Thus Burma possesses two kinds of literature, Pali and Burmese.
5 Childers, Pali Diet.
- Texts: Pali Text Society (63 vols., 1882-1908); H.
Pali, though only a form of Hindu literature, has a separate history, for it died in India and was preserved in Ceylon, whence it was imported to Burma and Siam as the language of religion.
It would seem that up to the 4th century of our era the Sinhalese had written exclusively in their own tongue; that is to say that for six centuries they had studied and understood Pali as a dead language without using it as a means of literary expression.
In Burma, on the other hand, where Pali was probably introduced from Ceylon, no writings in Pali can be dated before the nth century of our era.
There have been good Pali scholars there since late medieval times.
PALI, the language used in daily intercourse between cultured people in the north of India from the 7th century B.C. It continued to be used throughout India and its confines as a literary language for about a thousand years, and is still, though in a continually decreasing degree, the literary language of Burma, Siam, and Ceylon.
Of the history of Pali in Siam very little is known.
BODHI VAMSA, a prose poem in elaborate Sanskritized Pali, composed by Upatissa in the reign of Mahinda IV.
The stone was split into two portions, apparently by lightning, and was inscribed with Pali characters as used in the time of Asoka.
Two factors combined to give Pali its importance as one of the few great literary languages of the world: the one political, the other religious.
The etymology of the word Pali is uncertain.
But when Pali first became known to Europeans it was already used also, by those who wrote in Pali, of the language of the later writings, which bear the same relation to the standard literary Pali of the canonical texts as medieval does to classical Latin.
A further extension of the meaning in which the word Pali was used followed in a very suggestive way.
The first book edited by a European in Pali was the Mahazamsa, or Great Chronicle of Ceylon, published there in 18 37 by Tumour, then colonial secretary in the island.
The resemblance was so close that Prinsep called the alphabet he was deciphering the Pali alphabet, and the language expressed in it he called the Pali language.
Tumour) that Buddhaghosa translated the commentaries, then existing only in Sinhalese, into Pali.
The name here used by the chronicler for Pali is "the Magadhi tongue," by which expression is meant, not exactly the language spoken in Magadha, but the language in use at the court of Asoka, king of Kosala and Magadha.
The question of Pali becomes therefore threefold: Pali before the canon, the canon, and the writings subsequent the canon.
The present writer has suggested that the word Pali should be reserved for the language of the canon, and other words used for the earlier and later forms of it; 1 but the usage generally followed is so convenient that there is little likelihood of the suggestion being followed.
For the history of Pali before the canonical books were composed we have no direct evidence.
His list of such forms is much more complete than that given by Childers in the introduction to his Dictionary of the Pali Language.
The whole of the Pali inscriptions so far discovered might fill somewhat more than a hundred pages of text.
Westergaard, Ober den altesten Zeitraum der indischen Geschichte, p. 87; Rhys Davids, Transactions of the Philological Society (1875), p. 70; Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik, 7-9.
These have now nearly all, mainly through the work of the Pali Text Society, been published in Pali.
The four principal ones have been published for the Pali Text Society, and some volumes have been translated into English or German.
Of these, eleven volumes had by 1910 been edited for the Pali Text Society by various scholars, the Jatakas and two other treatises had appeared elsewhere, and two works (one a selection of lives of distinguished early Buddhists, and the other an ancient commentary), were still in MS.
Of the seven treatises contained in the Abhidhamma Pitaka five, and one-third of the sixth, had by 1910 been published by the Pali Text Society; and one, the Dhamma Sangani, had been translated by Mrs Rhys Davids.
Of classical Pali in northern India subsequent to the canon there is but little evidence.
Hardy for the Pali Text Society in 1902; and the Petaka Upadesa.
At p. 66 of the Gandha Vamsa, a modern catalogue of Pali books and authors, written in Pali, there is given a list of ten authors who wrote Pali books in India, probably southern India.
Three of these have been published by the Pali Text Society; and Professor E.
The whole of these Pali books composed in India have been lost there.
They have beer_ preserved for us by the unbroken succession of Pali scholars in Ceylon and Burma.
These scholars (most of them members of the Buddhist Order, but many of them laymen) not only copied and recopied the Indian Pali books, but wrote a very large number themselves.
Franke in two articles in the Journal of the Pali Text Society for 1903, and in his Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali Grammatik.
Two volumes only of these, out of about twenty still extant in MS., have been edited for the Pali Text Society.
About a century before this the Dipa-vamsa, or Island Chronicle, had been composed in Pali verse so indifferent that it is apparently the work of a beginner in Pali composition.
No work written in Pali in Ceylon at a date older than this has been discovered yet.
C. Childers, Dictionary of the Pali Language (London, 1872-1875); Ernst Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik (Berlin; 18 75); E.
Miller, Pali Grammar (London, 1884); R O.
The chief original literatures are Chinese, Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic and Persian.
The Pali versions of Buddha's discourses are among the most remarkable products of Asia.
The thirteen words, in a local dialect of Pali, are written in very ancient characters, and are the oldest inscription as yet discovered in India.
It is first mentioned in a very ancient Pali ballad preserved in the Sutta Nipata (verse 583).
All later Buddhist accounts, whether Pali or Sanskrit, repeat the same story.
Fansboll (London Pali Text Society, 1884); Katha Vatthu, ed.
The king's language and the royal writing, and also religious words are, however, apparently of Aryan origin and akin to Pali.
to the S.E., and the Nuuanu Pali, a lofty and picturesque precipice 6 m.
The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.
The Pali is by far the more ancient, including as it does the Buddhist scriptures that originally found their way to Burma from Ceylon and southern India.
A Patamabyan examination for marks in the Pali language was first instituted in 1896 and is held annually.
It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic Pali title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents.
Edition in Pali for the Pali Text Society by S.
They are Buddhist topes (Pali.
Some of the priests are learned in the Buddhist scriptures, and most of the Pali scholarship in Siam is to be found in monasteries, but there is no learning of a secular nature.
It is to him we owe the commentaries on seven of the shorter canonical books, consisting almost entirely of verses, and also the commentary on the Netti, perhaps the oldest Pali work outside the canon.
Extracts from the latter work, and the whole of three out of the seven others, have been published by the Pali Text Society.
Hardy, London, Pali Text Society, 1902), especially the Introduction, passim; Theri Gatha Commentary, Peta Vatthu Commentary, and Vimana Vatthu Commentary, all three published by the Pali Text Society.
Wenzel, Journal of the Pali Text Society (1866), pp. 1-32; T.
On the coins struck in India, the well-known Indian alphabet (called Brahmi by the Indians, the older form of the Devanagari) is used; on the coins struck in Afghanistan and in the Punjab the Kharoshthi alphabet, which is derived directly from the Aramaic and was in common use in the western parts of India, as is shown by one of the inscriptions of Asoka and by the recent discovery of many fragments of Indian manuscripts, written in Kharoshthi, in eastern Turkestan (formerly this alphabet has been called Arianic or Bactrian Pali; the true name is derived from Indian sources).
Love is in Pali Metta, and the Metta Sutta 4 says (no doubt with reference to the Right Mindfulness just described):" As a mother, even at the risk of her own life, protects her son, her only son, so let him cultivate love without measure towards all beings.
And gladness springs up within him on his realizing that, and joy arises to him thus gladdened, and so rejoicing all his frame becomes at ease, and being thus at ease he is filled with a sense of peace, and in that peace his heart is stayed."9 To have realized the Truths, and traversed the Path; to have broken the Bonds, put an end to the Intoxications, and got rid of the Hindrances, is to have attained the ideal, the Fruit, as it is called, of Arahatship. One might fill columns with the praises, many of them among the most beautiful passages in Pali poetry and prose, lavished on this condition of mind, the state of the man made perfect according to the Buddhist faith.
As such they supposed the" dying out "must mean the dying out of a" soul "; and endless were the discussions as to whether this meant eternal trance, or absolute annihilation, of the" soul."It is now thirty years since the right interpretation, founded on the canonical texts, has been given, but outside the ranks of Pali scholars the old blunder is still often repeated.
More modern, and much more elaborate, forms are given in the Yogavacaras Manual of Indian Mysticism as practised by Buddhists, edited by Rhys Davids from a unique MS. for the Pali Text Society in 1896.
Each of the two schools kept an arrangement of the canon - still in Pali, or some allied dialect.
These books remained the only authorities for about five centuries, but they all, except only our extant Pali Nikayas, have been lost in India.
We talk necessarily of Pali books.
Each sutra (Pali, sutta) is very short; usually occupying only a page, or perhaps two, and containing a single proposition.
Of the 186, 175 had by 1907 been edited for the Pali Text Society, and the remainder were either in the press or in preparation.
The whole of the Pali text has been published by the Pali Text Society, but only portions have been translated into English.
The whole of it has been published in five volumes by the Pali Text Society.
The original text has been published by the Pali Text Society.
So far the canon, almost all of which is now accessible to readers of Pali.
The Pali text has been edited and the work translated into English.
The former, in Pali, discusses a number of questions then of importance in the Buddhist community; and it relies throughout, as does the Milinda, on the canonical works, which it quotes largely.
The Pali Text Society is still publishing two volumes a year; and the Russian Academy has inaugurated a series to contain the most important of the Sanskrit works still buried in MS. We have also now accessible in Pali fourteen volumes of the commentaries of the great 5th- century scholars in south India and Ceylon, most of them the works either of Buddhaghosa of Budh Gaya, or of Dhammapala of Kancipura (the ancient name of Conjeeveram).
He found that the Buddhism in his Pali MSS., which came from Ceylon, differed from that in his Sanskrit MSS., which came from Nepal.
The philosophical basis of the old ethics is overshadowed by new 1 See Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1896, pp. 87-92.
Pali Text Society, 57 vols.; Jataka, 7 vols., ed.
The earliest written books are in Pali and Buddhist Sanskrit.
But it disappeared from these parts in 1820 or early in 1821, and was not heard of again till July 1836, when a disease broke out into violence at the town of Pali in Marwar in Rajputana.
It spread from Pali to the province of Meywar, but died out spontaneously in the hot season of 1837.
Though this doctrine is especially insisted upon in Buddhism, and its designation as a specific term (Pali, Kamma) may be due to that creed, the notion itself was doubtless already prevalent in pre-Buddhist times.
The literary documents, both in Sanskrit and Pali, dating from about the time of Buddha onwards - particularly the two epic poems, the Mahabharata and Ramayana - still show us in the main the personnel of the old pantheon; but the character of the gods has changed; they have become anthropomorphized and almost purely mythological figures.
The ancient books, preserved in the Pali Pitakas, being mainly occupied with the details of Arahatship, lost their exclusive value in the eyes of those whose attention was being directed to the details of Bodhisatship. And the opinion that every leader in their religious circles, every teacher distinguished among them for his sanctity of life, or for his extensive learning, was a Bodhisat, who might have and who probably had inherited the karma of some great teacher of old, opened the door to a flood of superstitious fancies.
In doctrine the great Tibetan teacher, who had no access to the Pali Pitakas, adhered in the main to the purer forms of the Mahayana school; in questions of church government he took little part, and did not dispute the titular supremacy of the Sakya Lamas.
The later books say that they were all converted at once; but, according to the most ancient Pali record - though their old love and reverence had been so rekindled when the Buddha came near that their cold resolutions quite broke down, and they vied with each other in such acts of personal attention as an Indian disciple loves to pay to his teacher, - yet it was only after the Buddha had for five days talked to them, sometimes separately, sometimes together, that they accepted in its entirety his plan of salvation.'
The Pali name is aditta-pariyaya: the sermon on the lessons to be drawn from burning.
- Canonical Pali (reached their present shape before the 4th century B.C.); episodes only, three of them long: (1) Birth; text in Majjhima Nikaya, ed.
Morris and Hardy (Pali Text Society, 1888-1900), vol.
Fausboll (Pali Text Society, 1884), pp. 128-131; translation by the same in Sacred Books of the East (Oxford, 1881), vol.
Rhys Davids and Carpenter (Pali Text Society, 1890-1893), vol.
(The Burmese is, in its turn, a translation from a Pali work of unknown date; it gives the whole life, and is the only consecutive biography we have.) (4) Kambojian: Pathama Sambodhian; translated into French by A.
The latter have only as yet been traced, and that doubtfully, as far back as the 5th century after Christ; the former are almost certainly the same as the Niganthas, who are referred to in numerous passages of the Buddhist Pali Pitakas, and must therefore be at least as old as the 6th century B.C. In many of these passages the Niganthas are mentioned as contemporaneous with the Buddha; and details enough are given concerning their leader Nigantha Nata-putta (that is, the Nigantha of the Jnatrika clan) to enable us to identify him, without any doubt, as the same person as the Vaddhamana Maha-vira of the Jain books.
The text, published by the Pali Text Society, is of 140 pages octavo.
In 1833 he completed his translation of the Bible; in succeeding years he compiled a Burmese grammar, a Burmese dictionary, and a Pali dictionary.
These have now been published by the Pali Text Society.
Rhys Davids, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1892, contains an abstract of the Katha Vatthu; "On the Abhidhamma books of the Sarvastivadins," by Prof. Takakusu, in Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1905.
Na pali coast hardened lava a quarter mile away.
In solitary confinement for nine years, he practiced Buddhism primarily by practicing sati (mindfulness) and reciting sutras in Pali.
unedited text only books without the correct Pali accents.
The inscriptions have now been subjected to a very full critical and philological analysis in Professor Otto Franke's Pali and Sanskrit (Strassburg, 1902).
An outline of the history of the Pali alphabet has been given, with illustrations and references to the authorities, in Rhys Davids's Buddhist India, pp. 107-140.
It would be too early to attempt any estimate of the value of this secondary Pali literature.
But the department of the chronicles, the only 1 Journal of the Pali Text Society (1905), pp. 72, 86, one so far at all adequately treated, has thrown so much light on many points of the history of India that we may reasonably expect results equally valuable from the publication and study of the remainder.
He who will cast aside the "Bonds," the "Intoxications," the "Hindrances," and tread the Noble Eightfold Path (see Buddhism) which leads to Nirvana, will attain the ideal, the "Fruit of Arahatship," which is described in terms of glowing praise in the Pali hymns.
This must have been about 248 B.C. Upagupta (Tissa: see Pali) himself also mentions the site in his Kathei Vatthu (p. 559).
That the Sanskrit root sthag (Pali, thak), to cover, to conceal, was mainly applied to fraudulent concealment, appears from the noun sthaga, cheat, which has retained this signification in the modern vernaculars, in all of which it has assumed the form thag (commonly written thug), with a specific meaning.
He purposely put his into the ordinary conversational idiom of the day, that is to say, into Pali.
Trenckner and Chalmers (London, Pali Text Society, 1888-1899), vol.
1-6; they retain here and there a very old tradition as to arrangement of clauses or turns of expression.) Later Pali: The commentary on the Jataka, written probably in the 5th century A.D., gives a consecutive narrative, from the birth to the end of the second year of the teaching, based on the canonical texts, but much altered and amplified; edited by Fausb011 in Jataka, vol.
(7) Pali, spinous or blade-like upgrowths from the bottom of the calicle, which project between the inner edges of certain septa and the columella.
The following books are unedited text only books without the correct Pali accents.
The "Garden Isle" is home to the gorgeous Na Pali Coastline, which can only be viewed by air or water.
Some people may think this tattoo is reminiscent of Angelina Jolie's Buddhist Pali tat that is written in Cambodian and runs vertically on her left shoulder blade.
A very excellent edition of the twentyseven canonical books has been recently printed there, and there exist in our European libraries a number of Pali MSS.
The Pali books written in Ceylon, Burma and Siam will be our best and oldest, and in many respects our only, authorities for the sociology and politics, the literature and the religion, of their respective countries.
Franke, Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali-Grammatik and Lexicographic, and Pali and Sanskrit (Strassburg, 1902); D.
The languages of the south are Dravidian, not Sanskritic. The letters of both classes of languages, which also vary considerably, are all modifications of the ancient Pali, and probably derived from the Dravidians, not from the Aryans.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.