Parliamentary Sentence Examples
It had become a parliamentary borough in 1832.
The system of parliamentary procedures can sometimes make the process less efficient.
Once the parliamentary election was completed, the decision was made for the next party leader.
Shaftesbury was the first great party leader in the modern sense, and the founder of modern parliamentary oratory.
He declared, when answering a complaint that a certain captain in his regiment was a better preacher than fighter, that he who prayed best would fight best, and that he knew nothing could" give the like courage and confidence as the knowledge of God in Christ will."The superiority of these men - more intelligent than the common soldiers, better disciplined, better trained, better armed, excellent horsemen and fighting for a great cause - not only over the other parliamentary troops but over the royalists, was soon observed in battle.Advertisement
At the decisive battle of Naseby (the 14th of June 1645) he commanded the parliamentary right wing and routed the cavalry of Sir Marmaduke Lang exclusion from pardon of all the king's leading adherents, besides the indefinite establishment of Presbyterianism and the refusal of toleration to the Roman Catholics and members of the Church of England.
He had neither the patience nor the tact for managing loquacious parliamentary pedants.
The franchise is somewhat wider than the parliamentary.
In Piedmont the Pinelli-Revel ministry, which had continued the negotiations for an alliance with Leopold and the pope, resigned as it could not count on a parliamentary majority, and in December the returned exile Gioberti formed a new ministry.
The parliamentary opposition to the impost, which the Left denounced as the tax on hunger, was largely factitious.Advertisement
In spite of the courage and presence of mind of Cairoli, who received the dagger thrust intended for the king, public and parliamentary indignation found expression in a vote which compelled the ministry to resign.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
Depretis and his colleague Genala, minister of public works, experienced great difficulty in securing parliamentary sanction for the conventions, not so much on account of their defective character, as from the opposition of local interests anxious tc extort new lines from the government.
The practical annihilation of the old Right in the elections of 1876 opened a new parliamentary era.
Though Depretis, at the end of his life in 1887, showed signs of repenting of the confusion thus created, he had established a parliamentary system destined largely to sterilize and vitiate the political life of Italy.Advertisement
For a time Giolitti successfully opposed inquiry into the conditions of the state banks, but on the 21st of March was compelled to sanction an official investigation by a parliamentary commission composed of seven members.
After being subjected to persecution for nearly two years, Crispis character was substantially vindicated by the report of a parliamentary commission appointed to inquire into his relations with Favilla.
In view of the violence of Extremist obstruction, an effort was made to reform the standing orders of the Lower House, but parliamentary feeling ran so high that General Pelloux thought it expedient to appeal to the country.
In parliamentary politics the most notable event in 1902 was the presentation of a divorce bill by Signor Zanardellis government; this was done not because there was any real demand for it, but to please the doctrinaire 1902.
But while the majority of the deputies, were nominally in favor of the bill, the parliamentary committee reported against it, and public opinion was so hostile that an anti-divorce petition received 3,500,000 signatures, including not only those of professing Catholics, but of free-thinkers and Jews, who regarded divorce as unsuitable to Italian conditions.Advertisement
At the general parliamentary elections of 1904 a few Catholics had been elected as such, and the encyclical of the 11th of June 1905 On the political organization of the Catholics, practically abolished the non erpedit.
Friern Barnet, in the Enfield parliamentary division of Middlesex, lies 3 m.
Rhayader constituted one of the group of boroughs comprising the Radnor parliamentary district until the Redistribution Act of 1885.
For several years Wakefield continued to direct the New Zealand Company, fighting its battles with the colonial office and the missionary interest, and secretly inspiring and guiding many parliamentary committees on colonial subjects, especially on the abolition of transportation.
Inverurie belongs to the Elgin district group of parliamentary burghs.Advertisement
Not that the regime in Russia had become in any true sense constitutional, far less parliamentary; but the " unlimited autocracy " had given place to a " self-limited autocracy," whether permanently so limited, or only at the discretion of the autocrat, remaining a subject of heated controversy between conflicting parties in the state.
The reformers of the previous reign had sought to make the new local administration (zemstvo) a system of genuine rural self-government and a basis for future parliamentary institutions; these later conservatives transformed it into a mere branch of the ordinary state administration, and took precautions against its ever assuming a political character.
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
In 1904 he was elected to the post of national organizer of the Typographical Association and was chosen as its parliamentary representative.
When the Labour party joined the Coalition movement in 1915 he became a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury; he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade 1916-7; Minister of Labour, 1917-8; Food Controller, Jan.
From 1889 to 1892 he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade in the Conservative Government, and from 1895 to 1903 (when he resigned as a Free Trader opposed to tariff reform) Secretary for Scotland.
Not that the mere laying or working of a railway requires parliamentary sanction, so long as the work does not interfere with other people's rights and interests.
But though by an act of 1844 the railways were obliged to run at least one train a day over their lines, by which the fares did not exceed the " Parliamentary " rate of id.
A word only is necessary on his parliamentary career.
He supported the parliamentary as against the republican or army party, and appears to have been one of the members excluded in 1648.
In 1921 he was chosen chairman of the parliamentary Labour party.
Bermondsey is in the parliamentary borough of Southwark, including the whole of Rotherhithe and part of the Bermondsey division.
He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Count Bennigsen, a member of the same family, and son of the distinguished Russian general, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time.
For the next thirty years he was president of the party, and was the most influential of the parliamentary leaders.
In March 1646 a cessation of hostilities was arranged between Ormonde and the Catholics; and O'Neill, furnished with supplies by the papal nuncio, Rinuccini, turned against the Scottish parliamentary army under General Monro, who had been operating with fluctuating success in Ireland since April 1642.
In the other half of the monarchy (the so-called Cisleithan) this was not possible, and the authority and influence of the emperor were even increased by the contrast with the weaknesses and failures of the parliamentary system.
Forres is one of the Inverness district group of parliamentary burghs, the other members being Nairn, Fortrose and Inverness.
But he continued to play an active and in fact dominant part in Parliamentary politics, for the majority of the Chamber and of the Senate being thoroughly Giolittian, the Sonnino Ministry and that of Sig.
When the World War broke out his attitude was favourable to the absolute neutrality of Italy, believing that his country's interests lay in not siding with either group of belligerents, and on the eve of Italian intervention he made an attempt, by using his personal hold over the Parliamentary majority, to upset the Salandra Cabinet, but it was frustrated by an uprising of public opinion in favour of war.
The town, though frequently the centre for medieval assizes and inquisitions, never became a municipal or parliamentary borough, but was governed by two constables, elected in the manorial court.
The town suffered severely during the civil wars, the castle being besieged by the parliamentary forces in 1642 and 1645.
Finally the city of London - not only as the converted champion of religious liberty but as the convinced apologist of the Jews - sent Baron Lionel de Rothschild to knock at the door of the unconverted House of Commons as parliamentary representative of the first city in the world " (Wolf, loc. cit.).
In 1830 the first Jewish emancipation bill was brought in by Robert Grant, but it was not till the legislation of 1858-1860 that Jews obtained full parliamentary rights.
In Austria, as in Germany, anti-Semitism is a factor in the parliamentary elections.
The supreme responsibility for this act must rest with the emperor, "who imposed it by an exercise of personal power on the only one cf his ministers who could have lent himself to such a forgetfulness of the safeguards of a parliamentary regime."
As for Gramont, he had "no conception of the exigencies of this regime; he remained an ambassador accustomed to obey the orders of his sovereign; in all good faith he had no idea that this was not correct, and that, himself a parliamentary minister, he had associated himself with an act destructive of the authority of parliament."
A parliamentary regime was thus inaugurated, and party warfare for a time took the place of the old religious antagonism, the Moslems attaching themselves to one or other of the political factions which now made their appearance among the Christians.
The municipal borough includes the western and part of the Bermondsey divisions of the parliamentary borough of Southwark, and the borough of Newington, divided into the western and Walworth divisions; each division returning one member.
He was weak, vacillating and ineffective as a politician, lacking in judgment and decision, and without any great parliamentary talent.
The indignation with which the queen repelled the idea may have made him think of the duke of Orleans as a possible constitutional king, because his title would of necessity be parliamentary.
The wild excesses of his youth and their terrible punishment had weakened his strong constitution, and his parliamentary labours completed the work.
It was rather parliamentary oratory in which he excelled, and his true compeers are rather Burke and Fox than any French speakers.
Clarendon esteemed his influence on the parliamentary side greater than that of Laud on the royalist.
He represented the English Parliament in Scotland in 1643, and attended the parliamentary commissions at the Uxbridge Conference in 1645.
As a parliamentary burgh Dumfries includes Maxwelltown, on the opposite side of the river, which otherwise belongs to Kirkcudbrightshire.
The parliamentary divisions of the county are High Peak, North-Eastern, Chesterfield, Mid, Ilkeston, Southern and Western, each returning one member, while the parliamentary borough of Derby returns two members.
Another outlet was opened up for him (April 1824) by the starting of the Westminster Review, and still another in the following year in the Parliamentary History and Review.
He had become convinced that his comrades in the Utilitarian Society, never more than ten, had not the stuff in them for a world-shaking propaganda; the society itself was dissolved; the Parliamentary Review was a failure; the Westminster did not pay its expenses; Bentham's Judicial Evidence produced little effect on the reviewers.
He then turned to politics, and published, in view of the impending Reform Bill, a pamphlet on parliamentary reform.
In 1865 he agreed to stand as parliamentary candidate for Westminster, on conditions strictly in accordance with his principles.
His parliamentary duties and the quantity of correspondence brought upon him by increased publicity had absorbed nearly the whole of his time.
The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations - on endowments, on land, on labour, on metaphysical and psychological questions - were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career.
The bishops' Interpretations and Further Considerations, issued in 1560, tolerated a lower vestiarian standard than was prescribed by the rubric of 1559; the Advertisements, which Parker published in 1566, to check the Puritan descent, had to appear without specific royal sanction; and the Reformatio legum ecclesiasticarum, which Foxe published with Parker's approval, received neither royal, parliamentary nor synodical authorization.
In any case exile, and death in the prisons of Cayenne, now awaited the timid champions of law and order; while parliamentary rule sustained a shock from which it never recovered.
Within the space of ten and a half years from the summoning of the States-General at Versailles (May 1789), parliamentary government fell beneath the sword.
But when he left parliamentary affairs behind, and took the field, he showed nearly all the power both of initiative and of endurance which marked his masterpiece, the campaign of 1814.
John fortified it against Louis of France in 1216, and during the civil wars it was the scene of much fighting, being stormed by the parliamentary forces in 1644.
If British civil and parliamentary systems were to be brought to the challenge of force, he could only say " Let us go forward together and put these grave matters to the proof."
In 1885 the urban sanitary district was erected into a parliamentary borough, returning two members for the northern and southern divisions respectively.
Kinghorn belongs 'to the Kirkcaldy district group of parliamentary burghs.
This, the longest of his works, added much to existing knowledge, especially as to the relations between England and the continent, but it lacked something of the freshness of his earlier books; he was over seventy when it was completed, and he was never quite at home in dealing with the parliamentary foundations of English public life.
It was chiefly owing to his skill and courage as a parliamentary debater and his tact as a leader that the party held its own and constantly increased in numbers during the great struggle with the Prussian government.
His sympathies were at first with the parliamentary party.
It has never enjoyed independent parliamentary representation.
He was called to the Scottish bar in 1857, and in 1871 was appointed parliamentary draughtsman for Scotland.
At the end of his term he became a judge of the peace, but after the parliamentary coup d'etat of the 3 oth of Prairial of the year VIII.
The parliamentary borough (falling within the south-east county division) returns one member.
The parliamentary borough, falling within the Osgoldcross division of the county, returns one member (before 1885 the number was two).
The African Company, however, continued to exist, and obtained from time to time large parliamentary grants.
His parliamentary career was marked by the same wide and candid liberalism as his private life.
In the midst of the attractions of London society and of his parliamentary avocations Mackintosh felt that the real work of his life was being neglected.
The dissertation, written mostly in ill-health and in snatches of time taken from his parliamentary engagements, was published in 1831.
Almost immediately after the budget was drawn up a change of government took place, and largely owing to this fact the parliamentary budget commission introduced various modifications on the expenditure side of the account, which increased the estimated deficit to the account just mentioned.'
On the 5th of August 1909 the new constitution described above was be obtained from parliamentary papers.
In 1905 he entered Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's Government as parliamentary secretary to the Local Government Board.
The ordinary use of "hustings" at the present day for the platform from which a candidate speaks at a parliamentary or other election, or more widely for a political candidate's election campaign, is derived from the application of the word, first to the platform in the Guildhall on which the London court was held, and next to that from which the public nomination of candidates for a parliamentary election was formerly made, and from which the candidate addressed the electors.
He preached before the Commons in 1642, but his sermon gave offence, and when in 1647 he took a prominent part in resisting the parliamentary visitation of Oxford University he was deprived of his canonry and living.
The town suffered severely during the Civil War, being garrisoned by the parliamentary troops in 1642, taken by the earl of Carnarvon in 1643, and surrendered in the following year.
Finally, when Austria had been excluded from the new empire, he replied to the parliamentary deputation that came to offer him the imperial crown that he might have accepted it had it been freely offered to him by the German princes, but that he would never stoop "to pick up a crown out of the gutter."
He served in the parliamentary army, and in 1647 was admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn.
Carmarthen was created a parliamentary borough in 1536.
To the three named should be added the Calton burying-ground, with its Roman tomb of David Hume, and the obelisk raised in 1844 to the memory of Maurice Margarot, Thomas Muir (1765-1798), Thomas Fyshe Palmer (1747-1802), William Skirving and Joseph Gerrald (1765-1796), the political martyrs transported towards the end of the 18th century for advocating parliamentary reform.
By the Redistribution Act of 1885 the city was divided for parliamentary purposes into East, West, Central and South Edinburgh, each returning one member; the parliamentary and municipal boundaries are almost identical.
Stockdale sued the Commons' publisher, and was met by the plea of parliamentary privilege, to which, however, the judges did not give effect, on the ground that they were entitled to define the privileges of the Commons, and that publication of papers was not essential to the functions of parliament.
He protests against Peel's Income Tax Bill of 1842; against the Aberdeen Act 1843, as conferring undue power on church courts; against the perpetuation of diocesan courts for probate and administration; against Lord Stanley's absurd bill providing compensation for the destruction of fences to dispossessed Irish tenants; and against the Parliamentary Proceedings Bill, which proposed that all bills, except money bills, having reached a certain stage or having passed one House, should be continued to next session.
Nor was it long before his fitness for parliamentary life was recognized by his friends.
He at once became very popular with the students, but his political opinions made it impossible for the Saxon government to appoint him to a professorship. He was at that time a strong Liberal; he hoped to see Germany united into a single state with a parliamentary government, and that all the smaller states would be swept away.
One of them, Facts Addressed to Landholders, &c. (1780), written by Horne in conjunction with others, criticizing the measures of Lord North's ministry, passed through numerous editions; the other, A Letter on Parliamentary Reform (1782), addressed by him to Dunning, set out a scheme of reform, which he afterwards withdrew in favour of that advocated by Pitt.
The breed has, however, been since improved by government action, the establishment of state studs supported since 1867 by annual parliamentary grants, and the importation especially of English stock.
His successor, Kalman Szell, obtained an immense but artificial Szell, majority by a fresh fusion of parties, and the minority pledged itself to grant an indemnity for the extra parliamentary financial decrees rendered necessary by Hungary's understanding with Austria, as well as to cease from obstruction.
No sooner was political life thus resumed than all the Slovene, Croat and Serb deputies of Austria united to form a " Yugoslav parliamentary Club," which entered into close alliance with the Czech Club.
After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."
But Pasic, free from the restraints of a coalition and from all parliamentary control, had reverted to his original pan-Serb standpoint, and steadily declined to reconstruct his Cabinet on a wider Yugoslav basis.
Under his weaker but more neutral guidance, and aided by the unifying force of the Adriatic crisis, the parties reached agreement upon a new parliamentary franchise, based on universal suffrage.
The parliamentary borough of Marylebone has east and west divisions, each returning one member.
Tipperary, Ireland, in the east parliamentary division, on the north (left) bank of the Suir, 144 m.
The parliamentary borough of Bethnal Green has two divisions, each returning one member.
For parliamentary purposes the districts are divided into single member constituencies.
For parliamentary purposes the province is divided into singlemember constituencies.
With Burntisland and Kinghorn Dysart forms one of the Kirkcaldy district group of parliamentary burghs.
A parliamentary commission, appointed to inquire into the charges against him, discovered only that Crispi, on assuming office in 1893, had found the secret service coffers empty, and had borrowed from a state bank the sum of £12,00o for secret service, repaying it with the monthly instalments granted in regular course by the treasury.
Finding that his brother had procured his election for the county of Kildare, and desiring to maintain political independence, Lord Edward refused the command of an expedition against Cadiz offered him by Pitt, and devoted himself for the next few years to the pleasures of society and his parliamentary duties.
It lies on the Nith, opposite to Dumfries, with which it is connected by three bridges, being united with it for parliamentary purposes.
In 1906 the London County Council obtained parliamentary sanction for the erection of a county hall on the south bank of the Thames, immediately east of Westminster Bridge, and in 1908 a design submitted by Mr Ralph Knott was accepted in competition.
The London Government Act contains a saving clause by which " nothing in or done under this act shall be construed as altering the limits of any parliamentary borough or parliamentary county."
The parliamentary boroughs are thus in many cases named and bounded differently from the metropolitan boroughs.
The parliamentary arrangements of each metropolitan borough are indicated in the separate articles on the boroughs.
A detached portion of the parliamentary division of Hornsey, Middlesex, is in the metropolitan borough of Hackney.
Part of the Wimbledon parliamentary division of Surrey is in the metropolitan borough of Wandsworth.
He voted with the Orleanists the "Constitutional Laws" of 1875, and approved of MacMahon's parliamentary coup d'etat on the 16th of May 1877.
It is included in the county Mayo, in the western parliamentary division.
Neath is included in the Swansea parliamentary district of boroughs.
In 1648 the Parliamentary forces besieged Millom Castle, and early in the 19th century its park was converted into farmland.
Prynne took the side of the parliament against the army in 1647, supported the cause of the eleven impeached members, and visited the university of Oxford as one of the parliamentary commissioners.
In 1662 there appeared also the Brevia parliamentaria rediviva, possibly a portion of the Brief Register of Parliamentary Writs, of which the fourth and concluding volume was published in 1664.
Kirkwall belongs to the Wick district group of parliamentary burghs, the others being Cromarty, Dingwall, Dornoch and Tain.
The town returned a member to parliament from 1536 to 1728, was again enfranchised in 1832, and now (with Llanfyllin, Llanidloes, Montgomery, Machynlleth and Newtown) forms the Montgomery district of parliamentary boroughs.
The counter at London, first called the Steelyard in a parliamentary petition of 142 2, claimed jurisdiction over the other factories in England.
Fuentes, an able statistician and the author of the Estadistica de Linta, has also written a manual of parliamentary practice.
In the preface to it he took occasion to express his approval of Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat of the 2nd of December, - " a fortunate crisis which has set aside the parliamentary system and instituted a dictatorial republic."
These were gradually retired, however, through the efforts of the mercantile classes, aided by the parliamentary statutes of 1751 and 1763, and by about 1763 the finances were again placed on a sound money basis.
The union of Portsmouth and Newport, March 12, 1640, was followed by the consolidation of all four settlements, May 19, 1647, under a patent of March 14, 1644, issued by the parliamentary board of commissioners for plantations.
In the following September he was suddenly recalled to England, to undertake his first parliamentary campaign.
Released from the labours of office, Gladstone, living in chambers in the Albany, practically divided his time between his parliamentary duties and study.
Simply on the strength of his parliamentary reputation Gladstone was nominated, without his consent, for Manchester, and was placed at the bottom of the poll; but, having been at the same time nominated at Newark, was again returned.
An inevitable change is from this time to be traced in the topics of Gladstone's parliamentary speaking.
It is true that he was sometimes forced by conviction or fate or political necessity to be a revolutionist on a large scale; to destroy an established Church; to add two millions of voters to the electorate; to attack the parliamentary union of the kingdoms. But these changes were, in their inception, distasteful to their author.
Tipperary, Ireland, in the south parliamentary division, beautifully situated on the river Suir at the foot of the Galtee Mountains.
In 1642 it was garrisoned for Charles I., but two years later surrendered to the parliamentary forces.
In 1768 Lord Holland bought the pocket borough of Midhurst for him, and he entered on his parliamentary career, and on London society, in 1769.
He became a strong advocate for parliamentary reform.
The remainder of his life may be divided into four portions - his opposition to Pitt during the session of 1784; his parliamentary activity till his secession in 1797; his retirement till 1800; his return to activity and his short tenure of office before his death in 1806.
A study of his reign shows that this method was unsuccessful, and that his affairs went most smoothly when the parliamentary majority held the same views as the ministry.
He was chosen speaker of the House in 1869 and served three terms. The House was the fit arena for his political and parliamentary ability.
He was one of the earliest of English parliamentary orators; his speeches greatly impressed his contemporaries, and in a later generation, as Macaulay observes, they were "a favourite theme of old men who lived to see the conflicts of Walpole and Pulteney."
Though his fame has become dimmed in comparison with that of Shaftesbury, Russell and Sidney, he was not less conspicuous in the parliamentary proceedings of Charles II.'s reign, and he left a more permanent mark than any of them on the constitutional changes of the period.
Asquith, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, as his parliamentary secretary, and continued in that position when his chief succeeded to the premiership. Early in 'giro he was appointed Under-Secretary for India, at a time when Lord Morley's tenure of the Secretaryship of State for India was drawing to a close.
The New Forest gives name to a parliamentary division of the county.
Dunbar used to form one of the Haddington district group of parliamentary burghs, but its constituency was merged in that of the county in 1885.
The departments of the Foreign Office are the African, American, commercial and sanitary, consular, eastern (Europe), far eastern, western (Europe), parliamentary, financial, librarian and keeper of the papers, treaties and registry.
The salary of the secretary for foreign affairs is £s000 per annum, that of the permanent under-secretary £2000, the parliamentary under-secretary and the first assistant under-secretary, £150o,.
Unfortunately, his health was so treacherous that, on the dissolution of July 1698, he was obliged to retire from parliamentary life.
Parliamentary powers were obtained to construct a graving dock capable of accommodating the largest class of warships.
It is divided into four parliamentary divisions north, south, east and west, each returning one member.
His family seems to have been strongly Puritan and was related to many of those Buckinghamshire families who were prominent in the parliamentary party.
At the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the parliamentary army as a volunteer in the artillery, a branch of the service with which he was constantly and honourably associated.
On the 26th of July a mob invaded the House of Commons and obliged it to rescind the ordinance re-establishing the old parliamentary committee of militia; Lenthall was held in the chair by main force and compelled to put to the vote a resolution inviting the king to London.
Shortly afterwards he accompanied Lord Hopton, general of the king's troops in the west, in his march; and, being laid up with illness at Arundel Castle, he was there taken prisoner by the parliamentary forces under Sir William Waller.
The attempt to reduce the brigand-soldiery, and especially the ordinances passed by the estates of Languedoil at Orleans in 1439, which not only gave the king an aid of ioo,000 francs (an act which was later used by the king as though it were a perpetual grant and so freed him from that parliamentary control of the purse so important in England), but demanded as well royal nominations to officerships in the army, marked a gain in the royal prerogative which the nobility resolved to challenge.
On the other hand, it was Tirpitz who not only conducted the practical advocacy of these schemes in the Reichstag, but also organized the service of propaganda in the German press and on the platform, putting popular pressure on the parliamentary representatives of the nation and constraining them to agree to the enormous expenditure which these schemes entailed.
This association offered a vigorous opposition to the movement, which succeeded only when it was too late, for obtaining alterations in the constitution limiting the power of the Emperor and laying the foundations of real parliamentary government in the Empire and in Prussia.
In 1793 he supported Grey's motion for a return to the old constitutional system of representation, and so earned the title to be regarded as one of the earliest promoters of the cause of parliamentary reform; and he was one of the founders of the "Society of the Friends of the People."
He adapted himself early to parliamentary conditions.
Deficiencies are made good by parliamentary grants.
In 1775 Port Glasgow was created a burgh of barony and since 1832 has formed one of the Kilmarnock parliamentary burghs (with Kilmarnock, Dumbarton, Renfrew and Rutherglen).
He began his parliamentary career as deputy for Civitavecchia in 1886, sitting on the Right, but he resigned his seat in 1897, having been appointed prefect of Perugia; three years later he went to Naples in a similar capacity, and in 1902 he was raised to the Senate.
Aberystwyth was a contributory parliamentary borough until 1885, when its representation was merged in that of the county.
A parliamentary majority was now secured for the minister's policy by bribery and threats, and with the aid of Henry Fox, who deserted his party to become leader of the Commons.
During the Civil War Melton was in February 1644 the scene of a defeat of the parliamentary forces by the royalists.
He became a member of the parliamentary committee of the Trades Union Congress in 1894.
Parliamentary representation began in 1298, and the town continued to return two members until 1832.
After failing in 1883, they obtained parliamentary powers for this purpose in 1884, and the first sod of the new dock at Barry was cut in November of that year.
Simultaneously a parliamentary commission of inquiry investigated the condition of the state banks.
But by keeping in the background and giving public opinion time to forget his past, as well as by parliamentary intrigue, he gradually regained much of his former influence.
He was allowed to return to France in 1819, but took no further active part in politics, although he presented himself unsuccessfully for parliamentary election in 1824 and 1827.
On the outbreak of the Civil War, after visiting Conway in the Royalist interest, he joined the king at Oxford; he then returned to Wales, and finding that Sir John Owen, acting on Charles's orders, had seized certain property in Conway Castle that had been deposited with the archbishop for safe-keeping, he went over to the Parliamentary side and assisted in the recapture of Conway Castle in November 1646.
The hope had been general that the Committee would cease their activities when once parliamentary government was established; but the hope remained unfulfilled.
Executive administration is conducted on the principle of English responsible or parliamentary government.
In 1852 the mother-country granted self-government, and, after much wrangling and hesitation, a full parliamentary system and a responsible ministry were set going in 1856.
During the first three or four years he spoke little, but devoted himself with assiduity to mastering parliamentary forms and the business of the house.
The Landesausschuss, a constitutional body with parliamentary privileges, consists of 58 members, 34 being appointed out of their number by the various district councils (Bezirkstage), 4 by the large towns, and 20 by the rural districts.
For parliamentary purposes the province is divided into single-member constituencies.
The provincial council consists of 25 members (each representing a separate constituency) elected by the parliamentary voters and has a statutory existence of three years.
The board of trade thus became a mere name, the president being practically the secretary of state for trade, and the vicepresident became, in 1867, a parliamentary secretary, with similar duties to those of a parliamentary under-secretary of state.
At present, besides the president, who has usually a seat in the cabinet,' and whose salary is 5000 a year, there is a parliamentary secretary with a salary of 1200, a permanent secretary (salary X1500, rising to £1800), and four assistant secretaries (each with a salary of i 200) for the harbour, marine, commercial, labour and statistical, and railway departments.
Previously to 1885 it formed part of the parliamentary borough of Stoke, but it is now included in that of Hanley.
The Austrian Government being largely dependent upon the parliamentary aid of the Poles, could not stand out against them much on account of the far-reaching autonomy of the Galician Territorial Government.
In spite of this, the calculation was defeated; for in Europe every true democracy at once becomes national, and hence the national problem infected the working-classes so soon as they won parliamentary power; the " International " split up into national groups, just as the bourgeoisie had done before it.
The reason for this was that every party had cause to fear parliamentary oppression at the hands of other nationalities, and this was why it was long impossible to reconcile the principal parties in the House to any effective remedy.
There was no law regulating the question of what language was to be used in parliamentary debates.
But the freedom of parliamentary activity did not last for long.
By means of this coalition the Ministry succeeded, indeed, in passing the military service reforms on April 24 1911 (reduction of the three years' service to two years, combined with an increase in the contingent of recruits); but this completely exhausted its parliamentary strength, and the first parliamentary suffrage Parliament ended with but poor results in the midst of unsolved national problems.
In Vienna especially they lost every seat at one blow, by which means Weisskirchuer found himself deprived of all parliamentary support.
The question was repeatedly raised as to why the prime minister did not take advantage of this patriotic spirit to obtain a corresponding parliamentary demonstration; but it had surprised him, as it had many, and he shrank from the serious responsibility which would have resulted if the experiment had turned out badly; the aged Emperor's need of quiet, and the conviction that the Reichsrat, if summoned ad hoc, would, as for so long before, be of no active use, also played their part.
The hope of achieving parliamentary cooperation on the basis of such loyal declarations as these soon vanished.
On his return he took strong parliamentary measures against Presbyterians, and consequently, at a provincial synod held at St Andrews in April 1586, he was accused of heresy and excommunicated, but at the next General Assembly the sentence was remitted as illegal.
An instance of this interference with the duties of the individual citizen towards the state may be found in the fact that, till the year 1904, the Catholics of Italy were prohibited by the pope from taking part in any parliamentary election.
But the royal lovers still had some parliamentary mortifications to undergo.
In foreign imperial affairs, and in the adjustment of serious parliamentary difficulties, the queen's dynastic influence abroad and her position as above party at home, together with the respect due to her character, good sense and experience, still remained a powerful element in the British polity, as was shown Austro- on more than one occasion.
The county (extra-metropolitan) is divided into 8 parliamentary divisions, namely, North-western or Dartford, Western or Sevenoaks, South-western or Tunbridge, Mid or Medway, North-eastern or Faversham, Southern or Ashford, Eastern or St Augustine's and the Isle of Thanet, each returning one member; while the boroughs of Canterbury, Chatham, Dover, Gravesend, Hythe, Maidstone and Rochester each return one member.
Stoke-upon-Trent became the railway centre and head of the parliamentary borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, comprising the whole of the Staffordshire Potteries, which was created by the Reform Bill of 1832.
Joseph at once left Rome, which soon became a republic. Repairing to Paris, he entered on parliamentary life, becoming one of the members for Corsica in the Council of Five Hundred.
Napoleon having by his help triumphed over parliamentary institutions in France, Lucien's suspicion of his brother became a dominant feeling; and the relations between them became strained during the period of the consulate (1799-1804).
Here they were detained by the Parliamentary commissioners, and by them sent up to London for safe custody.
Whether this was intended by Sidney or no, it is certain that from this time he ardently attached himself to the Parliamentary cause.
He returned to England in the autumn, and henceforward took an active share in parliamentary work.
Stoke Newington is partly in the north division of the parliamentary borough of Hackney, but the district of South Hornsey, included in the municipal borough, is in the Hornsey division of Middlesex.
The parliamentary borough of Islington has north, south, east and west divisions, each returning one member.
It is divided into north, mid, east and south parliamentary divisions, each returning one member.
Its members, 236 in number, were selected from all the different political parties in proportion to their strength as shown by the last parliamentary election previous to the war.
At Prague there sits also an electoral court which decides upon the validity of disputed elections or forfeiture of seats and other questions relating to parliamentary or elected bodies.
His next publications also were on economic or political subjects, Rationale of Political Representation (1835), and Money and its Vicissitudes (1837), now practically forgotton; about the same time also appeared some of his pamphlets, Discussion of Parliamentary Reform, Right of Primogeniture Examined, Defence of Joint-Stock Banks.
The town belongs to the Wick district group of parliamentary burghs.
When parliamentary duties called Castlereagh home in.
The parliamentary borough includes the adjacent municipal borough of Batley, and returns one member.
After he left America his life was attainted, and his property, valued at £40,000, was confiscated by the Pennsylvania Assembly, a loss for which he received a partial recompense in the form of a small parliamentary pension.
It was taken by the Royalists in 1643, but after the victory of Marston Moor was yielded to a detachment of the Parliamentary forces.
The municipal and parliamentary boroughs of Lynn are co-extensive; the parliamentary borough returns one member.
In December 1868 he was appointed parliamentary secretary to the poor law board.
His parliamentary career, which, though not brilliantly successful, had won him high general esteem, was terminated by his elevation to the judicial bench as Lord Jeffrey in May 1834.
The older part of the urban district is included in the parliamentary borough of Merthyr Tydfil, and also shares with Merthyr and Aberdare the services of a stipendiary magistrate.
Verified " Parliamentary Copies " of the imperial standard are placed at the Royal Mint, with the Royal Society, at the Royal Observatory, and in the Westminster Palace.
He had now become an open menace to the parliamentary Republic. Had Boulanger immediately placed himself at the head of a revolt he might at this moment have effected the coup d'etat which the intriguers had worked for, and might not improbably have made himself master of France; but the favourable opportunity passed.
He travelled in Italy for some time, and it was not till 1838 that he began a regular campaign of parliamentary opposition, which in March 1840 made him president of the council and foreign minister for the second time.
The year 1873 was, as a parliamentary year in France, occupied to a great extent with attacks on Thiers.
In the early spring regulations were proposed, and on April 13th were carried, which were intended to restrict the executive and especially the parliamentary powers of the president.
The parliamentary borough returned two members from 1832 until 1885, when it was divided into three divisions, each returning one member.
Before the 19th century Bradford was never represented in parliament, but in 1832 it was created a parliamentary borough returning two members.
The city had been put in an efficient state of defence by the marquess of Ormonde, then lord-lieutenant; but in the following year, to prevent it falling into the hands of the Irish, he surrendered it on conditions to Colonel Jones, commander of the Parliamentary forces.
But neither now nor subsequently (1861, 1869) would he accept a parliamentary mandate.
He made a reputation as a parliamentary debater, but lost favour with his constituents who were largely Republican, and only held his seat with the help of Livio Quartaroli, mayor of Forli, and Saffi; when they died his position became untenable and he was not reelected.
In colonies which have parliamentary representation the crown cannot give to a metropolitan bishop jurisdiction or coercive legal authority over suffragan bishops or over any other person.
In 1864 he was returned to parliament as a Conservative for East Gloucestershire, the county in which his estates of Williamstrip Park were situated; and during 1868 he acted both as parliamentary secretary to the Poor Law Board and as under-secretary for the Home Department.
He accepted the chairmanship of the Royal Commission on Ritualistic Practices in the Church, and he did valuable work as 'an arbitrator; and though when the fiscal controversy arose he became a member of the Free-food League, his parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour did much to prevent the Unionist free-traders from precipitating a rupture.
He has powers which are in ordinary times narrower than those of a European prime minister; but these powers are more secure, for instead of depending on the pleasure of a parliamentary majority, they run on to the end of his term.
His strong hand kept the inevitable strife of the parliamentary factions within due limits, and it was entirely owing to his provident care that Sweden so rapidly recovered from the wretched condition in which the wars of Charles had plunged her.
The parliamentary borough of Kensington has north and south divisions, each returning one member.
Compensation, in its most familiar sense, is however a nomen juris for the reparation or satisfaction made to the owners of property which is taken by the state or by local authorities or by the promoters of parliamentary undertakings, under statutory authority, for public purposes.
From 1832 to 1835 he sat in the Hungarian Diet, where his extreme liberal views and his singular eloquence soon rendered him famous as a parliamentary leader.
The first general election for the Dominion House of Commons was held during the month of August, and except in the province of Nova Scotia was favourable to the administration, which entered upon its parliamentary work with a majority of thirty-two.
These charges were investigated by a royal commission, which was appointed after it had been decided that the parliamentary committee named for that purpose could not legally take evidence under oath.
Orkney unites with Shetland to send one member to parliament, and Kirkwall, the county town and the only royal burgh, is one of the Wick district groups of parliamentary burghs.
Since 1832 it has belonged to the Swansea parliamentary district of boroughs, uniting with Kenfig, Loughor, Neath and Swansea to return one member; but in 1885 the older portion of Swansea was given a separate member.
It forms one of the Kilmarnock group of parliamentary burghs, with Dumbarton, Port-Glasgow, Renfrew and Kilmarnock.
In 1900 he was elected Liberal member for Midlothian, and in 1905 entered the Government as Comptroller of the Household and Scottish Liberal Whip. In 1909 he became UnderSecretary for India, and in 1910 parliamentary secretary to the Treasury and chief Liberal Whip, in which position he remained until 1 9 12.
Parliamentary representation began in 1295 and continued until the Reform Act of 1870.
The parliamentary and municipal boundaries of Salford are identical; area, 5170 acres.
The parliamentary borough has three divisions, each returning a member.
The same nobleman relieved it a second time, when it was invested by the Parliamentary army under Colonel Jones.
Drogheda ceased to be a parliamentary borough in 1885, and a county of a town in 1898.
So by his counsel the queen, while nominally in league with De Retz and the parliamentary Fronde, laboured to form a purely royal party, wearied by civil dissensions, who should act for her and her son's interest alone, under the leadership of Mathieu Mole, the famous premier president of the parlement of Paris.
As soon as Catholic emancipation was carried, the demand for parliamentary reform and extension of the franchise agitated Great Britain from end to end.
Wholly unaware of the strength of the forces which he was provoking, the duke, at the opening of the parliament which met after the death of George IV., declared against any parliamentary reform whatever.
To the unbroken splendours of his military career, to his honourable and conscientious labours as a parliamentary statesman, life unusually prolonged added an evening of impressive beauty and calm.
Lastly, there are two agencies which cannot be classed among the foregoing; one is the International Parliamentary Union and the other the Nobel Prize Committee.
He is assisted by a permanent and a parliamentary undersecretary and a considerable clerical staff.
The division since 1885 is into north, south, east and west parliamentary divisions, each returning one member.
The Act of Univormity, which obtained final parliamentary authority on the 28th of April 1559, ordered that the Prayer Book should come again into use on St John the Baptist's Day (June 2 4, 1559).
Considerable alterations have been made in recent years in the law of Great Britain and Ireland relating to the procedure at parliamentary and municipal elections, and to election petitions.
As regards parliamentary elections (which may be either the " general election," after a dissolution of parliament, or " byelections," when casual vacancies occur during its continuance), the most important of the amending statutes is the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act 1883.
This act, and the Parliamentary Elections Act 1868, as amended by it, and other enactments dealing with corrupt practices, are temporary acts requiring annual renewal.
Failure on the part of a parliamentary candidate or his election agent to comply with the requirements of the law in any particular is sufficient to invalidate the return.
The inquiry into a disputed parliamentary election was formerly conducted before a committee of the House of Commons, chosen as nearly as possible from both sides of the House for that particular business.
The amendments in the law as to municipal elections are generally similar to those which have been made in parliamentary election law.
The procedure on trial of petitions is substantially the same, and wherever no other provision is made by the acts or rules the procedure on the trial of parliamentary election petitions is to be followed.
The provisions are generally similar to those relating to parliamentary elections.
The commissioner who tries a petition sends to the High Court a certificate of the result, together with reports as to corrupt and illegal practices, &c., similar to those made to the speaker by the judges who try a parliamentary election petition.
The town has never had parliamentary representation.
After his return the contest was renewed between the so-called National party, which favoured absolution, and the Reform party, which sought to establish parliamentary government.
The parliamentary borough, which is co-extensive with the municipal, returns one member.
Being released from his duties as private secretary by the general election of 1880, he began to take a rather more active part in parliamentary affairs.
Members did not suspect the reserve of strength and ability beneath what seemed to them to be the pose of a parliamentary fldneur; they looked upon him merely as a young member of the governing classes who remained in the House because it was the proper thing for a man of family to do.
Mr Balfour's work in this office covered one of the most turbulent and most exciting periods in modern parliamentary history and Irish administration.
On the return of the Unionists to power in 1895 he resumed the leadership of the House, but not at first with the success expected of him, his management of the abortive education proposals of '96 being thought, even by his own supporters, to show a disinclination for the continuous drudgery of parliamentary management under modern conditions.
His championship of the voluntary schools, his adroit parliamentary handling of the problems opened up by the so-called "crisis in the Church" caused by the Protestant movement against ritualistic practices, and his pronouncement in favour of a Roman Catholic university for Ireland - for which he outlined a scheme that met with much adverse criticism both from his colleagues and his party, - were the most important aspects of Mr Balfour's activity during these years.
Wyndham as chief secretary for Ireland was included in the cabinet; Lord Selborne remained at the admiralty, Mr St John Brodrick (afterwards Lord Midleton) war minister, Lord George Hamilton secretary for India, and Mr Akers-Douglas, who had been first commissioner of works, became home secretary; Lord Balfour of Burleigh remained secretary for Scotland, Lord Dudley succeeded Lord Cadogan as lord lieutenant of Ireland, and Lord Londonderry became president of the Board of Education (with Sir William Anson as parliamentary secretary in the House of Commons).
The task of clearing up after the war, both in South Africa and at home, lay before him; but his cordial relations with Mr Chamberlain, and the enthusiastic support of a large parliamentary majority, made the prospects fair.
The two chief items of the ministerial parliamentary programme were the extension of the new Education Act to London and Mr Wyndham's Irish Land Purchase Act, by which the British exchequer should advance the capital for enabling the tenants in Ireland to buy out the landlords.
Mr Chamberlain on his side emphasized his own parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour.
But, though Mr Chamberlain declared his desire for an early appeal to the electors, he maintained his parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour.
As from 1849 to 1870 the fate of the papacy was determined not so much by domestic conditions, which, save for certain slight ameliorations, were those of the preceding reigns, as by foreign politics, it is necessary to consider the relations of Rome with each of the powers in turn; and in so doing one must trace not merely the negotiations of kings and popes, but must seek to understand also the aims of parliamentary parties, which from 1848 on increasingly determine ecclesiastical legislation.
The policy which made Louis Napoleon dictator forced him into mortal conflict with the republican parties; and - the price of the parliamentary support of the Catholic majority was high.
While the hold of the popes on the States of the Church was constantly weakening, their power over the domestic policies of foreign governments was increasing; and the transition from autocracy to parliamentary rule accelerated this process, at least in non-Catholic territories.
As nuncio in Brussels he had become acquainted with the trans-Alpine world, and had been initiated into the working of the machinery of modern politics and modern parliamentary government.
Resisting Pitt's attempt to draw him into alliance against the ministry he had quitted, Yorke maintained, in a speech that extorted the highest eulogy from Walpole, that parliamentary privilege did not extend to cases of libel; though he agreed with Pitt in condemning the principle of general warrants.
Peterhead is one of the Elgin district group of parliamentary burghs, with Banff, Cullen, Elgin, Inverurie and Kintore.
In 1644 he retired to Oxford, and held a chaplaincy at New College until the city surrendered to the parliamentary forces in 1646.
The Royalist troops were quartered here in 1643 after the defeat of the Parliamentary forces at Bradock Down.
Nairn belongs to the Inverness district group of parliamentary burghs (Forres, Fortrose, Inverness and Nairn).
A year later the emperor announced that a parliamentary system should be inaugurated in1891, and Itagaki's task might be said to have been accomplished.
The town was a parliamentary borough till 1885.
In 1860, however, the total length of railways was only 208 m., and in that year a parliamentary bill embodying a comprehensive scheme of construction was adopted.
Used for cloak linings, stoles, muffs and trimmings, also for embellishment of British state, parliamentary and legal robes.
The parliamentary borough of Deptford returns one member.
They include worsted spinning mills; collieries, ironstone mines, quarries and brickworks; the manufacture of iron and steel, both in the rough and in the form of finished articles, as locomotives, bridge castings, ships' engines, gun castings and shells, &c. The parliamentary borough returns one member.
The borough is again mentioned in 1487-1488, when John Plecy held six messuages in free burgage of the king as of his borough of Wimborne, but it seems to have been entirely prescriptive, and was never a parliamentary borough.
The lofty steeple by which its massive tower was formerly surmounted was battered down by the Parliamentary forces during the Civil War.
Worsted spinning and dyeing are also carried on, and there are iron foundries, tinplate works, breweries, malthouses, &c. The parliamentary borough returns one member.
The final change in the system of parliamentary elections was made in 1899-1900, when proportional representation was introduced.
The elections of 1854 modified the parliamentary situation by increasing the strength of the Conservatives; the ministry resigned and a new one was formed, under Pierre de Decker, of moderate Catholics and Progressives.
The new cabinet at once (August 1899) introduced a bill giving complete proportional representation in parliamentary elections to all the arrondissements.
It was not effected till several years had been spent in long parliamentary discussions, by demonstrations on the part of the supporters of franchise revision and by strikes of a political tendency.
A colonial law, also submitted to the chambers, secured for Belgium in case of annexation complete parliamentary control over the Congo state, and the bill for annexation was finally passed in September 1908.
Baxter's connexion with the Parliamentary army was a very characteristic one.
After subduing the Parliamentary party in the island, he was commissioned (1644) a vice-admiral of Jersey and "the maritime parts adjacent," and by virtue of that office he carried on from there an active privateering campaign in the Royalist cause.
In 1651 Carteret, after a seven weeks' siege, was compelled to surrender Jersey to a Parliamentary force; he then joined the Royalist exiles in France, where for a time he held a command in the French navy.
When Thiers, however, fell from power in May 1873, and a Royalist was placed at the head of the government in the person of Marshal MacMahon, Gambetta gave proof of his statesmanship by unceasingly urging his friends to a moderate course, and by his tact and parliamentary dexterity, no less than by his eloquence, he was mainly instrumental in the voting of the constitution in February 1875.
On the 16th of May Marshal MacMahon, in order to support the clerical reactionaries, perpetrated his parliamentary coup d'etat, and on the 15th of August Gambetta, in a speech at Lille, gave him the alternative se soumettre ou se demettre.
It was he who proposed a remonstrance against the growth of popery and the marriage of Prince Charles to the infanta of Spain, and who led the Commons in the decisive step of entering on the journal of the House the famous petition of the 18th of December 1621, insisting on the freedom of parliamentary discussion, and the liberty of speech of every individual member.
This long parliamentary career was closed by a courageous protest against the coup d'etat of December 2, 1851.
Next year Robert Stevenson modelled a tower and reported that its erection was feasible, but it was only in 1806 that parliamentary powers were obtained, and operations began in August 1807.
Except, however, where made under parliamentary authority, no composition for tithes, although made between the landowner and the parson or vicar with the consent of the patron and ordinary, bound a succeeding incumbent, the statute 13 Eliz.
Tithe rent charge under these acts is subject to the same liabilities and incidents as tithes, such as parliamentary, parochial, county and other rates, especially the poor rate and highway rate; but the owner of tithe rent charge attached to a benefice has been exempted by an act of 1899 from payment of half the amount of any rate which he would be liable to pay under the Agricultural Rates Act 1896, the other half being borne by the Inland Revenue Commissioners.
The gratitude of his countrymen to Grattan found expression in a parliamentary grant of £ioo,000, which had to be reduced by one half before he would consent to accept it.
He was, however, anxious for moderate parliamentary reform, and, unlike Flood, he favoured Catholic emancipation.
In general Grattan supported the government for time after 1782, and in particular spoke and voted for the stringent coercive legislation rendered necessary by the Whiteboy outrages in 1785; but as the years passed without Pitt's personal favour towards parliamentary reform bearing fruit in legislation, he gravitated towards the opposition, agitated for commutation of tithes in Ireland, and supported the Whigs on the regency question in 1788.
His popularity had temporarily declined, and the fact that his proposals for parliamentary reform and Catholic emancipation had become the watchwords of the rebellious United Irishmen had brought upon him the bitter hostility of the governing classes.
The parliamentary recess had been effectually employed by the government in securing by lavish corruption a majority in favour of their policy.
It was a parliamentary borough, returning one member, until 1885; having returned two members to the Irish parliament until the union.
Moreover, it was a diplomatic axiom in Denmark, founded on experience, that an absolute monarchy in Sweden was incomparablymore dangerous to her neighbour than a limited monarchy, and after the collapse of Swedish absolutism with Charles XII., the upholding of the comparatively feeble, and ultimately anarchical, parliamentary government of Sweden became a question of principle with Danish statesmen throughout the 18th century.
The only consequence that came of the parliamentary scare was that Hobbes could never afterwards get permission to print anything on subjects relating to human conduct.
In 1832 Llanelly was added as a contributory borough to the Carmarthen parliamentary district.
See also parliamentary papers and official publications of Indian government; Monographs on brick tea, Formosa tea and other special studies, prepared for the Tea Cess Committees of India and Ceylon; Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal of the Society of Arts, Geographical Journal, Tea and Coffee Trade Journal (New York), &c. For practical planting details, see Tea; its Cultivation and Manufacture, by David Crole (1897), with a full bibliography; also Rutherford's Planter's Handbook.
When in 1876 the Left came into power, Cairoli, then a deputy of sixteen years' standing, became parliamentary leader of his party, and, after the fall of Depretis, Nicotera and Crispi, formed his first cabinet in March 1878 with a Francophil and Irredentist policy.