By Goyaz, Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo and Parana, S.
The northern slope of this great plateau is drained by the AraguayaTocantins, Xingu, Tapajos and Guapore-Mamore-Madeira, which flow northward, and, except the first, empty into the Amazon; the southern slope drains southward through a multitude of streams flowing into the Parana and Paraguay.
The basins of the Parana and Paraguay are separated by low mountain ranges extending north from the sierras of Paraguay.
The Argentine " mesopotamia," between the Parana and Uruguay rivers, belongs in great measure to this same region, being partly wooded, flat and swampy in the north (Corrientes), but higher and undulating in the south (Entre Rios).
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
Long, and flows north-easterly into the Parana delta.
Many smaller streams discharge into the Paraguay and Parana from the west, some of them wholly dependent upon the rains, and drying up during long droughts.
North of Buenos Aires, on the Parana river, is the port of Rosario, the outlet for a rich agricultural district, ranking next to the federal capital in importance.
Other river ports, of less importance, are Concordia on the Uruguay river, San Nicolas and Campana on the Parana river, Santa Fe on the Salado, a few miles from the Parana, the city of Parana on the Parana river, and Gualeguay on the Gualeguay river.
Several species of monkeys inhabit the forests from the Parana, to the Bolivian frontier.
The reptilians are represented in the Parana by the jacare (Alligator sclerops), and on land by the " iguana " (Teius teguexim, Podinema teguixin), and some species of lizard.
For the instruction of teachers the republic has 28 normal schools, as follows: three in the national capital; one in Parana, three (regional) in Corrientes, San Luis and Catamarca; 14 for female teachers in the provincial capitals; and seven for either sex in the larger towns of the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Cordoba and San Luis.
For higher and professional education there are two national universities at Buenos Aires and Cordoba, and three provincial universities, at La Plata, Santa Fe and Parana, which comprise faculties of law, medicine and engineering, in addition to the usual courses in arts and science.
Cabot, with a large following, entered the Parana and established a settlement just above the mouth of the river Carcaranal, to which he gave the name of San Espiritu, among the Timbu Indians, with whom he formed friendly relations.
He continued the ascent of the Parana as far as the rapids of Apipe, and finding his course barred in this direction, he afterwards explored the river Paraguay, which he mounted as far as the mouth of the affluent called by the Indians Lepeti, now the river Bermejo.
The arrival of these first-fruits of the mineral wealth of the southern continent gained for the estuary of the Parana the name which it has since borne, that of Rio de la Plata, the silver river.
Buenos Aires was blockaded by the combined English and French fleets, September 1845, which landed a force to open the passage up the Parana to Paraguay, which had been declared closed to foreigners by Rosas.
A convention was signed in 1849, which secured the free navigation of the Parana and the independence of the Banda Oriental.
A large army of twenty-four thousand men was collected at Montevideo, and on the 8th of January 1852 the allied forces crossed the Parana and the road to Buenos Aires lay open before them.
Urquiza at this juncture resigned the presidency, and Doctor Santiago Derqui was elected president of the fourteen provinces with the seat of government at Parana; while Urquiza became once more governor of Entre Rios, and Mitre was appointed governor of Buenos Aires.
Although the northern and southern extremities of Goyaz lie within two great river systems - the Tocantins and Parana - the upper courses of which are navigable, both of them are obstructed by falls.
South-east of this chain, between the headwaters of the Parana and Sao Francisco, are the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde, an irregular chain of moderate elevation running north and south.
Between these two mountain chains the head streams of the Parana and Sao Francisco are intermingled - the one flowing inland and southward to the-great La Plata estuary, the other northward and eastward across the arid highlands of Brazil to the Atlantic coast in io ° 30' S.
Beginning at the mouth of the Quarahy, the boundary line between Brazil and Argentina ascends the Uruguay, crosses to the source of the Santo Antonio, and descends that small stream and the Iguassu to the Parana, where it terminates.
It ascends the Parana to the great falls of Guayra, or Sete Quedas, and thence westward along the water-parting of the Sierra de Maracayu to the cerro of that name, thence northerly along the Sierra d'Amambay to the source of the Estrella, a small tributary of the Apa, and thence down those two streams to the Paraguay.
The most southern of these chapadoes, that of the Parana basin, in which may be included the northern part of the Uruguay and eastern part of the Paraguay basins, includes the greater part of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Parana and Sao Paulo, the southwestern corner of Minas Geraes, a part of southern Goyaz, and the south-eastern corner of Matto Grosso.
There has been considerable denudation toward the west, the eastern tributaries of the Parana rising very near the coast.
The southern margin of this plateau breaks down abruptly toward the south and overlooks the Parana and Paraguay basins from elevations of 2600 to 3000 ft.
The largest of these and the only one of commercial value is the Ribeira de Iguape, which has its source on the tablelands of Parana and after receiving several affluents west of the Serra do Mar breaks through a depression in that range and discharges into the Atlantic"some miles below Santos on the southern boundary of the state of Sao Paulo.
Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto Grosso, and the tributaries of the Parana cover the western slopes of the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin.
Between the two great waterfalls of the Parana there is an open channel of 276 m., passing through a rich and healthy country, and receiving large tributaries from one of the most fertile regions of Brazil.
Though the Uruguay plays a less important part, its relations to the country are similar to those of the Parana, and its tributaries from the plateau region are similarly broken by falls and rapids.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
South of Sao Paulo the tablelands of Parana, Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul enjoy a temperate climate, with an abundant rainfall.
The higher valleys of the Parana and its tributaries, and of the rivers which flow northward, are sub-tropical in character, having high sun temperatures and cool nights.
These forests extend from Parana into Rio Grande do Sul and smaller tracts are also found in Minas Geraes.
Political considerations also led to the construction of similar lines in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Parahyba, Alagoas, Sergipe, Espirito Santo, Parana., Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul.
From Montevideo river steamers are sent up the Parana and Paraguay rivers to Corumba and Cuyaba, in the state of Matto Grosso.
Cattle-raising is the principal industry in Rio Grande do Sul, and receives considerable attention in Minas Geraes, Matto Grosso, Santa Catharina, Parana, Piauhy and Rio Grande do Norte.
Swine do well in all parts of the country, especially in Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul.
There are many private schools in all the large cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis, Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, Sao Paulo and Parana, the Lyceu de Artes e Officios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of Sao Paulo.
In 1855 the emperor of Brazil sent a squadron of eleven men-of-war and as many transports up the Parana to adjust several questions pending between the empire and was that of the right of way by the Paraguay river to the interior Brazilian province of Matto Grosso.
All was, apparently, going well with the revolt, Saraiva having invaded the states of Santa Catharina and Parana, and defeated the government troops in several encounters.
When the news of the surrender of Saldanha da Gama reached Gumercindo Saraiva, then at Curitiba in Parana, he proceeded to retire to Rio Grande do Sul.
And empties into the Parana, and the Dulce, or Saladillo, which has its sources in the Sierra de Aconquija, crosses the province in the same general direction, and is lost in the great saline swamps of Porongos, on the Cordoba frontier.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
The Spaniards, with monstrous fatuity, refused to make use of the superb waterways provided by the Parana and Paraguay, and endeavoured to stifle all trade.
Brazil; Caribian, around Caribbean Sea; Catamarenyan, Chaco; Changuinan, Panama; Charruan, Parana R.; Chibchan, Colombia .; Churbyan, Orinoco R.; Coconucan, Colombia; Cunan, Panama; Guaycuruan, Paraguay R.; Jivaroan, Ecuador; Kechuan, Peru; Laman, N.E.
By the treaty of 1872 the Brazilian frontier was drawn up the Parana from the mouth of the Iguassu or Y-Guazu (25° 30' S.) to the Salto Grande or Great Cataract of La Guayra (24° 7'), thence west along the watershed of the Sierra de Maracayu, north along the Sierra de Ambaya to the sources of the Apa, and down that stream to its junction with the Paraguay.
Paraguay proper, or the country between the Paraguay and the Parana, is traversed from north to south by a broad irregular belt of highlands, which are known as the Cordillera Ambaya, Cordillera Urucury, &c., but partake rather of the character of plateaus, and form a continuation and outwork of the great interior plateau of Brazil.
The tributaries that flow westward to the Paraguay are consequently to some extent navigable, while those that run eastward to the Parana are interrupted by rapids and falls, often of a formidable description.
Many parts of the country sloping to the Parana are nearly covered with dense forest, and have been left in possession of the sparsely scattered native tribes.
Encarnacion on the Parana has a large transit trade.
Numerous ocean-going liners, most of which fly the Brazilian or the Argentine flag, ply on the Paraguay and the Parana; smaller vessels ascend the tributary streams, which are also utilized for floating lumber down to the ports.
The completion of the line to Encarnacion was then undertaken (1906-1911), a train-ferry across the Parana affording connexion with Posadas.
From this centre Spanish adventurers pushed east to La Guayra, beyond the Parana, and west into the Gran Chaco; and before long vast numbers of the less warlike natives were reduced to serfdom.
The name Paraguay was applied not only to the country between the Paraguay and the Parana, but to the whole Spanish territory, which now comprises parts of Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Misiones, and part of Santa Fe.