A pantheist may believe in Law of Nature and go no further; a theist who accepts Law of Nature has a large instalment of natural theology ready made to his hand; including an idealist, or else an intuitionalist, scheme of ethics.
or a pantheist rejecting theism altogether.
As a result of this, Kant is metaphysically a sort of pantheist.
Whether Xenophanes was a monotheist, whose assertion of the unity of God suggested to Parmenides the doctrine of the unity of Being, or a pantheist, whose assertion of the unity of God was also a declaration of the unity of Being, so that he anticipated Parmenides - in other words, whether Xenophanes's teaching was purely theological or had also a philosophical significance - is a question about which authorities have differed and will probably continue to differ.
Xenophanes was, then, a pantheist.
The term "pantheist" was apparently first used by John Toland in 1705, and it was at once adopted by French and English writers.
Spinoza is, therefore, both pantheist and pancosmist: God exists only as realized in the cosmos: the cosmos exists only as a manifestation of God.
But he was no atheist, for the pantheist Zeno spoke highly of him.
Toland, the inventor of the name of pantheism, was notoriously, for a great part of his life, in some sort a pantheist.
To some extent, the pantheist too will know what to do to practice pantheism.
Benedict Spinoza, the eminent Jewish pantheist (1632-1677), to whom miracle is impossible, revelation a phrase, and who renews pioneer work in Old Testament criticism, finds at least a fair measure of liberty and comfort in Holland (his birth-land).
Saisset, Rev. des deux Mondes (1848), treats Servetus as a pantheist; he is followed by Menendez Pelayo, Los Heterodoxos espan"oles (1880, vol.
pp. 237-239) the following account: "When I reached intellectual maturity, and began to ask myself whether I was an atheist, a theist or a pantheist, a materialist or an idealist, a Christian or a freethinker, I found that the more I learned and reflected, the less ready was the answer.
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