Parasites sentence example

parasites
  • He creates the parasites that are vamps, which then kill humans.
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  • Peronospora, or to the young mycelia of epiphytic parasites, e.g.
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  • Among recent advances having medical import in our knowledge of the Nematodes, the chief are those dealing with the parasites of the blood.
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  • Three distinct parasites, corresponding with the tertian,.
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  • In the early autumn of 1751 La Mettrie, one of the king's parasites, and a man of much more talent than is generally allowed, horrified Voltaire by telling him that Frederick had in conversation applied to him (Voltaire) a proverb about "sucking the orange and flinging away its skin," and about the same time the dispute with Maupertuis, which had more than anything else to do with his exclusion from Prussia, came to a head.
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  • In the other animals several parasites have been described by different observers, but the alternate hosts are not known.
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  • Gunther, " On the Structure and Affinities of Mnestra parasites Krohn; with a revision of the Classification of the Cladonemidae," Mitt.
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  • Of all parasites the one which by its mere presence is the most dangerous is the larva of Taenia echinococcus.
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  • To begin with, 1 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be improper to dismiss Nitzsch's name without reference to his extraordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites of birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently elaborated by Denny in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the collection of the British Museum.
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  • All the species are usually infested with Cercariae and Rediae, the larval forms of Trematode parasites of vertebrates.
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  • These parasites damage the hide, B FIG.
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  • Hales (1727I 733) discussed the rotting of wounds, cankers, &c., but much had to be done with the microscope before any real progress was possible, and it is easily intelligible that until the theory of nutrition of the higher plants had been founded by the work of Ingenhouss, Priestley and De Saussure, the way was not even prepared for accurate knowledge of cryptogamic parasites and the diseases they induce.
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  • With regard to the parasites, which are the actual cause of malaria in man, an account of them is given under the heading of Parasitic Diseases, and little need be said about them here.
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  • Apparently the parasites may remain quiescent in the blood for years and may cause relapses by fresh sporulation.
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  • Birds are subject to malaria, which is caused by blood parasites akin to those in man and having a similar life-history.
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  • Many bird parasites belonging to the Rippoboscidae have naturally been carried about the world by their hosts, while other species, such as the house-fly, blow-fly and drone-fly, have in like manner been disseminated by human agency.
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  • As an appendix to the Oligochaeta, and possibly referable to that group, though their systematic position cannot at present be determined with certainty, are to be placed the Bdellodrilidae (Discodrilidae auct.), which are small parasites upon crayfish.
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  • PSOROSPERMIASIS, the medical term for a disease caused by the animal parasites known as psorosperms or gregarinidae, found in the liver, kidneys and ureters.
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  • The assumption made was that (with the rare exception of parasites) all the change of structure through which the successive generations of animals have passed has been one of progressive elaboration.
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  • The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily explained.
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  • The parasites thrive in an environment of dirt, and the main lines of precaution are those dictated by sanitary science.
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  • The fact of this increased leucocytic activity during the early stages, or the whole course of infection by Cestodes, is indirect proof that these parasites do normally discharge toxic substances into their hosts.
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  • The term "biting-lice" is sometimes given to these parasites, in allusion to the mandibulate character of their mouth-parts, which serves to distinguish them at once from the true lice of the order Rhynchota in which the jaws are haustellate.
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  • On the 6th of November in that year he plainly saw the living parasites under the microscope in the blood of a malarial patient, and he shortly afterwards communicated his observations to the Paris Academie de Medecine.
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  • "If that's the case, why on earth would I bother to free any of you parasites?" she asked, too tired to stand.
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  • The effects of these parasites have been mistaken for those of disease.
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  • C. Claus, " Ober die Struktur der Muskelzellen and fiber den Korperbau von Mnestra parasites Krohn," Verhandl.
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  • The presence of these parasites seems at times to have little effect on the host, and men in whose system it is calculated there are some 40-50 million larvae have shown no signs of disease.
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  • Fungal and phanerogamic parasites can make no use of stich substances as carbon dioxide, but draw elaborated products from the bodies of their hosts.
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  • It was formerly the custom to regard as parasites all those pants which inserted roots or root-like organs into the tissues of other plants and absorbed the contents of the latter.
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  • Plants as agents of damage and disease may be divided into those larger forms which as weeds, epiphytes and so forth, do injury by dominating and shading more delicate species, or by gradually exhausting the soil, &c., and true parasites which actually live on and in the tissues of the plants.
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  • Numerous Fungi, though conspicuous as parasites, cannot be said to do much individual injury to the host.
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  • Irritation and hypertrophy of cells are common signs of the presence of parasites, as ovinced by the numerous malformations, galls, witches-brooms, &c., on diseased plants.
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  • The Samoan forests are remarkable for the size and variety of their trees, and the luxuriance and beauty of tree-ferns, creepers and parasites.
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  • and began to work out the life history of his parasites.
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  • The labours of Golgi, Marchiafava, Celli and others established the nature of the parasite and its behaviour in the blood; they proved the fact, guessed by Rasori so far back as 1846, that the periodical febrile paroxysm corresponds with the development of the organisms; and they showed that the different forms of malarial fever have their distinct parasites, and consequently fall into distinct groups,.
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  • Other flies act as diseasecarriers, including the mosquitoes (Anopheles), which not only carry malarial germs, but also form a secondary host for these parasites.
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  • The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.
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  • It is invariably the result of some cause acting generally, such as renal disease, valvular defect of the heart, or an impoverished state of the blood; while a mere oedema is usually dependent upon some local obstruction to the return of blood or lymph, or of both, the presence of parasites within the tissue, such as the filaria sanguinis hominis or trichina spiralis, or the poisonous bites of insects.
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  • In the disease of the scalp called favus, Schonlein had discovered a minute mycelial fungus; a remarkable discovery, for it was the first conspicuous step in the attribution of diseases to the action of minute parasites.
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  • - The following works are the most important: Denny, Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (London, 18 43); Giebel, Insecta Epizoa (which contains the working-up of Nitzsch's posthumous materials; Leipzig, 1874); van Beneden, Animal Parasites (London, 1876); Piaget, Les Pediculines (Leiden, 1880); Megnin, Les Parasites et les maladies parasitaires (Paris, 1880); Neumann, Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals (1892); Osborn, Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals (Washington, 1891; U.S. Dept.
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  • Of these the best known were: the Kolakes, in which he pilloried the spendthrift Callias, who wasted his substance on sophists and parasites; Maricas, an attack on Hyperbolus, the successor of Cleon, under a fictitious name; the Baptae, against Alcibiades and his clubs, at which profligate foreign rites were practised.
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  • The prophylaxis is important in order to limit the spread of the parasites.
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  • The disseminators of malaria are exclusively Anophelinae, but even among these it is only certain species that are dangerous, since the others appear to be incapable of acting as hosts of the parasites.
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  • Hornell, "Parasites of the Pearl Oyster," Report on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar, The Royal Society (1904), pt.
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  • On the other hand, there are thousands of very small species, and the tiny " fairy-flies " (Myynaridae), whose larvae live as parasites in the eggs of various insects, are excessivel y minute for creatures of such complex organization.
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  • Other flies of this group have the inquiline habit, laying their eggs in the galls of other species, while others again pierce the cuticle of maggots or aphids, in whose bodies their larvae live as parasites.
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  • In two of the families - the Mutillidae and Thynnidae - the females are wingless and the larvae live as parasites in the larvae of other insects; the female Mutilla enters humble-bees' nests and lays her eggs in the bee-grubs.
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  • And some, like the bed-bugs, are parasites of vertebrate animals, on whose bodies they live temporarily or permanently, and whose blood they suck.
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  • The Cimicidae have the feet three-segmented and the forewings greatly reduced; most of the species are parasites on birds and bats, but one - Cimex lectularius (figs.
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  • Each foot is provided with a single strong claw which, opposed to a process on the shin, serves to grasp a hair of the host, all the lice being parasites on different mammals.
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  • They are of extremely widespread occurrence; there is hardly one of the chief classes of animals which does not furnish hosts for these parasites, scarcely one of the common tissues or organs of the Metazoan body which may not be liable to infection.
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  • parasites may be fairly abundant.
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  • In addition, the great majority have also another method of reproduction, for increasing the number of the parasites in any individual host; this is distinguished as multiplicative or endogenous reproduction, from the propagative or exogenous method (by means of the resistant spores), which serves for the infection of fresh hosts and secures the dissemination and survival of the species.
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  • In response to the exceeding diversity of habitat and of the conditions of life, the parasites exhibit manifold and widely-different types of form, organization and life-history.
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  • The other comprises the Myxosporidia, Actinomyxidia, Sarcosporidia and Haplosporidia, the parasites included in the last named order being of comparatively simple structure, and probably near the base of this section.
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  • The early colonists found quite half the surface of the archipelago covered with dense, evergreen forest, a luxuriant growth of pines and beeches, tangled and intertwined with palms, ferns of all sizes, wild vines and other parasites, and a rank, bushy, mossed undergrowth.
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  • parasites, tuberculosis; (0) on the ground that the flesh of artificially fed animals is full of excretory substances, and that, therefore, under modern conditions, flesh-eating is injurious, and may be a cause of excretory substance and uric acid deposits or rapid tissue-destroying diseases in man; e.g.
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  • p. 33) considers to be parasites not on the owner of the gall, Andricus terminalis, but on inquilinous Tortricidae.
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  • intermittent parasites," because when gorged they leave their hosts, fishes or frogs, and swim about in freedom for a considerable period.
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  • Giesbrecht (1900) considers Canu quite right in grouping together in this single family those parasites of ascidians, simple and compound, which had been previously distributed among families with the more or less significant names Notodelphyidae, Doropygidae, Buproridae, Schizoproctidae, Kossmechtridae, Enterocolidae, Enteropsidae.
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  • p. 39 (1900); Scott, " Fish Parasites," Scottish Fishery Board, 18th Ann.
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  • A medusa with a remarkable habit of life is Mnestra parasites, which is parasitic on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attaching itself to the host by its subumbral surface; its tentacles, no longer required for obtaining food, have become rudimentary.
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  • TRYPANOSOMES, Or Haemoflagellates, minute Protozoan parasites, characterized by the possession of one or two flagella and an undulating membrane, and specially adapted for life in the blood of a vertebrate.'
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  • Not only has the number of known forms been greatly multiplied, but the study of the biology and life-history of the parasites has been attended in some cases with remarkable and unexpected results.
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  • The first observation of a trypanosome is usually ascribed to Valentin (55), who in 1841 announced his discovery of certain amoeboid parasites in the blood of a trout.
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  • brucei) in cattle and horses laid low with nagana or the tsetse-fly disease; and this worker subsequently demonstrated, in a brilliant manner, the essential part played by the tsetse-fly in transmitting the parasites.
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  • Forde discovered the parasites, but was uncertain of their nature; he shewed them to E.
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  • Among batrachians the parasites have been found, up till now, only in frogs; and among reptiles their occurrence has only been observed in one or two solitary instances (T.
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  • Data with regard to the frequency with which individual species occur, in any kind of host, are as yet somewhat scanty; in one or two cases the parasites are fairly common, T.
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  • In considering the occurrence of Trypanosomes in mammals, careful distinction must be drawn between natural or true hosts, which are tolerant of the parasites, and casual ones, which are unaccustomed and unadapted to them.
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  • The transmission of the parasites from one vertebrate individual to another is effected, in the great majority of cases,' by a blood-sucking invertebrate, and by this means alone.
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  • Many other workers have since studied the subject and, so far as the parasites of fishes are concerned, there can be little doubt, thanks to the researches of E.
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  • In the first place experiment has shown that biting-flies, other in all probability than the true, natural hosts, may at times transmit the parasites - as it were - accidentally, if, after feeding on an infected animal, they are allowed to bite a fresh one within a limited time.
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  • The distribution of the parasites in the gnat is closely connected with the process of digestion.
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  • The life of the parasites while in the insect is characterized by an alternation of active periods, during which multiplication goes on, with resting-periods, when the Trypanosomes become attached to the epithelial cells of the host.
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  • The parasites are frequently more numerous in the spleen, bone-marrow, kidneys, &c., than elsewhere, and it has been found that multiplication goes on rather more actively in the capillaries of these organs.
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  • Death is due either to weakness and emaciation (in chronic cases), or to blocking of the cerebral capillaries by the parasites (where these are abundant), or to disorganization of the nervous system (paraplegic and sleepingsickness cases).
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  • Ingestion and dissolution of the Trypanosomes by phagocytes has frequently been observed; and it is probable also that the haematopoietic organs secrete some substance which exerts a harmful action on the parasites, and causes them to undergo involution and assume weird-looking " amoeboid " and " plasmodial " forms.
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  • A peculiar feature in the behaviour of the parasites, which is most probably caused by unfavourable biological conditions -in the host, is that known as agglomeration.
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  • The process is readily brought about artificially by the addition of sera or chemical solutions to blood containing the parasites.
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  • The end by which the parasites join is typically, in the case of Trypanosoma, the non-flagellate (anterior) end.
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  • If a favourable change in the surrounding medium sets in, the Trypanosomes are able to undergo the reverse process, namely disagglomeration; the parasites liberate themselves and the rosette is dissolved.
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  • a, Parasites.
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  • fl B C A v, rise to little fusiform parasites; with growth, these gradually assume the adult appearance.
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  • d i ffer i ng parasites, occurring in widely-different hosts.
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  • ziemanni and Trypanomorpha noctuae, among avian parasites, described by Schaudinn (50); Trypanosoma inopinatum, among batrachian forms, described by A.
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  • It is impracticable here to consider fully all the various developmental phases and modifications of the life-cycle described as occurring in the above parasites.
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  • In view, however, of the great interest excited by Schaudinn's work on avian parasites, as well as on account of the far-reaching importance of his conclusions to the study of the Haematozoa, a brief summary of his celebrated research is necessary.
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  • According to Schaudinn's account, he was dealing with two separate Trypanosome parasites of the Little Owl (Athene noctua), viz.
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  • The indifferent parasites exhibit an alternation of resting, attached phases with active periods, during which they multiply actively and become very abundant in the insect.
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  • In short, it is quite possible Schaudinn did not sufficiently distinguish between the life-cycles of four distinct parasites of the Little Owl: a Trypanosome, a Spirochaete, a Halteridium and a Leucocytozoon; though, on the other hand, this is by no means proved.
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  • Moreover, it is very probable that conjugation occurs soon after the arrival of the parasites in their specific invertebrate host; and this act may perhaps give rise to an aflagellar copula, which is gregariniform and comparable to an ookinete.
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  • It is, for instance, quite likely that certain Herpetomonadine parasites described by Leger (2 9, 34) from various blood-sucking insects are really only stages in the life of a Haemoflagellate.
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  • - Flagellates, in the great majority of instances haemal parasites, derived from a biflagellate, Bodo-like type, in which the posteriorly-directed (trailing) flagellum is always present and attached to the body by an undulating membrane, of which it constitutes the thickened edge.
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  • The species included are not, so far as is known, haemal parasites.
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  • Undoubtedly closely allied to the Haemoflagellates, although no actual trypaniform phase has yet been observed, are the important parasites usually known as the " Leish- The man-Donovan " bodies, without some consideration of which an account of the Haemoflagellates would - hardly be complete.
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  • The chief distinction between the parasites in the two cases is in their habitat.
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  • The parasites are either free or intracellular.
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  • Laveran and Mesnil (27) gave the name Piroplasma donovani to Leishman's form,' and there is no doubt that the parasites are closely allied to that type of organism.
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  • Rogers cultivated the parasites obtained from cases of kala-azar in artificial media, and found that what were unmistakably flagellate ©o
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  • Uninuclear leucocyte (L) containing several parasites (after Lay.
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  • Since then many other workers have obtained similar stages [see Leishman and Statham (38), Christophers (7)]; but however slender and Trypanosomelike the flagelliform parasites may appear, up till now no indications of an undulating membrane have been seen, and the kinetonuclear element is never far from the insertion of the flagellum.
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  • That being so, it is quite possible that, in normal conditions and circumstances, these parasites also possess, at some period of the life-cycle, a trypaniform phase.
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  • Nothing definite is yet known with regard to the transmission of the parasites by an alternate invertebrate host, although there is presumptive evidence in favour of this supposition.2 A word or two must be said in conclusion with reference to the supposed connexion of the Spirochaetae with the n Trypanosomes.
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  • Ross (49), regarding the parasites as a quite different kind of Sporozoan, termed them Leishmania; and Wright named his variety from tropical ulcers Helcosoma tropicum.
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  • In addition, it is most probable that, at any rate, certain other spirilliform parasites, e.g.
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  • On the other hand, evidence has lately been brought forward to show that certain parasites which greatly resemble a Spirochaele are really related to the Trypanosomes.
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  • A comprehensive review of the Haemoflagellates and allied parasites, considered up to the end of 1905, has been published by (I) H.
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  • Rogers," On the development of flagellated organisms (Trypanosomes) from the spleen Protozoic parasites of cachexial fevers and Kala-azar," Quart.
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  • These they obtain usually in the form of carbohydrates from the dead remains of other organisms, or in this or other forms from the living cells of their hosts; in the former case they are termed saprophytes, in the latter parasites.
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  • insect-parasites, hornand feather-destroying fungi and parasites generally.
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  • Peronosporaceae are a group of endophytic parasites - about ioo species - of great importance as comprising the agents of "damping off" disease (Pythium), vine-mildew (Plasmopara), potato disease (Phytophthora), onion-mildew (Peronospora).
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  • Most genera are saprophytes, but some - Chaetocladium, Piptocephalis - are parasites on other Mucorini, and one or two are associated casually with the rotting of tomatoes and other fruits, bulbs, &c., the fleshy parts of which are rapidly destroyed if once the hyphae gain entrance.
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  • The bunts and smuts which damage our grain and fodder plants comprise about 400 species of internal parasites, found in all countries on herbaceous plants, and especially on Monocotyledons.
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  • The Taphrineae, which include Exoascus and Taphrina, are important parasites - e.g.
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  • The Erysiphaceae are a sharply marked group of forms which live as parasites.
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  • This is a large group of about 2000 forms. They are all intercellular parasites living mostly on the leaves of higher plants.
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  • Hymenomycetes are a very large group containing over 11,000 species, most of which live in soil rich in humus or on fallen wood or stems, a few only being parasites.
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  • Some fungi, though able to live as saprophytes, occasionally enter the body of living plants, and are thus termed facultative parasites.
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  • Such obligate parasites may be epiphytic (Erysipheae), the mycelium remaining on the outside and at most merely sending haustoria into the epidermal cells, or endophytic (Uredineae, Ustilagineae, &c.), when the mycelium is entirely inside the organs of the host.
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  • Endophytic parasites may be intracellular, when the fungus or its mycelium plunges into the cells and destroys their contents directly (Olpidium, Lagenidium, Sclerotinia, &c.), but they are far more frequently intercellular, at any rate while young, the mycelium growing in the lacunae between the cells (Peronospora, Uredineae) into which it may send short (Cystopus), or long and branched (Peronospora Calotheca) haustoria, or it extends in the middle lamella (Ustilago), or even in the solid substance of the cell-wall (Botrytis).
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  • Destructive parasites rapidly ruin the whole plant-body (Pythium), whereas restrained parasites only tax the host slightly, and ill effects may not be visible for a long time, or only when the fungus is epidemic (Rhytisma).
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  • The latter fact, as well as the extraordinary fastidiousness, so to speak, of parasites in their choice of hosts or of organs for attack, point to reactions on the part of the host-plant, as well as capacities on that of the parasite, which may be partly explained in the light of what we 'now know regarding enzymes and chemotropism.
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  • Some parasites attack many hosts and almost any tissue or organ (Botrytis cinerea), others are restricted to one family (Cystopus candidus) or genus (Phytophthora infestans) or even species (Pucciniastrum Padi), and it is customary to speak of rootparasites, leaf-parasites, &c., in expression of the fact that a given parasite occurs only on such organs - e.g.
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  • Dematophora necatrix on roots, Calyptospora Goeppertiana on stems, Ustilago Scabiosae in anthers, Claviceps purpurea in ovaries, &c. Associated with these relations are the specializations which parasites show in regard to the age of the host.
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  • Many parasites can enter a seedling, but are unable to attack the same host when older - e.g.
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  • In parasites (Lathraea, Orobanche) and in plants growing on decaying vegetable matter (saprophytes), in which no chlorophyll is formed, these scales are the only leaves produced.
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  • A kind of plover, Pluvianus aegyptius, often sits upon basking crocodiles, and, since the latter often rest with gaping mouth, it is possible that these agile birds do pick the reptiles' teeth in search of parasites.
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  • The spurwing is supposed to be the bird mentioned by Herodotus as eating the parasites covering the inside of the mouth of the crocodile.
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  • The plants included are, however, mainly well-established parasites, and the absence of nucellus is only one of those characters of reduction to which parasites are liable.
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  • Lice-eating is a widely prevalent habit among the Indians and mestizos, and demonstrates how numerous these parasites are among the people.
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  • In the nests of Bombi are found various beetle larvae that live as inquilines or parasites, and also maggots of drone-flies (V olucella), which act as scavengers; the Volucella-fly is usually a" mimic ' vades.
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  • Thirdly, the ill effect of introduced forms on existing ones may often be due rather to the spread of disease and parasites than to actual attack; thus, in Hawaii the native birds have been found suffering from a disease which attacks poultry.
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  • As man cannot easily avoid introducing parasites, and must keep domestic animals and till the land, a certain disturbance in aboriginal faunas is absolutely unavoidable.
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  • antarctica), 2 and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri), intermingled with a dense undergrowth composed of a great variety of shrubs and plants, among which are Maytenus magellanica, Arbutus rigida, Myrtus memmolaria, two or three species of Berberis, wild currant (Ribes antarctica), a trailing blackberry, tree ferns, reed-like grasses and innumerable parasites.
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  • The evidence to hand shows that on heights and in open country, especially in the north, there may be few or even no Schizomycetes detected in the air, and even in towns their distribution varies greatly; sometimes they appear to exist in minute clouds, as it were, with interspaces devoid of any, but in laboratories and closed spaces where their cultivation has been promoted Lhe air may be considerably laden with them Of course the distribution of bodies so light and small is easily influenced by movements, rain, wind, changes of temperature, &c. As parasites, certain Schizomycetes inhabit and prey upon the organs of man and animals in varying degrees, and the conditions for their growth and distribution are then very complex.
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  • Fischer has proposed that the old division into saprophytes and parasites should be replaced by one which takes into account other peculiarities in the mode of nutrition of bacteria.
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  • their metabolic products may induce blood-poisoning or other toxic effects (facultative parasites) though they are not true parasites.
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  • These forms are termed by Fischer Metatrophic, because they require various kinds of organic materials obtained from the dead remains of other organisms or from the surfaces of their bodies, and can utilize and decompose them in various ways (Polytrophic) or, if monotrophic, are at least unable to work them up. The true parasites - obligate parasites of de Bary - are placed by Fischer in a third biological group, Paratrophic bacteria, to mark the importance of their mode of life in the interior of living organisms where they live and multiply in the blood, juices or tissues.
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  • Similarly we are unable to divide Schizomycetes sharply into parasites and saprophytes, since it is well proved that a number of species - facultative parasites - can become one or the other according to circumstances.
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  • These facts, and the further knowledge that many bacteria never observed as parasites, or as pathogenic forms, produce toxins or poisons as the result of their decompositions and fermentations of organic substances, have led to important results in the applications of bacteriology to medicine.
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  • In certain parasites, for instance, the adults have lost every trace not only of Crustacean but even of Arthropodous structure, and the only clue to their zoological position is that afforded by the study of their development.
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  • just before the parent organism in the red blood corpuscles is about to discharge the new generation of young parasites into the blood-plasma.
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  • After a single full dose of quinine no parasites can as a rule be observed in the blood for several days.
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  • Quinine is much less efficacious in the treatment of post-malarial symptoms, such as neuralgia and haematuria, when no parasites can be detected in the blood.
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  • Insectivorous or, as they are sometimes more correctly termed, carnivorous plants are, like the parasites, the climbers, or the succulents, a physiological assemblage belonging to a number of distinct natural orders.
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  • At this time unshorn lambs are dipped and dosed with one of Cooper's tablets of sulphur-arsenic dip material to destroy internal parasites.
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  • The early parasites may be divided into two classes, religious and civil.
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  • In Attica the parasites appear to have been confined to certain demes (Acharnae, Diomeia), and were appointed by the demes to which the temples belonged.
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  • The "civil" parasites were a class of persons who received invitations to dine in the prytaneum and subsequently in the tholos) as distinguished from those who had the right to dine there ex officio.
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  • The chief object of this class of parasites was a good dinner, for which they were ready to submit to almost any humiliation.
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  • The other two parasites, smut and bunt, affect principally the grain.
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  • The book appeared anonymously, the author having, as he himself says, nothing in view beyond furnishing a statement of the faith of the persecuted Protestants, whom he saw cruelly cut to pieces by impious and perfidious court parasites.'
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  • Mention is made under Tapeworm of the worms of that species inhabiting the human body as parasites, and it will be convenient here to mention other parasitic varieties.
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  • Fungus parasites have been used with some, but on the whole rather slight, success, and mechanical appliances with perhaps greater success, in combating these pests.
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  • THYROSTRACA, an order of Crustacea, comprising barnacles, acorn shells and some allied degenerate parasites.
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  • The cinchona alkaloids have a specifically poisonous effect on the parasites of malaria when present in human blood, and are poisonous to all low organisms.
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  • Drugs acting on parasites.
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  • Zuni, against, iXµcvs, EX,u vBos, a worm) are drugs which kill parasites inhabiting the intestine.
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  • Parasiticides or anti-parasitics destroy parasites; the terms are usually restricted to those acting on skinparasites as contrasted with intestinal ones.
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  • abutilon theophrasti: wild host for three fungal parasites of soybean.
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  • administered orally to reach the parasites within the tissues.
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  • admire the ingenuity of the creators of some of the parasites, particularly those with several hosts.
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  • One must particularly admire the ingenuity of the creators of some of the parasites, particularly those with several hosts.
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  • amoeba Parasites page: worms protozoa ameba diseases parasitic animals Parasites page: worms protozoa ameba diseases parasitic animals.. .
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  • Standard treatment methods use anthelmintics to kill parasites carried by the sheep.
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  • anthropoid primates: parasites, injuries and predators.
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  • asexual blood stages of malaria parasites.
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  • There is no way that the Federation will strike a bargain with this race of parasites.
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  • The research is aimed at three aspects of the parasites biology relevant to disease control.
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  • bloodstream of a new host, thus completing the parasites lifecycle.
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  • They have also come up with parasites that eat mealy bugs.
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  • coccidiosis in poultry, caused by Eimeria species of intestinal parasites.
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  • crustacean species parasites marine mammals.
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  • leaf decoction used for catarrh in Piura; crushed seed to kill parasites (FEO ).
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  • Moose have a large number of parasites on their coat (called ectoparasites ).
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  • to eliminate parasites or other persistent infections, one solution is to expand T effector cells.
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  • Many strains are facultative intracellular parasites which produce endotoxins and enterotoxins.
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  • facultative parasites can develop in both living and dead organic matter.
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  • formic acid, which helps to kill the bird's parasites.
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  • genetics of malaria parasites.
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  • In particular, ' strains ' of parasites may have been selected for compatibility with the local host genotypes.
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  • See also screen design, scouring velocity Tapeworms Parasites that infect the gut of the fish.
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  • haploid genomes of both parasites have been fully sequenced opening up new research areas.
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  • helminth parasites (worms) is also under study in 3IR.
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  • infected with resistant parasites.
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  • intracellular parasites or invaders, being of eukaryotic, bacterial or viral origins.
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  • Sandflies and the transmission of the tropical disease leishmaniasis of sandfly gut infected with Leishmania parasites.
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  • minty aroma of pennyroyal herb, it leaves the coat clean, fresh and prevents parasites.
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  • Cellular invasion can be duplicated in vitro with polarized epithelial cell monolayers, and parasites ' activated ' to acquire infectivity.
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  • The obvious examples are genes to block the transmission of viruses and malaria parasites, as well as filarial nematodes.
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  • nematode parasites before I finally became involved in rheumatology research.
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  • protozoan parasites in the UK - cause for concern?
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  • Funding: Monkey malaria 13 March 2006 Researchers in Malaysia are aiming to discover whether malarial parasites are being transmitted from monkeys to humans.
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  • Their replication strategy like that of viruses - they are obligate intracellular parasites.
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  • The disease results from replication in red blood cells of apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium.
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  • It also plays a role in the immune system, apparently helping control infection by intracellular parasites.
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  • It also allows the squirrel to reduce the level of parasite infestation they suffer by leaving parasite infestation they suffer by leaving parasites behind in the nest.
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  • The molecular biology of helminth parasites (worms) is also under study in 3IR.
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  • To address this aspect we study the interactions of Anopheles mosquitoes and plasmodium parasites, the agent of malignant malaria.
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  • It involves experiments in the laboratory as well as field work on brood parasites in Australia and America.
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  • gut parasites are of great importance in birds of prey.
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  • Diseases caused by external parasites should be controlled by appropriate parasiticides.
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  • Such organisms are therefore termed parasites and medical parasitology is the study of protozoa and helminth infections of man.
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  • The disease results from replication in red blood cells of apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus plasmodium.
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  • roundworm parasites from the grass, which invade their intestines.
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  • Will they be eaten by parasites, or killed by a particularly savage frost?
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  • scum of capitalist society - parasites off the working people.
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  • Other causes of inspiratory and expiratory dyspnoea include airway stenosis following trauma, and parasites (eg Filaroides osleri) - rare.
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  • In order to maintain the tortoises in good health it is necessary to educate tortoise keepers on treatment of parasites.
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  • They are parasites of fish and other cold blooded vertebrates.
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  • waterborne bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasites.
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  • The Nematode parasites of the Invertebrata are usually immature forms which attain their full development in the body of some vertebrate; but there are a number of species which in the sexually adult condition are peculiar to the Invertebrata.2 The Nematoda contain about as many parasitic species as all the other groups of internal parasites taken together; they are found in almost all the organs of the body, and by their presence, especially when encysted in the tissues and during their migration from one part of the body to another, give rise to various pathological conditions.
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  • This migration is usually accompanied by a more or less complete metamorphosis, which is, however, not so conspicuous as in most other parasites, e.g.
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  • mechanical injury from without, and against the entry of smaller parasites, such as fungi and bacteria, but also and especially to prevent the evaporation of water from within.
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  • In the first place, the so-called internal causes of disease is probably a mere phrase covering our ignorance of the factors at work, and although a certain convenience attaches to the distinction between those cases where tender breeds of plants apparently exhibit internal predisposition to suffer more readily than others from parasites, low temperatures, excessive growth, &c.as is the case with some grafted plants, cultivated hybrids, &c.the mystery involved in the phrase internal causes only exists until we find what action of the living or nonliving environment of the essential mechanism of the plant has upset its equilibrium.
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  • Many larvae of beetles, moths, &c., bore into bark, and injure the cambium, or even the wood and pith; in addition to direct injury, the interference with the transpiration current and the access of other parasites through the wounds are also to be feared in proportion to the numbers of insects at work.
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  • Roots are often flattened, twisted and otherwise distorted by mechanical obstacles; stems by excess of food in rich soils, the attacks of minute parasites, overgrowth by climbing plants, &c. Leaves are especially apt to vary, and although the formation of crests, pitchers, puckers, &c., must be put down to the results of abnormal development, it is often difficult to draw the line between teratological and merely varietal phenomena.
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  • Parasites, again, were derived from normal autotrophic plants, which, as the parasitic habit became more pronounced, acquired the corresponding characteristics of form and structure; there is, in fact, the group of hemi-parasites, plants which still retain autotrophic characters though they are root-parasites.
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  • The pathological changes in malaria are due to the deposition of melanin and the detritus of red corpuscles and haemoglobin, and to the congregation of parasites in certain sites (Ross).
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  • The Diptera Orthorrhapha include the more primitive and less specialized families such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), Culicidae (gnats or mosquitoes), Chironomidae (midges), Mycetophilidae (fungus-midges), Tabanidae (horse-flies), Asilidae (robber-flies), &c. The Diptera Cyclorrhapha on the other hand consist of the most highly specialized families, such as the Syrphidae (hover-flies), Oestridae (bot and warble flies), and Muscidae (sensu latiore - the house-fly and its allies, including tsetse-flies, flesh-flies, Tachininae, or flies the larvae of which are internal parasites of caterpillars, &c.).
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  • The dodder is a genus (Cuscuta) of leafless parasites with slender thread-like twining stems. The flowers stand singly in the leaf-axils or form few or many flowered cymose inflorescences; the flowers are sometimes crowded into small heads.
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  • Natural Protection Against Parasitism The living organism is a rich storehouse of the very materials from which parasites, both animal and vegetable, can best derive their nourishment.
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  • in myelogenic leucaemia), but parasites also, both in man, as those of malaria, of sleeping sickness, of kala-azar, and in animals, as redwater, Texas fever, n'gana, have been discovered, to the great advantage of preventive medicine.
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  • These maladies are caused by minute unicellula animal parasites (haematozoa) of the genus Trypanosoma (see Trypanosomes); and recent investigations have shown that, under normal conditions, the particular species of Trypanosoma concerned (T.
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  • palpalis can convey kindred parasites which are fatal to domestic animals.
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  • In other words, under the heading Sporozoa, as at present used, are included two entirely independent series of Protozoan parasites; the general resemblances which these exhibit are due to convergence brought about by their specialized mode of life.
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  • The " carrier " of a Trypanosome of warmblooded vertebrates is, in all instances so far described, an insect, generally a member of the Diptera; in the case of parasites of cold-blooded vertebrates the same role is usually played by an ichthyobdellid leech (piscine forms), but possibly, now and again, by an Ixodes (amphibian or reptilian forms).
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  • These are undoubtedly the organs which react most strongly to the parasites, and their enlarged condition is to a great extent due to their enhanced activity in elaborating blood-corpuscles and leucocytes to cope with the enemy.
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  • There is no reason to doubt that this vacuole is a normal cell-constituent, for it has been described in parasites in quite normal surroundings and conditions.
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  • In the blood of the owl resting, intracellular phases of both parasites alternate with active trypaniform ones; and, when in the former condition, Schaudinn considers that the parasites are identical with what have been formerly regarded as distinct Haemosporidia, Halteridium and a Leucocytozoon respectively.
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  • The parasites themselves are very minute and usually ovoid or pyriform in shape (fig.
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  • It appears to conform more or less to the radial or rosette type of multiplication, enlarged rounded parasites, with a varying number of nuclei (up to about eight) uniformly arranged near the periphery, having been often noticed (fig.
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  • a, Typical pear-shaped or oval forms; b, various stages in longitudinal division; c, nuclear division preparatory to multiple fission; d, endoglobular forms, in red blood-corpuscles (p = pigment grains); e, bacillary form of the parasite in a corpuscle; M, large macrophageal cell with many parasites (after Donovan).
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  • Nitzsch (1818) to the degraded wingless parasites (fig.
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  • Pasteur established (I) that the corpuscles are the special characteristic of the disease, and that these invariably manifest themselves, if not in earlier stages, then in the mature moths; (2) that the corpuscles are parasites, and not only the sign but the cause of the disease; and (3) that the disease manifests itself by heredity, by contagion with diseased worms, and by the eating of leaves on which corpuscles are spread.
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  • Yes, external parasites transmissible to man include fleas, sarcoptic mange, the fur mite and ringworm fungi.
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  • Worm drenching lambs: Lambs pick up roundworm parasites from the grass, which invade their intestines.
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  • Those who manage to avoid work are the moral scum of capitalist society - parasites off the working people.
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  • In many host-parasite systems parasites are better able to parasitise their sympatric host population than hosts from other populations of the same species.
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  • Particular interests include waterborne bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasites.
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  • However, your adopted child may face medical issues like developmental delays, lead poisoning, infectious diseases, and intestinal parasites.
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  • While these parasites are often associated with dirt or poor hygiene, bed bugs can also be found in plush hotels and other upscale properties so anyone and everyone may find themselves wondering where to buy insecticides for bedbugs.
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  • You could bring a myriad of diseases and parasites home to your cats.
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  • If you do not already have cats, free kittens can be a great choice if you truly want a pet and you are willing to do the work if it turns out that your new kitten does have an illness or parasites.
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  • Free kittens do come with health risks, but in reality, kittens from any source can have a disease or parasites.
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  • The vet will perform a basic health check to make sure the kitten has no obvious illnesses, parasites or defects.
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  • Second, even though your cat doesn't appear to have fleas, parasites or fungi can still be possibilities.
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  • Probably the most common are fleas or other parasites and stress.
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  • The organisms that cause this disease are bacterial parasites that affect the outer surface of the cat's red blood cells.
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  • This can be as simple as brushing through the fur several times a week to check for parasites, scabs and similar signs of a problem.
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  • Check carefully for evidence of these parasites and talk to your vet about the different options available for treatment.
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  • Parasites and worms: De-worming the animal will treat this condition.
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  • NP: It's not uncommon for cats to have minor medical problems that are easily remedied such as ear mites, fleas and internal parasites (worms).
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  • Raw fish can contain tapeworm and other parasites.
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  • When the fish is cooked, the parasites are killed and your pet is safe from them.
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  • There is growing concern that parasites carried by cats (and flushed) could be contributing to the decline of sea otters, as well.
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  • Keeping these parasites under control means no more itchy flea bites for you or for your cat.
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  • Fleas are common parasites which feed on the blood of certain mammals, most notably dogs, cats, and humans.
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  • One of the most common causes of ear infections, cat ear mites are small parasites that can cause permanent damage to your pet if left untreated.
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  • Ear mites are minute parasites that look like tiny spiders.
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  • Ear mites, which go by the scientific name Otodectes cynotis, are common parasites of cats, but they also affect dogs, foxes and other small mammals.
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  • You can only imagine how maddening it must feel to have parasites in your ears.
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  • Some parasites may belong to the same biological family or genus.
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  • Even though they are called ear mites, these parasites may be found anywhere on your cat.
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  • Cat fights, diseases, parasites and pests are common threats of the outdoors, as well as speedy vehicles and unwitting drivers.
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  • The urban outdoors is rife with communicable cat diseases, pests and parasites, as well as all sorts of vehicular dangers.
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  • He will want to check for worms and other parasites, check for the possibility of hidden illnesses, and give your kitten the vaccinations that she needs to maintain a long and healthy life.
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  • Parasites are another somewhat common cause of vomiting in cats of all ages.
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  • Parasites such as roundworms are more frequently found in outdoor cats.
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  • Parasites and food allergies should not be left untreated, and both typically produce more symptoms than vomiting.
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  • This spring, you may wish to use rosemary as a natural flea repellent to keep fleas and other parasites off your pet.
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  • Ingested: The theory behind ingested repellents is that the active compounds in rosemary taint the flavor of your pet's blood, making Fido less palatable to parasites.
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  • Applying rosemary directly to your pet will protect from fleas and other parasites at home or at the dog park.
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  • Long-term exposure to fleas can cause anemia, allergic dermatitis and intestinal parasites in your pet, so timely treatment is important.
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  • In fact, eating certain foods raw, such as meat, has more potential harm than benefit thanks to the bacteria and parasites that can thrive in flesh foods.
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  • The parasites can grow between six and twelve inches long, and an infected dog may host more than a hundred worms which can spread to the lungs and large vessels in the circulatory system.
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  • As the parasites mature, they block the blood flow and can lead to anemia (reduced hemoglobin) or heart failure.
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  • As dog owners travel (taking southerly vacations in winter months, for example), they expose their pets to the disease, and northern mosquitoes can acquire the parasites as larvae from infected dogs.
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  • The purpose of this quarantine period is to determine if pets may be carrying dangerous parasites and/or zoonotic diseases which could be transmitted to the indigenous population, both humans and animals.
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  • Dogs are susceptible to picking up internal parasites that can rob them of their nutrition, leaving them underweight and scruffy in appearance.
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  • These internal parasites are transmitted through mosquito exposure and lodge themselves in your dog's heart and pulmonary system.
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  • As you brush your pet, look for and remove parasites.
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  • The fact that you haven't found fleas makes me wonder if we're dealing with parasites that can't be seen.
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  • Intestinal worms are parasites that live out their life cycle in a dog's digestive tract.
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  • Your dog might have some sort of skin infection, either caused by parasites or a fungus.
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  • You can start with simple ideas like sprinkling garlic into your dog's food to help control parasites, bathing him with eucalyptus shampoo or applying tea tree oil if he has a skin allergy problem.
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  • Rescued dogs should be current on their vaccinations, be on a flea preventative and tested for internal parasites.
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  • Giving your dog preventative medication for heartworm eliminates the danger of your canine companion falling prey to the debilitating parasites that cause heartworm disease.
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  • With such staggering statistics, it's easy to understand the danger these parasites pose to your pet.
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  • While some medicines only prevent heartworms, others, such as Advantage Multi, also guard against other parasites.
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  • Some versions also treat for other parasites, such as roundworm and hookworm.
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  • Some veterinarians can also recommend natural remedies that you may prefer to use with your dog, including mosquito sprays and herbs that can kill parasites as they enter the dog's body.
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  • It isn't a pleasant thought, but most puppies have parasites that need to be dealt with.
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  • You should have a fresh stool sample checked for any parasites when taking your puppy in for booster shots and check-ups.
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  • Here are some other intestinal parasites: whipworm, hookworms and tapeworms.
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  • One of your new official jobs as a pet parent is to be able to collect a fresh stool sample so that your vet can look into it for any parasites and see how your dog is digesting his food.
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  • Some veterinarians who prefer commercial dog food point out that raw meat is potentially dangerous to dogs due to bacteria and parasites.
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  • A puppy may show even more severe symptoms if he is already suffering from a secondary bacterial infection or parasites.
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  • Naturally I asked why such a plant was not in cultivation, and learnt that the Gerardias are mostly parasites on the roots of other plants.
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  • Organic meats that you provide your cat should ideally be frozen first to kill any parasites or bacteria.
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  • This can be done if plants are healthy and are able to resist disease and parasites.
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  • A healthy lawn is better able to fight off parasites and disease than one which suffers from some type of deficiency or inadequate care.
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  • Practicing basic rules of food safety reduces the chances of food contamination by bacteria, parasites, viruses and other microorganisms.
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  • While the disease is not air borne, the very real fear of parasites and death causes many tourists to have him or herself screened upon returning home from areas where infection is possible.
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  • To defeat Grays with shields, mutate and fire parasites at them.
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  • Enter the room where he is as a mutant and fire parasites of melee the Leapers that come after you.
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  • Using parasites on the first few restores your health and using melee on the rest works well to keep your mutagen full and also leaves the health powerups for later if you need them.
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  • Fire a few parasites at him, then move in close to melee him.
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  • Cancer deaths worldwide can be traced to viruses, bacteria, or parasites.
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  • Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to infectious agents that are foreign to the body, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or toxins.
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  • Fever, an elevation of normal body temperature, is a natural response of the body that helps fight off foreign substances, such as microorganisms (bacteria and viruses), parasites, fungi, and toxins.
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  • When diagnostic studies are needed, the most useful are stool culture and examination for parasites; however, these are often negative, and a cause cannot be found in a large number of people.
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  • Many exams are the same as for an acute episode, as some infections and parasites cause both types of diarrhea.
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  • It can be caused by nearly any class of organism known to cause human infections, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
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  • These antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) produced by the immune system to respond to bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxins that invade the body.
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  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is found in respiratory secretions and is directed toward invasion of the body by parasites and in allergic reactions such as hay fever, atopic dermatitis, and allergic asthma.
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  • Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can be caused by nearly any class of organism known to cause human infections, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
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  • The list of organisms that can cause pneumonia is lengthy and includes nearly every class of infecting organism: viruses, bacteria, bacteria-like organisms, fungi, and parasites (including certain worms).
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  • Gastroenteritis is caused by the ingestion of viruses, certain bacteria, or parasites.
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  • However, if identification of the infectious agent is required, a stool sample will be collected and analyzed for the presence of rotavirus, disease-causing (pathogenic) bacteria, or parasites.
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  • The function of the immune system is to respond to organisms and substances that invade the body, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and toxins, by producing antibodies against them.
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  • The eosinophil is a component of the immune system and is particularly involved with defense against parasites, but as of 2004 no parasite had been found responsible for any of the eosinophilic gastroenteropathies.
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  • The cellular response of adaptive immunity is useful for attacking viruses, some parasites, and possibly cancer cells.
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  • A lice infestation, or pediculosis, is caused by parasites living on human skin.
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  • Ivermectin (Stromectol), an oral treatment for intestinal parasites, is effective against head lice but as of 2004 had not been approved for that use by the FDA.
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  • Broad-spectrum bacteriostatic agents, the tetracyclines may be effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, including rickettsia and amoebic parasites.
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  • The doctor may also test tissue fluid or smears from the child's lesions to rule out skin parasites or infections that mimic atopic dermatitis, such as bacterial infections, scabies, or herpesvirus infections.
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  • Head lice are parasites that need human blood in order to survive.
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  • Preventing lice takes diligence and awareness of what these parasites need.
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  • Being able to recognize these parasites is the first step to getting appropriate treatment to deal with the infestation.
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  • In fact, the expression, "nit picking" comes from the struggle to free a person's hair from these parasites.
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  • Wash them in hot, soapy water and dry them on high heat to kill the parasites.
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  • Raw fish and shellfish can contain bacteria and parasites that are harmful to both you and your baby.
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  • Flukes are microscopic parasites that embed themselves in the gills of the fish.
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  • However, when levels of beneficial bacteria drop, they make room for harmful flora, which can lead to multiple health problems including infection, irregularity, yeast overgrowth, parasites, gas, and food allergies.
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  • The effects of these technology parasites are as creative as the hackers who write the code.
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  • The cinnamon and honey cleanses parasites, fungus and bacteria out of the digestive tract.
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  • After the Ancients but still thousands of years ago, the system was taken over by the Goa'uld, a race of evil parasites who enslaved humanity.
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  • The Goa'uld were small lizard-like parasites who resided inside a (usually human) host and took over and controlled the host's body.
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  • Take a look at the life cycle of these parasites and learn how to get rid of bed bugs for good.
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  • Chemical treatments: If you want to ensure these pesky parasites are fully eliminated from your home, you may need to rely on the professional services of an exterminator.
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  • While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.
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  • As unlicensed blood-letters, certain land-leeches are among the most unpleasant of parasites that can be encountered in a tropical jungle.
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  • The remarkable medusa Mnestra parasites is ecto-para- '"' rp m sitic throughout life sr..
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  • The dissemination of plant parasites is favored by many circumstances not always obvious, whence an air of mystery regarding epidemics was easily created in earlier times.
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  • Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae), of parasites, and of saprophytes.
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  • They have a well-developed proboscis which is used as a suctorial organ; some are abyssal, but the majority are either commensals or parasites of Echinoderms.
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  • - (I) Leuckart, The Parasites of Man (Edinburgh, 1886); (2) Braun, The Animal Parasites of Man (London, 1906); (3) Id., " Cestodes " in Braun's Klassen u.
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  • (1894); (4) Shipley and Fearnsides, " Effects of Parasites," Journ.
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  • (Monograph), and The Animal Parasites of Man (London, 1906); W.
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  • Following up this line of investigation, Major Ronald Ross in 1895 found that if a mosquito sucked blood containing the parasites they soon began to throw out flagellae, which broke away and became free; and in 1897 he discovered peculiar pigmented cells, which afterwards turned out to be the parasites of aestivo-autumnal malaria in an early stage of development, within the stomachwall of mosquitoes which had been fed on malarial blood.
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