Parasitic sentence example

parasitic
  • The parasitic cycle has been broken, and the insect is no longer infected.
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  • Parasitic or carnivorous.
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  • While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.
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  • Oxen, sheep, dogs, monkeys, bats, and probably horses also suffer from similar parasitic diseases.
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  • With regard to the parasites, which are the actual cause of malaria in man, an account of them is given under the heading of Parasitic Diseases, and little need be said about them here.
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  • The Nematoda which are parasitic during their whole life may similarly be divided into two classes - those which undergo their development in a single host, and those which undergo their development in the bodies of two distinct hosts.
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  • The freeliving differ from the majority of the parasitic forms in undergoing no metamorphosis; they also possess certain structural peculiarities which led Bastian (Trans.
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  • The mistletoe is parasitic both on deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs.
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  • the soil to the depth of many feet, and from it springs the most marvellous tangle of huge trees, shrubs, bushes, underwood, creepers, climbing plants and trailing vines, the whole hung with ferns, mosses, and parasitic growths, and bound together by rattans and huge rope-like trailers.
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  • The parasitic and free-living Nematodes are connected by transitional forms which are free at one stage of their existence and parasitic at another; they may be divided into two classes those that are parasitic in the larval state but free when adult, and those that are free in the larval state but parasitic when adult.
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  • Its over-supply is, however, a frequent cause of predisposition to the attacks of parasitic Fungie.g.
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  • The growth of the parasitic larva does not stop the development of the host-larva, and when the latter pupates and assumes the winged form, the stylopid, which has completed its transformation, is carried to the outer world.
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  • Other genera of the family are parasitic on Hemiptera - bugs and frog-hoppers - but nothing is known as to the details of their life-history.
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  • Short of suppressing mosquitoes, the parasitic cycle may theoretically be broken by preventing them from giving the infection to man or taking it from him.
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  • Pear scab is caused by a parasitic fungus, Fusicladium pyrinum, very closely allied and perhaps merely a form of the apple scab fungus, F.
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  • Thyca, parasitic on asterids.
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  • Entocolax, mouth at free extremity, animal fixed by aboral orifice of pseudopallium, Pacific. Entoconcha, body elongated and tubular, animal fixed by the oral extremity, protandric hermaphrodite, parasitic in testes of Holothurians causing their abortion.
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  • w, The parasitic hydromedusa Mnestra, usually found attached in this position by the aboral pole of its umbrella.
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  • It is possibly for the purpose of feeding on parasitic mites that book-scorpions lodge themselves beneath the wing-cases of large tropical beetles; and the same explanation, in default of a better, may be extended to their well-known and oft-recorded habit of seizing hold of the legs of horse-flies or other two-winged insects.
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  • The parasitic Nematodes include by far the greatest number of the known genera; they are found in nearly all the orders of the animal kingdom, but more especially among the Vertebrata, and of these the Mammalia are infested by a greater variety than any of the other groups.
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  • The marine parasitic leech Pontobdella is of a bright green, as is also the land-leech Trocheta.
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  • It must be remembered that phanerogams also include parasitic speciese.g.
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  • In modern countries it takes myriads of forms, from the sweating of parasitic trades to the organization of scientific research.
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  • All Siphonaptera, of which more than loo species are known, are parasitic on mammals or birds.
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  • In these species the actinula is parasitic upon another medusa; for instance, Cunoctantha octonaria upon Turritopsis, C. proboscidea upon Liriope or Geryonia.
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  • The parasitic actinula is found attached to the proboscis of the medusa; it thrusts its greatly elongated hypostome into the mouth of the medusa and nourishes itself upon the food in the digestive cavity of its host.
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  • The yellowing and subsequent casting of leaves, for instance, is a very general symptom of disease in plants, and may be induced by drought, extremes of temperature, insufficient or excessive illumination, excess of water at the roots, the action of parasitic Fungi, insects, worms, &c., or of poisonous gases, and so forth; and extreme caution is necessary in.
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  • parasitic Fungisupervening on its nonresistant condition.
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  • Parasitic Fungi may be, as regards their direct action, purely locale.g.
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  • Many of the adults are bloodsuckers (Tabanidae, Culicidae, &c.); others are parasitic in their larval stage (Oestridae, &c.).
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  • Oxyuris, though chiefly parasitic in the Mammalia, occurs also in reptiles, Amphibia and one or two insects.
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  • Although several species belonging to the second class occasionally enter the bodies of water snails and other animals before reaching their definitive host, they undergo no alteration of form in this intermediate host; the case is different, however, in Filaria medinensis and other forms, in which a free larval is followed by a parasitic existence in two distinct hosts, all the changes being accompanied by a metamorphosis.
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  • Filaria medinensis - the Guinea worm - is parasitic in the subcutaneous connective tissue of man (occasionally also in the horse).
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  • The members of this group are always carnivorous or parasitic, and prey upon both vertebrates and invertebrates.
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  • In relation to their parasitic habit one or two suckers are always developed, the one at the anterior and the other at the posterior end of the body.
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  • Polypodium hydriforme Ussow is a fresh-water form parasitic on the eggs of the sterlet.
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  • The hydroid genus Lafoea is remarkable for producing gonothecae on the hydrorhiza, each containing a blastostyle which bears a single gonophore; this portion of the colony was formerly regarded as an independent parasitic hydroid, and was named Coppinia.
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  • It is in these parasitic forms that we meet with the method of reproduction by sporogony described above.
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  • The gametophyte, which bears the sexual organs, is either a free-living thallus corresponding in degree of differentiation with the lower liverworts, or it is a mass of cells which always remains enclosed in a spore and is parasitic upon the sporophyte.
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  • It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.
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  • Still further insight is afforded by our increasing knowledge of the enzymes, and it is to be remarked that both poisons and enzymes are very common in just such parasitic Fungi as induce discolorations, hypertrophies and the death of cellse.g.
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  • Those on turnips and other Cruciferae are due to the infection of Plasmodiophora, a dangerously parasitic Myxomycete.
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  • In the American Epicauta vittata the larva is parasitic on the eggs and eggcases of a locust.
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  • - Much difference of opinion has prevailed with regard to the curious, tiny, parasitic insects included in this division, some authorities considering that they should be referred to a distinct order, while others would group them in the family Meloidae just described.
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  • The female is a segmented, wormlike creature, spending her whole life within the body of the bee, wasp or bug on which she is parasitic. One end of her body protrudes from between two of the abdominal segments of the host; it has been a subject of dispute whether this protruded end is the head or the tail, but there can be little doubt that it is the latter.
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  • The chief points in the life-history of Stylops and Xenos, which are parasitic on certain bees (Andrena) and wasps (Polistes), have been investigated by K.
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  • Certain extremely aberrant Diptera, which, in consequence of the adoption of a parasitic mode of life, have undergone great structural modification, are further remarkable for their peculiar mode of reproduction, on account of which the families composing the group are often termed Pupipara.
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  • Th~ phenomenon of irritability here concerned is well shown in certain cases where a parasitic organism gains access to a celle.g.
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  • In some parasitic Hymenoptera there is only a single the proctodaeum respectively.
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  • These later stages, comprising the greater part of the larval history, are adapted for an inquiline or a parasitic life, where shelter is assured and food abundant, while the short-lived, active condition enables the newly-hatched insect to make its way to the spot favourable for its future development, clinging, for example, in the case of an oil-beetle's larva, to the hairs of a bee as she flies towards her nest.
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  • His order of wingless insects (Aptera) included Crustacea, spiders, centipedes and other creatures that now form classes of the Arthropoda distinct from the Hexapoda; it also included Hexapoda of parasitic and evidently degraded structure, that are now regarded as allied more or less closely to various winged insects.
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  • Sharp's proposed association of the parasitic wingless insects in a group Anapterygota cannot, however, be defended as natural; and recent researches into the structure of these forms enables us to associate them confidently with related winged orders.
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  • Mallophaga: Parasitic wingless Corrodentia (Bird-lice).
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  • Wingless, parasitic forms. Cerci absent.
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  • Includes the beetles and the parasitic Stylopidae, often regarded as a distinct order (Strepsiptera).
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  • The Corrodentia retain vestigial maxillulae and two pairs of Malpighian tubes, but the wings are somewhat specialized in the Copeognatha and absent in the degraded and parasitic Mallophaga.
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  • ACANTHOCEPHALA, a compact group of cylindrical, parasitic worms, with no near allies in the animal kingdom.
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  • Filamentous diatoms may be mounted like ordinary seaweeds, and, as well as all parasitic algae, should whenever possible be allowed to remain attached to a portion of the alga on which they grow, some species being almost always found found parasitical on particular plants.
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  • The jagaey (Ficus sp.), which stifles in its giant coils the greatest trees of the forest, and the copei (Clusia rosea) are remarkable parasitic lianas.
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  • de Phys., Paris, 1900, p. 561) that the true effect of magnetization is liable to be disguised by secondary or parasitic phenomena, arising chiefly from polarization of the electrodes and from local variations in the concentration and magnetic condition of the electrolyte; these may be avoided by working with weak solutions, exposing only a small surface in a non-polar region of the metal, and substituting a capillary electrometer for the galvanometer generally used.
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  • comprising the primitive phyllopods, the minute copepods, the parasitic cirrhipedes and the powerful crabs and lobsters, and the highly elaborated sand-hoppers and slaters.
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  • - The Acari include a number of forms which are of importance and special interest on account of their parasitic habits.
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  • Many Acari are parasitic on marine and freshwater molluscs, and others are found on the feathers of birds and the hair of mammals.
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  • There are few manufacturing industries in Venezuela, and these usually of the parasitic type, created by official favour and protected by high tariffs on imports in competition.
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  • The parasitic hypothesis postulates the invasion of a parasite from without, thus making a new growth an infective process.
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  • For the special pathological details of various diseases, see the separate articles on Parasitic Diseases; Neuro-Pathology; Digestive Organs; Respiratory System; Blood: Circulation; Metabolic Diseases; Fever; Bladder; Kidneys; Skin Diseases; EYE Diseases; Heart Disease; EAR, &c.; and the articles on different diseases and ailments under the headings of their common names.
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  • In this may be found the germ of the startling modern discoveries in parasitic diseases.
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  • lus), a term applied to small wingless insects, parasitic upon birds and mammals, and belonging strictly speaking to the order Anoplura, often included among the Hemiptera, though the term is frequently extended to the bird-lice constituting the suborder Mallophaga, formerly included among the Neuroptera.
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  • - The following works are the most important: Denny, Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (London, 18 43); Giebel, Insecta Epizoa (which contains the working-up of Nitzsch's posthumous materials; Leipzig, 1874); van Beneden, Animal Parasites (London, 1876); Piaget, Les Pediculines (Leiden, 1880); Megnin, Les Parasites et les maladies parasitaires (Paris, 1880); Neumann, Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals (1892); Osborn, Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals (Washington, 1891; U.S. Dept.
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  • This order is almost exclusively parasitic in warm-blooded animals.
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  • 5), which are also parasitic in Selachians.
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  • The majority parasitic in fish.
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  • Almost exclusively parasitic in the intestine of Elasmobranch fish.
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  • Mostly parasitic in homoiothermic (warm-blooded) vertebrates.
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  • They are flattened organisms provided with two or more suckers, hence their name (7 rpThµarc,8rls, pierced with holes), and are exclusively parasitic both in their earlier and mature stages of life.
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  • Parasitic Habits.
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  • Udonella occurs on parasitic Crustacea).
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  • (See Parasitic Diseases).
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  • Sakura-jima (Kago- An island-volcano, with several parasitic shima Bay) 3743.
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  • Comparatively only a few species are, for part of their lives, denizens of fresh water; these, as larvae, are parasitic on the eggs or larvae of other aquatic insects, the little hymenopteron, Polynema natans, one of the " fairy-flies " - swims through the water by strokes of her delicate wings in search of a dragon-fly's egg in which to lay her own egg, while the rare Agriotypus dives after the case of a caddis-worm.
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  • It is of interest that the waters have been invaded by the parasitic group of the Hymenoptera, since in number of species this is by far the largest of the order.
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  • Not a few cases are known in which a parasitic larva is itself pierced by the ovipositor of a " hyperparasite," and even the offspring of the latter may itself fall a victim to the attack of a " tertiary parasite."
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  • In the Chalcidoidea, Ichneumonoidea and Proctotrypoidea will be found nearly all the " parasitic Hymenoptera " of older classifications.
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  • The vast majority of this group, including nearly 5000 known species, are usually reckoned as a single family, the Chalcididae, comprising small insects, often of bright metallic colours, whose larvae are parasitic in insects of various orders.
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  • They are among the most minute of all insects and their larvae are probably all parasitic in insects' eggs.
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  • All the other members of the group may be regarded as forming a single family - the Proctotrypidae, including an immense number of small parasitic Hymenoptera, not a few of which are wingless.
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  • The Trigonalidae, a small family whose larvae are parasitic in wasps' nests, also probably belong here.
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  • The Sapygidae are parasitic on bees, while the Scoliidae are large, robust and hairy insects, many of which prey upon the grubs of chafers.
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  • The smaller parasitic Hymenoptera have been neglected in this country since A.
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  • SPOROZOA, a large and most important section of the Protozoa, all the members of which are exclusively parasitic in habitat.
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  • Lilies are, under certain conditions favourable to the development of the disease, liable to the attacks of three parasitic fungi.
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  • Among the numerous insects parasitic on the inhabitants of galls are hymenopterous flies of the family Proctotrypidae, and of the family Chalcididae, e.g.
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  • This term was introduced by Thorell in 1864 for the Argulidae, a family which had been transferred to the Branchiopoda by Zenker in 1854, though sometimes before and since united with the parasitic Copepoda.
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  • Free-living (rarely pelagic) or parasitic (Giesbrecht and Schmeil).
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  • In 1899, with a view to the many modifications exhibited by parasitic and semi-parasitic species, the definitions, stripped of a too hampering precision, took a different form: (a) Ampharthrandria.
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  • The Ascidicolidae have variable characters, showing a gradual adaptation to parasitic life in Tunicates.
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  • A medusa with a remarkable habit of life is Mnestra parasites, which is parasitic on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attaching itself to the host by its subumbral surface; its tentacles, no longer required for obtaining food, have become rudimentary.
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  • A parasitic mode of life is also seen in medusae of the genus Cunina during the larval condition, but the habit is abandoned, in this case, when the medusae become adult.
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  • Eversible trophi of the forcipate or virgate type, which can be used for nibbling, are common in Ploima, notably Rattulidae, and are used for attachment to the host in the parasitic Seisonaceae, &c. In Asplanchnaceae also, From H.
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  • All known species are parasitic on the Crustacean Nebalia; Seison Claus; Paraseison Plate.
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  • Drilophagus and Albertia are parasitic on the surface or within the gut of Naid Oligochaete worms: Seisonaceae are ectoparasitic on the Crustacean Nebalia, Proales werneckii forms galls within the Conferva Vaucheria, and P. parasita infests the central jelly of the Phytoflagellate Volvox; P. petromyzon is a frequent commensal in the gill cavity of some Cladoceran Crustacean Eurycereus lamellatus.
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  • Among the more important and better-known forms are the following: - Parasitic in mammals: T.
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  • Parasitic in birds: T.
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  • Parasitic in batrachia: T.
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  • Parasitic in fishes: T.
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  • 1252, figs.; (37) idem, " Note on the nature of the parasitic bodies found in tropical splenomegaly," op. cit.
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  • Entovalva; parasitic in Synapta.
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  • The Planarians are free-living animals, the Trematodes are parasitic upon and within animals, and the Cestodes are wholly endoparasitic.
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  • Their adaptations to parasitic life in vertebrate animals appear to have involved such modifications of structure and development that their affinities are quite problematical.
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  • Nevertheless, as explained below, it seems to be highly probable that ant-imitating insects and spiders, when the resemblance is dependent to a greater extent upon size, shape and movement than upon tint, have acquired their mimetic likeness especially to protect them from the attacks of such insect-enemies as predaceous wasps of the family Pompilidae, flies of the family Asilidae, and from socalled parasitic hymenoptera of the family Ichneumonidae, as well as from other insect-eating Arthropods.
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  • There are records, however, of species of Mantispa mimicking the wasp Polistes in North America and Borneo and Belonogaster in South Africa; and other species of the genus imitate parasitic hymenoptera of the genera Bracon and Mesostenus.
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  • Another instance in this group is supplied by a Bornean species of Reduviidae which mimics a species of the genus Bracon, one of the parasitic Hymenoptera.
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  • In 1865 De Bary suggested the possibility that such lichens as Collema, Ephebe, &c., arose as a result of the attack of parasitic Ascomycetes upon the algae, Nostoc, Chroococcus, &c. In 1867 the observations of Famintzin and Baranetzky showed that the gonidia, in certain cases, were able to live outside the lichen-thallus, and in the case of Physcia, Evernia and Cladonia were able to form zoospores.
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  • In 1869 Schwendener put forward the really illuminating view - exactly opposite to that of Baranetzkythat the gonidia in all cases were algae which had been attacked by parasitic fungi.
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  • The lichen algae are not alone in their specializa tion to the symbiotic (or parasitic) mode of life, for, as stated earlier, the fungus appear in the majority of cases to have completely lost the power of independent development since with very rare exceptions they are not found alone.
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  • Moreover, although the green portions of the flower do indeed perform the same office as the leaves, the more highly coloured and more specialized portions, which are further removed from the typical leaf-form, do not carry on those processes for which the presence of chlorophyll is essential; and the floral organs may, therefore, in a rough sense, be said to be parasitic upon the green parts.
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  • As regards their geographical distribution, fungi, like flowering plants, have no doubt their centres of origin and of dispersal; but we must not forget that every exchange of wood, wheat, fruits, plants, animals, or other commodities involves transmission of fungi from one country to another; while the migrations of birds and other animals, currents of air and water, and so forth, are particularly efficacious in transmitting these minute organisms. Against this, of course, it may be argued that parasitic forms can only go where their hosts grow, as is proved to be the case by records concerning the introduction of Puccinia malvacearum, Peronospora viticola, Hemileia vastatrix, &c. Some fungi - e.g.
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  • Many parasitic hyphae put out minute lateral branches, which pierce the cell-wall of the host and form a peg-like (Trichosphaeria), sessile (Cystopus), or stalked (Hemileia), knot-like, or_a B FIG.
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  • Appressoria are also formed by some parasitic fungi, as a minute flattening of the tip of a very short branch (Erysiphe), or the swollen end of any hypha which comes in contact with the surface of the host (Piptocephalis, Syncephalis), haustoria piercing in each case the cell-wall below.
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  • The same fact is indicated by the wide range of organic substances which can be utilized by Penicillium and other moulds, and by the behaviour of parasitic fungi which destroy various cell-contents and tissues.
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  • These parasitic and minute, chiefly aquatic, forms may be looked upon as degenerate Oomycetes, since a sexual process and feeble unicellular mycelium occur in some; or they may be regarded as series of primitive forms leading up to higher members.
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  • They are usually included in Oomycetes, but their simple structure, minute size, usually uniciliate zoospores, and their negative characters would justify their retention as a separate group. It contains less than 200 species, chiefly parasitic on or in algae and other water-plants or animals, of various kinds, or in other fungi, seedlings, pollen and higher plants.
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  • Analogies have been pointed out between Chytridiaceae and unicellular algae, such as Chlorosphaeraceae, Protococcaceae, "Palmellaceae," &c., some of which are parasitic, and suggestions may be entertained as to possible origin from such algae.
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  • The two first genera consist of forms which are parasitic on insects.
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  • Infection in these cases occurs in the seedling at the place where root and shoot meet, and the infecting hypha having entered the plant goes on living in it and growing up with it as if it had no parasitic action at all.
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  • This is an extraordinarily large and varied group of forms which mostly live parasitically or saprophytically on vegetable tissue, but a few are parasitic on insect-larvae.
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  • Although the Uredineae clearly lead on to the Basidiomycetes, yet owing to their retaining in many cases definite traces of sexual organs they are clearly a more primitive group. Their marked parasitic habit also separates them off, so that they are best included with the Basidiomycetes in a larger cohort which may be called Basidiales.
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  • Ar- millaria melleus and Polyporus annosus are examples of parasitic forms which attack and destroy living trees, while Merulius lacryg s !
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  • If the membrane is of some impermeable substance, like gold leaf, the hyphae cannot dissolve its way through, but the tip finds the most minute pore and traverses the barrier by means of it, as it does a stoma on a leaf, We may hence conclude that a parasitic hyphae pierces some plants or their stomata and refuses to enter others, because in the former case there are chemotropically attractive substances present which are absent from the latter, or are there replaced by repellent poisonous or protective substances such as enzymes or antitoxins.
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  • A similar specialization has been observed by Marshall Ward in the Puccinia parasitic on species of Bromus, and by Neger, Marchal and especially Salmon in the Erysiphaceae.
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  • The parasitic Histriodritus (Histriobdella) feeds on the eggs of the lobster.
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  • Notwithstanding the absence of chlorophyll, and the consequent parasitic or saprophytic habit, Bacteriaceae agree in so many morphological features with Cyanophyceae that the affinity can hardly be doubted.
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  • Even among Bangiaceae the carpospores arise from the fertilized cell by division, while in all other Rhodophyceae the oospore, as it may be called, gives rise to a filamentous structure, varying greatly in its dimensions, epiphytic, and to a large extent parasitic upon the egg-bearing parent plant, and in the end giving rise to carpospores in the terminal cells of certain branches.
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  • There is here obviously a certain parallelism with the case of Bryophyta, where the sporogonium arising from the oospore is epiphytic and partially parasitic upon the female plant, and always culminates in the production of spores.
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  • Upon the evidence it would seem therefore that so far as Nemalion is concerned an alternation occurs comparable with that existing in the lower Bryophyta where the sporophyte is relatively small, being attached to and to some extent parasitic upon the gametophyte.
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  • The principle on which they are established may be briefly stated thus: towns with a minimum population of Boo can, on a poll demanded by the ratepayers showing a majority in favour of it, acquire the status of a police burgh subject to representations from neighbouring burghs, a proviso devised to check the growth of " parasitic " burghs in the immediate vicinity of a great centre of population and industry, enjoying all the public improvements initiated by their powerful neighbour and yet contributing nothing towards the cost and upkeep of them.
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  • C, Second immovable parasitic larva casting its skin.
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  • a few cases, the parasitic bee grub devours not only the food-supply, but also the larva of its host.
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  • The hairy covering, so notable in the hive-bee and especially in humble-bees, is greatly reduced among bees that follow a parasitic mode of life.
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  • Finally the parasitic larva attacks the Osmia, and digging its mandibles into its victim's head kills and eats it, taking from one to two days for the completion of the repast.
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  • Among writers on the solitary and parasitic species may be specially mentioned F.
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  • No crater now exists at the summit of either, but well-formed parasitic cones occur upon their flanks.
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  • Parasitic on the roots of the hazel is found the curious leafless Lathraea Squamaria or toothwort.
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  • Several kinds of parasitic jungle ticks cause much annoyance to men and to beasts.
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  • Epiphytous plants are very common, many that are usually independent assuming here the parasitic character; the Vanda lowii, for example, grows on the lower branches of trees, and its strange pendent flower-stalks often hang down so as almost to reach the ground.
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  • It adapts itself to parasitic life not only in fishes, but in its own class Crustacea, and that in species of every order, its own included.
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  • The genuine Isopoda are divided among the Flabellifera, in which the terminal segment and uropods form a flabellum or swimming fan; the Epicaridea, parasitic on Crustaceans; the Valvifera, in which the uropods fold valve-like over the branchial pleopods; the Asellota, in which the first pair of pleopods of the female are usually transformed into a single opercular plate; the Phreatoicidea, a fresh-water tribe, known as yet only from subterranean waters in New Zealand and an Australian swamp nearly 6000 ft.
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  • Among the most curious of recent discoveries is that relating to some of the parasitic Cymothoidae, as to which Bullar has shown that the same individual can be developed first as a male and then as a female.
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  • In such cases the absence of wings must be regarded as secondary - due to a parasitic or other special manner of life.
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  • Swift of flight, powerfully armed, but above all endowed with extraordinary courage, they pursue their weaker cousins, making the latter disgorge their already swallowed prey, which is nimbly caught before it reaches the water; and this habit, often observed by sailors and fishermen, has made these predatory, and parasitic birds locally known as "Teasers," "Boatswains," 2 and, from a misconception of their 1 Thus written by Hoier (circa 1604) as that of a Faeroese bird (hodie Skuir) an example of which he sent to Clusius (Exotic. Auctarium, p. 367).
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  • The greatest difficulty in his way is not temperature, but the presence of parasitic diseases to resist which his body has not been prepared, and modern knowledge is rapidly defining these dangers and the modes of avoiding them.
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  • The surface of the skin may be invaded by parasitic organisms and may exhibit spots, which are removed by something which will destroy the parasite, such as ointments containing mercurial salts.
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  • Nearly all bacteria, owing to the absence of chlorophyll, are saprophytic or parasitic forms. Most of them are colourless, but FIG.
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  • Plants appear to be less subject to their attacks - possibly, as has been suggested, because the acid fluids of the higher vegetable organisms are less suited for the development of Schizomycetes; nevertheless some are known to be parasitic on plants.
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  • Little is known of the mode of action of bacteria on these plants, but it may be assumed with great confidence that they excrete enzymes and poisons (toxins), which diffuse into the cells and kill them, and that the effects are in principle the same as those of parasitic fungi.
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  • Apart from the numerous parasitic forms, the only Crustacea which have adopted a strictly sedentary habit of life are the Cirripedia, and here, as elsewhere, profound modifications of structure have resulted, leading ultimately to a partial assumption of the radial type of symmetry which is so often associated with a sedentary life.
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  • The parasitic habit is most common among the Copepoda and Isopoda, where it leads to complex modifications of structure and life-history.
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  • Perhaps the most complete degeneration is found in the Rhizocephala, which are parasitic on other Crustacea.
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  • They are frequently organs of attachment in parasitic Copepoda, and they may be completely pediform in the Ostracoda.
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  • In parasitic bloodsucking forms the mandibles often have the shape of piercing stylets, and are enclosed in a tubular proboscis formed by the union of the upper lip (labrum) with the lower lip (hypostome or paragnatha).
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  • In the parasitic Rhizocephala and in a few Copepoda (Monstrillidae) the alimentary canal is absent or vestigial throughout life.
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  • A very remarkable condition of the blood-system, unique, as far as is yet known among the Arthropoda, is found in a few genera of parasitic Copepoda (Lernanthropus, Mytilicola).
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  • Apart from certain doubtful and possibly abnormal instances among Phyllopoda and Amphipoda, the only exceptions are the sessile Cirripedia and some parasitic Isopoda (Cymothoidae), where hermaphroditism is the rule.
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  • In the parasitic Copepoda and Isopoda the disparity in size is carried to an extreme degree, and the minute male is attached, like a parasite, to the enormously larger female.
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  • The ducts are present only as a single pair, except in one genus of parasitic Isopoda (Hemioniscus), where two pairs of oviducts are found.
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  • MYZOSTOMIDA, a remarkable group of small parasitic worms which live on crinoid echinoderms; they were first discovered by Leuckart in 1827.
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  • seigle ergote), consisting of the sclerotium (or hard resting condition) of a fungus, Claviceps purpurea, parasitic on the pistils of many members of the Grass family, but obtained almost exclusively from rye, Secale cereale.
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  • Parasitic Diseases >>
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  • For a longer or shorter period of their lives ticks are parasitic upon vertebrate animals of various kinds; but although the belief that the bite of certain tropical species is poisonous has long been held by the natives of the countries they infest and has been recorded with corroborative evidence by European authors in books of travel, it is only of recent years that accurate information has been acquired of the part played by these Arachnids in transmitting from one host to another protozoal blood-parasites which cause serious or fatal diseases to man and other animals.
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  • It is singular that the Argasidae, which are for the most part parasitic upon birds, contain the only species of ticks, especially 0.
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  • Another species, Hyalomma aegyptium, the so-called camel-tick of Egypt and Arabia, is alleged to be parasitic only in its mature stage.
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  • Psilotum lives epiphytically or in soil rich in humus, while Tmesipteris is epiphytic (and, it has been suggested, partially parasitic) upon stems of tree ferns: the former has small scale-like leaves; those of the latter are of considerable size.
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  • - Wheat, like other cereals, is liable to epidemic diseases caused by parasitic organisms which prey on the plant tissues.
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  • We have no similar calculation of loss for Great Britain, where wheat is not so much grown, but it is well known that there is a continual, serious depreciation of value in the crops due to parasitic fungi.
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  • Other parasitic fungi of less economic importance occasionally do considerable damage.
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  • Mention is made under Tapeworm of the worms of that species inhabiting the human body as parasites, and it will be convenient here to mention other parasitic varieties.
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  • About a third of all the species known in the United States are found within the state or close to its borders, and of these, 9 or to are so common that their increase under conditions favourable to their development may be a danger Such conditions are found in dry years, unfavourable to their chief parasitic enemies, favourable to their own breeding, and the cause of their migrations.
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  • This nucellus may remain naked, and alone form the ovule, as in some orders of parasitic plants such as Balanophoraceae, Santalaceae, &c.; but in most plants it becomes surrounded by certain coverings or integuments during its development.
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  • The first is still limited to the single genus and species Proteolepas bivincta (Darwin), parasitic within the sac of another cirripede.
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  • Almost all of them are parasitic on other crustaceans.
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  • Sarcotaces (Olsson, 1872) has two species parasitic in fishes.
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  • These curious appendages (Aphlebiae), at first regarded as parasitic growths, have been compared with the feathery outgrowths which occur on the rachis in the Cyatheaceous genus Hemitelia, and with the 'anomalous pinnules found in certain species of Gleichenia, at the points of bifurcation of the frond.
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  • - This includes the male-fern, santonin, cusso, pomegranate bark, pumpkin seeds and many other substances containing active principles which have a specific poisonous action on intestinal parasitic worms. Apart from this their actions vary considerably, but are of little practical importance.
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  • amoeba Parasites page: worms protozoa ameba diseases parasitic animals Parasites page: worms protozoa ameba diseases parasitic animals.. .
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  • The knobs or protuberances on the head are enlarged hair follicles and are often full of parasitic barnacles and lice.
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  • A. borealis is a northern and boreal species of Honey Fungus, parasitic and saprotrophic on various trees but often on Birch.
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  • Research into bovine parasitic bronchitis, an economic appraisal.
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  • The reserve also boasts probably the largest numbers of the parasitic knapweed broomrape anywhere in the county.
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  • Increasing switch size to reduce on resistance adds to the parasitic capacitance, thus slowing the operation.
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  • I approach the business end cautiously, keen to photograph the parasitic copepod that is found on each shark's eye.
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  • I had the vet and it was mineral deficiency of cobalt, selenium and zinc, together with parasitic gastroenteritis caused by worms.
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  • This parasite must be considered one of the most pathogenic of the parasitic helminths.
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  • The totally parasitic nature of Irish landlordism comes over as the main message.
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  • louseo called " crabs, " pubic lice are parasitic insects found in the genital area of humans.
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  • It is not unusual to see them carrying quite a colony of parasitic mites.
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  • An introduction to plant parasitic nematodes will include the students extracting cyst nematodes from infected soil.
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  • Plant parasitic nematodes cause over $ 125 billion annual losses to world agriculture.
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  • The Virtual Nematode uses 3-D animations and virtual reality environments as visual teaching aids for several concepts in plant parasitic nematology.
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  • They are evidently not parasitic; their source of food is unknown.
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  • But surely the study of culture is always parasitic on history?
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  • The economics and the psychology of these elements is essentially parasitic in character.
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  • The plant is entirely parasitic on Nettles and feeds on their sap using especially adapted ' suckers ' .
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  • It is an increasingly parasitic class, driven by its own short-term interests.
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  • The plant itself is extraordinary, being partially parasitic.
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  • parasitic on aquatic plants or fish.
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  • parasitic on animals and plants.
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  • parasitic on authentic ones.
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  • parasitic nematodes cause over $ 125 billion annual losses to world agriculture.
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  • parasitic wasps are quick to find the eggs.
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  • parasitic protozoa in the British wild fauna.
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  • parasitic capacitance, thus slowing the operation.
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  • parasitic infestation might explain some of the increase in allergies during the past 30 years.
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  • parasitic helminths.
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  • Interest happens to be the income of a social group that has been known from time to time to become particularly parasitic.
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  • parasitic in rats and mice.
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  • parasitic in nature.
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  • This is a parasitic wasp and it parasitises the potter wasp above.
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  • pubic lice are parasitic insects found in the genital area of humans.
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  • Tiny parasitic wasps hatch from these cards and fly off to parasitise whitefly pupae.
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  • This unpleasant material very often contains a parasitic roundworm, Toxocara Canis, which can cause blindness in humans.
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  • This is caused by a parasitic roundworm in the fox, toxocara canis, which can cause blindness in young children.
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  • scabies Infestation of the skin by a parasitic mite.
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  • Love makes us feel soppy, and the parasitic memes exploit that soppiness -- living off our big brains and our romantic natures.
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  • speciation in parasitic plants.
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  • threaten the integrity of the service, can a parasitic form of competition make inroads.
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  • Hazel is dominant with occasional oaks; there is a rich ground flora and the parasitic toothwort has also been recorded.
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  • One interesting observation is that the symbiotic and parasitic turbellarians produce many more eggs than the entirely free living species.
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  • venom gland from a parasitic wasp.
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  • However, parasitic wasps are quick to find the eggs.
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  • This disease is caused by parasitic worms which lay eggs that are passed in the urine or feces.
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  • It is impossible, however, to draw a strict line of demarcation between the free and parasitic species, since - (I) many of the so-called free Nematoda live in the slime of molluscs (Villot), and are therefore really parasitic; (2) while certain species belonging to the freeliving genus Anguillula are normally parasitic (e.g.
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  • tritici, which lives encysted in ears of wheat), other species occasionally adopt the parasitic mode of existence, and become encysted in slugs, snails, &c.; (3) it has been experimentally proved that many normally parasitic genera are capable of leading a free existence;' (4) transitional forms exist which are free at one period of their life and parasitic at another.
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  • The Nematode parasites of the Invertebrata are usually immature forms which attain their full development in the body of some vertebrate; but there are a number of species which in the sexually adult condition are peculiar to the Invertebrata.2 The Nematoda contain about as many parasitic species as all the other groups of internal parasites taken together; they are found in almost all the organs of the body, and by their presence, especially when encysted in the tissues and during their migration from one part of the body to another, give rise to various pathological conditions.
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  • nigrescens live in damp earth and may be seen after storms or early in the morning crawling up the stalks of plants, a fact which causes people to talk about showers of worms. The eggs are laid on 1 Ercolani successfully cultivated Oxyuris curvula, Strongylus armatus and other species in damp earth; the free generation was found to differ from the parasitic by its small size, and by the females being ovoviviparous instead of oviparous.
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  • In some species of the genus Cunina (Narcomedusae) the youngest individuals (actinulae) are parasitic on other medusae (see below), but in later life the parasitic From Allman's Gymnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of habit is abandoned.
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  • 48), where it is ambulatory, in Gonionemus (Trachomedusae), and in Cunina (Narcomedusae), where it is parasitic.
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  • The group has until recent years been regarded as comprising three classes distinguished by well-marked physiological featuresthe Algae (including the Seaweeds) which contain chlorophyll, the Fungi which have no chlorophyll and therefore lead a saprophytic or parasitic mode of life, and the Lichens which are composite organisms consisting of an alga and a fungus living together in a mutual parasitism (symbiosis); Bacteria were regarded as a section of Fungi.
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  • The atmosphere is a cause of disease in the neighborhood of chemical works, large towns, volcanoes, &c., in so far as it carrie, acid gases and poisons to the leaves and roots; but it is usual tc associate with it the action of excessive humidity which brings about those tender watery and more or less etiolated condition, which favor parasitic Fungi, and diminish transpiration and therefore nutrition.
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  • Parasites, again, were derived from normal autotrophic plants, which, as the parasitic habit became more pronounced, acquired the corresponding characteristics of form and structure; there is, in fact, the group of hemi-parasites, plants which still retain autotrophic characters though they are root-parasites.
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  • (See Parasitic Diseases and Mosquitoes.) The successive steps by which the present position has been reached form an interesting chapter in the history of scientific progress.
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  • The phytophagous species are attached to various parts of plants, dead or alive; and the carnivorous in like manner feed on dead or living flesh, or its products, many larvae being parasitic on living animals of various classes (in Australia the larva of a species of Muscidae is even a parasite of frogs), especially the caterpillars of Lepidoptera, which are destroyed in great numbers by Tachininae.
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  • They are divisible into the Haplodrili or Archiannelida, the Polychaeta containing the marine worms, the Oligochaeta or terrestrial and fresh-water annelids (see Earthworm), the Hirudinea or leeches (see Leech), and a small group of parasitic worms, the 11-Tyzostomida (q.v.).
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  • The least modified type is shown by Acanthobdella, a leech, parasitic upon fishes, in which transverse sections (see figs.
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  • P. Marchal has (1904) described this power in two small parasitic Hymenoptera - a Chalcid (Encyrtus) which lays eggs in the developing eggs of the small moth Hyponomeuta, and a Proctotrypid (Polygnotus) which infests a gall-midge (Cecidomyid) larva.
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  • Even the comparatively shortest species and genera can always be termed elongate, the broadest and shortest of all being the parasitic Malacobdella and the pelagic Pelagonemertes.
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  • - Degenerate, mostly parasitic forms approaching the Prostigmata in the development of integumental FIG.
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  • - Degenerate atracheate parasitic forms with the body produced posteriorly into an annulated caudal prolongation, and the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs of appendages short and only three-jointed.
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  • They probably express a variation which may have occurred in a far-back ancestor, or in one more recent, and render the individual vulnerable to the attacks of parasitic fungi, or, it may be, become manifest as errors of metabolism.
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  • Schdnlein's positive contributions to medical science were not large; but he made in 1839 one discovery, apparently small, but in reality most suggestive, namely, that the contagious disease of the head called favus is produced by the growth in the hair of a parasitic fungus.
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  • All the members of this order are parasitic on aquatic vertebrates and in rare cases derive their food from a vertebrate host indirectly by means of another invertebrate parasite (e.g.
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  • BIRD - Louse, any small flat degenerate wingless neuropterous insect of the group Mallophaga, parasitic upon birds and mammals and feeding upon dermal excretions or upon the softer parts of hair and feathers.
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  • On the Fukushima (E.) side of the volcano rises a large parasitic cone, extinct.
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  • The Cynipoidea include the gall-flies and their parasitic relations.
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  • Anoplura The Anoplura or lice (see LousE) are wingless parasitic insects (fig.
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  • The order thus defined (see Giesbrecht and Schmeil, Das Tierreich, 1898), with far over a thousand species (Hansen, 1900), embraces forms of extreme diversity, although, when species are known in all their phases and both sexes, they constantly tend to prove that there are no sharply dividing lines between the free-living, the semi-parasitic, and those which in adult life are wholly parasitic and then sometimes grotesquely unlike the normal standard.
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  • emend.), probably the form to which Danilewsky's original investigations related, parasitic in owls and (according to Novy and McNeal) also in other birds (fig.
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  • Special deposits of the nacreous matter around foreign bodies form pearls, the foreign nucleus being usually of parasitic origin (see Pearl).
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  • The Mantispidae are remarkable among the Neuroptera for their elongate prothorax, raptorial fore-legs and hypermetamorphic life-history, the young campodeiform larva becoming transformed into a fat cruciform grub parasitic on young spiders or wasp-larvae (see Mantis-Fly).
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  • The fungus seems, on the other hand, to stimulate the algal cells to special development, for those in the lichen are larger than those in the free state, but this is not necessarily adverse to the idea of parasitism, for it is well known that an increase in the size of the cells of the host is often the result of the attacks of parasitic fungi.
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  • The other genera are more purely parasitic; the mycelium usually sends haustoria into the cells of the host and puts out branched, aerial conidiophores through the stomata, the branches of which abstrict numerous "conidia"; these either germinate directly or their contents break up into zoospores (fig.
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  • Plague is a specific infectious fever, caused by the bacillus pestis, which was identified in 1894 by Kitasato, and subsequently, but independently, by Yersin (see Parasitic Diseases).
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  • The structure and development of the Myzostomida seem to show that they are nearly related to Polychaeta (see Chaetopoda), though highly modified in relation to their parasitic mode of life.
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  • Again, in Ornithodorus monbata, which is parasitic apparently only at night, the young does not hatch from the egg until it has attained the nymphal stage.
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  • Stannius renovated the group Vermes of Linnaeus, and placed in it the Chaetopods and the parasitic worms of Cuvier, besides the Rotifers and Turbellarian worms.1 The result of the knowledge gained in the last quarter of the 19th century has been to discredit altogether the group Vermes (see Worm), thus set up and so largely accepted by German writers even at the present day.
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  • Scabies Infestation of the skin by a parasitic mite.
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  • The parasitic generation consists solely of adult parasitic females which lie embedded in the mucosa of the small intestine of rats.
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  • In an ecological context, host specificity may be a major driving force for speciation in parasitic plants.
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  • Only by artificial means, which threaten the integrity of the service, can a parasitic form of competition make inroads.
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  • The images shown below are all of the same slide; a venom gland from a parasitic wasp.
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  • It would have shown if your cat had a parasitic infection, so it really does sound like there's a food allergy in play.
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  • Feline Infectious Anemia, a parasitic disease, is known by several names.
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  • Worms or other types of parasitic infestations may produce vomiting as the body attempts to expel these unwelcome visitors.
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  • Viscum album, or Mistletoe, is a parasitic plant that grows among the branches of other trees.
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  • Spread through mosquito and flea bites, heartworm is a parasitic infection that disrupts an animal's circulatory system, eventually leading to life-threatening complications.
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  • Infestation can range from one to as many as 250 worms in an animal, with a parasitic life span of up to five to seven years.
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  • Heartworms are parasitic worms that are carried via mosquitoes.
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  • Attract predators such as ladybugs and parasitic wasps.
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  • You can also purchase parasitic nematodes to eat cutworms in the soil.
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  • Parasitic wasps in the garden will also take care of them.
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  • The disease is parasitic in origin and, if left untreated, can result in the death of the person infected.
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  • Sleeping sickness is parasitic disease also known as Human African Trypanosomiasis, or sometimes the African Sleeping Sickness.
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  • In both forms of the disease, the bite from the fly causes the parasitic infection.
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  • Unfortunately, the plague is embodied through parasitic plants that attach themselves to humans and turn them into monsters, the Mandragorans, and control all the actions.
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  • An increase in WBCs may occur in many conditions, including infection (viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic), allergy, leukemia, hemorrhage, traumatic tap, encephalitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
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  • Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the one-celled parasitic organism Toxoplasma gondii.
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  • Oocyst-A developmental stage of certain parasitic organisms, including those responsible for malaria and toxoplasmosis, in which the zygote of the organism is enclosed in a cyst.
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  • Eosinophils increase in response to parasitic infections and allergic reactions.
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  • The pinworm Enterobius vermicularis is one of the most common nematode parasitic infections of humans in North America and Europe.
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  • Toxoplasmosis-A parasitic infection caused by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasmosis gondii.
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  • This occurs mainly with parasitic infections (such as Giardia) or when people have altered immunity (such as AIDS).
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  • Scabies-A contagious parasitic skin disease caused by a tiny mite and characterized by intense itching.
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  • Examining a stool sample under a microscope can help to rule out parasitic and protozoal infections.
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  • Biopsy of intestinal contents can also reveal findings, such as parasitic infection, consistent with pica.
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  • Because AIDS results in immune system suppression, individuals with AIDS are highly susceptible to all kinds of pneumonia, including some previously rare parasitic types that would not cause illness in someone with a normal immune system.
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  • Parasitic infections that cause gastroenteritis are most commonly caused by Giardia, which is easily spread through contaminated water and human contact.
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  • Cryptosporidium is another common parasitic organism that causes the symptoms of gastroenteritis.
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  • Eosinophils are immune system white blood cells that destroy parasitic organisms and play a major role in allergic reactions.
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  • In hookworm infection, a parasitic worm that thrives in warm climates, including in the southern United States, enters the body through the skin, such as through bare feet.
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  • National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Parasitic Diseases. 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333.
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  • The child's immune system is an intricate network of interdependent cell types, substances, and organs that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections, and tumor cells.
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  • People seeking a home remedy for head lice may be quite surprised with nature's natural cures for treating this parasitic ailment.
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  • According to the publisher, Tattoo Savage is a "nasty and notorious magazine" for people who like "parasitic flash art and piercing displays."
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  • Sandra Diaz-Twine had to decline a second shot at surviving on the All-Stars edition due to a pesky parasitic infestation she picked up on the Pearl Islands.
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  • The Tok'ra Goa'uld took human hosts who were volunteers and the relationship was symbiotic rather than parasitic.
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  • The series followed the adventures of the reunited Jack O'Neill (Richard Dean Anderson) and Doctor Daniel Jackson (Michael Shanks) as they battled Ra's "people," the parasitic Go' auld.
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  • Well, that's actually good advice, as these pesky little parasitic insects are making a comeback.
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  • To completely rid your home and surroundings of bedbugs, it helps to understand the life cycle of these parasitic pests.
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  • Bedbugs are small parasitic insects that like to live in mattresses, old couches, and even in rugs or bed clothes.
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  • one extremity, and the absence of any morphologically distinct anterior extremity, are adaptations to the wholly parasitic life of this class.
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