Parma Sentence Examples
He had named them Roman patricians; the latter he had placed in charge of Florence; the former, for whom he planned to carve out a kingdom in central Italy of Parma, Piacenza, Ferrara and Urbino, he had taken with himself to Rome and married to Filiberta of Savoy.
Parma, one of the finest cities of northern Italy, lies in a fertile tract of the Lombard plain, within view of the Alps and sheltered by the Apennines, 170 ft.
From south to north it is traversed by the channel of the Parma, crossed here by three bridges; and from east to west runs the line of the Via Aemilia, by which ancient Parma was connected on the one hand with Ariminum (Rimini), and on the other with Placentia (Piacenza).
The Madonna della Steccata (Our Lady of the Palisade), a fine church in the form of a Greek cross, erected between 1521 and 1539 after Zaccagni's designs, contains the tombs and monuments of many of the Bourbon and Farnese dukes of Parma, and preserves its pictures, Parmigiano's "Moses Breaking the Tables of the Law" and Anselmi's "Coronation of the Virgin."
The royal university of Parma, founded in 1601 by Ranuccio I., and reconstituted by Philip of Bourbon in 1768, has faculties in law, medicine and natural science, and possesses an observatory, and natural science collections, among which is the Eritrean Zoological Museum.Advertisement
A very considerable trade is carried on at Parma in grain, cattle and the dairy produce of the district.
The grana cheese known as Parmesan is not now so well made at Parma as in some other parts of Italy - Lodi, for example.
From archaeological discoveries it would appear that the ancient town was preceded by a prehistoric settlement of the Bronze Age, the dwellings of which rested upon piles - one, indeed, of the so-called terremare, which are especially frequent in the neighbourhood of Parma.
The bridge by which the Via Aemilia crossed the river Parma, from which it probably takes its name, is still preserved, but has been much altered.
A bishop of Parma is mentioned in the acts of the council of Rome of A.D.Advertisement
During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries Parma had its full share of the Guelph and Ghibelline struggles, in which it mainly took the part of the former, and also carried on repeated hostilities with Borgo San Donnino and Piacenza.
The fruitless siege of Parma in 1248 was the last effort of Frederick II.
Antonio and Francesco both having died childless, the duchy passed to Charles of Bourbon (Don Carlos), infante of Spain, who, becoming king of Naples in 1734, surrendered Parma and Piacenza to Austria, but retained the artistic treasures of the Farnese dynasty which he had removed from Parma to Naples.
Ferdinand, Philip's son, who succeeded under Dutillot's regency in 1765, saw his states occupied by the revolutionary forces of France in 1796, and had to purchase his lifeinterest with 6,000,000 lire and 25 of the best paintings in Parma.
Parma was thus governed for several years by Moreau de SaintMery and by Junot.Advertisement
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
He issued an order to that effect (August 18, 1564), and it was sent to the duchess of Parma for publication.
Margaret of Parma meanwhile, with the aid of a considerable body of German mercenaries, had inflicted exemplary punishment upon the iconoclasts and Calvinist sectaries.
But Philip had now become thoroughly alarmed, and he despatched Alexander Farnese, son of the duchess of Parma, to join his uncle Don John with a veteran force of 20,000 troops.
On the Grand Place is the fine statue of Christine de Lalaing, princess d'Epinoy, who defended Tournai against Parma in 1581.Advertisement
Another stock, with no close allies nearer than the south of France, is found in the plain of Racconigi and Carmagnola; the mouse-colored Swiss breed occurs in the neighborhood of Milan; the Tirolese breed stretches south to Padua and Modena; and a red-coated breed named of Reggio or Friuli is familiar both in what were the duchies of Parma and Modena, and in the provinces of lJdine and Treviso.
In Emilia both mezzadria and lease tenure are widely diffused in the provinces of Ferrara, Reggio and Parma; but other special forms of contract exist, known as the famiglio da spesa, boaria, braccianti obbligati and braccianti disobbligati.
Parma revolted from him, and he spent months in 1247-1248 vainly trying to reduce this one time faithful city.
At Ravenna we find the Polenta family, at Rimini the Malatestas, at Parma the Rossi, at Piacenza the Scotti, at Faenza the Manfredi.
Alessandros descendants reigned in Parma and Piacenza till the year 1731.Advertisement
The War of the Polish Succession which now disturbed Europe is only important in Italian history because the treaty of Vienna in 1738 settled the disputed affairs of the duchies Polish of Parma and Tuscany.
In the duchy of Parma Don Carlos had already been proclaimed.
But he was now transferred to the Two Sicilies, while Francis of Lorraine, the husband of Maria Theresa, took Tuscany and Parma.
Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were formed into a duchy for Don Philip, brother of Charles III.
By marrying her daughter, Maria Amelia, to the young duke of Parma, and another daughter, Maria Carolina, to Ferdinand of Naples, Maria Theresa consolidated Habsburg influence in the north and south of the peninsula.
The Spanish Bourbons held Naples and Sicily, as well as the duchy of Parma.
Parma and Piacenza were assigned to Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor and wife of Napoleon, on behalf of her son, the little Napoleon, but by subsequent arrangements (1816-1817) the duchy was to revert at her death to the Bourbons of Parma, then reigning at Lucca.
The duchy of Lucca was given to Marie Louise of BourbonParma, who, at the death of Marie Louise of Austria, would return to Parma, when Lucca would be handed over to Tuscany.
The reaction, which was dull and heavy in the dominions of the pope and of Victor Emmanuel, systematically harsh in the Austrian states of the north, and comparatively mild in Parma and Tuscany, excited the greatest loathing in southern Italy and Sicily, because there it was directed by a dynasty which had aroused feelings of hatred mingled with contempt.
Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.
In Parma, on the other hand, there was very little oppression, the French codes were retained, and the council of state was consulted on all legislative matters.
In February 1831 these provinces rose, raised the red, white and green tricolor (which henceforth took the place of the Carbonarist colors as the Italian flag), and shook off the papal yoke with surprising ease.1 At Parma too there was an outbreak and a demand for the constitution; Marie Louise could not grant it because of her engagements with Austria, and, therefore, abandoned her dominions.
The duke of Modena and Charles Louis of Parma (Marie Louise was now dead) abandoned their capitals; in both cities provisional governments were set up which subsequently proclaimed annexation to Piedmont.
The duchessregent of Parma also withdrew to Austrian territory, and on the 11th of June annexation to Piedmont was proclaimed.
In the spring of 1908 there were agrarian strikes at Parma; the labor contracts had pressed hardly on the peasantry, who had cause for complaint; but while some improvement had been effected in the new contracts, certain unscrupulous demagogues, of whom Alceste De Ambris, representing the syndacalist wing of the Socialist party, was the chief, organized a widespread agitation.
Conflicts occurred between the strikers and the independent laborers and the police; the trouble spread to the city of Parma, where violent scenes occurred when the labor exchange was occupied by the troops, and many soldiers and policemen, whose behaviour as usual was exemplary throughout, were seriously wounded.
In 1584, however, the city had to surrender on onerous terms to the prince of Parma.
In April 1 559 Granvella was one of the Spanish commissioners who arranged the peace of Cateau Cambresis, and on Philip's withdrawal from the Netherlands in August of the same year he was appointed prime minister to the regent, Margaret of Parma.
It lay upon this road, half-way between Mutina and Parma.
Marie Louise was to have the duchy of Parma for herself and her son.
But his very domestic regularity caused him to be entirely under the influence of his two wives, Maria Louisa of Savoy, whom he married in 1702, and who died in February 1714, and Elizabeth Farnese of Parma, whom he married in December of the same year, and who survived him.
He also became a prince of the Empire and received in 1808 the title duke of Parma.
At the Congress of Vienna the Powers awarded to her and her son the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, in conformity with the terms of the treaty of Fontainebleau (March, 1814); in spite of the determined opposition of Louis XVIII.
She proceeded alone to Parma, where she fell more and more under the influence of the count von Neipperg, and had to acquiesce in the title "duke of Reichstadt" accorded to her son.
Long before the tidings of the death of Napoleon at St Helena reached her she was living in intimate relations with Neipperg at Parma, and bore a son to him not long after that event.
Her rule in Parma, conjointly with Neipperg, was characterized by a clemency and moderation which were lacking in the other Italian states in that time of reaction.
During the popular movements of 1831 Marie Louise had to take refuge with the Austrian garrison at Piacenza; on the restoration of her rule by the Austrians its character deteriorated, Parma becoming an outwork of the Austrian empire.
The Joachimites even obtained a majority in the general chapter of 1247, and elected John of Parma, one of their number, general of the order.
Pope Alexander IV., however, compelled John of Parma to renounce his dignity, and the Joachimite opposition became more and more vehement.
Great jealousy of their increasing power was excited amongst the neighbouring princes, and Odoardo Farnese, duke of Parma, made war upon Taddeo, and defeated the papal troops.
When the spring had come, being still very poor and in feeble health, he started homewards on foot by Florence, across the Apennines, through Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Turin, over the Alps, through Savoy and Dauphine to Lyons, andfinally to Paris, where he arrived in excellent health.
Willaert, dying in 1562, was succeeded by Cipriano di Rore, on whose removal to Parma in 1565 Zarlino was elected choirmaster.
In the Guelph and Ghibelline struggles Cremona took the latter side, and defeated Parma decisively in 1250.
Born at Genoa, he was educated under the care of his uncle Opizo, bishop of Parma.
After taking orders at Parma, when he was made canon of the cathedral, he studied jurisprudence at Bologna.
At first the war went in Frederick's favour; then came the capture of the strategically important city of Parma by papal partisans (June 16th, 1247).
On the 18th of February 1248 Frederick's camp before Parma (the temporary town of Vittoria) was taken and sacked, the imperial insignia - of vast significance in those days - being captured.
In the peace of Utrecht he was ignored; Sardinia and Sicily, Parma and Piacenza, were disposed of without regard to papal claims. When he quarrelled with the duke of Savoy, and revoked his investiture rights in Sicily (1715), his interdict was treated with contempt.
Bacchini brought out at Parma (1688-1690) and at Modena (1692-1697) a periodical with a similar title.
The Jesuits had fallen upon evil days; in 1758 Pombal expelled them from Portugal; his example was followed by the Bourbon countries - France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Parma (1764-1768).
A clash with Parma occurred to aggravate his troubles.
He feebly asked Austria if he might maintain the constitution, and the Austrian premier, Prince Schwarzenberg, advised him to consult the pope, the king of Naples and the dukes of Parma and Modena.
Later on, Leo designed for him a duchy in Emilia, to be cemented out of Parma, Piacenza, Reggio and Modena.
He negotiated an alliance with Parma, Romagna and Tuscany, when other provisional governments had been established, and entrusted the task of organizing an army for this central Italian league to General Fanti.
Among the celebrities of Saluzzo are Silvio Pellico, Bodoni, the famous printer of Parma of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and Casalis the historian of Sardinia.
Some of the Italian terremare show quadrangular constructions made like the modern log houses, of undressed tree trunks superposed longitudinally and overlapping at the ends, as at Castione in the province of Parma.
After the 9th century few baptisteries were built, the most noteworthy of later date being those at Pisa, Florence, Padua, Lucca and Parma.
In March 1797 he was appointed by the Directory, minister to the court of Parma, and early in the summer he proceeded to Rome in the same capacity.
In Italy the signs and works survive fragmentarily in the baptistery at Parma, completely on the porch of the cathedral of Cremona and on the west doorway of St Mark's at Venice.
His wife, Maria Luisa of Parma, his first cousin, a thoroughly coarse and vicious woman, ruled him completely, though he was capable of obstinacy at times.
In 1579 it was besieged by the Spaniards under the duke of Parma, being captured and plundered after a heroic resistance.
In Italy Austria retained her hold on Lombardy and Venetia, Genoa was assigned to the kingdom of Sardinia, while Parma went to Marie Louise, the legitimate heir, Carlo Ludivico, having to be content with the reversion after her death, the congress meanwhile assigning Lucca to him as a duchy; the claims of the young Napoleon to succeed his mother in Parma were only destroyed by the efforts of France and England.
Parma and Piacenza, states of the Church, he bestowed upon his natural son Pier Luigi (1545).
It was only with reluctance that he supported the ambitious projects of Elizabeth Farnese, queen of Spain, in Italy by guaranteeing in 1729 the succession of Don Carlos to the duchies of Parma and Tuscany.
Legitimated in 1547, she was married in 1553 to Horace Farnese, second son of the duke of Parma, but her husband was killed soon afterwards at the siege of Hesdin.
The Bourbon courts of Naples and Parma followed the example of France and Spain; Clement XIII.
After the peace of Villafranca he was sent to organize the army of the Central Italian League (composed of the provisional governments of Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna), and converted it in a few months into a well-drilled body of 45, 000 men, whose function was to be ready to intervene in the papal states on the outbreak of a revolution.
This court, faithful to the practice observed by it in the preceding elections, nominated another candidate, Cadalus, bishop of Parma, who was proclaimed at the council of Basel under the name of Honorius II., marched to Rome, and for a long time jeopardized his rival's position.
He is said to have rejoiced privately over Swedish victories, and certainly it was unerring instinct which told him that the great European conflict was no longer religious but dynastic. Anti-Spanish to the core, he became the greatest papal militarist since Julius II.; but Tuscany, Modena and Venice checkmated him in his ambitious attempt to conquer the duchy of Parma.
No better fared Clement's medieval rights to Parma; nor could the sagacious and popular Benedict XIV.
Her second son, Philip, became duke of Parma.
In 1585 a severe blow was struck at the prosperity of Antwerp when Parma captured it after a long siege and sent all its Protestant citizens into exile.
As an adherent of the emperor he suffered in consequence of imperial reverses, and was forced to confirm Parma to Ottavio Farnese, the ally of France (1552).
He was educated in the Jesuit college at Parma, and showed at first a great aptitude for mathematics.
Her correspondence in cipher from thence with her English agents abroad, intercepted by Walsingham and deciphered by his secretary, gave eager encouragement to the design for a Spanish invasion of England Under the prince of Parma, - an enterprise in which she would do her utmost to make her son take part, and in case of his refusal would induce the Catholic nobles of Scotland to betray him into the hands of Philip, from whose tutelage he should be released only on her demand, or if after her death he should wish to return, nor then unless he had become a Catholic. But even these patriotic and maternal schemes to consign her child and re-consign the kingdom to the keeping of the Inquisition, incarnate in the widower of Mary Tudor, were superseded by the attraction of a conspiracy against the throne and life of Elizabeth.
This league or concordia was soon joined by other cities, among which were Milan, Parma, Padua, Verona, Piacenza and Bologna, and the allies began to build a fortress near the confluence of the Tanaro and the Bormida, which, in honour of Pope Alexander III., was called Alessandria.
In the midst of his faithful Hollanders he felt that he could still organize resistance, and stem the progress made by Spanish arms and Spanish influence under the able leadership of Alexander of Parma.
To make head, however, against the victorious advance of Parma, before whose arms all the chief towns of Brabant and Flanders, Bruges, Ghent, Brussels and lastly - after a valiant defence - Antwerp itself had fallen, it was necessary to look for the protection of a foreign ruler.
In the midst of these divided councils the important seaport of Sluis was taken by Parma.
Had Parma had a free hand, in all probability he would have crushed out the revolt and reconquered the northern Netherlands.
The army of Parma was held in readiness for the invasion of England, and the United Provinces had a respite.
After the destruction of the Armada, Parma had been occupied with campaigns on the southern frontier against the French, and the Netherlanders had been content to stand on guard against attack.
Parma, who was besieging the fort of Knodsenburg, was forced to retire with loss.
On the 8th of December 1592 Parma died, and the States 59 were delivered from their most redoubtable adversary.
This had been achieved by the military skill and statesmanlike abilities of Alexander Farnese, prince of Parma, appointed governor general on the death of Don John of Austria, on the prince of 1st of October 1578.
On Parma's death (3rd of December 1592) the archduke Ernest of Austria was appointed governorgeneral, but he died after a short tenure of office (20th of February 1 595) and was at the beginning of 1596 succeeded by his younger brother the cardinal archduke Albert.
Brescia is situated on the main railway line between Milan and Verona, and has branch railways to Iseo, Parma, Cremona and (via Rovato) to Bergamo, and steam tramways to Mantua, Soncino, Ponte Toscolano and Cardone Valtrompia.
King Charles Albert sent him in 1848 on diplomatic missions to secure the adhesion of Modena and Parma to Sardinia.
In 1731 Great Britain and Holland agreed to respect it, in return for the cession of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla to Don Carlos; but the hostility of the Bourbon powers continued, resulting in 1733 in the War of Polish Succession, the outcome of which was the acquisition of Lorraine by France, and of Naples, Sicily and the Tuscan ports by Don Carlos, while the power of the Habsburg monarchy in northern Italy was strengthened by the acquisition of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
Among other of his works may be mentioned the short stories, Junge Liebe (1878), Salle Geschichten (1880), and the novels Moschko von Parma (1880), Ein Kampf ums Recht (1882), Der Prtisident (1884), Judith Trachtenberg (1890), Der W ahrheitsucher (5894).
The only territory gained during Urban's pontificate, the duchy of Urbino, the last addition to the papal states, was acquired by reversion (1631); and in his one war, with the duke of Parma, for the district of Castro, he met defeat and humiliation (1644).
The outlook for the papacy was dark; Portugal was talking of a patriarchate; France held Avignon; Naples held Ponte Corvo and Benevento; Spain was ill-affected; Parma, defiant; Venice, aggressive; Poland meditating a restriction of the rights of the nuncio.
He suspended the public reading of the bull In Coena Domini, so obnoxious to civil authority; resumed relations with Portugal; revoked the monitorium of his predecessor against Parma.
In 1521 Parma was added to his rule, and in 1523 he was appointed viceregent of Romagna by Clement VII.
From the midst of the Franciscans who had persecuted Roger Bacon because he presumed to know more than was consistent with human humility arose John of Parma, adopting and popularizing the mystic prophecy of Joachim of Flora.
The square in front is known as the Piazza dei Cavalli, from the two bronze equestrian statues of Ranuccio (1620) and his father Alexander, prince of Parma, governor of the Netherlands (1625).
Having been occupied by the papal forces in 1512, it was in 1545 united with Parma (q.v.) to form an hereditary duchy for Pierluigi Farnese, son of Paul III.
The regent, Margaret, duchess of Parma, was replaced by the duke of Alva, who entered the Netherlands at the head of a veteran army and at once began to crush all opposition with a merciless hand.
He is the author of many miscellaneous treatises on science, music, the art of teaching the deaf and dumb, &c. But his chief work, the labour of fully twenty years, is entitled Dell' origine, progressi, e stato attuale d'ogni Letteratura (7 vols., Parma, 1782-1799).
Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, sold to a rich Genoese Gherardino Spinola, seized by John, king of Bohemia, pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them ceded to Martino della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV.
On his return to Avignon he engaged in public affairs, pleaded the cause of the Scaligers in their lawsuit with the Rossi for the lordship of Parma, and addressed two poetical epistles to Pope Benedict XII.
During the spring months of 1341 his friend Azzo di Correggio had succeeded in freeing Parma from subjugation to the Scaligers, and was laying the foundations of his own tyranny in that city.
He invited Petrarch to attend him when he made his triumphal entry at the end of May; and from this time forward for a considerable period Parma and Vaucluse were the two headquarters of the poet.
Petrarch built himself a house at Parma in the autumn of 1347.
He preferred his literary leisure at Vaucluse, at Parma, in the courts of princes, to a post which would have brought him into contact with jealous priors and have reduced him to the position of the servant of a commonwealth.
From 1824 to 1831 he was professor at Parma, but in the latter year he was compelled to escape to France, having taken part in the revolution.
It was his good fortune to be sent to rule as duke of Parma by right of his mother at the age of sixteen, and thus came under more intelligent influence than he could have found in Spain.
In 1 545 his father conferred on him the duchy of Parma and Piacenza, which likewise belonged to the Holy See, and his rule proved cruel and tyrannical.
Orazio, Pierluigi's third son, was made duke of Castro when his father became duke of Parma, and married Diane, a natural daughter of Henry II.
Ottavio had been made lord of Camerino in 1540, but he gave up that fief when his father became duke of Parma.
When, on the murder of the latter in 1547, Piacenza was occupied by the imperialists, Paul determined to make an effort to regain the city; he set aside Ottavio's claims to the succession of Parma, where he appointed a papal legate, giving him back Camerino in exchange, and then claimed Piacenza of the emperor, not for the Farnesi, but for the Church.
But Ottavio would not be put off; he attempted to seize Parma by force, and having failed, entered into negotiations with Gonzaga.
During the interregnum that followed Ottavio again tried to induce the governor of Parma to give up the city to him, but met with no better success; however, on the election of Giovan Maria Ciocchi (Julius III.) the duchy was conferred on him (1551).
This did not end his quarrel with the emperor, for Gonzaga refused to give up Piacenza and even threatened to occupy Parma, so that Ottavio was driven into the arms of France.
Julius, who was anxious to be on good terms with Charles on account of the council of Trent which was then sitting, ordered Farnese to hand Parma over to the papal authorities once more, and on his refusal hurled censures and admonitions at his head, and deprived him of his Roman fiefs, while Charles did the same with regard to those in Lombardy.
A French army came to protect Parma, war broke out, and Gonzaga at once laid siege to the city.
The French emperor had ultimately to yield to the determination of the inhabitants of central Italy, when it was backed by the arguments of the British foreign office, and Tuscany, Modena, Parma, as well as a portion of the states of the Church, were united to Piedmont.
In 1590 a plot was formed by the moderate section of the Roman Catholics of marrying her to Ranuccio, eldest son of the duke of Parma, who was descended from John of Gaunt, and of raising her with Spanish support to the throne.
On his death in 1883 it came by bequest into the possession of the family of Parma.
The range is crossed by several railways - the line from Savona to Turin (with a branch at Ceva for Acqui), that from Genoa to Ovada and Acqui, the main lines from Genoa to Novi, the junction for Turin and Milan (both of which 2 pass under the Monte dei Giovi, the ancient Mons Ioventius, by which the ancient Via Postumia ran from Genua to Dertona), and that from Spezia to Parma under the pass of La Cisa.
He again went to Rome in 780, to fetch the pallium for Archbishop Eanbald, and at Parma met Charlemagne, who persuaded him to come to his court, and gave him the possession of the great abbeys of Ferrieres and of Saint-Loup at Troyes.
In concert with her he arranged the king's marriage with Elizabeth Farnese of Parma.
In 1586 Alexander Farnese became duke of Parma by the death of his father.
But Philip's whole thoughts and energies were already directed to the preparation of an Invincible Armada for the conquest of England, and Parma was ordered to collect an enormous flotilla of transports and to keep his army concentrated and trained for the projected invasion of the island realm of Queen Elizabeth.
Thus the critical period passed by unused, and when the tempests had finally dispersed the defeated remnants of the Great Armada the Dutch had found a general, in the youthful Maurice of Nassau,worthy to be the rival in military genius even of Alexander of Parma.
Moreover, the accession to the throne of France of Henry of Navarre had altogether altered the situation of affairs, and relieved the pressure upon the Dutch by creating a diversion, and placing Parma and his army between hostile forces.
In the midst of these difficulties Parma received orders to abandon the task on which he had spent himself for so many years, and to raise the siege of Paris, which was blockaded by Henry IV.
Again in 1591, in the very midst of a campaign against Maurice of Nassau, sorely against his will, the duke of Parma was obliged to give up the engrossing struggle and march to relieve Rouen.
He was honoured by a splendid funeral at Brussels, but his body was interred at his own capital city of Parma.
Having crushed a rising at Parma and left the city in flames, Conrad restored Pope Benedict IX.
But after having tried to seize Paris (as later Rouen) by a coup-de-main, he was obliged to raise the siege in view of reinforcements sent to Mayenne by the duke of Parma.
Weimar; by that of Rivoli he united against Spain the dukes of Modena, Parma and Mantua; he signed an open alliance with The the league of Heilbronn, the United Provinces and Frwch Sweden and after these alliances military operations Thirty began, Marshal de la Force occupying the duchy of Lor Years raine.
Despite the birth of a dauphin (September 1729), which cut short the Spanish intrigues, the reconciliation was a lasting one (treaty of Seville); it led to common action in Italy, and to the installation of Spanish royalties at Parma, Piacenza, and soon after at Naples.
The disinterested peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (October 1748) had no effectual result other than that of destroying in Germany, and for the benefit of Prussia, a balance of power that had yet to be secured in Italy, despite the establishment of the Spanish prince Philip at Parma.
The peace of Amiens, which cost him Egypt, could only seem to him a temporary truce; whilst he was gradually extending his authority in Italy, the cradle of his race, by the union of Piedmont, and by his tentative plans regarding Genoa, Parma, Tuscany and Naples.
Joachim Murat (afterwards king of Naples) set up a provisional government, and by the peace of Luneville Tuscany was made a part of the Spanish dominions and erected into the kingdom of Etruria under Louis, duke of Parma (1801).
It is also connected by rail with Parma and Mantua (via Suzzara).
In 1307 it was seized by Giberto da Correggio of Parma.
In 1621 it was made the seat of a duchy, but in 1748 it was added to those of Parma and Piacenza, whose history it subsequently followed.
On the death of Philip V.s first wife Maria Louisa Gabriella of Savoy, in 1714, the king was married at once to Elizabeth Farnese of Parma, who expelled Mrne des Ursins, obtained complete control over her husband, and used her whole influence to Elizabeth drag Spain into a series of adventures in order to Farneseand obtain Italian dominions for her sons.
The new king was much under the influence of his wife, Maria Louisa of Parma, a coarse, passionate and narrow-minded woman; but he continued to repose confidence in his fathers ministers.
The treatment of the duke of Parma by the Directory was keenly resented by the queen.
Maria Louisa was easily gainec over by playing on her devotion to the house of Parma, and or the 1st of October 1800 a secret treaty was concluded at Sar Ildefonso.
The French revolution of 1830 had its echo in Italy, and Carbonarism raised its head in Parma, Modena and Romagna the following year.
At Parma the duchess, having rejected the demand for a constitution, left the city and returned under Austrian protection.
The emperor's power seemed more firmly established than ever, when suddenly the news reached him that Parma, a stronghold of the imperial authority in the north, had been surprised, while the garrison was off its guard, by the Guelphs.
The siege, however, was protracted, and finally, in February 1248, during the absence of the emperor on a hunting expedition, was brought to an end by a sudden sortie of the men of Parma, who stormed the imperial camp. The disaster was complete.
Iselin (Basel, 1740); and Salimbene of Parma's Chronik, published at Parma (1857).
Sachets, Bizocchi, Flagellants, &c. The order of the Apostles was founded about 1260 by a young workman from the environs of Parma, Gerard Segarelli, who had sought admission unsuccessfully to the Franciscan order.
To make his life conform to that of Christ, his contemporaries say that he had himself circumcised, wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a cradle, and that he then, clad in a white robe and bare-footed, walked through the streets of Parma crying "Penitenz agite!"
Opizo, bishop of Parma, protected them until they caused trouble in his diocese.
Four were burned in 1294, and Segarelli, as a relapsed heretic, went to the stake at Parma in 1300.
During the two critical years which followed the withdrawal of Leicester, it was the statesmanship of the advocate which kept the United Provinces from falling asunder through their own inherent separatist tendencies, and prevented them from becoming an easy conquest to the formidable army of Alexander of Parma.
Another work of Accolti's- De Praestantia Virorum sui Aevi - was published at Parma in 1689.
They are found chiefly in north Italy, in the valley of the Po, round Modena, Mantua and Parma.
A summary of early results as to these mounds was published by Munro (Lake Dwellings) in 1890, but scientific investigation really began only with the excavation of the terramara at Castellazzo di Fontanellato (province of Parma) in 1889.
My husband had avocado pear with parma ham - which he said was wonderful - followed by boeuf bourguignon with vegetables which he enjoyed.
Parma ham, delicious with green figs, is also good for providing instant energy.
It came wrapped in Parma ham having been squashed into a tight circle in a ring mold.
Parma, of course, is home to Parmigiano Reggiano cheese as well as the fine Parma prosciutto ham.
The smart restaurant serves fantastic tapas dishes throughout the day - including Parma ham crisps, crayfish tails and baby octopus.
At full strength the nose is subtle but interesting with vanilla, toffee bonbons, peat smoke and faint Parma violets.
He then returned to Padua, where, and subsequently at Parma.
The pope in October signed an agreement binding him to withdraw his troops from Parma and Piacenza, which had been previously gained at the expense of the duchy of Milan, on condition of French protection at Rome and Florence.
Milan and Genoa were to be taken from France and restored to the Empire, and Parma and Piacenza were to be given to the Church on the expulsion of the French.
In 1588 it was successfully defended against the duke of Parma by an English and Dutch garrison commanded by Colonel Morgan, and in 1605 it was suddenly attacked by Du Terail.
Parma became a Roman colony of 2000 colonists in 183 B.C., four years after the construction of the Via Aemilia, on which it lay.
The duchy of Parma in 1849 had an area of 2376 sq.
He was one of the leaders of the league of nobles who signed the document known as "the Compromise" in 1566, and a little later was a member of the deputation who presented the petition of grievances called "the Request" to the regent, Margaret of Parma.
All we know for certain is that1 at this epoch, Rome attempts to ruin Tivoli, and Venice Pisa; Milan fights with Cremona, Cremona with Crema, Pavia with Verona, Verona with Padua, Piacenza with Parma, Modena and Reggio with Bologna, Bologna and Faenza with Ravenna and Imola, Florence and Pisa with Lucca and Siena, and so on through the whole list of cities.
On the 11th the two emperors met at Villafranca, where they agreed that Lombardy should be ceded to Piedmont, and Venetia retained by Austria but governed by Liberal methods; that the rulers of Tuscany, Parma and Modena, who had been again deposed, should be restored, the Papal States reformed, the Legations given a separate administration and the pope made president of an Italian confederation including Austria as mistress of Venetia.
Farini, who in August was elected dictator of Parma as well as Modena, and Ricasoli, who since, on the withdrawal of the Sardinian commissioner Boncompagni, had become supreme in Tuscany, were now the men who by their energy and determination achieved the annexation of central Italy to Piedmont, in spite of the strenuous opposition of the French emperor and the weakness of many Italian Liberals.
In central Italy the influence of the First Consul was paramount; for in 1801 he transformed the grand duchy of Tuscany into the kingdom of Etruria for the duke of Parma; and, seeing that that promotion added lustre to the fortunes of the duchess of Parma (a Spanish infanta), Spain consented lamely enough to the cession of Louisiana to France.
Many of their fiefs he seized for himself, and he was implicated in the murder of Pier Luigi Farnese, duke of Parma (see Farnese), who had helped Fiesco.
In military ability the prince of Parma was inferior to none of his contemporaries, as a skilful diplomatist he was the match even of his great antagonist William the Silent, and, like most of the leading statesmen of his day, was unscrupulous as to the means he employed so long as he achieved his ends.
Leo X., Julius II.s successor, by an astute volte-face exchanged Parma and the Concordat for a guarantee of all the Churchs possessiOns, which meant the defeat of French plans (1515).
At the same time the Directory, whose mistrust was excited by his attitude in the question of Parma, insisted upon his dismissal.
It 's going to go well with parma ham, saucisson sec, ardene pate and fresh white chunks of bread coated in butter.
At full strength the nose is subtle but interesting with vanilla, toffee bonbons, peat smoke and faint parma violets.
Parmigiano Reggiano is produced in the provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia, and Modena, Italy.
In addition to the clear lead crystal, this beautiful piece also is available in striking parma violet and rich ruby red.
Leo was now anxious to unite Ferrara, Parma and Piacenza to the States of the Church.
Leo at once announced that he would excommunicate the king of France and release his subjects from their allegiance unless Francis laid down his arms and surrendered Parma and Piacenza.