An electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) that records the electrical activity in the heart may be used to check for heart rhythm abnormalities, such as long QT syndrome, in children who have had a pallid breath holding spell.
Up to 17 percent of children with pallid BHS will experience syncope (fainting spells) as adults, usually in response to fear, injury, or emotional stress.
The child cries or gasps, forcibly exhales, stops breathing, and turns either blue (cyanotic form) or pale (pallid form).
In a pallid BHS the brain sends a signal via the vagus nerve that severely slows the heart rate, leading to a temporary cessation of breathing and loss of consciousness.
About 25 percent of affected children-particularly those who experience pallid BHS-have a family history of BHS or fainting.
Not getting enough rest: While fatigue generally does not make the circles appear on its own, it can make them easier to see, since your skin may look pallid.
If pallid breath holding spells are frequent and severe, a preventative anti-cholinergic medicine such as atropine sulfate may be prescribed, in consultation with a neurologist or cardiologist.
As of 2004 there is no known prevention for pallid breath holding spells since the trigger for such spells is unpredictable.
His frowning face was pallid and quivered.
Calvin was of middle stature; his complexion was somewhat pallid and dark; his eyes, to the latest clear and lustrous, bespoke the acumen of his genius.