinct centres of force, it is obvious that it is possible to have x in a constant ratio to x, and tin a constant ratio to t, provided that Xx u u t44)
    0
    0
  • they may be the initial distances, both particles being supposed to start from rest.
    0
    0
  • Kinetics of a System of Discrete Particles.The momenta of the several particles constitute a system of localized vectors which, for purposes of resolving and taking moments, may be reduced like a system of forces in statics (~ 8).
    0
    0
  • Secondly, we have an angular momentum whose components are ~{m(y~z3)}, ~lm(z~xb)1, ~{m(xi?yi~)}, (2) these being the sums of the moments of the momenta of the several particles about the respective axes.
    0
    0
  • to represent the velocities of the several particles mi, mi,..
    0
    0
  • which expresses the internal kinetic energy in terms of the relative velocities of the several pairs of particles.
    0
    0
  • We have now to consider the effect of the forces acting on the particles.
    0
    0
  • These may be divided into two categories; we have first, the extraneous forces exerted on the various particles from without, and, secondly, the mutual or internal forces between the various pairs of particles.
    0
    0
  • If the equations of motion of each particle be formed separately, each such internal force will appear twice over, with opposite signs for its components, viz, as affecting the motion of each of the two particles between which it acts.
    0
    0
  • For consider any two particles at P and Q, acting on one another with equal and opposite forces in the line PQ.
    0
    0
  • In the time ~5t a certain impulse is given to the first particle in the direction (say) from P to Q, whilst an equal and opposite impulse is given to the second in the, direction from Q to P. Since these impulses produce equal and opposite momenta in the two particles, the resultant lineal momentumof the system is unaltered.
    0
    0
  • Again, the mass-centre~ ~f a chain oi particles connected by strings, projected anyhow under gravity, will describe a parabola.
    0
    0
  • For in time t the mutual action between two particles at P and Q produces equal and opposite momenta in the line PQ, and these will have equal and opposite moments about the fixed axis.
    0
    0
  • The kinematical relations above explained now lead to the conclusion that in calculating the effect of extraneous forces in an infinitely short time t we may take moments about an axis passing through the instantaneous position of G exactly as if G were fixed; moreover, the result will be the same whether in this process we employ the true velocities of the particles or merely their velocities relative to G.
    0
    0
  • For example, if we have two particles connected by a string, the invariable plane passes through the string, and if w be the angular velocity in this plane, the angular momentum relative to G is mibiri ri +m1o~~rz - r2 (miri2 +mirl2)c~,,
    0
    0
  • mif-mi The increase of the kinetic energy of the system in any interval of time will of course be equal to the total work done by all the forces acting on the particles.
    0
    0
  • In many questions relating to systems of discrete particles the internal force R55 (which we will reckon positive when attractive) between any two particles m,, m5 is a function only of the distance r55 between them.
    0
    0
  • In this case the work done by the internal forces will be represented by ~fRpqdrpq, when the summation includes every pair of particles, and each integral is to be taken between the proper limits.
    0
    0
  • When we pass from the consideration of discrete particles to that of continuous distributions of matter, we require some physical postulate over and above what is contained in the Laws of Motion, in their original formulation.
    0
    0
  • This additional postulate may be introduced under various forms. One plan is to assume that any body whatever may be treated as if it were composed of material particles, i.e.
    0
    0
  • In the case of a rigid body we must suppose that those forces adjust themselves so as to preserve the mutual distances of the various particles unaltered.
    0
    0
  • The amplitudes of oscilla Ia tion of the various particles have definite ratios to one another, and the phases are in agreement, the absolute amplitude (depending on C) and the phase-constant () being alone arbitrary.
    0
    0
  • become to some extent indeterminate, and elliptic vibrations of the individual particles are possible.
    0
    0
  • Every particle of the system executes in general a simple vibration of the imposed period 27r/il, and all the particles pass simultaneously through their equilibrium positions.
    0
    0
  • The terms due to F in (33) are such as would arise from frictional resistances proportional to the absolute velocities of the particles, or to mutual forces of resistance proportional to the relative velocities; they are therefore classed as frictional or dissipative forces.
    0
    0
  • The n formulae of this type represent a normal mode of free vibration; the individual particles revolve as a rule in elliptic orbits which gradually contract according to the law indicated by the exponential factor.
    0
    0
  • Webster, Dynamics of Particles, &c. (1904); E.
    0
    0
  • Let V5 denote the velocity of advance at a given instant, which of course is common to all the particles of the body; a the angular velocity of the rotation at the same instant; 2,r = 6.2832 nearly, the circumference of a circle of the radius unity.
    0
    0
  • The particles of a rotating body exert centrifugal forces on each other, which strain the body, and tend to tear it asunder, but these forces balance each other, and do not affect the resultant centrifugal force exerted on the axis of rotation.i -
    0
    0
  • Centrifugal Couples of a Rotating Body.Besides the tendency (if any) of the combined centrifugal forces of the particles of a rotating body to s/lift the axis of rotation, they may also tend to turn it out of its original direction.
    0
    0
  • Let a small body of the weight w undergo translation in a circulai path of the radius p, with the angular velocity of deflexion a, so that the common linear velocity of all its particles is v=ap. Then the actual energy of that body is WV2/2g = Waip2/2g.
    0
    0
  • Its food consists of microscopic organisms and organic particles; these are drawn into the mouth FIG.
    0
    0
  • As food particles pass in through the mouth they become enveloped in a slimy substance (secreted by the endostyle) and conveyed down the gut by the action of the vibratile cilia as a continuous food-rope, the peristaltic movements of the gut-wall being very feeble.
    0
    0
  • Certain particles go forth from the eye to meet similar particles given forth from the object, and the resultant contact constitutes vision.
    0
    0
  • owing to their containing more or less of a substance called the matter of heat," and inclines to Newton's opinion that it "consists in the internal motion of the particles of bodies."
    0
    0
  • This theory was founded on the following principles: - (I) the particles of the electric fluid repel each other with a force decreasing as the distance increases; (2) the particles of the electric fluid attract the atoms of all bodies and are attracted by them with a force obeying the same law; (3) the electric fluid exists in the pores of all bodies, and while it moves without any obstruction in conductors such as metals, water, &c., it moves with extreme difficulty in so-called non-conductors such as glass, resin, &c.; (4) electrical phenomena are produced either by the transference of the electric fluid of a body containing more to one containing less, or from its attraction and repulsion when no transference takes place.
    0
    0
  • Electric attractions and repulsions were, however, regarded as differential actions in which the mutual repulsion of the particles of electricity operated, so to speak, in antagonism to the mutual attraction of particles of matter for one another and of particles of electricity for matter.
    0
    0
  • Canton (1 753, 1 754) When, for instance, a positively electrified body was found to induce upon another insulated conductor a charge of negative electricity on the side nearest to it, and a charge of positive electricity on the side farthest from it, this was explained by saying that the particles of each of the two electric fluids repelled one another but attracted those of the positive fluid.
    0
    0
  • It was then assumed that each of the two constituents of the neutral fluid had an atomic structure and that the so-called particles of one of the electric fluids, say positive, repelled similar particles with a force varying inversely as a square of the distance and attracted those of the opposite fluid according to the same law.
    0
    0
  • Faraday's notion as to the nature of electrification, therefore, about the middle of the 19th century came to be something as follows: - He considered that the so-called charge of electricity on a conductor was in reality nothing on the conductor or in the conductor itself, but consisted in a state of strain or polarization, or a physical change of some kind in the particles of the dielectric surrounding the conductor, and that it was this physical state in the dielectric which constituted electrification.
    0
    0
  • The subject was pursued by Thomson and the Cambridge physicists with great mathematical and experimental ability, and finally the conclusion was reached that in a high vacuum tube the electric charge is carried by particles which have a mass only a fraction, as above mentioned, of that of the hydrogen atom, but which carry a charge equal to the unit electric charge of the hydrogen ion as found by electrochemical researches.
    0
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  • C. Rntgen of Munich made in 1896 his remarkable discovery of the so-called X or Rntgen rays, a class of radiation produced by the impact of the cathode particles against an impervious metallic screen or anticathode placed in the vacuum tube.
    0
    0
  • The study of radium and radioactivity led before long to the further remarkable knowledge that these so-called radioactive materials project into surrounding space particles or corpuscles, some of which are identical with those projected from the cathode in a high vacuum tube, together with others of a different nature.
    0
    0
  • The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.
    0
    0
  • This can only be discovered by analysis, which will disclose the ultimate constituents (natural particles, not atoms) of bodies, and lead back the discussion to forms or simple natures, whereby alone can true light be thrown on these obscure questions.
    0
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  • Affirmative particles: yr, fe.
    0
    0
  • The methods by which such results are to be obtained cannot, however, as yet be practised economically on a working scale; one great difficulty in applying them to the refining of metals is that the jets of liquid would be liable to carry with them articles of anode mud, and Swan has shown that the presence of solid particles in the electrolyte is one of the most fruitful causes of the well-known nodular growths on electrodeposited copper.
    0
    0
  • "Difference in vocabulary may be partially explained (though only partially in this case) by difference of subject-matter and of date; but the use of particles is one of the most unfailing of literary tests.
    0
    0
  • The change in the use of particles and the comparative rarity of the definite article form, together with the startling divergence in vocabulary, the chief ground of our perplexity" (Church Quarterly Review, 1903, pp. 428 seq.).
    0
    0
  • Pauline particles like apa, Sc6, Sam, E7recra, Iise and Moo 1 When the literary integrity of the epistle is maintained this allusion naturally drops to the ground, since the use of the epistle by Polycarp rules the earlier conjectures of Baur and others (who made the pastorals anti-Marcionite) out of court; besides, passages like i.
    0
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  • He observed that the effect was the same in thick tubes as in thin, and concluded that only those particles of the glass which are very near the surface have any influence on the phenomenon.
    0
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  • des Sciences, 1787, p. 506) asserted that " by supposing the adherence of the particles of a fluid to have a sensible effect only at the surface itself and in the direction of the surface it would be easy to determine the curvature of the surfaces of fluids in the neighbourhood of the solid boundaries which contain them; that these surfaces would be linteariae of which the tension, constant in all directions, would be everywhere equal to the adherence of two particles, and the phenomena of capillary tubes would then present nothing which could not be determined by analysis."
    0
    0
  • This explanation of the action of the solid is equivalent to that by which Gauss afterwards supplied the defect of the theory of Laplace, except that, not being expressed in terms of mathematical symbols, it does not indicate the mathematical relation between the attraction of individual particles and the final result.
    0
    0
  • Instead of calculating the direction and magnitude of the resultant force on each particle arising from the action of neighbouring particles, he formed a single expression which is the aggregate of all the potentials arising from the mutual action between pairs of particles.
    0
    0
  • It consists of three parts, the first depending on the action of gravity, the second on the mutual action between the particles of the fluid, and the third on the action between the particles of the fluid and the particles of a solid or fluid in contact with it.
    0
    0
  • He also pointed out more distinctly the nature of the assumptions which we must make with respect to the law of action of the particles in order to be consistent with observed phenomena.
    0
    0
  • It is found by experiment that it is only very close to the bounding surface of a liquid that the forces arising from the mutual action of its parts have any resultant effect on one of its particles.
    0
    0
  • It is impossible to make direct measurements of the properties of particles of the substance within the insensible distance e of the bounding surface.
    0
    0
  • Let us suppose that the force between two particles m and m' at the distance f is F =mm '(0(f) +Cf2), (22) being reckoned positive when the force is attractive.
    0
    0
  • The actual force between the particles arises in part from their mutual gravitation, which is inversely as the square of the distance.
    0
    0
  • Many bacteria when suspended in a fluid exhibit a power of independent movement which is, of course, quite distinct from the Brownian movement - a non-vital phenomenon common to all finelydivided particles suspended in a fluid.
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  • (a) Filaments rigid, non-motile, sheathed: - Crenothrix (Cohn), filaments unbranched and devoid of sulphur particles; Thiothrix (Winogr.), as before, but with sulphur particles; Cladothrix (Cohn), filaments branched in a pseudo-dichatomous manner.
    0
    0
  • (b) Filaments showing slow pendulous and creeping movements, and with no distinct sheath: - Beggiatoa (Tre y .), with sulphur particles.
    0
    0
  • (After Prazmowski.) free end of a root-hair of Pea; at the right are particles of earth and on the left a mass of bacteria.
    0
    0
  • Cohn long ago showed that certain glistening particles observed in the cells of Beggiatoa consist of sulphur, and Winogradsky and Beyerinck have shown that a whole series of sulphur bacteria of the genera Thiothrix, Chromatium, Spirillum, Monas, &c., exist, and play important parts in the circulation of this element in nature, e.g.
    0
    0
  • Kruse and C. Nicolle have found that if a bacterial culture be filtered germ-free, an agglutinating serum still produces some change in it, so that particles suspended in it become gathered into clumps.
    0
    0
  • Water is added, and as soon as the gangue and copper particles have settled the clear solution is decanted, and the residue washed several times in the same way.
    0
    0
  • Bars of copper drawn over the bottom by mules or water-power (like the stone drags in the arrastra) grind off fine particles of copper, which hasten the reduction of the silver and diminish the formation of calomel.
    0
    0
  • Besides the sedentary Cirripedia, numbers of the smaller forms, especially among the Entomostraca, subsist on floating particles of organic matter swept within reach of the jaws by the movements of the other limbs.
    0
    0
  • Where the sac is completely closed it generally contains no solid particles, but in a few Macrura a single otolith secreted by the walls of the sac is present.
    0
    0
  • These small particles or larger communities are subject to accidents, internal or external, which destroy them, immediately or slowly, and thus life ceases; or they may wear out, or become clogged by the products of their own activity.
    0
    0
  • Living matter is a mixture of substances chiefly dissolved in water; the comparison with the crystals has led to a supposed distinction in the mode of growth, crystals growing by the superficial apposition of new particles and living substance by intussusception.
    0
    0
  • Very finely triturated soluble particles are rubbed into a smooth paste with an oil of the requisite consistency.
    0
    0
  • A fragment of such a paste brought into a liquid in which the solid particles are soluble, slowly expands into a honeycomb like foam, the walls of the minute vesicles being films of oil, and the contents being the soluble particles dissolved in droplets of the circumambient liquid.
    0
    0
  • In the former case the light penetrating between the particles is unable to escape by reflexion, and is finally absorbed.
    0
    0
  • Compound tenses are formed by the addition of certain particles and of the auxiliary verbs - a a y e, to have, a fi, to be, and a voi, to will.
    0
    0
  • It lives on dry, welldrained ground, and digs a deep burrow lined with silk to prevent the infall of loose particles of soil.
    0
    0
  • This result is mainly due to the reduction of frictional resistance to the passage of water through the sand in the immediate neighbourhood of the well, by washing out the finer particles of sand and leaving only the coarser particles.
    0
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  • On the removal of any plug, this wire gauze prevented the sand from flowing with the water into the well; but while the finer particles of sand remained in the neighbourhood of the orifice, the flow of water through the contracted area was very small.
    0
    0
  • The effect of thus alternately forcing high-pressure steam among the sand, and of discharging high-pressure water contained in the sand into the well, is to break up any cohesion of the sand, and to allow all the finer particles in the neighbourhood of the orifice to rush out with the water through the wire gauze into the well.
    0
    0
  • This process, in effect, leaves each orifice surrounded by a hemisphere of coarse sand across which the water flows with comparative freedom from a larger hemisphere where the corresponding velocity is very slow, and where the presence of finer and more obstructive particles is therefore unimportant.
    0
    0
  • The water, contained in the interstices of the sand above the mean sea-level, would (except in so far as a film, coating the sand particles, is held up by capillary attraction) gradually sink to the sea-level if there were no rainfall.
    0
    0
  • But in order that the action may be complete the initial resistance to percolation of water at every part of the soil must be such that the motion of the water through it shall be insufficient to disturb the water-borne mineral and organic particles lodged on the surface or in the interstices of the soil.
    0
    0
  • The finer particles of clay in the line of the joint are washed away, while the sandy particles, which nearly all natural clays contain, remain behind and form a constantly deepening porous vein of sand crossing the base of the puddle.
    0
    0
  • We do not always know the least resistance which it is safe to give to a retaining wall subject to the pressure of earth, or conversely, the maximum resistance to side-thrust which natural or embanked earth will afford, because we wisely neglect the important but very variable element of adhesion between the particles.
    0
    0
  • Many attempts have been made to reduce the chamber space by apparatus intended to bring about a better mixture of the gases, and to facilitate the interaction of the misty particles of nitrous vitriol and dilute acid floating in the chamber with each other and with the chamber atmosphere.
    0
    0
  • Nearly everything, according to them, has a soul within its outward visible shape - not only men and animals, but also all plants, and even particles of earth, and of water (when it is cold), and fire and wind.
    0
    0
  • The outermost layer of the endosperm consists of square cells larger and more regular in form than those on each side; these contain aleuron grains - small particles of gluten or nitrogenous matter.
    0
    0
  • At the other extreme we know that innumerable swarms of minute bodies, probably little more than particles, move round the sun in orbits of every degree of eccentricity, making themselves known to us only in the exceptional cases when they strike the earth's atmosphere.
    0
    0
  • In one, the bodies are regarded as material particles, no account being taken of their dimensions.
    0
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  • that in which the planets are no longer considered as particles, but as rotating bodies of which the dimensions are to be taken into account.
    0
    0
  • He supposed their tails to result from the action of solar rays, which, in traversing their mass, bore off with them some of their subtler particles to form trains directed away.
    0
    0
  • Gravitation was thus shown to be the sole influence governing the movements of planets and satellites; the figure of the rotating earth was successfully explained by its action on the minuter particles of matter; tides and the precession of the equinoxes proved amenable to reasonings based on the same principle; and it satisfactorily accounted as well for some of the chief lunar and planetary inequalities.
    0
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  • Case is shown by particles, which precede the nouns.
    0
    0
  • The difference in the verbal particles in the different languages is very great.
    0
    0
  • The countries bordering the Sahara are much exposed to a very dry wind, full of fine particles of sand, blowing from the desert towards the sea.
    0
    0
  • The polarization of the light scattered by small particles has been examined by G.
    0
    0
  • Lallemand, and in the case of ultramicroscopic particles by H.
    0
    0
  • This work is partly carried out beneath the surface and partly on the surface, upon which the worms wander at night and eject the swallowed and triturated earth; frequently castings of some height are formed of coiled ropes of agglutinated particles of mould.
    0
    0
  • This pit, generally filled in the living animal with particles of food, is FIG.
    0
    0
  • The hypothesis which best explains all the phenomena is that the light is that of the sun reflected from an extremely tenuous cloud of particles having the form and extent described, and becoming more and more tenuous as the earth's orbit is approached until, immediately outside the orbit, it fades into complete invisibility.
    0
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  • Hall also reaches the interesting conclusion that the plane in question seems to lie near the invariable plane of the solar system, a result which might be expected if the light proceeded from a swarm of independent meteoric particles moving around the sun.
    0
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  • The most plausible view is that we have to do with sunlight reflected from meteoric particles moving round the sun within the region of the lens.
    0
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  • He shows that, supposing the cloud of particles to move around the sun in nearly circular orbits immediately outside the earth, the perturbations by the earth in the motion of the particles will result in their retardation in that part of the orbit nearest the earth, and therefore in their always being more numerous in a given space in this part of the orbit Ethan in any other.
    0
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  • It seems not unlikely that the final conclusion will be that instead of the reflecting matter being composed of solid particles it is an exceedingly tenuous gaseous envelope surrounding the sun and revolving on an axis the mean position of which is between that of the sun's equator and that of the invariable plane of the solar system.
    0
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  • Still smaller particles cannot be portrayed by using ordinary daylight.
    0
    0
  • With this device these particles appear bright against a dark background, and can be easily seen.
    0
    0
  • The extremely small particles of dust (motes in a sunbeam) in the rays are made perceptible by the diffracted light, whilst by ordinary illumination they are invisible.
    0
    0
  • In addition, the particles can only be recognized as separate objects if their apparent distance from one another is greater than the angular definition of sight.
    0
    0
  • Very finely divided sub-microscopic particles in liquids or in transparent solids can be examined; and the method has proved exceptionally valuable in the investigation of colloidal solutions.
    0
    0
  • The only sources of light are sunlight or the electric arc. The limit at which sub-microscopic particles are made visible is dependent upon the specific intensity of the source of light.
    0
    0
  • With sunlight particles can be made visible to a size of about o o04, u.
    0
    0
  • on the collective lens but a little in front of it, because otherwise all the particles of dust on the collective would also be seen magnified.
    0
    0
  • Apparatus for a good dark field illumination has received much attention, because in this way ultra-microscopical particles can be made visible.
    0
    0
  • If one focuses an auxiliary microscope, carried in the inner tube, on the image situated in the back focal plane of the objective of a distant object, and then on the dust particles lying on a slide pressed against the end of the outer tube, the displacement of the auxiliary microscope gives the distance of the back focal plane of the objective from the end of the outer tube.
    0
    0
  • Within the pollen-grain is the granular protoplasm with some oily particles, and occasionally starch.
    0
    0
  • Of the essential properties of clay some are merely physical, and depend on the minute size of the particles.
    0
    0
  • and very small particles of these are rarely absent from natural clays.
    0
    0
  • These fine-grained materials are at first mixed with broken and more or less weathered rock fragments and coarser mineral particles in the soil and subsoil, but by the action of wind and rain they are swept away and deposited in distant situations.
    0
    0
  • In this state the fine particles are known as "mud."
    0
    0
  • The clay is held to include those particles which have less than o o05 mm.
    0
    0
  • The alkalis are very interesting; often they form 5 or io% of the whole rock; they indicate abundance of white micas or of undecomposed particles of felspar.
    0
    0
  • It consists of very fine scaly kaolin, larger, shining plates of white mica, grains of quartz and particles of semi-decomposed felspar, tourmaline, zircon and other minerals, which originally formed part of the granite.
    0
    0
  • There was always a river, eating away at the mountain as it had for eons, carrying with it minute particles, piece by piece in its frantic torrents.
    0
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  • abrasive particles.
    0
    0
  • The fat coats flour particles, and prevents moisture absorption which inhibits gluten formation.
    0
    0
  • Synchrotron A type of circular accelerator in which the particles travel in synchronized bunches at fixed radius.
    0
    0
  • No such evidence exists for the " HIV " particles, proteins or nucleic acids.
    0
    0
  • The surface charge of different types of particles depends on the pH, allowing cationic or anionic surfactants to be selectively adsorbed.
    0
    0
  • adsorbed onto particles of clay and held within the crystal structures of clays and feldspars.
    0
    0
  • adsorbent particles, the conveyance of matter takes place in accordance with various mechanisms.
    0
    0
  • The aim of the mission is to collect particles from Comet Wild 2 using a material called aerogel.
    0
    0
  • NASA has used aerogel to trap tiny particles of space dust for research.
    0
    0
  • Processing - at high powers ultrasound causes intense agitation to particles.
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  • These particles become dust like when they dry out and therefore easily airborne, spreading around the house.
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  • Also, fine particles may be drawn into the respiratory airways where they may adversely affect health.
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  • Dead, microscopic algae will clump together into particles large enough to be removed by filtration.
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  • The smaller the limestone particles then the quicker your soil will become more alkaline.
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  • However, if the lights go out, a beam of light from an acute angle makes these same particles visible.
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  • Spin: The intrinsic angular momentum possessed by fundamental particles - giving the appearance of them ' spinning ' .
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  • annihilate to produce new particles.
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  • These cells are specially designed to present peptide antigens derived from such digested particles.
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  • antimatter particles should have been produced in equal quantities.
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  • They are extremely hard wearing whilst keeping a high esthetic appeal due to the glass particles within the mix.
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  • The cage is certainly readily penetrated by soil (as dust particles) containing virus, bacteria and fungi along with soil arthropods.
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