For the relations of Russia with the papacy, see T.
Its bishop Cadalus (1046-1071) was elected to the papacy by the Lombard and German bishops in 1061, and marched on Rome, but was driven back by the partisans of Alexander III.
During his short reign Calixtus strengthened the authority of the papacy in southern Italy by military expeditions, and restored several buildings within the city of Rome.
that of the prince as representing within the limits of his dominions the monarchy of God over all things, culminated in the 17th century in the doctrine of the divine right of kings, and was defined in the famous dictum of Louis XIV.: L'etat c'est moil The conception of monarchy was derived through Christianity from the theocracies of the East; it was the underlying principle of the medieval empire and also of the medieval papacy, the rule of the popes during the period of its greatest development being sometimes called "the papal.
The struggle between them has been represented as one of a patriotic archbishop resisting the encroachments of the papacy on the Church of England.
For the history of the definition see Vatican Council; also Papacy, Gallicanism, Febronianism, Old Catholics, &c.
In 1815 it returned to the papacy, but was united to Italy in 1860.
It is by no means certain that he made the remark often attributed to him, "Let us enjoy the papacy since God has given it to us," but there is little doubt that he was by nature devoid of moral earnestness or deep religious feeling.
in his struggle with the anti-pope, Honorius II.; and having served the papacy as legate to France and to Florence, he was allowed to resign his bishopric in 1067.
That principle is Spiritual in- equally opposed to Erastianism and to Papacy, to the civil power dominating the Church, and to the ecclesiastical power dominating the state.
The recent scandals of the papacy induced Otto to deprive the Romans of their right to elect popes.
His successor in the papacy was Innocent V.
- The ghetto, which had prevailed more or less rigorously for a long period, was not formally prescribed by the papacy until the beginning of the 16th century.
When Henry broke with the papacy, Pope Paul III.
On the 3rd of July 1517 he published the names of thirty-one new cardinals, a number almost unprecedented in the history of the papacy.
The Annales, which are in seven books, deal with the history of Bavaria in conjunction with general history from the earliest times to 1460, and the author shows a strong sympathy for the Empire in its struggle with the Papacy.
Elevated to the papacy, on the 16th of May 1605, his extreme conception of papal prerogative,.
Supplementary stipends to bishops and parochial clergy, assignments to Sardinian clergy and expenditure for education and charitable purposes - - 142,912 f28,52f Roman Charitable and Religious Fund.The law of the 19th of June 1873 contained special provisions, in conformity with the character of Rome as the seat of the papacy, and with the situation created by the Law of Guarantees.
The Franko-Papal alliance, which conferred a crown on Pippin and sovereign rights upon the see of Rome, held within itself that ideal of mutually Charles supporting papacy and empire which exercised so the iireat powerful an influence in medieval history.
Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.
But it neither raised the prestige of the papacy, nor could it satisfy the Italians, who rightly regarded the Roman see as theirs.
The condition of the church seemed desperate, unless it could be purged of crying scandals of the subjection of the papacy to the great Roman nobles, of its subordination to the German emperor and of its internal demoralization.
The greatest of the popes thus breathed his last; but the new spirit he had communicated to the papacy was not destined to expire with him.
In truth, the papacy and the empire had become irreconcilable.
to the papacy in 1159 added a powerful ally to the republican party.
a Frenchman, Clement V., was elected, and the seat of the papacy was transferred to Avignon.
re-established the papacy upon a solid basis at Rome, the Italians approximated D~cr1mimore nearly to self-government than at any other nation of epoch of their history.
These five powers were the kingdom of Naples, the duchy of Milan, the republic of Florence, the republic of Venice and the papacy.
Nearly all wars during this period were undertaken either to check the growing power of Venice or to further th ambition of the papacy.
Each petty potentate strove for his own private advantage in the confusion; and at this epoch the chief gains accrued to the papacy.
The great gainer by this settlement was the papacy, which held the most substantial Italian province, together with a prestige that raised it far above all rivalry.
The papacy, during this period, had to reconsider the question of the Jesuits, who made themselves universally odious, not only in Italy, but also in France and Spain.
Thus, a second time, fell the temporal power of the papacy.
He delivered a series of violent speeches against the papacy, and made open preparations for a raid, which were not interfered with by the government; but on.
Crispi, whose strong anti-clerical convictions did not prevent him from regarding the papacy as preeminently an Italian institution, was determined both to prove to the Catholic world the practical independence of the government of the Church and to retain for Rome so potent a centre of universal attraction as the presence of the future pope.
The Sacred College having decided to hold the conclave abroad, Crispi assured them of absolute freedom if they remained in Rome, or of protection to the frontier should they migrate, but warned them that, once evacuated, the Vatican would be occupied in the name of the Italian government and be lost to the Church as headquarters of the papacy.
Danger of foreign interference in the relations between Italy and the papacy had never been so great since the Italian occupation of Rome, as when, in the summer of 1881,the disorders during the transfer of the remains of Pius IX.
He not only re-established the Prussian legation to the Vatican, suppressed since 1874, and omitted from the imperial message to the Reichstag (17th November 1881) all reference to King Humberts visit to Vienna, but took occasion on the n9th of November to refer to Italy as a country tottering on the verge of revolution, and opened in the German semi-official press ~ campaign in favor of an international guarantee for the independence of the papacy.
The chief supporters of the claims of the Ch h papacy to temporal power were the clericals of France and State.
It formed part of the donation of the Countess Matilda to the papacy.
gave the Order the rights of a prince of the Empire in its territories: Conrad of Masovia gave it the whole of Kulmerland in 1230; while in 1234 the Order established its independence of all authorities except the Papacy, by surrendering its territories to the Holy See and receiving them back again as a fief.
In 12 9 5 the Malatesta obtained possession of it, and kept it until 1444, when it was sold, with Pesaro, to Federico di Montefeltro of Urbino, and with the latter it passed to the papacy under Urban VIII.
at Avignon renounce all claim to the papacy, he also would renounce his, so that the long schism might be terminated.
A little later the emperor bestowed the two papal enclaves of Benevento and Ponte-Corvo on Talleyrand and Bernadotte respectively, an act which emphasized the hostility which had been growing between Napoleon and the papacy.
It was thus natural, for these reasons, that the conquest of the Holy Land should gradually become an object for the ambition of Western Christianity - an object which the papacy, eager to realize its dream of a universal Church subject to its sway, would naturally cherish and attempt to advance.
It is the Church which creates the First Crusade, because the clergy believes in penitentiary pilgrimages, and the war against the Seljuks can be turned into a pilgrimage to the Sepulchre; because, again, it wishes to direct the fighting instinct of the laity, and the consecrating name of Jerusalem provides an unimpeachable channel; above all, because the papacy desires a perfect and universal Church, and a perfect and universal Church must rule in the Holy Land.
They appealed to the old Norse instinct for wandering - an instinct which, as it had long before sent the Norseman eastward to find his El Dorado of Micklegarth, could now find a natural outlet in the expedition to Jerusalem: they appealed to the Norman religiosity, which had made them a people of pilgrims, the allies of the papacy, and, in England and Sicily, crusaders before the Crusades: finally, they appealed to that desire to gain fresh territory, upon which Malaterra remarks as characteristic of Norman princes.
on the pilgrims, against which the Papacy had already been forced to remonstrate; nor were the Italian towns, with the exception of favoured Venice, disposed to be friendly to the great monopolist city of Constantinople.
Jerusalem, like Rome, had the shadow of a mighty name to lend prestige to its ruler; and as residence in Rome was one great reason of the strength of the medieval papacy, so was 1 Before he left, Raymund had played in Jerusalem the same part of dog in the manger which he had also played at Antioch, and had given Godfrey considerable trouble.
Greeks; lastly, there are the Crusades waged by the papacy against revolted Christians - John of England and Frederick II.
Meanwhile the papacy, as soon as the news reached Rome, despatched encyclicals throughout Europe; and soon a new Crusade was in full swing.
But the Third Crusade, unlike the First, does not spring from the papacy, which was passing through one of its epochs of depression; it springs from the lay power, which, represented by the three strong monarchies of Germany, England and France, was at this time dominant in Europe.
But what the Third Crusade showed most clearly was that the crusading movement was being lost to the papacy, and becoming part of the demesne of the secular state - organized by the state on its own basis of taxation, and conducted by the state according to its own method of negotiation.
The history of the Fourth Crusade is a history of the predominance of the lay motive, of the attempt of the papacy to escape from that predominance, and to establish its old direction of the Crusade, and of the complete failure of its attempt.
Philip of Swabia, engaged in a struggle with the papacy, found Innocent III.
Yet the result of the Fourth Crusade was on the whole disastrous both for the papacy and for the crusading movement.
Alone of all Crusades (though the Fourth Crusade offers some analogy) it was not blessed but cursed by the papacy: alone of all the Crusades it was conducted without a single act of hostility against the Mahommedan.
In 1236 he had to promise to recognize fully the laws of the kingdom: and when, in 1239, he was again excommunicated by Gregory IX., and a new quarrel of papacy and empire began, he soon lost the last vestiges of his power.
The struggle of papacy and empire paralysed Europe, and even in France itself there were few ready to answer the calls for help which St Louis sent home from Acre.
Charles of Anjou had succeeded, as a result of the long "crusade" waged by the papacy against the Hohenstaufen from the council of Lyons to the battle of Tagliacozzo (1245-1268), in establishing himself in the kingdom of Sicily.
France, always the natural home of the Crusades, was too fully occupied, first by war with England and then by a struggle with the papacy, to turn her energies towards the East.
Some of them lay the blame on the papacy; and it is true that the papacy had contributed towards the decay of the Crusades when it had allowed its own particular interests to overbear the general welfare of Christianity, and had dignified with the name and the benefits of a Crusade its own political war against the Hohenstaufen.
But it was not only to the lay power that the Crusades gave an excuse for taxation; the papacy also profited.
Of the other great powers of Europe, England and Germany had been little changed by the Crusades, save that Germany had been extended towards the East by the conquests of the Teutonic Order; but the Eastern empire had been profoundly modified, and the papacy had suffered a great change.
The papacy, on the other hand, had grown as a result of the Crusades.
Yet while they had magnified, the Crusades had also corrupted the papacy.
It cried Crusade when there was no Crusade; and the long Crusade against the Hohenstaufen, if it gave the papacy an apparent victory, only served in the long run to lower its a It is difficult to decide how far Arabic models influenced ecclesiastical architecture in the West as a result of the Crusades.
It is noticeable that, while he held his office in the curia through that momentous period of fifty years which witnessed the Councils of Constance and of Basel, and the final restoration of the papacy under Nicholas V., his sympathies were never attracted to ecclesiastical affairs.
St Boniface has well been called the proconsul of the papacy.
But in so welding together the scattered centres and binding them to the papacy, Boniface seems to have been actuated by simple zeal for unity of the faith, and not by a conscious political motive.
All attempts to induce Pippin to throw over his new protege failed, and from this time onward the nominal dependence of Rome and the papacy on emperors at Constantinople ceased.
Although the school of Bec was firmly attached to the doctrine of papal sovereignty, he still assisted William in maintaining the independence of the English Church; and appears at one time to have favoured the idea of maintaining a neutral attitude on the subject of the quarrels between papacy and empire.
He was born (January 1, 1431) at Xativa, near Valencia in Spain, and his father's surname was Lanzol or Llancol; that of his mother's family, Borgia or Borja, was assumed by him on the elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Calixtus III.
Before his elevation to the papacy Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life.
In this he was opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand.
Lucrezia had been married to the Spaniard Don Gasparo de Procida, but on her father's elevation to the papacy the union was annulled, and in 1493 she was married to Giovanni Sforza, lord of Pesaro, the ceremony being celebrated at the Vatican with unparalleled magnificence.
His one thought was family aggrandizement, and while it is unlikely that he meditated making the papacy hereditary in the house of Borgia, he certainly gave away its temporal estates to his children as though they belonged to him.
The secularization of the church was carried to a pitch never before dreamed of, and it was clear to all Italy that he regarded the papacy as an instrument of worldly schemes with no thought of its religious aspect.
Creighton's History of the Papacy (London, 1897) is very learned and accurate, but the author is more lenient towards Alexander; F.
It is sufficient to recall the well-known names of Joachim of Floris, of all the numerous Franciscan spiritualists, of the leading sectaries from the 13th to the 15th century who assailed the papacy and the secularism of the church - above all, the name of Occam.
The papacy, which had been so fundamentally shaken by the great schism of the West, came through this trial victorious.
He may be reckoned the most illustrious pope since Benedict XIV., and under him the papacy acquired a prestige unknown since the middle ages.
This book, probably published after the death of its author and probably interpolated by his disciples, contains, besides Joachimite principles, an affirmation even clearer than that of Gherardo da Borgo of the elect character of the Franciscan order, as well as extremely violent attacks on the papacy.
The question of the origin of the territorial jurisdiction of the pope is treated under PAPACY.
With the moral and ecclesiastical decay of the papacy in the 9th and 10th centuries much of its territorial authority slipped from its grasp; and by the middle of the I ith century its rule was not recognized beyond Rome and the immediate vicinity.
Venice and the Papacy were unable, and Hungary unwilling, to render assistance; while the Croats proved actively hostile.
The real cause of the trouble which prevails among men is the papacy, a "fictitious" power, the development of which is the result of a series of usurpations.
The youngest son, Karl von Schlozer, a merchant and Russian consul-general at Libeck, was the father of Kurd von Schlozer (1822-1894), the historian and diplomatist, who in 1871 was appointed German ambassador to the United States and in 1882 to the Vatican, when he was instrumental in healing the breach between Germany and the papacy caused by the "May Laws."
Whatever effect the reinvigoration of the papacy may have had in hastening the process, the original impulse towards the adoption of the Roman rite had proceeded, not from Rome, but from Spain and Gaul; it was the natural result of the lively intercourse between the Churches of these countries and the Holy See.
Father Braun, to whose kindness the writer is indebted for the above account of the causes of the ritual changes in the Carolingian epoch, adds that the papacy was never narrowminded in its attitude towards local rites, and that it was not until the close of the middle ages, when diversity had become confusion and worse, that it began to insist upon uniformity.
The connexion became closer at the time when the schism with its violent controversies between the rival pontiffs, waged with the coarse invective customary to medieval theologians, had brought great discredit on the papacy.
Politically the papacy had sunk to the level of pitiful helplessness, unable to resist the aggressions of the Powers, who ignored or coerced it at will.
The reason of this measure was no doubt partly disciplinary, Bologna itself having in 1506 passed under the dominion of the papacy.
Bologna was only for a short while subject to the Lombards, remaining generally under the rule of the exarchate of Ravenna, until this in 756 was given by Pippin to the papacy.
Ten years later it was given to the papacy, but soon revolted and recovered its liberty.
It then returned to the Visconti, and after various struggles with the papacy was again secured in 1438 by the Bentivoglio, who held it till 1506, when Pope Julius II.
drove them out, and brought Bologna once more under the papacy, under the sway of which it remained (except in the Napoleonic period between 1796 and 1815 and during the revolutions of 1821 and 1831) until in 1860 it became part of the kingdom of Italy.
In the middle ages they were cited to justify the claim of the papacy to be the supreme court of appeal.
Provided that the preaching of the gospel was free and full, Luther was willing to tolerate episcopacy and even papacy.
What is not quite so generally known is the fact that Leopold slackened at once and would have been quite content with the results of these earlier victories had not the pope stiffened his resistance by forming a Holy League between the Emperor, Poland, Venice, Muscovy and the papacy, with the avowed object of dealing the Turk the coup de grace (March 5, 1684).
of the Papacy, and for a while with success; but a system which had failed to preserve the unity of the Church even when the world was united under the Roman empire could not be expected to do so in a world split up into a series of rival states, of which many had already reorganized their churches on a national basis.
He issued an important constitution on the 18th of July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Roman see and a share in the financial management, and thereby paved the way for that independence of the college of cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.
The council formed a sequel to the peace of Venice (1177), which marked the close of the struggle between the papacy and the emperor Frederick I.
in 1215, was the most brilliant and the most numerously attended of all, and marks the culminating point of a pontificate which itself represents the zenith attained by the medieval papacy.
His activity was devoted almost exclusively to the struggle between the papacy and the Italian Risorgimento, the history of which is comprehensible only when the influence exercised by his unscrupulous, grasping and sinister personality is fully taken into account.
The question of granting dispensations from such a vow gave rise to much canonical legislation, in which the papacy had finally to give in to the bishops.
of Anjou descended into Italy as champion of the papacy, and Manfred was defeated and killed (1266), the popolo, who had acquired wealth in trade and industry, was ready to rise.
Florence was now a thoroughly democratic and commercial republic, and its whole policy was mainly dominated by commercial considerations: its rivalry with Pisa was due to an ambition to gain secure access to the sea; its strong Guelphism was the outcome of its determination to secure the bank-business of the papacy, and its desire to extend its territory in Tuscany to the necessity for keeping open the land trade routes.
Although alone against papacy and empire, the citizens The siege of showed the greatest spirit and devotion, and were Florence.
From the creation of the world until about 1040 these Annales are a jejune copy of other annals, but from 1040 to their conclusion in 1077 they are interesting for the history of Germany and the papacy.
and friendly to the papacy; their Latin style is excellent.
To put an end to this absenteeism, and to bring back the papacy to Italy was the cherished and anxious wish of all good Italians, and especially of all Italian churchmen.
The prestige of the papacy had hardly been lower within two centuries.
Aquila was founded by Conrad, son of the emperor Frederick II., about 1250, as a bulwark against the power of the papacy.
After the ceremony he confirmed the rights and privileges which had been conferred on the papacy, while the Romans promised obedience, and Pope John took an oath of fidelity to the emperor.
Creighton, History of the Papacy (London, 1897); A.
In the contest which Louis the Bavarian maintained with the papacy Frankfort sided with the emperor, and it was consequently placed under an interdict for 20 years from 1329 to 1349.
It was the age when the papacy was growing out of the ruins of the old Roman Empire, and the best talents were devoted to the organization of ecclesiasticism rather than to the preaching of the Word.
In 1366 Edward formally repudiated the feudal supremacy over England, still claimed by the papacy by reason of John's submission.
In contrast to the majority of Italian cardinals of his day, Cajetan was a man of austere piety and fervent zeal; and if, from the standpoint of the Dominican idea of the supreme necessity of maintaining ecclesiastical discipline, he defended the extremist claims of the papacy, he also proclaimed that the pope should be "the mirror of God on earth."
He was racked, and only released upon Giovanni de' Medici's election to the papacy in March 1513.
Supported by the power of the papacy, with the goodwill of Florence to back him, Giuliano would have found himself in a position somewhat better than that of Cesare Borgia; and Borgia's creation of the duchy of Romagna might have served as his model.
During his stay in the city Charles renewed the donation which his father Pippin had made to the papacy in 754 or 756.
adopted by the Protestant reformers, who could justify their identification of the papacy with the Antichrist from books written within the Roman communion.
Creighton's History of the Papacy (1897).
In 1556 he wrote his famous Consultatio theologica, in which he advised the king to resist the temporal encroachments of the papacy and, as absolute monarch, to defend his rights by bringing about a radical change in the administration of ecclesiastical revenues, thus making Spain less dependent on Rome.
uncompromising clericalism, especially in urging the necessity for maintaining the temporal power of the papacy.
The same may be said of the various Gravamina, or lists of grievances against the papacy drafted from time to time by German diets.
in his effort in the latter half of the 11th century to establish the papacy as the great central power of western Europe was in the main only reaffirming and developing old claims in.
Poland, after a defection of years, was ultimately recovered for the papacy by the zeal and devotion of the Jesuit missionaries.
As one traces the vicissitudes of the papacy during the two centuries from Boniface VIII.
The first serious conflict that arose between the developing modern state and the papacy centred about the pope's claim that the property of the clergy was normally exempt from royal taxation.
Twelve years later he was, like Marsiglio, attacking the very foundations of the papacy itself, as lacking all scriptural sanction.
Wycliffe's later attacks upon the papacy had been given point by the return of the popes to Rome in 1377 and the opening of the Great Schism which was to endure for forty years.
The various nations were left to make terms with a reviving papacy.
It was Germany which gave the restored papacy the greatest amount of anxiety during the generation following the dissolution of the council of Basel.
Aeneas Sylvius issued, immediately after his accession to the papacy as Pius II.
p X., the loin stand for better organized civil governments, with growing powerful despotic heads; for a perfectly worldly papacy absorbed in the interests of an Italian principality, engaged in constant political negotiations with the European powers which are beginning to regard Italy as their chief field of rivalry, and are using its little states as convenient counters in their game of diplomacy and war.
He reached the conclusion that the papacy was but four hundred years old.
Creighton, History of the Papacy during the Reformation, 6 vols.
A quarrel with the papacy turned, or helped to turn, his thoughts in the direction of Church reform, but he hoped this would come from within rather than from without, and with the aid of his friend John Gropper (1503-1559), began, about 1536, to institute certain reforms in his own diocese.
he aspired to the papacy.
(4) Basil of Achrida, archbishop of Thessalonica about 1 155; he was a stanch upholder of the claims of the Eastern Church against the widening supremacy of the papacy.
The accounts of his papacy preserved in the Liber pontificalis are little else than a record of the gifts said to have been conferred on the Roman church by Constantine the Great.
Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick II.
According to this view the church was pure and uncorrupt till the time of Constantine, when Pope Sylvester gained the first temporal possession for the papacy, and so began the system of a rich, powerful and worldly church, with Rome for its capital.
did not hesitate to enlist their Puritanism on the side of the papacy and make them his allies in imposing clerical celibacy.
the papacy in the universal Church; while political Catholicism had its beginnings in antiquity and found very definite expression, for instance, in the bull Unam sanctam of Boniface VIII.
But the papacy signalized its reinstation by restoring the Society of Jesus (1814) and re-establishing the index.
from exile - implied a more definite protection of Ultramontanism by the papacy.
He studied at Paris and Bologna, and, having been successively archpriest of St Peter's, papal chaplain, cardinal-deacon of Sant' Eustachio, cardinal-bishop of Ostia, the first protector of the Franciscan order, and papal legate in Germany under Innocent III., and Honorius III., he succeeded the latter in the papacy.
Hardly had this contest been brought to an end favourable to the papacy (May 1235) when Gregory came into fresh conflict with Frederick II.
The only two points on which he departed from the orthodox Lutheran faith of his day were the requirement of regeneration as the sine qua non of the true theologian, and the expectation of the conversion of the Jews and the fall of Papacy as the prelude of the triumph of the church.
The Papacy, favouring a prince who had recovered Sicily from Greeks and Moslems, granted to him and his heirs in 1098 the Apostolic Legateship in the island.
Meanwhile the Roman episcopate developed into the papacy, which claimed supremacy over the entire Christian Church, and actually exercised it increasingly in the West from the 5th century on.
For, while the power of Charlemagne's successors was decaying, the papacy itself became involved in the confusion of the party strife of Italy and of the city of Rome, and was plunged in consequence into such an abyss of degradation (the so-called Pornocracy), that it was in danger of forfeiting every shred of its moral authority over Christendom.
of the revived Empire with the German kingship brought the latter into uninterrupted contact with the papacy.
The desperate position of the papacy in the 11th century obliged Henry III.
When, on the 24th of December 1046, after three rival popes had been set aside, he nominated Suidgar, bishop of Bamberg, as bishop of Rome before all the people in St Peter's, the papacy was bestowed in the same way as a German bishopric; and;,'what had occurred in this case was to become the rule.
His intervention saved the papacy.
But was it possible for the relation between Empire and Papacy to remain what Henry III.
In the years of conflict that followed Gregory looked far beyond this point; he set his aim ever higher; until, in the end, his idea was to concentrate all ecclesiastical power in the hands of the pope, and to raise the papacy to the dominion of the world.
The whole progress of Christianity in Europe from the 9th to the 12th century was due - if we exclude Eastern Christendom - to the Teutonic nations; neither the papacy nor the peoples of Latin race were concerned in it.
and his son Henry VI., struggled to renew and to maintain the imperial supremacy over the papacy.
Above all, the attempt to set up the general council as an ordinary institution of the Catholic Church failed; and the Roman papacy, restored at Constance, preserved its irresponsible and unlimited power over the government of the Church.
(See Papacy; Constance, Council Of, and Basel, Council Of.) Thus the attempt to reform the Church by means of councils failed; but this very failure led to the survival of the desire for reform.
The tendencies which they represented had been present when the middle ages were yet at their height; but the papacy, while at the zenith of its power, had succeeded in crushing the attacks made upon the creed of the Church by its most dangerous foes, the dualistic Cathari.
But the papacy that sought to win back its old position was itself no longer the same as of old.
Under his successors the views which prevailed at the secular courts of the Italian princes came likewise into play at the Curia: the papacy became an Italian princedom.
Yet we may say that this was its salvation; for the struggle against Luther drove the papacy back to its ecclesiastical duties, and the council of Trent established medieval dogma as the doctrine of modern Catholicism in contradistinction to Protestantism.
(See also Papacy; Renaissance; Reformation, and biographies of popes, &c.)/n==Authorities== -FOr sources see U.
Under Charles occurred the first attempt at reconciliation between the papacy and the Franks.
Although his pontificate had been so stormy and unhappy that he is said to have regretted on his death-bed that he ever left his monastery, nevertheless Eugenius's victory over the council of Basel and his efforts in behalf of church unity contributed greatly to break down the conciliar movement and restore the papacy to the position it had held before the Great Schism.
It has been said that his change of relations to the Papacy dated from the Italian war in 1859, but no sufficient reason has been given for this statement.
It is more probable that, like Grosseteste, he had imbibed in early youth an enthusiastic sentiment of attachment to the Papacy as the only centre of authority, and the only guarantee for public order in the Church, but that his experience of the actual working of the papal system (land especially a visit to Rome in 1857) had to a certain extent convinced him how little correspondence there was between his ideal and the reality.
But whatever may have been his reasons, he ultimately became the leader of those who were energetically opposed to any addition to, or more stringent definition of, the powers which the Papacy had possessed for centuries.
The Bavarian clergy invited Bishop Loos of the Jansenist Church in Holland, which for more than 150 years had existed independent of the Papacy and had adopted the name of "Old Catholic," to hold confirmations in Bavaria.
His foreign policy, entrusted at first to Della Somaglia and then to the more able Bernetti, moved in general along lines laid down by Consalvi; and he negotiated certain concordats very advantageous to the papacy.
Nippold, The Papacy in the 19th Century (New York, 1900), chap. 5; Benrath, "Leo XII.," in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, vol.
His election to the papacy, on the 13th of October 1 534, to succeed Clement VII., was virtually without opposition.
forms a turning-point in the history of the papacy.
During the Lombard invasions in 592 Fundi was temporarily abandoned, but it seems to have come under the rule of the papacy by A.D.
Another portion of the heritage of Alfonse, the Venaissin, was ceded to the papacy to redeem an old promise.
In1428-1429he attended the councils of Pavia and Siena, and in the presence of the pope, Martin V., made an eloquent speech in vindication of his native country, and in eulogy of the papacy.
The compromise that resulted from these conflicting forces suited Elizabeth very well; she had little dislike of Catholics who repudiated the papacy, but she was forced to rely mainly on Protestants, and had little respect for any form of ecclesiastical self-government.
The king chafed against the objections with which his minister opposed wild plans of foreign conquest and inconsiderate concessions to the papacy.
His friend and instructor, Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the time, remonstrated against his election on account of his "innocence and simplicity," but Bernard soon acquiesced and continued to be the mainstay of the papacy throughout Eugenius's pontificate.
The celebrated schismatic, Arnold of Brescia, however, put himself again at the head of the party opposed to the temporal power of the papacy, re-established the patricianate, and forced the pope to leave Rome.
They were asserted in an extreme form in the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (5790),, Cwhich almost severed connexion between France and the papacy.
- ix., and Creighton's History of the Papacy.
Though the direct results of these unions were the restoration of prestige to the absolutist papacy and the bringing of Byzantine men of letters, like Bessarion, to the West, the outcome was on the whole disappointing.
Agapetus, a man of some force of character, did his best to put a stop to the degradation into which the papacy had fallen, the so-called "Pornocracy," which lasted from the accession of Sergius III.
For all that, St Celestine, during his brief tenure of the papacy, tried to spread his ideas among the Benedictines, and induced the monks of Monte Cassino to adopt his idea of the monastic life instead of St Benedict's; for this purpose fifty Celestine monks were introduced into Monte Cassino, but on Celestine's abdication of the papacy the project fortunately was at once abandoned.
(gives literature); Frederik Nielsen, History of the Papacy in the zgth Century, ii.
The true centre of this world was the capital of the Empire; the transference was consequently accepted as natural at an early ' This article is a general history in outline of the papacy itself.
Europe was being split up under the influence of feudalism; Christendom was assailed by the barbarians, Norsemen, Saracens and Huns; at Rome the papacy was passing into the power of the local aristocracy, with whom after Otto I.
It was still being held in strict subjection by the latter when, towards the end of the i ith century, Hildebrand (Gregory VII.) undertook its enfranchisement and began the war of the investitures (q.v.), from which the papacy was to issue with such an extraordinary renewal of its vitality.
In Eastern Christendom the papacy was at this period an almost forgotten institution, whose pretensions were always Schism of met by the combined opposition of the imperial East and authority, which was still preponderant in the West.
The pope, General Position of as officiating in these holiest of all sanctuaries, the Papacy as guardian of the tombs of St Peter and St Paul in Theory.
During the quarrels between the papacy and the Byzantine Empire her domains in lower Italy and Sicily also disappeared as time went on, and the territorial possessions of the Roman Church were concentrated in the neighbourhood of Rome.
The entry of Hildebrand into the counsels of the papacy marks the beginning of a great change in this institution.
being Side by side with the general movement towards reform, he had set before himself the object of freeing the papacy, not only from its temporal oppressors but also from its protectors.
Gregory died far away from Rome, upon which he had brought incalculable evils; and not only Rome, but the papacy itself had to pay the penalty for the want of moderation of the pope.
A synod assembled at the Lateran in April passed the famous new regulations for the elections to the papacy.
had clearly revealed to the world the broad lines of the religious and political programme of the medieval papacy, and had begun to put it into execution.
and thus led the papacy into that course which it continued to pursue after his death.
The papacy of that time believed in the political unity of Islam, in a solidarity - which did not exist - among the Mussulmans of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and the Barbary coasts; and if it waited until the year 1095 to carry out this project, it was because the conflict with the Germanic Empire prevented the earlier realization of its dream.
prepared the way for the Concordat of Worms. On the other hand, with more acuteness than his predecessors, he realized that the papacy could not sustain the struggle against Germany unless it could rely upon the support of another Christian kingdom of the West; and he concluded with Philip I.
And, again, if this transaction settled the investiture question, it did not solve the problem of the reconciliation of the universal power of the popes with the claims of the emperors to the government of Europe; and the conflict subsisted - slumbering, it is true, but ever ready to awake under other forms. Nevertheless, the two great Christian agitations directed by the papacy at the end of the nth century and the beginning of the 12th - the reformation and the crusade - were of capital importance for the foundation of the immense religious monarchy that had its centre in Rome; and it is from this period that the papal monarchy actually dates.
Not only was the result of the crusade extremely favourable to the extension of the Roman power, but throughout the middle ages the papacy never ceased to derive almost incalculable political and financial advantages from the agitation produced by the preachers and the crusading expeditions.
The mere fact of the crusaders being placed under the special protection of the Church and the pope, and loaded with privileges, freed them from the jurisdiction, and even, up to a certain point, from the lordship of their natural masters, to become the almost direct subjects of the papacy; and the common law was then practically suspended for the benefit of the Church and the leader who represented it.
It was raised above feudalism only to be abased before the two directing forces of the reformation, the papacy and the religious orders.
of Supplinburg, yielded to the papacy, and Lothair, who was elected by the clergy keenest to disavow the policy of Paschal II., was obliged to continue it when he assumed the tiara under the name of Calixtus II.
was the virtual master of this Innoce n t 11., arch whose championship of the papacy brought P P P P Y ht g not the smallest advantage, not even that of being crowned emperor with the habitual ceremonial at the place consecrated by tradition.
The affair of Thomas Becket involved the papacy in a quarrel with the powerful monarchy of the Angevins, whose representative, Henry II., was master of England and of the half of France.
Although Becket was a man of narrow sympathies and by no means of liberal views, he had died for the liberties of his caste, and the aureole that surrounded him enhanced the prestige and ascendancy of the papacy.
Unfortunately for the papacy, the successors of Alexander III.
lacked vigour, and their pontificates were too brief to allow them to pursue a strong policy against the Germanic The Papacy imperialism.
But, as regards its temporal aims on Italy, the most inconvenient and tenacious, if not the most dangerous, adversary of the 12th-century papacy was the Roman commune.
Since the middle of the 12th century the party of The Papacy P munici al autonomy and indeed, the whole of the and the Y European middle classes, who wished to shake off ofCommune Rome.
Thou must not sacrifice to private and recent friendships the traditional affections of the papacy.
The papacy, however, recovered its ascendancy during the pontificate of Alexander III., and seemed more powerful than ever.
It was by its constant reliance on monachism that the papacy of the 12th century had attained this result, and the popes of that period were especially fortunate in having for their champion the monk St Bernard, whose admirable qualities enabled him to dominate public q P opinion.
He did not condemn the temporal power of the popes in plain terms, but both his writings and his conduct proved that that power was in his opinion difficult to reconcile with the spiritual mission of the papacy, and was, moreover, a menace to the future of the institution.
In his efforts to make the papal institution entirely worthy of its mission St Bernard himself did not shrink from presenting to the papacy " the mirror in which it could recognize its deformities."
In St Bernard's treatise De consideratione, addressed to Pope Eugenius III., the papacy receives as many reprimands and attacks as it does marks of affection and friendly counsel.
Hitherto more tolerant of heresy than the local authorities, the papacy now felt compelled to take defensive measures against it, and especially against Albigensianism, which had made great strides in the south of France since the middle of the 12th century.
But the preaching of the papal legates, even when supported by military demonstrations, had no effect; and the Albigensian question, together with other questions vital for the future of the papacy, remained unsettled and more formidable than ever when Innocent III.
programme of the medieval papacy, it cannot be denied that the extent of his rule and the profound influence he exerted on his times entitle him to be regarded as the most perfect type of medieval pope and one of the most powerful figures in history.
The papacy, however, encountered serious obstacles, at first at the very centre of the papal empire, at Rome, where the pope had to contend with the party of communal autonomy for ten years before being able to secure the mastery at Rome.
There is not a word, in the documents concerning the relations of Philip Augustus with Rome, from which we may conclude that the Capetian crown submitted, or that the papacy wished to impose upon it the effective suzerainty of the Holy See.
On the one hand, the Greeks were unwilling to abandon their religion and national cult, and scarcely recognized the ecclesiastical supremacy of the papacy.
The Hohenstaufen succumbed to it, and the papacy itself received a terrible shock, which shook its vast empire to the foundations.
Supreme in Europe, the papacy gathered into a body of doctrine of the decisions given in virtue of its enormous de facto power, and promulgated its collected decrees and oracula to form the immutable law of the Christian world.
Although there was no theoretical restriction to of the temporal supremacy and religious power of the papacy, certain historical facts of great importance of France.
This change was a prelude to the more or less complete subjection of the papacy to French influence which took place in the following century at the period of the " Babylonish Captivity," the violent reaction personified by Boniface VIII.
Haunted by the recollection of that formidable conflict and lulled in the security of the Great Interregnum, which was to render Germany long powerless, the papacy thought merely of the support that France could give, and paid no heed to the dangers threatened by the extension of Charles of Anjou's monarchy in central and northern Italy.
He opposed the aggrandizing projects of the Angevins, intervened in Germany with a view to terminating the Great Interregnum, and sought a necessary counterpoise to Capetian predominance in an alliance with Rudolph of Habsburg, who had become an emperor without imperilling the papacy.
The war which ensued between the pope and the king of France ended in the complete defeat of the papacy, which was reduced to impotence (1303), and though the storm ceased during the nine months' pontificate of Benedict XI., the See of St Peter recovered neither its normal equilibrium Papacy nor its traditional character.
In other respects the papacy of this period found itself in a very inferior situation to that which it had occupied under Innocent III.
The papacy, however, held its ground, and Nicholas III., the worthy continuer of Gregory, succeeded in preserving the union and triumphing over the Angevin power.
The prestigeY Papacy.
Both by its attitude and by its governmental acts, the papacy of the later 13th century itself contributed to increase the discredit and disaffection from which it suffered.
By thus devoting itself to material interests, the papacy contemporary with the last Capetians lost its moral greatness Abuse of and fell in the opinion of the peoples; and it did itself no less injury by the abnormal extension of the bounds of its absolutism.
(1266), empowering the papacy to dispose of all vacant bishoprics at the court of Rome, merely sanctioned a usage that had long been established.
The papacy of this period continually intervened in the internal affairs of the monasteries.
Not only did the monks continue to seek from the papacy the confirmation of their privileges and property, but they also referred almost all their disputes to the arbitration of the pope.
On this extreme concentration of the Christian power was employed throughout Europe an army of official agents or officious adherents of the Holy See, who were animated by an irrepressible zeal for the aggrandizement of the papacy.
These officials originally consisted of an obedient and devoted militia of mendicant friars, both Franciscans and Dominicans, who took their orders from Rome alone, and whose efforts the papacy stimulated by lavishing exemptions, privileges, and full sacerdotal powers.
The sovereign direction of this enormous monarchy belonged to the pope alone, who was assisted in important affairs by the advice and collaboration of the College of Cardinals, who had become the sole electors to the papacy.
The growth of national kingdoms, the anti-clerical tendencies of the emancipated middle classes, the competition of lay imperialisms, and all the other elements of resistance which had been encountered by the papacy in its progress and had at first tended only to shackle it, now presented an insurmountable barrier.
The papacy was weakened by its contest with these adverse elements, and it was through its failure to triumph over them that its dream of European dominion, both temporal and spiritual, entered but very incompletely into the field of realities.
in 1305 marks the beginning of a new era in the history of the papacy; for this pope, formerly archbishop of Bordeaux, remained in France, without once crossing the threshold of the Eternal City.
Character of The essential features of this new epoch in the the Avignon history of the papacy, beginning with the two popes Papacy.
mentioned, are intimately connected with this lasting separation from the traditional seat of the papacy, and from Italian soil in general: a separation which reduced the head of the Church to a fatal dependence on the French kings.
And thus the prestige of the papacy was sensibly diminished by the view, to which the jealousy of the nations soon gave currency, that the supreme dignity of the Church was simply a convenient tool for French statecraft.
The mast prominent leaders of the opposition to the papacy, whether ecclesiastical or political, joined forces with the German, king, Louis of Bavaria, and offered him their aid against John XXII.
Side by side with the Minorites, the spokesmen of the specifically political opposition to the papacy were the Parisian professors, Marsilius of Padua and John of Jandun, the composers of the " Defender of the Peace " (defensor pacis).
To all appearances the victory of the papacy was decisive: but it was a Pyrrhic victory, as events were quickly to prove.
had prosecuted with all his energies; which alone could revive the languishing reputation of the papacy, exercised on him by the French king Philip the Fair.
He lived to see the national spirit of Italy thoroughly aroused against a papacy turned French.
sciences and all the arts of peace, enjoyed only a brief pontificate, but his reign is not without importance, if only as an example of the generous patronage which the papacy - even in its darkest days - has lavished on literature and science.
P bitter opponent, of the papacy admits - would have succumbed in the schism: but so wonderful was the organization of the spiritual empire, and so indestructible the conception of the papacy itself, that this (the deepest of all cleavages) served only to prove its indivisibility (Gregorovius, Geschichte Romsvi.).
The anti-pope - the last in the history of the papacy - made no headway, although the council invested him with the power of levying annates to a greater extent than had ever been claimed by the Roman Curia.
Among these, Torquemada, Rodericus Sancius de Arevalo, Capistrano and Piero del Monte were especially active for the restoration of the papacy.
By this means he introduced a new epoch in the history of the papacy and of civilization: Rome, the centre of ecclesiastical life, was now to become the centre of literature and art.
The Borgia's foremost thought had been for his family; Julius devoted his effort to the Church and the papacy.
Simultaneously, on the commission of the pope, Raphael decorated the Vatican with frescoes glorifying the Church and the papacy.
As so often occurs in the history of the papacy, Julius II.
against the French king; and the united forces of the empire and papacy had achieved the most brilliant success in upper Italy, when Leo died unexpectedly, on the 1st of December 1521.
From this point of view his deserts are undoubtedly great; and for that reason he possesses an indefeasible right to a certain share in the renown of the papacy as a civilizing agent of the highest rank.
His activity, in fact, will always remain one of the brightest chapters in the history of the papacy.
In this period, the newly created religious orders were the right arm of the papacy, especially the Jesuits and the Capuchins.
The history of the papacy from 1590 to 1870 falls into four main periods: (i) 1590-1648; territorial expansion, definitely checked by the peace of Westphalia; (2) 1648-1789; waning prestige, financial embarrassments, futile reforms; (3) 1789-1814; revolution and Napoleonic reorganization; (4) 1814-1870; restoration and centralization.
was succeeded in rapid succession by three popes: Urban VII., who died on the 27th of September 1590, after a papacy of only 12 days; Gregory XIV.
The first noteworthy pontiff of the period was Clement VIII., who gained a vast advantage by allying the papacy with the rising power of France.
had taken Paris at the price of a mass, it became possible for the popes to play off the Bourbons against the Habsburgs; but the transfer of favour was made so gradually that the opposition of the papacy to Spain did not become open till just before Clement VIII.
When peace was arranged through French mediation in 1607 the papacy had lost greatly in prestige: it was evident that the once terrible interdict was antiquated, wherefore it has never since been employed against the entire territory of a state.
The royal dupe was the last man in the world to check the advance of the papacy.
The tale of these glories, with their attendant woes, does not exhaust the history of the papacy.
But the most fundamental spiritual progress of the papacy was made by its devoted missionaries.
Though many of the spectacular triumphs of the cross in Asia and Africa proved to be evanescent, nevertheless South America stands the impressive memorial of the greatest forward movement in the history of the papacy: a solidly Roman continent.
From the close of the Thirty Years' War to the outbreak of the French Revolution the papacy suffered abroad waning political prestige; at home, progressive financial embarrassment accompanied by a series of inadequate governmental reforms; and in the world at large, gradual diminution of reverence for spiritual authority.
The good relations with France were but a truce, for the Bourbon powers became so mighty in the 18th century that they practically ignored the territorial interests of the papacy.
Not for two centuries had the political prestige of the papacy been lower.
However, the deluge which shattered the opposition to Rome in the great national churches submerged for a time the papacy itself.
The revolt against spiritual authority belongs rather to the history of modern thought than to that of the papacy.
Thenceforward France treated the papacy as an inimical power.
In the concordat of 1801 the papacy recognized the validity of the sales of Church of 180E g Y property, and still further reduced the number of dioceses; it provided that the government should appoint and support the archbishops and bishops, but that the pope should confirm them; and France recognized the temporal power, though shorn of Ferrara, Bologna and the Romagna.
Pius entered Rome amid great rejoicing on the 24th of May 1814, a day which marks the beginning of a new era in the history of the papacy.
The foreign policy of the papacy so long as conducted by Consalvi, or in his spirit, was supremely successful.
From 1814 to 1830 Europe witnessed the restoration The Papacy of legitimate monarchy.
To check this ultramontane propaganda the government secured from the papacy in 1845 the promise to close the Jesuit houses and novitiates in France.
To the Italian patriot the papacy seemed in league with the oppressor.
The third division of his career, from the loss of the temporal power to his death, inaugurates a new period for the papacy.
The Papacy Italy and Europe were astir with the Liberal agitation, and Italian which in 1848 culminated in the series of revolutions Unity.
In allusion to medieval partisans of the papacy this theory was dubbed Neo-Guelphism.
As from 1849 to 1870 the fate of the papacy was determined not so much by domestic conditions, which, save for certain slight ameliorations, were those of the preceding reigns, as by foreign politics, it is necessary to consider the relations of Rome with each of the powers in turn; and in so doing one must trace not merely the negotiations of kings and popes, but must seek to understand also the aims of parliamentary parties, which from 1848 on increasingly determine ecclesiastical legislation.
The chief ally of the papacy from 1849 to 1870 was France.
Even before Napoleon's elec- Papacy.
This monarch had always Oc- been a thorn in the side of the papacy.
If France was the right arm and Italy the scourge of the papacy under Pius IX., the Spanish-speaking countries were its The papacy obedient tools.
the political mainstay of the papacy, had never abandoned the broad lines of ecclesiastical policy laid down by Joseph II.; but the young Francis Joseph, seeking the aid of Rome in curbing heterogeneous nationalities, in 1855 negotiated a concordat whose paragraphs regarding the censorship, education and marriage were far-reaching.
Summing up the history of the papacy from the Congress of Vienna to the fall of the temporal power, one finds statistical gains in Protestant countries offset perhaps by relative losses in Catholic lands, both largely due to the closely related forces of toleration and immigration.
Thus were the spiritual prerogatives of the papacy exalted in the very summer that the temporal power was brought low.
The few months that elapsed between the 18th of July 1870 and the 18th of January 1871 witnessed four events that have been fraught with more consequence to the papacy than anything else that had affected that institution for the past three centuries.
These utterances are eminently characteristic. They show how far Bismarck was (even at the close of 1870) from comprehending the traditional policy of the papacy towards Germany and German interests, and how little he conceived it possible to employ the relations between the future empire and the Vatican as a point of departure for a successful and consistent ecclesiastical policy.
that if the council broke up without arriving at a decision favourable to the papacy, this would be tantamount to a serious defeat of the Holy See and an open victory for the Gallican system.
The note of the pope to Rampolla of the 8th of October 1895, in consequence of the celebrations on the 10th of September, declared, in terms more decided than any that had until then been uttered, that the papacy required a territorial sovereignty in order to ensure its full independence, and that its interests were therefore incompatible with the existence of the kingdom of Italy as then constituted.
In one respect it was impossible for the papacy to continue on the path it had taken.
Whilst not openly repelling the tendencies of the Jesuits, Leo yet showed himself well disposed towards, and even amenable to, views of a diametri- The Papacy cally opposite kind; and as soon as the Vatican and the threw itself into the arms of France, and bade fare Modern well to the idea of a national Italy, the policy of Democracy.
But the weakening of the papacy had allowed this claim to lapse for centuries.
The new pope was known to be no politician, but a simple and saintly priest, and in some quarters there were hopes that the attitude of the papacy towards the Italian kingdom might now be changed.
The new pope's motto, it is said, was " to establish all things in Christ " (instaurare omnia in Christo); and since, ex hypothesi, he himself was Christ's vicar on earth, the working out of this principle meant in effect the extension and consolidation of the papal authority and, as far as possible, an end to the compromises by means of which the papacy had sought to make friends of the Mammon of unrighteousness.
the papacy had abandoned none of its pretensions to dominate consciences, not of Catholics only, was again proved in 1910 when, at the very moment when the pope was praising the English people for the spirit of tolerance which led the British government to introduce a bill to alter the form of the Declaration made by the sovereign on his accession into a form inoffensive to Roman Catholics, he was remonstrating with the government of Spain for abrogating the law forbidding the Spanish dissident churches to display publicly the symbols of the Christian faith or to conduct their services otherwise than semi-privately.
All these changes tended to consolidating the centralized authority of the papacy.
Such activities might well be taken as proof that the papacy at the outset of the 20th century possessed a vigour which it was far from possessing a hundred years earlier.
the papacy had reached the the Papacy.
It was the Revolution, which at one moment seemed finally to have engulfed the papacy, which in fact preserved it; Febronianism, as a force to be seriously reckoned with, perished in the downfall of the ecclesiastical principalities of the old Empire; Gallicanism perished with the constitutional Church in France, and its principles fell into discredit with a generation which associated it with the Revolution and its excesses.
In the reaction that followed the chaos of the Revolutionary epoch men turned to the papacy as alone giving a foothold of authority in a confused and quaking world.
To many minds the papacy thus came to represent a unifying principle, as opposed to the disruptive tendencies of Liberalism and Nationalism, and the papal monarchy came to be surrounded with a new halo, as in some sort realizing that ideal of a " federation of the world " after which the age was dimly feeling.
So far as politics are concerned this sentiment was practically confined to certain classes, which saw their traditional advantages threatened by the revolutionary tendencies of the times; and the alliance between the throne and the altar, by confusing the interests of the papacy with those of political parties, tended - as Leo XIII.
There can also be little doubt - though the Curia itself would not admit it - that the spiritual power of the papacy has been greatly increased by the loss of the temporal power.
On the other hand, the great opportunity now open to the papacy on its spiritual side, is proved by the growing respect in which it has been held since 1870 in the English-speaking countries, where Roman Catholics are in a minority and their Church is in no sense established.
Maroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica (Venice, 1840 sqq.), all of which contain articles on individual popes and subjects connected with the papacy, with bibliographies.
Carefully indexed source materials in the original languages are given by C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums und des riimischen Katholizismus (2nd enlarged ed., Tubingen, 1901); many fragments in translation under " Papacy " in History for Ready Reference, ed.
- A bibliography of the history of the papacy during the first eleven centuries would embrace all the vast number of works on the history of the Church during this period.
Among works of a more general character that throw light on the history of the papacy during the 12th and 13th centuries, the first place must be given to Walter Norden's Das Papsttum and Byzanz.
B., 1855, seq.); Hoffer, Die avignonesischen Pdpste (1871); Creighton, History of the Papacy (1882, seq.); L.
For the Papacy in connexion with the Renaissance, see E.
2; Vespasiano da Bisticci, Vite (1839); Georgius (1742); Mentz, Les Arts (1878-1879); Creighton, Papacy ii.
Quirini (1740); Creighton, Papacy iii.
Ranke, History of the Papacy in the 16th and 17th centuries (1840 and frequently); A.
Pennington, Epochs of the Papacy (London, 1880; F.
Nippold, The Papacy in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1900); B.
Nielsen, The History of the Papacy in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1906), the scholarly and fascinating work of a Danish Lutheran bishop; A.
(3) The Apostolic Chamber (Reverends Camera Apostolica) was before the abolition of the temporal power of the papacy the ministry of finance, at once treasury and exchequer, of the popes as heads of the Catholic Church as well as sovereigns of the papal states.
Hubert was accused, with some reason, of enriching himself at the expense of the crown, and of encouraging popular riots against the alien clerks for whom the papacy was providing at the expense of the English Church.
The Savoyards encouraged his natural tendency to support the Papacy against the Empire; at an early date in the period of misrule he entered into a close alliance with Rome, which resulted in heavy taxation of the clergy and gave great umbrage to the barons.
Some of his worst actions as a politician were due to a sincere, though exaggerated, gratitude for the support which the Papacy had given him during his minority.
Meeting with no opposition, he was received at Viterbo by Innocent, but refused the papal demand that he should concede to the church all the territories which, previous to 1197, had been in dispute between the Empire and the Papacy, consenting, however, not to claim supremacy over Sicily.
The king's demands were not intrinsically irreconcilable with the canon law, and the papacy would probably have allowed them to take effect sub silentio, if Becket (q.v.) had not been goaded to extremity by persecution in the forms of law.
In 1239 Pope Gregory joined the cities and the struggle widened out into the larger one of the Empire and the Papacy.
Moreover this consolidation of spiritual authority coincided with a remarkable development of the temporal power of the papacy.
"Of the medieval papacy," says Milman, "the real father is Gregory the Great."
The donation made by Constantine to various churches of Rome of numerous estates belonging to the patrimonium Caesaris in the neighbourhood of Rome was of great historical importance, as being the origin of the territorial dominion of the papacy.
The invasions of the barbarian hordes did great harm, but the formation of centres (domuscultae) in the 8th and 9th centuries was a fact of great importance: the inhabitants, indeed, formed the medieval militia of the papacy.
tions which we already find in the early 11th century led to struggles with the papacy; the commune of Rome made various attempts to exercise supremacy in the Campagna andlevied various taxes from the 12th century until the 15th.
His reign, which began in October 1285, is one of the most momentous in the history of medieval Europe, yet it belongs rather to the history of France and to that of the papacy than to the biography of the king.
Yet this was the king who with equal implacability brought the papacy under his yoke, carried out the destruction of the powerful order of the Temple, and laid the foundations of the national monarchy of France.
When in 1309 the pope installed himself at Avignon, the new relation of the papacy and the French monarchy was patent to the world.
During the whole of the middle ages it was subject to the papacy.
of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation (London, 1882); and H.
When he was martyred in 755 Christianity was professed by all the German races except the Saxons, and the church, organized and wealthy, had been to a large extent brought under the control of the papacy.
The old pagan faith was not yet entirely destroyed, and traces of its influence may still be detected in popular beliefs and customs. But still Christianity was dominant, and soon became an important factor in the process of civilization, while the close alliance of the German church with the papacy was followed by results of the utmost consequence for Germany.
In 966 he wa.s again in Italy, where he reOtto mained six years, exercising to the full his imperial ~ rights in regard to the papacy, but occupied mainly in an attempt to make himself master of the southern, as well as of the northern half of the peninsula, By far the most important act of Ottos eventful life was his assumption of the Lombard and the imperial crowns.
Moreover, the greatest of all their struggles was with the papacy; so that a power outside their kingdom, but exercis.
The Papacy, too, had sunk to a degraded condition and its authority was annihilated, not only by the character church.
Under these popes a new era began for the church, anc - in thus reforming the Papacy Henry III.
The war of investitures that followed was the opening of the tremendous struggle between the Empire and the Papacy, which is the ceiitral fact of medieval history and The which, after two centuries of conflict, ended in the struggle exhaustion of both powers.
In the Papacy, however, Henry had an implacable foe; and again and again When he seemed on the point of a complete triumph the smouldering embers of revolt were kindled Henry once more into flame.
The Papacy was far from realizing Hildebrands great schemes; yet in regard to the question indispute it gained solid advantage, and its general authority was incomparably more important than it had been half a century before.
Again in Italy in 1174 the contest with the Papacy was abruptly ended by Fredericks overwhelming defeat at Legnano in 1\Iay 1176, and by the treaty of Venice made about a year later with Alexander III.
On all sides, but especially in the north-west, Henry was faced with incipient revolution, and while he was combating this the quarrel between Frederick and the Papacy broke out Frederick again in Italy.
If Germany had been unconnected with the Papacy, or even if the Papacy had been as weak as in the days of Henry VI., the issue of the strife would almost certainly have been an early victory for Philip. A majority of the princes were on his side and the French king Philip Augustus was his ally, while his personal character commanded general respect.
Having made peace with Henry, count palatine of the Rhine and brother of Otto IV., and settled a dispute about the lands of the extinct family of Zahringen in the south-west Germany of the country, Frederick left Germany in August in Freder1220; engaged in his bitter contest with the Papacy icks and the Lombard cities, in ruling Sicily, and, after absence.
After the treaty of San Germano, which was made with Pope Gregory in 1230, and the consequent lull in the struggle with the Papacy, Frederick was able to devote some little attention to Germany, and in 1231 he sanctioned Rebellion the great Privilege of Worms. This was a reward to the princes for their efforts in bringing about the peace, and an extension of the concessions made in 1220.
At last the Papacy found an anti-king.
The contest between Empire and Papacy was more than a mere struggle for supremacy between two world-powers; it was a war to the death between two fundamentally opposite conceptions of life, which in many respects anticipated and prepared the way for the Renaissance and the Reformation.
In Germany, as elsewhere, the victory of the Papacy was the ~rictory of obscurantism.
several occasions it had seemed as if the German crown would become hereditary, but it had been kept elective by a variety of causes, among them being the jealousy of the Papacy and the ~owing strength of the aristocracy.
The vanquished king remained in captivity until 1325, when, during the contest between the Empire and the Papacy, Louis came to terms with him.
~Thus the ancient struggle between the Papacy and the Empire was renewed, a struggle in which the pen, wielded by Marsiglio of Padua, William of Occam, John of Jandun and others, played an important part, and in which the new ideas in religion and politics worked steadily against the arrogant papal claim.
of France, whom he regarded as primarily responsible for the unyielding attitude of the Papacy.
The The claim of the Papacy to political supremacy received domestic in his time its death-blow, and the popes themselves policy of sowed the seeds of the alienation from Rome which Louis.
In these he was very fortunate, managing far more than his predecessors to avoid conflicts with the Papacy and the princes.
The seeds of the.Reformation were laid during the time of the great conflict between the Papacy and the Empire.
Under the influence of Luthers strong personality the most active and progressive elements of the nation were soon in more or less open antagonism to the Papacy.
The attempt of the Liberals to subjugate the Church had given to the Papacy greater power than it had had since the time of Wallenstein.
and to defend the Papacy; while a third holds a brief for some king or emperor, like Louis the Pious or Otto the Great.
Here too he planned and wrote the first two volumes of his chief historical work, the History of the Papacy; and it was in part this which led to his being elected in 1884 to the newly-founded Dixie professorship of ecclesiastical history at Cambridge, where he went into residence early in 1885.
Bishop Creighton's principal published works are: History of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation (5 vols., 1882-1897, new ed.); History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome (6 vols., 1897); The Early Renaissance in England (1895); Cardinal Wolsey (1895); Life of Simon de Montfort (1876, new ed.
In religious matters the empress, though a devout Catholic and herself devoted to the Holy See, was carried away by the prevailing reaction, in which her ministers shared, against the pretensions of the papacy.
On the proclamation of papal infallibility in 1870, the government took the opportunity of declaring that the concordat had lapsed, on the ground that there was a fundamental change in the character of the papacy.
The nuncios are of lower rank than the legati a latere, but have practically superseded them as ambassadors of the papacy.
Aubert was one of the minority who signed the agreement with the reservation that in so doing he would not violate any law, and was elected pope on this understanding; not long after his accession he declared the agreement null and void, as infringing the divinely-bestowed power of the papacy.
This discreetness contributed not a little to his election to the papacy on the 24th of April 1585; but the story of his having feigned decrepitude in the Conclave, in order to win votes, is a pure invention.
Urban was vain, self-willed and extremely conscious of his position; he accepted the papacy chiefly as a temporal principality, and made it his first care to provide for its defence and to render it formidable.
Later, in keeping with his position, he opposed all concessions to the Protestants; but still showed himself so vacillating that the papacy ceased to be regarded as a serious political factor, and was entirely ignored in the final settlement of Westphalia, 1648.
Meanwhile an attempt on the part of Gloucester to exclude the cardinal from the council had failed, and it was decided that his attendance was required except during the discussion of questions between the king and the papacy.
Creighton, A History of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation (London, 1897); and L.
He also drew Spain nearer to the papacy, and it was his decision which established the Roman ritual in place of the old missal of Saint Isidore - the so - called Mozarabic. On the other hand he was very open to Arabic influence.
Henry had defended the papacy against Luther in 1521 and had received in return the title "defender of the faith."
He never liked Protestantism, and he was prepared for peace with Rome on his own terms. Those terms were impossible of acceptance by a pope in Clement VII.'s position; but before Clement had made up his mind to reject them, Henry had discovered that the papacy was hardly worth conciliating.
had been French in his sympathies; but the papacy now shifted to the side of the Habsburgs, and there remained for nearly fifty years.
Although the pontificate of Innocent witnessed the conversion of many Protestant princes, the most notable being Queen Christina of Sweden, the papacy had nevertheless suffered a perceptible decline in prestige; it counted for little in the negotiations at Minster, and its solemn protest against the peace of Westphalia was entirely ignored.
The Roman papacy had no more zealous adherent than Boniface; yet he absolutely rejected the idea that Englishwomen should make the journey to Rome, and would willingly have seen the princes and bishops veto these pilgrimages altogether 78).
For Wycliffe and his adherent John Purvey (probably the author of the Commentarius in Apocalypsin ante centum annos editus, edited in 1528 by Luther), as on the other hand for Hus, the conviction that the papacy is essentially Antichrist is absolute.
Finally, if Luther advanced in his contest with the papacy with greater and greater energy, he did so because he was borne on by 1 Latin text by Sackur, cf.
In 1836 he founded the Dublin Review, partly to infuse into the lethargic English Catholics higher ideals of their own religion and some enthusiasm for the papacy, and partly to enable him to deal with the progress of the Oxford Movement, in which he was keenly interested.
The outlook for the papacy was dark; Portugal was talking of a patriarchate; France held Avignon; Naples held Ponte Corvo and Benevento; Spain was ill-affected; Parma, defiant; Venice, aggressive; Poland meditating a restriction of the rights of the nuncio.
He dismissed the governor; he determined advantageously to himself the boundaries between his state and the territories of the duke of Savoy and of the papacy; and he enforced his authority over perhaps the most unruly nobility in western Europe, both lay and ecclesiastical.
Louis, who at the opening of his reign had denounced the Pragmatic Sanction of 1438, had played fast and loose with the papacy.
When Sixtus threatened Florence after the Pazzi conspiracy, 1478, Louis aided Lorenzo dei Medici to form an alliance with Naples, which forced the papacy to come to terms. More than any other king of France, Louis XI.
The whole history of the ensuing period of south Italian history turns on the claims of the papacy over the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, based on the recognition of papal suzerainty in 1053.
Manfred, too, encountered the hostility of the popes, against whom he had to wage war, generally with success, and of some of the barons whom the papacy encouraged to rebel; and in 1258, on a rumour of Conradin's death, he was offered and accepted the crown of Naples and Sicily.
to enforce the claims of the papacy, and that of John of Anjou to enter into the heritage of his ancestors.
During the latter part of James's reign difficulties arose between Scotland and England and also between Scotland and the papacy.
In these writings he consistently upheld the doctrine of civil liberty against the pretensions of the papacy.
For the history of the papacy, and associated questions, see Papacy, Conclave, Curia Romana, Cardinal, &C.
In 1069 he was recalled by Henry, when he made a further attempt to establish a northern patriarchate, which failed owing to the hostility of the papacy and the condition of affairs in the Scandinavian kingdoms. He died at Goslar on the 16th or 17th of March 1072, and was buried in the cathedral which he had built at Bremen.
The papacy received its full monarchial structure under Hildebrand (Gregory VII.) in the middle of the II th century; its political decline set in suddenly after the pontificate of Boniface VIII.
in the Synod of Sutri, sat in judgment on the impotent and demoralized papacy.
king of Sicily, or with the rebellious Romans, without the consent of Eugenius, and generally to help and defend the papacy.
at Verona, to establish friendly relations with the papacy.
The quarrel with the papacy was continued with the new pope Urban III., and open warfare was begun.
His quarrel with the papacy was an inherited conflict, not reflecting at all on his religious faith, but the inevitable consequence of inconsistent theories of government, which had been created and could be dissipated only by a long series of events.
Hence his office is a dignity, not of order, but of jurisdiction (see Papacy and Pope).
The development of this attitude, known - in so far as it depends on the full pretensions of the Papacy - as Ultramontanism, since the definition of the Roman Catholic Church by the council of Trent in 1564, will be found sketched in the historical section attached to this article.
The earlier history, which is that of the Latin Church of the West, will be found in the articles Papacy, Church History and Reformation.
Ever since the schism of East and West, however, it has been an ambition of the papacy to submit the Oriental Churches to its jurisdiction, and successive popes have from time to time succeeded in detaching portions of those Churches and bringing them into the obedience of the Holy See.
On the other hand, under stress of his revolt the papacy could not but develop in a strongly anti-Protestant direction, laying exaggerated emphasis on every point he challenged.
But Madrid and Vienna were the official champions of the papacy; hence to make war on them was indirectly to make war on the pope.
But for the religious orders no Papacy.
ciple of the papacy.
" - The whole history of the 19th century is one vast conspiracy to exalt the importance of the papacy.
Apart from some fulminations against such modern pests s socialism, communism, secret societies, Bible societies, clerico-liberal societies," the Syllabus says nothing that the papacy had not been saying for hundreds of years.
Leo was absolutely convinced that a territorial sovereignty was required to ensure the moral independence of the papacy; and he believed that the new Italian kingdom was a mushroom growth, that might fall in pieces at any moment.
Many works will be found in the lists of authorities appended to the articles to which cross-reference is made above, notably Papacy.
Nor were matters much bettered when the papacy took advantage of the presence of a Catholic queen in England, and sent over in 1625 a vicarapostolic 3 - that is, a prelate in episcopal orders, but without the full authority of a diocesan bishop. He was soon compelled.
He takes as much pains in laying bare the trifling causes of a petty war with Pisa as in probing the deep-seated ulcer of the papacy.
In these years the secularization of the papacy was carried to its final point by Alexander VI., and the Reformation became inevitable.
Charles the Great (Charlemagne) lent his forces to the plan of resuscitating the Roman empire at a moment when his own power made him the arbiter of western Europe, when the papacy needed his alliance, and when the Eastern Empire had passed under the usurped regency of a female.
The four main instruments of the reaction were the papacy, which had done so much by its sympathy with the revival to promote the humanistic spirit it now dreaded, the strength of Spain, and two Spanish institutions planted on Roman soil - the Inquisition and the Order of Jesus.