The capture of central Palestine itself is not recorded; according to its own traditions the district had been seized by Jacob (Gen.
For a time the fate of Syria and Palestine seems to have been no longer controlled by the great powers.
GIBEON, a town in Palestine whose inhabitants wrested a truce from Joshua by a trick (Josh.
For the other books, the recognized Targum on the Prophets is that ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel (4th century ?), which originated in Palestine, but was edited in Babylonia, so that it has the same history and linguistic character as Onkelos.
Shortly after the battle of Hittin there appeared in Palestine the ablest and most famous of the family, Count William's second son, Conrad.
It visits Palestine, but is unknown in Egypt.
- The book of Joshua continues the fortunes of the " children of Israel " and describes a successful occupation of Palestine by the united tribes.
Palestine, often mentioned in the Tell el-Amarna tablets.
The famous city, within easy reach of the southern desert and central Palestine (to Hebron and to Samaria the distances are about 18 and 35 miles respectively), had already entered into Palestinian history in the " Amarna " age (§ 3).
'EX€vOEparrbXcs, "free city"), an ancient city of Palestine, 25 m.
He took part in the agitation for the First Crusade, and started in the duke's company for Palestine, but died on the way, at Palermo (February 1097).
Bliss, A Mound of many Cities, both published by the Palestine Exploration Fund.
The portion of this district abutting upon the Mediterranean may be divided into two main parts: - Syria (from the Taurus to Hermon) and Palestine (southward to the desert bordering upon Egypt).
This age, with its regular maritime intercourse between the Aegean settlements, Phoenicia and the Delta, and with lines of caravans connecting Babylonia, North Syria, Arabia and Egypt, presents a remarkable picture of life and activity, in the centre of which lies Palestine, with here and there Egyptian colonies and some traces of Egyptian cults.
2 For fuller information on this section see Palestine: History, and the related portions of Babylonia And Assyria, Egypt, Hittites, Syria.
(a) The first, that of the two rival kingdoms: Israel (Ephraim or Samaria) in the northern half of Palestine, and Judah in the south.
The former, however, is based upon the account of victories by the Ephraimite Joshua over confederations of petty kings to the south and north of central Palestine, apparently the specific traditions of the people of Ephraim describing from their standpoint the entire conquest of Palestine.
orientale, and the Revue Biblique; Baedeker's Handbook to Palestine and Syria (1906); Mommert, Die hl.
Other evidence allows us to link together the Kenites, Calebites and Danites in a tradition of some movement into Palestine, evidently quite distinct from the great invasion of Israelite tribes which predominates in the existing records.
Few places in Palestine are more fertile.
The occupation of the rest of Syria and Palestine proceeded smoothly, and after the fall of Gaza Alexander's way lay open into Egypt.
de la Palestine, chap. i.).
Paton, Syria and Palestine (1902); G.
8), they became the rivals of the Judaean dynasty in the period of its splendour, and a chief element in the disorders which invited Pompey's intervention in Palestine.
and 35 ° 15' E., in the hill country of southern Palestine, close to the watershed, at an average altitude of 2500 ft.
The Tell el-Amarna letters show that, long before the invasion by Joshua, it was occupied by the Egyptians, and was probably a stronghold of considerable importance, as it formed a good strategical position in the hill country of southern Palestine.
SAMARIA, an ancient city of Palestine.
The site of Samaria is an enormous mound of accumulation, one of the largest in Palestine.
or Akhenaton, one of the sovereigns to whose govern ment the celebrated Tell el-Amarna letters from Palestine were addressed, was a zealous champion of the exclusive claims of the sun-disk God, Ra; but his policy died with him.
They continued in Paris for two years longer; but on November 15th, 1536, they started for Italy, to concert with Ignatius plans for converting the Moslems of Palestine.
Cook, Religion of Ancient Palestine.
- For the first two periods the history of the Jews is mainly that of Palestine.
Although it is difficult to determine the true historical kernel, two features are most prominent in the narratives which the post-exilic compiler has incorporated: the revelation of Yahweh, and the movement into Palestine.
alludes to an escape from Egypt; Israel is merely a desert tribe inspired to settle in Palestine.
It is associated with the half-nomad clans in the south of Palestine, or with the wanderings of David and his own priest Abiathar; it is ultimately placed within the newly captured city.
As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).
(For the period under review, as it appears in the light of existing external evidence, see Palestine: History.) 9.
The Rival Kingdoms. - The Palestine of the Hebrews was but part of a great area breathing the same atmosphere, and there was little to distinguish Judah from Israel except when they were distinct political entities.
Judah had natural connexions with Edom and southern Palestine; Israel was more closely associated with Gilead and the Aramaeans of the north.
In the absence of its native records its relations with Palestine are not always clear, but it may be supposed that amid varying political changes it was able to play a double game.
The Syrians seized Gilead, crossed over into Palestine, and occupied the land.
(See also Palestine: History.) For the former (2 Kings xii.
Yahweh of Moses was found, and scattered traces survive of a definite belief in the entrance into Palestine of a movement uncompromisingly devoted to the purer worship of Yahweh.
In the south of the Sinaitic peninsula, remains have been found of an elaborate half-Egyptian, half-Semitic cultus (Petrie, Researches in Sinai, xiii.), and not only does Edom possess some reputation for " wisdom," but, where this district is concerned, the old Arabian religion (whose historical connexion with Palestine is still imperfectly known) claims some attention.
The disorganized state of Egypt and the uncertain allegiance of the desert tribes left Judah without direct aid; on the other hand, opposition to Assyria among the conflicting interests of Palestine and Syria was rarely unanimous.
A number of petty peoples, of whom little definite is known, fringed Palestine from the south of Judah and the Delta to the Syrian desert.
Bethshean in Samaria has perhaps preserved in its later (though temporary) name Scythopolis an echo of the invasion.(Later, Necho, son of Psammetichus, proposed to add to Egypt some of the Assyrian provinces, and marched through Palestine.
He was slain at Megiddo in 608, and Egypt, as in the long-distant past, again held Palestine and Syria.
From this point of view, the desire to intensify the denudation of Palestine and the fate of its remnant, and to look to the Babylonian exiles for the future, can probably be recognized in the writings attributed to contemporary prophets.'
The agriculturists and herdsmen who had been left in Palestine formed, as always, the staple population, and it is impossible to imagine either Judah or Israel as denuded of its inhabitants.
2 Sargon had removed Babylonians into the land of Hatti (Syria and Palestine), and in 715 B.C. among the colonists were tribes apparently of desert origin (Tamud, Hayapa, &c.); other settlements are ascribed to Esar-haddon and perhaps Assur-bani-pal (Ezra iv.
2 On the place of Palestine in Persian history see Persia: History, ancient, especially § 5 ii.; also Artaxerxes; Cambyses; Cyrus; Darius, &C.
Throughout the Persian supremacy Palestine was necessarily influenced by the course of events in Phoenicia and Egypt (with which intercourse was continual), and some light may thus be indirectly thrown on its otherwise obscure political history.
Thus, when Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, made his great expedition against Egypt, with the fleets of Phoenicia and Cyprus and with the camels of the Arabians, it is highly probable that Palestine itself was concerned.
Also, the revolt which broke out in the Persian provinces at this juncture may have extended to Palestine; although) the usurper Darius encountered his most serious opposition in the north and north-east of his empire.
Those who had been scattered from Palestine lived in small colonies, sometimes mingling and intermarrying with the natives, sometimes strictly preserving their own individuality.
In Elephantine, as in Nippur, the legal usages show that similar elements of Babylonio-Assyrian culture prevailed, and the evidence from two such widely separated fields is instructive for conditions in Palestine itself.3 20.
Although Palestine had not been depopulated, and many of the exiled Jews remained in Persia, the standpoint is that of those who returned from Babylon.
Greater weight must be laid upon the independent evidence of the prophetical writings, and the objection that Palestine could not have produced the religious fervency of Haggai or Zechariah without an initial impulse from Babylonia begs the question.
The names point generally to an affinity with south Palestine and north Arabia (Edoin, Midian, &c.; see especially the lists in Gen.
On these and on other grounds besides, it has long been felt that south Palestine, with its north Arabian connexions, is of real importance in biblical research, and for many years efforts have been made to determine the true significance of the evidence.
Distinctively Calebite are the stories of the eponym who, fearless of the " giants " of Palestine, gained striking divine promises (Num.
While the history of the great area between the Nile and the Tigris irresistibly emphasizes the insignificance of Palestine, this land's achievements for humanity grow the more remarkable as research tells more of its environment.
If, as seems probable, the continued methodical investigation, which is demanded by the advance of modern knowledge, becomes more drastic in its results, it will recognize ever more clearly that there were certain unique influences in the history of Palestine which cannot be explained by purely historical research.
The insignificance of the Jewish community in Palestine was their salvation.
And the individuals, who acquired power or wisdom among those outside Palestine shed a reflected glory upon the nation and its Temple.
In connexion with Alexander's march through Palestine Josephus gives a tradition of his visit to Jerusalem.
The rest of Palestine, which is called Coele-Syria, made its submission and furnished supplies.
- After the death of Alexander Palestine fell in the end to Ptolemy (301 B.C.) and remained an Egyptian province until 198 B.C. For a century the Jews in Palestine and in Alexandria had no history - or none that Josephus knew.
For Joseph, the son of Tobiah and nephew of Onias, went to court and secured the taxes of Palestine, when they were put up to auction.
But while such men went out into the world and brought back wealth of one kind or another to Palestine, other Jews were content to make their homes in foreign parts.
Such a breach of the sabbath was necessary if the whole Law was to survive at all in Palestine.
Simon was thus left to consolidate what had been won in Palestine for the Jews and the family whose head he had become.
The result of this double-dealing was that his army was destroyed by Ptolemy, who advanced into Egypt leaving Palestine at the mercy of Cleopatra.
The Jews of Palestine thus became once more a subject state, stripped of their conquests and confined to their own borders.
Further, as confederates of the senate and people of Rome, the Jews had received accession of territory, including the port of Joppa and, with other material privileges, the right of observing their religious customs not only in Palestine but also in Alexandria and elsewhere.
In Palestine few could command leisure for meditation; as for opportunities of effective intervention in affairs, they had none, it would seem, once Alexander was dead.
When Cassius demanded a tribute of 700 talents from Palestine, Antipater set Herod, Phasael and this Malichus, his enemy, to collect it.
So Herod and Phasael continued to be virtually kings of the Jews: Antony's court required large remittances and Palestine was not exempt.
This was so even in Palestine - the land which the Jews hoped to possess - and in Jerusalem itself, the holy city, in which the Temple stood.
Many if not all of the professed rabbis had travelled outside Palestine: some were even members of the dispersion, like Hillel the Babylonian, who with Shammai forms the second of the pairs.
But that ability was largely due to his whole-hearted Hellenism, which was shown by the Greek cities which he founded in Palestine and the buildings he erected in Jerusalem.
Philip, who had been left in charge of Palestine pending the decision and had won the respect of Varus, became tetrarch of Batanaea, Trachonitis and Auranitis, with ioo talents.
So Vespasian obtained possession of Palestine - the country which Nero had given him - and for a time it was purged of revolutionaries.
In 132 the Jews of Palestine rebelled again.
The death of Hadrian and the accession of Antoninus Pius (138), however, gave the dispersed people of Palestine a breathing-space.
on the east of the Euphrates, from Nehardea in the north to Sura in the south, became a new Palestine with Nehardea for its Jerusalem.
Modern schools have been set up in many places, and Palestine has been the scene of a notable educational and agricultural revival, while technical schools - such as the agricultural college near Jaffa and the schools of the alliance and the more recent Bezalel in Jerusalem - have been established.
Its object was the foundation of a Jewish state in Palestine, but though it aroused much interest it failed to attract the majority of the emancipated Jews, and the movement has of late been transforming itself into a mere effort at colonization.
From Sicily and even the Spanish coast to the Troad, southern Asia Minor, Cyprus and Palestine, - from the Nile valley to the mouth of the Po, very similar forms were now diffused.
He died at his home, near Palestine, Texas, on the 6th of March 1905.
nasi, prince, chief) was given to the head of the sanhedrim in Palestine, and is sometimes, though wrongly, applied to the " exilarch," a head of the Jewish college at Babylon.
The extreme south-west part of the continent constitutes a separate zoological district, comprising Arabia, Palestine and southern Persia, and reaching, like the hot desert botanical tract, to Baluchistan and Sind; it belongs to what Dr Sclater calls the Ethiopian region, which extends over Africa, south of the Atlas.
A juster view of early history is probably obtained by thinking of the countries round the Mediterranean as interacting on one another than by separating Palestine and Asia Minor as Asiatic.
In 588 Nebuchadrezzar carried off the Jews in captivity, but after the Persian conquest of Babylonia they were allowed to return to Palestine in 538.
But long before this period the Jews of the Dispersion had become as important as the inhabitants of Palestine.
So, after David had completed a series of conquests which made Palestine the greatest of the petty states of the age, troubles arose with the Israelites, who in times past had sought for him to be king (iii.
In Egypt, if not even before leaving Italy, he had become intimately acquainted with Melania, a wealthy and devout Roman widow; and when she removed to Palestine, taking with her a number of clergy and monks on whom the persecutions of the Arian Valens had borne heavily, Rufinus (about 378) followed her.
In 1229 the Order began the conquest of Prussia, founding fortresses at each step to rivet its conquests (for instance, at Thorn, named after Toron in Palestine), much as the AngloNormans had done in their conquest of Wales.
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
At the end of 275 the question of Palestine, which had been open between the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy since the partition of 301, led to hostilities (the "First Syrian War").
The young king was in the hands of the bad minister Hermeias, and was induced to make an attack on Palestine instead of going in person to face the rebels.
Since, however, his power was not well enough grounded to allow of his attacking Syria, Antiochus considered that he might leave Achaeus for the present and renew his attempt on Palestine.
Once more Antiochus attacked Palestine, and by 199 he seems to have had possession of it.
Philopator (reigned 187-176), consisted of Syria (now including Cilicia and Palestine), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persis).
In 170 Egypt, governed by regents for the boy Ptolemy Philometor, attempted to reconquer Palestine; Antiochus not only defeated this attempt but invaded and occupied Egypt.
In the year 21 6 - the time when the imperial executioners were ravaging Alexandria - we find Origen in Palestine.
On his way to Greece (apparently in the year 230) Origen was ordained a presbyter in Palestine by his friends the bishops.
He betook himself to Palestine, where his condemnation had not been acknowledged by the churches any more than it had been in Phoenicia, Arabia and Achaea.
Nevertheless his writings were much read, especially in Palestine.
Two Aegean vases were found at Sidon in 1885, and many fragments of Aegean and especially Cypriote pottery have been turned up during recent excavations of sites in Philistia by the Palestine Fund.
He made considerable progress in the following two years, but he was greatly criticized for the size of his estimates, and especially for the large forces retained in Mesopotamia and Palestine.
On Lord Milner's retirement in the spring of 1921 he succeeded him as Secretary of State for the Colonies; and a new arrangement was made by which the responsibility for Mesopotamia and Palestine was taken over by the Colonial Office.
For other countries in the Levant there are Canon Tristram's Fauna and Flora of Palestine (4to, 1884) and Captain Shelley's Handbook to the Birds of Egypt (8vo, 1872).
"House of God"), originally called Luz, an ancient city of Palestine, on the N.W.
After staying for some time in Africa as the disciple of Augustine, he was sent by him in 415 to Palestine with a letter of introduction to Jerome, then at Bethlehem.
The ostensible purpose of his mission (apart, of course, from those of pilgrimage and perhaps relic-hunting) was that he might gain further instruction from Jerome on the points raised by the Priscillianists and Origenists; but in reality, it would seem, his business was to stir up and assist Jerome and others against Pelagius, who, since the synod of Carthage in 411, had been living in Palestine, and finding some acceptance there.
According to Gennadius he carried with him recently discovered relics of the protomartyr Stephen from Palestine to Minorca, where they were efficacious in converting the Jews.
His next treatise, Liber apologeticus de arbitrii libertate, was written during his stay in Palestine, and in connexion with the controversy which engaged him there.
Cotton was formerly cultivated profitably in Palestine.
The primary force, which thus transmuted an appeal for reinforcements into a holy war for the conquest of Palestine, was the Church.
The Venetians, however, maintained their position in Palestine; and their quarters remained, along with those of the Genoese, as privileged commercial franchises in an otherwise feudal state.
2 Maudud (the brother of the sultan Mahommed) may be regarded as the first to begin the jihad, or counter-crusade, and his attack expedition of 1113, which carried him so far into the heart of Palestine, may be considered as the first act of the jihad (Stevenson, op. cit.
Continually recruited from the West, they retained the vigour which the native Franks of Palestine gradually lost; and their corporate strength gave a weight to their arms which made them indispensable.
It was one of the misfortunes of Palestine that it served as a Botany Bay, to which the criminals of the West were transported for penance.
The Crusade was now at last answered by the counter-Crusade - the jihad; for though for many years past Saladin had, in his attempt to acquire all the inheritance of Nureddin, left Palestine unmenaced and intact, his ultimate aim was always the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem.
Richard soon followed; but while Philip sailed straight for Acre, Richard occupied himself by the way in conquering Cyprus - partly out of knight-errantry, and in order to avenge an insult offered to his betrothed wife Berengaria by the despot of the island, partly perhaps out of policy, and in order to provide a basis of supplies and of operations for the armies attempting to recover Palestine.
The young Alexius joined the army; and in spite of the opposition of stern crusaders like Simon de Montfort, who sailed away ultimately to Palestine, he succeeded by large promises in inducing the army to follow in his train to Constantinople.
The French kings are all crusaders - in name - until the beginning of the Hundred Years' War; but the only crusader who ever carried war in Palestine and sought to shake the hold of the Mamelukes on the Holy Land was Peter I., king of Cyprus from 1359 to 1369.
In the 13th century the whole of Europe was Christian; part of Asia Minor still belonged to Greek Christianity, and there was a Christian kingdom in Palestine.
The Crusades - a movement which engaged all Europe and brought the East into contact with the West - must necessarily be studied not only in the Latin authorities of Europe and of Palestine, but also in Byzantine, Armenian and Arabic writers.
He was a native of Palestine, born about 1130, and educated in the West.
Lestrange's Palestine under the Moslem, and to Stanley Lane-Poole's Life of Saladin and his Mahommedan Dynasties (the latter a valuable work of reference).
Commagene (Kummukh), Cyrrhestica, Phoenicia, Palestine, &c. It is ineffective in history, especially on the south and east.
Consequently south Palestine has been continuously " Arabized "; and indeed the whole of Syria has been characterized by racial and religious fusions, and by civilization of a singularly syncretic and derived kind, of which the ancient Phoenician is a sufficient example.
In Palestine a limestone containing Carboniferous fossils is found in the midst of the sandstone series, and here the sandstone is immediately succeeded by limestones with Hippurites and other fossils belonging to the Upper Cretaceous.
Cretaceous limestones cover the greater part of Palestine and rocks of the same period form Mt Lebanon, the Casius Mons, &c., farther north.
Palestine, being less shut in and enjoying a comparatively large general rainfall, would be still a land " flowing with milk and honey " had its forests not been destroyed, and the terracing, which used to hold up soil on the highlands, been maintained.
In the extreme south Palestine begins to be affected by the Arabian dryness.
See also the references under Palestine.
The second class will be found under Palestine; and it includes a sub-class which is not found outside Palestine at all.
The latter appears mainly in Palestine, and has of late been considerably strengthened by immigration of European Jews, who have almost doubled the population of Jerusalem, and settled upon several fertile spots throughout the Holy Land.
Ottoman Turks, scattered gipsy communities, German settlers in north Palestine, and all sorts of Europeans make up a heterogeneous and incompatible population.
The influence exercised at all times on Syrian art by the powerful neighbouring states is abundantly confirmed by all the recent finds which, in addition to our previous knowledge, show the action of the Aegean culture on Phoenicia and Palestine.
Syria up to and beyond the Euphrates is called more precisely Sahi (or Zahi), and is regarded as consisting of the following parts: (r) Rutenu, practically the same as Palestine (occasionally Palestine with Coelesyria is called Upper Rutenu, as distinguished from Lower Rutenu extending to the Euphrates); (2) the land of the Kheta (sometimes reckoned as belonging to Rutenu with Kadesh on the Orontes as its capital in the Ramesside period; (3) Naharina, the land on both sides of the Euphrates (extending, strictly speaking, beyond the Syrian limits).
Some of these names can be readily identified, such as Aleppo, Kadesh, Sidon, and the like, as well as many in Palestine.
The Tell el-Amarna Letters (15th century B.C.) show Syria held in part by Egyptian viceroys, who are much preoccupied with southward movements in the Buka'a and the rest of the interior beyond their control, due to pressure of Amorite peoples, and of the Mitanni and the Kheta, whose non-Semitic blood was mingled with that of the Aramaeans even in Palestine.
it was centred on the upper Orontes (Kadesh) and had comparatively free access to Palestine and the Egyptian border.
21 seq., very little is known, but it is certain that Aramaeans at an early period had their abode close on the northern border of Palestine (in Maachah).
It is impossible here to follow in detail the numerous changes in the distribution of the territory and the gradual disappearance of particular dynasties which maintained a footing for some time longer in Chalcis, Abila, Emesa and Palestine; but it is of special interest to note that the kingdom of the Arab Nabataeans was able to keep its hold for a considerable period on the north as far as Damascus.
Socin, Handbook to Syria and Palestine (1906); V.
Cuinet, Syrie, Liban et Palestine (1896); D.
Post, Flora of Syria, Palestine, &c. (1896); C. J.
PHOENICIA; PALESTINE; LEBANON; HITTITES; CRUSADES; TURKEY; PERSIA: Ancient History.
Cook, Religion of Ancient Palestine, Index, s.v.
From Egypt Hadrian returned through Syria to Europe (his movements are obscure), but was obliged to hurry back to Palestine (spring, 133) to give his personal attention (this is denied by some historians) to the revolt of the Jews, which had broken out (autumn, 131, or spring, 132) after he had left Syria.
4 It is not certain that the codex form was in use in Palestine or in Egypt as early as the 2nd or the 1st century B.
While the Essenes were confined to Palestine or its near neighbourhood, the Therapeutae, we are told, existed in many parts of the world, but especially in Egypt.
The pastures are everywhere luxuriant, and the wooded heights and winding glens, in which the tangled shrubbery is here and there broken up by open glades and flat meadows of green turf, exhibit a beauty of vegetation such as is hardly to be seen in any other district of Palestine.
As the eastern frontier of Palestine, Gilead bore the first brunt of Syrian and Assyrian attacks.
The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.
For the reading "Baal" in the Amarna tablets (Palestine, about 1400 B.C.) see Knudtzon, Beitr.
After a journey of fifty-four days his companions arrived at Venice in January 1537; and here they remained until the beginning of Lent, when Ignatius sent them to Rome to get money for the proposed voyage to Palestine.
But Ortiz proved a friend and presented them to Paul III., who gave them leave to go to Palestine to preach the Gospel, bestowing upon them abundant alms. He likewise gave licence for those not yet priests to be ordained by any catholic bishop on the title of poverty.
The town of FÃ©camp grew up round the nunnery founded in 658 to guard the relic of the True Blood which, according to the legend, was found in the trunk of a fig-tree drifted from Palestine to this spot, and which still remains the most precious treasure of the church.
AMALEKITES, an ancient tribe, or collection of tribes, in the south and south-east of Palestine, often mentioned in the Old Testament as foes of the Israelites.
Twice Amalek seems to be mentioned as occupying central Palestine (Judg.
in November 1272 until August 1274, when the new king, Edward I., returned from Palestine and made him his chancellor.
43), but the home of the goddess was unquestionably not Palestine, but Syria proper, expecially at Hierapolis, where she had a great temple.
He travelled a great deal in Europe, Egypt, Palestine, Russia, Algeria and America, and between 1853 and 1863 was largely occupied with researches into the history and methods of marine propulsion.
He made similar voyages in later years in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, the North Sea and Palestine.
The Indo-Europeans whom we find in Mesopotamia (the Kassites and Mitannians) * and in Palestine about 1400 B.C. can hardly have entered western Asia before 2000 B.C. or thereabouts, and it is probable that the Hittites belonged to the same wandering.
Megalithic town walls were naturally common in that stony land, Palestine, and very typical specimens of them were found in the Palestine Exploration Fund's excavations at Bethshemesh (`Ain Shems) directed by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, 29 whose work also threw new light on the phenomenon of the appearance in Palestine between the 12th and 10th centuries B.C. of subMycenaean (Greek) pottery, which can only be ascribed to the Philistines, whose historical position as a foreign invading force from the Aegean area (Lycia and Crete-Kaphtor) is now entirely vindicated.
This is possibly the case with regard to the older culture of Canaan in the preceding millennium, of which Palestinian excavations have yielded few traces, though we know it existed.32 War destroyed it: Palestine was the cockpit of Asia.
The new conditions in Palestine should be very favourable to archaeological work there, and it is to be hoped that in Syria the French will give every facility for international work.
John Rylands Libr., Jan.-March 1916; (28) Proc. Soc. Ant., Dec. 1919; (29) Palestine Expl.
Except indeed for Egypt and Palestine under Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Seleucus now divided the empire between them, with the Taurus in Asia Minor for their frontier.
An alternative route went from the Indian ports to the Persian Gulf, and thence found the Mediterranean by caravan across Arabia from the country of Gerrha to Gaza; and to control it was no doubt a motive in the long struggle of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid houses for Palestine, as well as in the attempt of Antiochus III.
Among countries represented on a larger scale on maps, Palestine not unnaturally occupies a prominent place in this age of pilgrimages and crusades (1095-1291).
Among more recent maps of Palestine, that by Petrus Vesconte (1320) is greatly superior to the earlier maps.
The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam.
Among maps based upon actual surveys those of Palestine, by Lieutenant G.
At first it was assumed that the Messianic kingdom in Palestine would last for ever (so the prophets; cf.
It was in order to preserve the Israelites from errors and follies of this kind, and to prevent the possibility of such idolatry being established, that the dog was afterwards regarded with utter abhorrence amongst the Jews, and this feeling prevailed during the continuance of the Israelites in Palestine.
Acre, Palestine >>
- In addition to books mentioned under PALESTINE see the following: - U.
Ewing, A Journey in the Hauran (with a large collection of inscriptions); Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement, 1895; W.
In Palestine the fanatical monks led by Theodosius captured Jerusalem and expelled the bishop, Juvenal.
(For maps of Asiatic Turkey, see Arabia; Armenia; Asia Minor; Palestine; Syria.) The possessions of the sultan in Europe now consist of a strip of territory stretching continuously across the Balkan Peninsula from the Bosporus to the Adriatic (29° to' to 19° 20' E.), and lying in the east mainly between 40° and 42° and in the west between 39 0 and 43° N.
They comprise the geographically distinct regions of the Anatolian plateau (Asia Minor), the Armenian and Kurdish highlands, the Mesopotamian lowlands, the hilly and partly mountainous territory of Syria and Palestine and the coast lands of west and north-east Arabia.
In Palestine and elsewhere there is a large orange trade, and Basra, in Turkish Arabia, has the largest export of dates in the world.
Syrie Liban et Palestine (Paris, 1896-1898); W.
This proposal, as might have been expected, only served to rouse suspicions as to Russia's plans; it was politely rejected, and the whole Eastern Question slumbered, until, early in 1850, it was awakened by an incident trivial enough in itself, but pregnant with future trouble: a quarrel of Catholic and Orthodox monks about the holy places in Palestine.
It is assumed that the former arose during the pastoral period of Israelite history before or during the stay in Egypt, while the latter was adopted from the Canaanites after the settlement in Palestine.
One of these was in Greece, the Ionian, the other was in Magna Graecia; the one of them was from Coele Syria, the other from Egypt; but there were others in the East, one of whom belonged to the Assyrians, but the other was in Palestine, originally a Jew.
(X.) Ark of the Covenant, Ark of the Revelation, Ark of the Testimony, are the full names of the sacred chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold which the Israelites took with them on their journey into Palestine.
AMMONITES, or the "children of Ammon," a people of east Palestine who, like the Moabites, traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and must have been regarded, therefore, as closely related to the Israelites and Edomites.
HAWFINCH, a bird so called from the belief that the fruit of the hawthorn (Crataegus Oxyacantha) forms its chief food, the Loxia coccothraustes of Linnaeus, and the Coccothraustes vulgaris of modern ornithologists, one of the largest of the finch family (Fringillidae), and found over nearly the whole of Europe, in Africa north of the Atlas and in Asia from Palestine to Japan.
They number about 80,000, are found in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, and are under the immediate rule of -the patriarch of Damascus and twelve bishops.
Certain circles in Judaism, as the Essenes in Palestine (Josephus, B.J.
1 In Aqiba's time Sirach and other apocryphal books were not reckoned among the Hisonim; for Sirach was largely quoted by rabbis in Palestine till the 3rd century A.D.
On the other hand, teachers connected with Palestine, and familiar with the Hebrew canon, rigidly exclude all but the books contained there.
famelicus), whose range extends apparently from Egypt and Somaliland through Palestine and Persia into Afghanistan, seems to form a connecting link between the more typical foxes and the small African species properly known as fennecs.
Other prophets of the same age speak much of dearth and failure of crops, which in Palestine then as now were aggravated by bad government, and were far more serious to a small and isolated community than they could ever have been to the old kingdom.
le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems (1890).
Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favourite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Poppaea and effected his purpose by her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine.
There is nothing even to connect these Jews with Palestine; they may have formed a part of the very considerable Jewish community which we know to have been settled in Egypt as early as the 5th century B.C. On the other hand, it is extremely improbable that the Jews of Judaea, whom Nehemiah had entirely detached from their immediate neighbours, would have taken part in any general rising against Persia.
The origin of its application must be sought in a time when Egypt was regarded as hostile to the people of the Lord - that is to say, during the Ptolemaic rule over Palestine.
This does not necessarily prove that " the technical terms of the Temple music had gone out of use, presumably because they were already become unintelligible, as they were when the Septuagint version was made "; for it does not follow that technical musical terms which had originated in the Temple at Jerusalem and were intelligible in Palestine would have been understood in Egypt.
Such a district we may find in southern Galilee, " the land of Zebulon and the land of Naphtali," apparently the only portion of Palestine north of Samaria where the worshippers of Jehovah existed in any considerable numbers.
In Palestine and western Syria, the home of pre-Christian Aramaic dialects, the vernacular Semitic speech had under Roman dominion been replaced by Greek for official and literary purposes.
Both he and his wife took part in the first crusade (1099), and died on the road to Palestine.
The crusaders found them everywhere in Syria and Palestine, and corrupted their name to Publicani, under which name, often absurdly conjoined with Sadducaei, we find them during the ages following the crusades scattered all over Europe.
In reality there were numerous minor variations in the cut and colour of ancient dress even as there are in the present day in or around Palestine.
2 The Hebrews held that the leaves of the fig-tree (the largest available tree in Palestine) served primitive man and that the Deity gave them skins for a covering - evidently after he had slain the animals (Gen.
6r) - they were no doubt familiar in Palestine in the post-exilic age, and in the Roman period the braccae and feminalia were certainly known.
In general, the use of a square or rectangular cloth (whether folded diagonally or not) corresponds to the modern keffiyeh woven with long fringes which are plaited into cords knitted at the ends or worked into little balls sewn over with coloured silks and golden From Palestine Exploration Fund threads.
In Palestine he quarrelled with Richard I., king of England, captured him on his homeward journey and handed him over to the emperor Henry VI.
The new duke fought against the infidel in Spain, Egypt and Palestine, but is more celebrated as a lawgiver, a patron of letters and a founder of towns.
In 1832 he set out with his wife and daughter for Palestine, having been unsuccessful in his candidature for a seat in the chamber.
Other species of the genus are found from Palestine to Formosa, as well as in central Asia.
Four times he invaded Syria and Palestine, and spent three years in thoroughly subduing the countries of " the west," and in uniting them with Babylonia " into a single empire."
Contract tablets have been found dated in the years of the campaigns against Palestine and Sarlak, king of Gutium or Kurdistan, and copper is mentioned as being brought from Magan or the Sinaitic peninsula.
A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the Babylonians.
Gudea was also a great builder, and the materials for his buildings and statues were brought from all parts of western Asia, cedar wood from the Amanus mountains, quarried stones from Lebanon, copper from northern Arabia, gold and precious stones from the desert between Palestine and Egypt, dolerite from Magan (the Sinaitic peninsula) and timber from Dilmun in the Persian Gulf.
Under this foreign dominion, which offers a striking analogy to the contemporary rule of the Hyksos in Egypt, Babylonia lost its empire over western Asia, Syria and Palestine became independent, and the high-priests of Assur made themselves kings of Assyria.
(a) In pre-Israelite Palestine, it is resident about Hebron (Gen.
It appears, therefore, that there survived in Palestine to late times a detached Hittite population, with which Hebrews sometimes intermarried (Judges iii.
of Palestine proper, organized rather as a confederacy of tribes than a single monarchy (r Kings x.
From this point (c. 1150 B.C.) - the point at which (roughly) the monarchic history of Israel in Palestine opens - Egyptian records cease to mention Kheta; and as we know from other sources that the latter continued powerful in Carchemish for some centuries to come, we must presume that the rise of the Israelite state interposed an effective political barrier.
Since the Psalms were written in Hebrew, and intended for public worship in the synagogues, it is most probable that they were composed in Palestine.
(I) A king of Gerar in South Palestine with whom Isaac, in the Bible, had relations.
Abimelech thus became king, and extended his authority over central Palestine.
According to the tradition of the schools of Palestine Gamaliel succeeded his grandfather and his father (of the latter nothing is known but his name, Simeon) as Nasi, or president of the Sanhedrin.
southern Palestine) and to the Jews of the Dispersion (Sanhedrin III) and elsewhere).
Gamaliel died before the insurrections under Trajan had brought fresh unrest into Palestine.
The site has been partially excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund, and an enormous mass of material for the history of Palestine recovered from it, including remains of a pre-Semitic aboriginal race, a remarkably perfect High Place, the castle built by Simon, and other remains of the first importance.
Macalister's reports in Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement (October 1902 onwards).
These opinions must overrule the view of some Christian scholars that the writer often blunders in Jewish matters, the fact being that his knowledge is derived from the Judaism of Alexandria' rather than Palestine.
Returning to Arabia a year later, he visited Oman and the shores of the Persian Gulf, and travelling from Basra through Syria and Palestine he reached Denmark in 1764 after four years' absence.
The rest of the northern borderland is covered by the Syrian desert, extending from the borders of Palestine to the edge of the Euphrates valley.
The difficulties in the way of travelling in Arabia with a view to scientific investigation are such that little or nothing is being done, and the systematic work which has given such good results in Egypt, Palestine and Babylonia-Assyria is unknown in Arabia.
The connexion with Palestine has always been close; and the Abyssinian settlement is probably as late as the beginning of the Christian era.
To these may be added a certain number of Jewish tribes and families deriving their origin partly from migrations from Palestine, partly from converts among the Arabs themselves.
The ruins of another Arbela (Irbid, Beth-Arbel) in Palestine, situated near the west shore of the Sea of Galilee, a little north of its centre, are not in themselves of high interest, but the site is noteworthy through its connexion with the neighbouring caves in the lofty flank of the Wadi Hamam, above which Arbela stood.
JEWS, §§ 13 (beginning), 15; PALESTINE, Old Test.
Nablus), an ancient town of Palestine, S.E.
I), but the official name Neapolis or Flavia Neapolis, so called to commemorate its restoration by Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus), soon became universal, and is still preserved in the modern name Nablus - a signal exception to the general rule that the place-names of Palestine, whenever disturbed by foreign influence, usually revert in time to the old Semitic nomenclature.
404), who was born in Palestine and spent a considerable part of his life there, gives Ia0e (one cod.
The revelation of the name to Moses was made at a mountain sacred to Yahweh (the mountain of God) far to the south of Palestine, in a region where the forefathers of the Israelites had never roamed, and in the territory of other tribes; and long after the settlement in Canaan this region continued to be regarded as the abode of Yahweh (Judg.
It is probable that Yahweh was at one time worshipped by various tribes south of Palestine, and that several places in that wide territory (Horeb, Sinai, Kadesh, &c.) were sacred to him; the oldest and most famous of these, the mountain of God, seems to have lain in Arabia, east of the Red Sea.
In a tablet attributed to the 14th century B.C. which Sellin found in the course of his excavations at Tell Ta'annuk (the Taanach of the O.T.) a name occurs which may be read Ahi-Yawi (equivalent to Hebrew Ahijah); 6 if the reading be correct, this would show that Yahweh was worshipped in Central Palestine before the Israelite conquest.
But his stay in Palestine was limited to sixteen months.
2) from His heavenly palace, and descending on the mountains of Palestine, at once as witness against His people, and the executer of judgment on their sins.
Pilate kept the Roman peace in Palestine but with little understanding of the people.
Lebanon during the Frank period of Antioch and Palestine, the Maronites being inclined to take the part of the crusading princes against the Druses and Moslems; but they were still regarded as heretic Monothelites by Abulfaragius (Bar-Hebraeus) at the end of the 13th century; nor is their effectual reconciliation to Rome much older than 1736, the date of the mission sent by the pope Clement XII., which fixed the actual status of their church.
Cuinet, Syrie, Liban et Palestine (1896); N.
This he did by an alliance with the Italian trading towns, especially Genoa, which supplied in return for the concession of a quarter in the conquered towns, the instruments and the skill for a war of sieges, in which the coast towns of Palestine were successively reduced.
In the absence of any precise evidence on the point it is impossible to give more than a rough estimate as to the period at which Hebrew, as a spoken language, was finally displaced by Aramaic. It is, however, certain that the latter language was firmly established in Palestine in the 1st century A.D.
The Hebrew text used by the translators appears to have been practically identical with the Massoretic. The version was held in high esteem in Babylon, and, later, in Palestine, and a special Massora was made for it.
We must rather assume that a tolerably fixed Targum tradition existed in Palestine from quite early times.
This old Targum tradition, however, never received official recognition in Palestine, and was unable, therefore, to hold its own when the new Babylonian version was introduced.
He prophesied in London as Isaiah prophesied to the little towns of Palestine and Syria, "often with dark foreboding, but seeing through all unrest and convulsion the working out of a sure divine purpose."
He finds that materials fail for Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt.
272, and was adapted to the dogmatic requirements of the time, all the later creeds of Palestine, Asia Minor and Egypt being dependent on it.
I) does not attempt a reconstruction on this elaborate scale, but contents himself with pointing out evidence, which Kattenbusch seems to him to have missed, for the existence of creeds of Egypt, Cappadocia and Palestine before the time of Aurelian.
Whether his conclusion is justified or not, it helps to show how strongly the trend of contemporary research is setting against the theory of Kattenbusch that the Roman Creed when adopted at Antioch became the parent of all Eastern forms. It does not, however, militate against the possibility that the Roman Creed was carried from Rome to Asia Minor and to Palestine in the 2nd century.
The plain fact is that the same facts were taught in Palestine, Asia Minor and Gaul, whether gathered up in a parallel creed form or not.
They came accompanied by a band of Roman maidens vowed to live a celibate life in a nunnery in Palestine.
Accompanied by these ladies Jerome made the tour of Palestine, carefully noting with a scholar's keenness the various places mentioned in Holy Scripture.
From Palestine Jerome and his companions went to Egypt, remaining some time in Alexandria, and they visited the convents of the Nitrian desert.
When they returned to Palestine they all settled at Bethlehem, where Paula built four monasteries, three for nuns and one for monks.
2, 12) Abraham gave all he had, and dismissed the sons of his concubines to the lands outside Palestine; they were thus regarded as less intimately related to Isaac and his descendants (xxv.
A twofold migration is doubtful, and, from what is known of the situation in Palestine in the 15th century B.C., is extremely improbable.
Nevertheless, there is as yet no monumental evidence in favour of the genuineness of the story, and at the most it can only be said that the author (of whatever date) has derived his names from a trustworthy source, and in representing an invasion of Palestine by Babylonian overlords has given expression to a possible situation.
The Greek of Jude is also such as to exclude the idea of authorship in Palestine by an unschooled Galilean, at an early date in church history.
9) have more a geographical than a chronological bearing, the stricter canon of Palestine excluding these apocryphal books of 90 B.C. to A.D.
There is continuous historical evidence that Malta remains to-day what Diodorus Siculus described it in and the 1st century, " a colony of the Phoenicians "; this branch of the Caucasian race came down the great rivers to the Persian Gulf and thence to Palestine.
al-Walid, whom Abu Bekr sent in all haste from Irak to Syria, he defeated the imperial troops, commanded by Theodorus, the brother of Heraclius, not far from Ramleh in Palestine, on the 31st of July 634.
When Omar became caliph he made Khalid chief commander of the Syrian armies, `Amr remaining in Palestine to complete the submission of that province.
For some centuries the inhabitants of Palestine were subject to periodical attacks from the warlike inhabitants of Mesopotamia, as even the most casual reader of the Bible is aware.
The court historian of Sennacherib naturally does not dwell upon this event, but he does tell of an invasion and conquest of Palestine.
As to the confusion of Babylonian names - in which, by the way, the Hebrew and Greek authors do not agree - it is explained that the general, Belshazzar, was perhaps more directly known in Palestine than his father the king.
These letters came to the king from almost every part of western Asia, including Palestine and Phoenicia, Babylonia and Asia Minor.
There is more than one meaning of Palestine discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Originally the name may have been a geographical term for the central portion of Palestine.
But how this part of Palestine came into the hands of the Israelites is not definitely related in the story of the invasion (see Joshua).
In 1882 he resigned his professorship and utilized his thus increased leisure by travelling in Palestine and Egypt, and showed his interest in the Old Catholic movement by visiting Dellinger at Munich.
fn6 Matthew Paris gives a letter from Philip, prior of the Dominicans in Palestine, which reached the pope in 1237, and which speaks of a prelate from whom he had received several letters, "qui praeest omnibus quos Nestoriana haeresis ab ecclesia separavit (cujus praelatio per Indiam Majorem, et per regnum sacerdotis Johannis, et per regna magis proxima Orienti dilatatur)."
He visited London, but finally settled in Palestine, where he died.
See further JACOB, HEBREW LANGUAGE, HEBREW RELIGION, JEws: History and Palestine.
KENITES, in the Bible a tribe or clan of the south of Palestine, closely associated with the Amalekites, whose hostility towards Israel, however, it did not share.
On the migration of the Kenites into Palestine (cf.
In its chapel are preserved the relics of saints which Henry the Lion brought from Palestine.
for "circle" of sacred stones), the name of several places in Palestine, mentioned in the Old Testament.
ST HILARION (c. 290-371), abbot, the first to introduce the monastic system into Palestine.
Many disciples put themselves under his guidance; but his influence must have been limited to south Palestine, for there is no mention of him in Palladius or Cassian.
In 356 he left Palestine and went again to Egypt; but the accounts given in the Vita of his travels during the last fifteen years of his life must be taken with extreme caution.
Baptism and the agape took their rise in Palestine, and in their origin certainly owed little or nothing to outside influences.
AZOTUS, the name given by Greek and Roman writers to Ashdod, an ancient city of Palestine, now represented by a few remains in the little village of `Esdud, in the governmental district of Acre.
In German universities the townsfolk of Jaffa (Joppa) to the Egyptian desert south of Gaza (on the subsequent extension of the name in its Greek form Palaestina, see Palestine).
14), and the invasion of Palestine.
Somewhat later the evidence becomes fuller, and much valuable light is thrown upon the part which the Philistine coast played in the political history of Palestine.
Scarcely ten years passed and the whole of Palestine and Syria was again torn with intrigues.
On the history of the district see further Jews; Maccabees; Palestine.
16) was presumably only part of some more extensive operations, but their relation to Shishak's great Palestine campaign is uncertain; see A.
The biblical evidence does not favour any continued Philistine domination since the time of Rameses III., who indeed, later in his reign, made an expedition, not against the Purasati, but into North Syria, and, as appears from the Papyrus Harris, restored Egyptian supremacy over Palestine and Syria.
The male god Dagon has his partner Astarte (qq.v.), and Baal-zebub, a famous oracle of Ekron (2 Kings i.) finds a parallel in the local " baals " of Palestine.'
It is impossible that Palestine should have remained untouched by the external movements in connexion with the Delta, the Levant and Asia Minor, and it is possible that the course of internal history in the age immediately before and after 1000 B.C. ran upon lines different from the detailed popular religious traditions which the biblical historians have employed.
(See further Palestine: History.) For older studies, see F.
Israel had conquered two kings of eastern Palestine - Sihon, king of the Amorites, and Og, king of Bashan.
He was one of the Anakim, or giants of Palestine; he read the books of Abraham, where he got the name Yahweh, by virtue of which he predicted the future, and got from God whatever he asked.
He undertook the long and perilous journey from Sardis to the Persian capital Susa, visited Babylon, Colchis, and the western shores of the Black Sea as far as the estuary of the Dnieper; he travelled in Scythia and in Thrace, visited Zante and Magna Graecia, explored the antiquities of Tyre, coasted along the shores of Palestine, saw Gaza, and made a long stay in Egypt.
4, where the Chaldaeans are said to have spoken to the king in Aramaic. But the cuneiform inscriptions show that the language of the Chaldaeans was Assyrian; and an examination of the very large part of the Hebrew Old Testament written later than the exile proves conclusively that the substitution of Aramaic for Hebrew as the vernacular of Palestine took place very gradually.
But the attack failed; subsequent attempts were defeated far from the waterway, and at the end of 1917 the British had reached southern Palestine, and the Turkish army was on the defensive, with other matters than the Canal to engage its attention.
From this time onward, Arabia, instead of being a possible source of strength to the Ottoman Empire, became the theatre of hostile, operations which presently extended northward to southern Palestine and endangered the left flank of the Turkish army threatening Egypt.
Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and Turkish Arabia were likewise forfeited; and the southern frontier of Turkey became a line running roughly E.
of the Palestine Explor.
He did not at first insist on Palestine as the new Jewish home, nor did he attach himself to religious sentiment.
At all these assemblies the same ideal was formulated: "the establishing for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine."
Even as a temporary measure, the choice of an extra-Palestinian site for the Jewish state was bitterly opposed by many Zionists; others (with whom Herzl appears to have sympathized) thought that as Palestine was, at all events momentarily, inaccessible, it was expedient to form a settlement elsewhere.
Further, the conditions of life and thought in Palestine at the time in question are faithfully represented, Aramaic words spoken on some important occasions are preserved (iii.
1-13, the Gospel deals with (ii) Christ's ministry in Galilee and other parts of northern Palestine, i.
The interesting narrative appears in another light when we consider Solomon's commercial activity and the trading intercourse between Palestine and south Arabia.
of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, to the north of Palestine (see David's war, 2 Sam.
To these notices must also be added the cession of territory in north Palestine to Hiram, king of Phoenicia (ix.
It is impossible not to be struck with the growing development of the Israelite tribes after the invasion of Palestine, their strong position under David, the sudden expansion of the Hebrew monarchy under Solomon, and the subsequent slow decay, and this, indeed, is the picture as it presented itself 'to the last writers who found in the glories of the past both consolation for the present and grounds for future hopes.
See also JEws: History, § 7 seq; PALESTINE: Old Testament History.
CAESAREA PALAESTINA, a town built by Herod about 25-13 B.C., on the sea-coast of Palestine, 30 m.
Even the Hebrew historian ascribes to this act the effect of rousing divine indignation against the invading host of Israel; it would not, therefore, be surprising if under the miseries brought on Palestine by the westward march of the Assyrian power, the idea of the sacrifice of one's own son, as the most powerful of atoning rites, should have taken hold of those kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh, 2 Kings xvi.
Early in the 19th century he was associated with Gans Moser and Heine in an association which the last named called "Young Palestine."
Lilies, however, are not a conspicuous feature in the flora of Palestine, and the red anemone (Anemone coronaria), with which all the hill-sides of Galilee are dotted in the spring, is perhaps more likely to have suggested the figure.
On his recovery he was consecrated bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa (June 1884), and in January 1885 started again for the scene of his mission, and visited Palestine on the way.
Meanwhile the new movement spread quite naturally beyond the confines of Palestine and found adherents among the Jews of the dispersion, and at an early day among the Gentiles as well.
In the 5th and 6th centuries Egypt and Palestine had been the classic lands of monks and monasteries.
Political conditions at the beginning of the middle ages favoured the Nestorian church, and the fact that the Arabs had conquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt, made it possible for her to exert an influence on the Christians in these countries.
Researches in Palestine, vol.
One of the younger scholars of the day was William Lilye, who picked up his Greek at Rhodes on his way to Palestine and became the first high-master of the school founded by Colet at St Paul's (1510).
The island was variously identified with America, Scandinavia, the Canaries and even Palestine; ethnologists saw in its inhabitants the ancestors of the Guanchos, the Basques or the ancient Italians; and even in the 17th and 18th centuries the credibility of the whole legend was seriously debated, and sometimes admitted, even by Montaigne, Buffon and Voltaire.
A parcel of dried mud, coming for example from Palestine or Queensland, and after an indefinite interval of time put into water in England or elsewhere, may yield him living forms, both new and old, in the most agreeable variety.
The Hexapla as a whole was far too large to be copied, but the revised Septuagint text was published separately by Eusebius and Pamphilus, and was extensively used in Palestine during the 4th century.
More especially since the middle of the 19th century the decipherment of Egyptian and Assyrian inscriptions and systematic excavation in Palestine and other parts of the East have supplied a multitude of new facts bearing more or less directly on the Old Testament.
But above all archaeology has immensely increased our knowledge of the nations among which Israel was placed, and of the political powers which from time to time held Palestine in subjection.
(i.) The correspondence between the Egyptian governors established in different parts of Palestine and the Egyptian kings Amenhotep (Amenophis) III.
of the 8th dynasty, which was discovered in 1887 at Tel el-Amarna, makes it evident that Palestine could not yet have been in the occupation of the Israelites.
Attempts have been made to identify the Khabiri, who are mentioned often in the Tel el-Amarna letters as foes, threatening to invade Palestine and bring the Egyptian supremacy over it to an end, with the Hebrews.
Palestine now becomes a province, first of the empire of Alexander, and afterwards of that of one or other of Alexander's successors.
Ptolemy Lagi gains possession of Palestine, which, with short interruptions, continues in the hands of the Ptolemies till 198.
Palestine becomes a part of the Roman province of Syria.
Of the many theories as to the address, the most plausible are perhaps those which would apply to a single congregation of Hebrew Christians in Rome, or to a local church or group of local churches in Palestine, perhaps like that of which the centre would be at Caesarea.
When the enterprise of Christian missionaries had gone on for some little time, especially in the regions outside Palestine where there was little or no previous knowledge of Christ and of Christian ideals, the wandering prophets and apostles by whom the missions were mainly conducted must have soon begun to feel the need for some sort of written manual to supplement their own personal teaching.
44, if it is the true reading, means Judaea in the sense of Palestine), is to be spread over a longer period of time, the combined narrative can hardly have been planned on the scale of more than a single year.
Such traditions must be found, if anywhere, in Palestine and Syria, in Asia Minor, in Rome, not in Egypt; within the Church, not among the Gnostics.
39-4 0; (iii.) ruler of the whole of Palestine (with Abilene), on the accession of Claudius at the beginning of A.D.
But this argument overlooks the fact that Felix had been in some position which might properly be described as that of " judge for this nation " before he became governor of all Palestine in A.D.
If Felix had acted in some position of responsibility in Palestine before 52 (perhaps for some time before), St Paul could well have spoken of "many years" at least as early as 56 or 57.
If that were so, the preaching of the apostles at Jerusalem and organization of the Church at the capital - the preaching of the seven and the extension of the Church all over Palestine - the extension of the Church to Antioch, and the commencement of St Paul's work - might each occupy five years more or less, that is to say, roughly, A.D.
This is not the place to notice the course of Jewish literary activity in Palestine or Alexandria, whether along the more rigid lines of Pharisaic legalism (the development of the canonical " priestly " law), or the popular and less scholastic phases, which recall the earlier apocalyptical tendencies of the Old Testament and were cultivated alike by early Jewish and Christian writers.
But they are to be judged as Oriental literature and if they contain jarring extravagances and puerilities, one may recall that even in modern Palestine it was found that the natives understood Robinson Crusoe as a religious book more readily than the Pilgrim's Progress (J.
Tanhuma ben (" ` son of ") Abba, one of the most famous haggadists of Palestine (4th century), who systematized and fixed the haggadic literature.
However this name may have originally been pronounced, so much is certain, - that through Aramaic influences in Babylonia and Assyria he was identified with the storm-god of the western Semites, and a trace of this influence is to be seen in the designation Amurru, also given to this god in the religious literature of Babylonia, which as an early name for Palestine and Syria describes the god as belonging to the Amorite district.
Relative to the uncertain connexion of length, capacity and weight in the ancient metrological systems of the East, Sir Charles Warren, R.E., has obtained by deductive analysis a new equivalent of the original cubit (Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly, April, July, October 1899).
The geographical range of the leopard embraces practically all Africa, and Asia from Palestine to China and Manchuria, inclusive of Ceylon and the great Malay Islands as far as Java.
He then overran Palestine, on September 10th besieged Jerusalem and on October 2nd, after chivalrous clemency to the Christian inhabitants, crowned his victories by entering and purifying the Holy City.
During 1191 and 1192 there were four small campaigns in southern Palestine when Richard circled round Beitnuba and Ascalon with Jerusalem as objective.
139; but other Arabian writers give other forms. Paton (Syria and Palestine, pp. 43, 123) identifies Lot-Lotan with Ruten, one of the Egyptian names for Palestine; its true meaning is obscure.
The Essenes, similarly, appointed houses all over Palestine where they could safely eat, and priests of their own to prepare their food.
The Marcionites, the Ebionites, or Judaeo-Christians of Palestine, the Montanists of Phrygia, Africa and Galatia, the confessor Alcibiades of Lyons, c. A.D.
of the well (Palestine Exploration Fund Statement, 1907, p. 92 seq.); when that village fell into ruin the name may have migrated to `Askar, a village on the lower slopes of Mt Ebal about 14 m.
Though the fairy belief is universally human, the nearest analogy to the shape which it takes in Scotland and Ireland - the "pixies" of south-western England - is to be found in Jan or Jinnis of the Arabs, Moors and people of Palestine.
Even in the founder's lifetime it possessed houses in Syria and Palestine.
of the important city of Aleppo; and during his reign a Turkish amir, Atsiz, wrested Palestine and Syria from the hands of the Fatimites.
g S obos) of the Israelites from Egypt into Palestine, under the leadership of Moses and Aaron, as described in the books of the Bible from Exodus to Joshua.
On these grounds the Exodus may have taken place under one of his successors, and since Mineptah or Merneptah (son of Rameses), in relating his successes in Palestine, boasts that Ysiraal is desolated, it would seem that the Israelites had already returned.
It might be assumed that the Israelites (or at least those who had not remained behind in Palestine) effected their departure at a somewhat later date, and in the time of Mineptah's successor, Seti II., there is an Egyptian report of the pursuit of some fugitive slaves over the eastern frontier.
troubled Palestine in the 15th century are no other than Hebrews (the equation is philologically sound), i.e.
Regarded simply as a journey from Egypt into Palestine it is the most probable of occurrences: the difficulty arises from the actual narratives.
last-mentioned is afforded by Dissard's account of the migration of Arab tribes into Palestine in the 18th century A.D.
of Syria and Palestine, p. 34 (also ch.
"House of Bread," or, according to a more questionable etymology, "of [the god] Lakhmu"), a small town in Palestine, situated on a limestone ridge (2550 ft.
19).] See bibliography under PALESTINE.
2 Its diffusion far beyond Palestine, and in circles least accessible to such ideas, is proved by the fact that Philo himself (De praem.
In 63 it suited the policy of Pompey that he should be restored to the high priesthood, with some semblance of supreme command, but of much of this semblance even he was soon again deprived by the arrangement of the pro-consul Gabinius, according to which Palestine was in 57 B.C. divided into five separate circles (auv060c, vvv&3pca).
Those to whom this message was first delivered in Jerusalem and Palestine had seen and heard Jesus, or had heard much about Him.
The Christian kingdom of Palestine was by this time reduced to a strip of coast about 440 sq.
Huc returned to Europe in shattered health in 1852, visiting India, Egypt and Palestine on his way, and, after a prolonged residence in Paris, died on the 31st of March 1860.
With a boldness worthy of Julius II., he devised the most gigantic schemes for the annihilation of the Turkish Empire and the conquest of Egypt and Palestine.
Gerash or Jerash), a city of Palestine, and a member of the league known as the Decapolis, situated amid the mountains of Gilead, about 1757 ft.
(Gebal) and Palestine (Jerusalem).
5 Many of the dynasts in North Syria and Palestine in the time of Tushratta bear names of the same type.
Baedeker, Palestine and Syria (1906), pp. 389-412.
Jerusalem was only allowed to rank as a patriarchate in 451, and the seventh canon of Nice subordinated the see to that of Caesarea in Palestine.
On arriving in London he was engaged in the preparation of various serial publications of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the most important of which were the Pictorial History of Palestine and the Pictorial Bible.
" the friend of the Merciful One" - an allusion to Abraham), a city of Palestine some 20 m.
The extension of the Egyptian empire in the direction of Asia began about 1600 B.C. under Ahmosi (Aahmes, Amasis) I., the founder of the XVIIIth Dynasty, who carried E gyptian his arms into Syria, and conquered at least Palestine and Phoenicia, the latter being the country called - Da-hi on the Egyptian monuments (Muller, As.
The tablets which reveal this state of affairs are written in the language and script of Babylonia, and thus show indirectly the extent to which Babylonian culture had penetrated Palestine and Phoenicia; at the same time they illustrate the closeness of the relations between the Canaanite towns and the dominant power of Egypt.
canonicus) is peculiar to Palestine.
In the New Testament it denotes the native language of Palestine (Aramaic and Hebrew being popularly confused) as opposed to Greek.
In modern usage the name Hebrew is applied to that branch of the northern part of the Semitic family of languages which was used by the Israelites during most of the time of their national existence in Palestine, and in which nearly all their sacred writings are composed.
In general, the later books of the Old Testament show, roughly speaking, a greater simplicity and uniformity of style, as well as a tendency to Aramaisms. For some centuries after the Exile, the people of Palestine must have been bilingual, speaking Aramaic for ordinary purposes, but still at least understanding Hebrew.
provinces of the Persian empire Aramaic was the official language, spoken not only in Palestine but in all the surrounding countries, even in Egypt and among Arab tribes such as the Nabateans.
His daughters were: Matilda (1156-1189), who became the wife of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony; Eleanor (1162-1214), who married Alphonso III., king of Castile; and Joanna, who, after the death of William of Sicily in 1189, became the wife of Raymund VI., count of Toulouse, having previously accompanied her brother, Richard, to Palestine.
Moreover, the crusaders who survived the difficulties and dangers of an expedition to Palestine were seasoned and experienced although frequently impoverished and landless soldiers, ready to hire themselves to the highest bidder, and well worth the wages they received.
On his return to Severus in Gaul he was ordained; and, having soon afterwards inherited means through the death of his father, he set out for Palestine, where he was received with great respect by Jerome at Bethlehem.
At the same time it is difficult to understand why Jews in Palestine and Egypt should have accepted a purely Persian or Babylonian festival long after they had ceased to be connected with the Persian Empire.
Palestine, Phoenicia, Arabia, certain parts of Mesopotamia, the interior districts of Greece, the provinces on the north of Greece, the northern districts of middle Italy, the provinces of Mauretania and Tripolis.
Friends' Mission in Syria and Palestine.
America (Ecuador, Brazil, Argentine); some missions in Palestine.
The Egypt, Palestine and Persia missions of the latter society have been largely reinforced and extended since 1884, medical work and women's work being especially prominent.
AMORITES, the name given by the Israelites to the earlier inhabitants of Palestine.
In the spelling Mar-tu, the name is as old as the first Babylonian dynasty, but from the 15th century B.C. and downwards its syllabic equivalent Amurru is applied primarily to the land extending northwards of Palestine as far as Kadesh on the Orontes.
The term "Canaan," on the other hand, is confined more especially to the southern district (from Gebal to the south of Palestine).
See further Canaan, Palestine.
MOAB, the name of an ancient people of Palestine who inhabited a district E.
The detailed narratives, however, give conflicting views of the exodus and the conquest of Palestine.
Paton, Syria and Palestine, p. 269 seq.; R.
Mention should be made of the mosaic map of Palestine found at Medaba, dating perhaps from the 5th century A.D.; for this, see A.
For language and epigraphy see NABATAEANS, SEMITIC LANGUAGES; for topography, &C., PALESTINE; and for the later history, JEWS.
JUDAEA, the name given to the southern part of Palestine as occupied by the Jewish community in post-exilic days under Persian, Greek and Roman overlordship. In Luke and Acts the term is sometimes used loosely to denote the whole of western Palestine.
For a description of the natural features of the country see Palestine; for its history see Jews and Judah.
We learn from Palladius that by the end of the 4th century nunneries were numerous all over Egypt, and they existed also in Palestine, in Italy and in Africa - in fact throughout the Christian world.
from each), frequently referred to in the Bible as the southern limit of Palestine ("Dan to Beersheba," Judg.
The last change in the system was the appropriation of the Levitical tithe by the priests, which apparently was effected by John Hyrcanus, though a tradition, glaringly inconsistent with Nehemiah, ascribes it to Ezra, alleging that he deprived the Levites because so few of them were willing to return to Palestine (Mishnah, "Ma'aser Sh."
This has in fact been confirmed by excavation in Palestine.
3), we find the names of Phaedrus (who became scholarch at Athens c. 70 B.C.) and Philodemus (originally of Gadara in Palestine) as distinguished Epicureans in the time of Cicero.
He led the English army back to England after Richard's departure from Palestine; but in Sicily he heard of the king's captivity, and hurried to join him in Germany.
Moses took his journey by Edessa and the sacred places of Palestine.
It is found also in Persia, Palestine, Crete and Greece, the Italian Alps, Sicily, Sardinia and Mauritania.
Possibly it is the feeling of south Syria or Palestine that here expresses itself in remonstrance against usages prevalent in north Syria.
Large numbers of Hyksos scarabs are found in Upper and Lower Egypt, and they are not unknown in Palestine.
Arculf is the first to mention the column at Jerusalem, which claimed to mark the exact centre of the Inhabited Earth, and later became one of the favourite Palestine wonders.
Meletius, after regaining his freedom, held his ground and drew around him many supporters, extending his influence even so far away as Palestine.
After much deliberation the republic agreed to transport 4500 horse and 29,000 foot to Palestine with provisions for one year, for a sum of 85,000 marks; in addition 50 Venetian galleys would be provided free of charge, while Venice was to receive half the conquests made by the crusaders.
PROCOPIUS, Byzantine historian, was born at Caesarea in Palestine towards the end of the 5th century A.D.
Holcroft (1653) of the Anecdota (1674, anonymous); of the Buildings, by Aubrey Stewart (1888, in Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society).
The one solid fact in this connexion is the translation of the Jewish Law into Greek in the 3rd century B.C., implying a Jewish Diaspora at Alexandria, so far Hellenized as to have forgotten the speech of Palestine.
Meanwhile a great part of the Jewish people was living dispersed among the cities of the Greek world, speaking Greek as their mother-tongue, and absorbing Greek influences in much larger measure than their brethren of Palestine.
The sect of the Essenes probably shows an intermingling of the Greek with other lines of tradition among the Jews of Palestine.
by Palestine, E.
the Mediterranean, near the frontier of Palestine, and a halting-place on the caravan route from Egypt to Syria.
Wincklers theory of a separate Mu~ri immediately south of Palestine is now generally rejected (see, for instance, Ed.
The army, commanded in chief by Una under the VIth Dynasty for raids in Sinai or Palestine, comprised levies from every part of Egypt and from Nubia, each under its own leader.
having overheard the secret intelligence of Arnenemhs death, fled in fear to Palestine or Syria and there became rich in the favor of the prince of the land; growing old, however, he successfully sued for pardon from Sen wosri and permission to return and die in Egypt.
The latter warred in Palestine and in Nubia, and marked the south frontier of his kingdom by a statue and stelae at Semna beyond the Second Cataract.
Palestine, where he captured Sharuhen after a siege of three years.
Rameses in his brief reign of two years planned and began the great colonnaded hall of Karnak, proving that he was a man of great ideas, though probably too old to carry them out; this task he left to his son Seti I., who reigned one year with his father and on the latters death was ready at once to subdue the Bedouin Shasu, who had invaded Palestine and withheld all tribute.
The Libyans had also to be dealt with, and afterwards Seti advanced again through Palestine, ravaged the land of the Amorites and came into conflict with the Hittites.
Libya was wasted, the Hittites pacified, Canaan, Ashkelon (Ascalon), Gezer, Yenoam sacked and plundered: Israel is desolated, his seed is not, Khor (Palestine) has become a widow (without protector) for Egypt.
In his eleventh year another Libyan invasion had to be met, and his suzerainty in Palestine forcibly asserted.
Sheshonk secured Thebes, making one of his sons high priest of Ammon, and whereas Solomon appears to have dealt with a king of Egypt on something like an equal footing, Sheshonk re-established Egyptian rule in Palestine and Nubia, and his expedition in the fifth year of Rehoboam subdued Israel as well as Judah, to judge by the list of city names which he inscribed on the wall of the temple of Karnak.
Before his death Psammetichus had advanced into southern Palestine and captured Azotus.
Damascus was taken by the Carmathians, and the name of the Abbasid caliph substituted for that of Moizz in public worship. IJasan al-A~am advanced from Damascus through Palestine to Egypt, encountering little resistance on the way; and in the autumn of 971 Jauhar found himself besieged in his new city.
In August 977 Aziz met the united forces of Aftakin and his Carmathian ally outside Ramleh in Palestine and inflicted a crushing defeat on them, which was followed by the capture of Aftakin; this able officer was taken to Egypt, and honorably treated by the caliph, thereby incurring the jealousy of Jacob b.
Mirdas, succeeded in establishing a dynasty at Aleppo, which maintained itself after Syria and Palestine had been recovered for the Fatimites by Anushtakin al-Dizbari at the battle of IJkhuwanah in 1029.
He endeavoured to retrieve his error by himself advancing into Palestine, but he was defeated in the neighborhood of Ascalon, and compelled to retire to Egypt.
Various cities in Palestine and Syria were yielded to Frederick IT.
His name is commemorated by the town of Salihia, which he built in the year 1246 as a resting-place for his armies on their marches through the desert from Egypt to Palestine.
Kaln was followed by his son Khalil (Malik al-A shraf Sala~z al-din), who carried out his fathers policy of driving the Franks out of Syria and Palestine, and proceeded with the siege of Acre, which he took (May 18th, 1291) after a siege of fortythree days.
Abul-Dhahabs progress through Palestine and Syria was triumphant.
After taking many cities in Palestine Abul-Dhahab died, the cause being unknown; and Murad Bey (another of the deserters at Salihia) brought his forces back to Egypt (26th of May 1775).
ISHMAEL (a Hebrew name meaning "God hears"), in the Bible, the son of Abraham by his Egyptian concubine Hagar, and the eponym of a number of (probably) nomadic tribes living outside Palestine.
Harsh laws provoked the Samaritans to a revolt, from whose effects Palestine had not recovered when conquered by the Arabs in the following century.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
His descendants remained, with few exceptions, at the head of Judaism in Palestine until the beginning of the 5th century, two of them, his grandson Gamaliel I.
In Palestine game has always been plentiful, and the Biblical indications that it was much sought and duly appreciated are numerous.
In the winter and spring of 1852-1853 he made a tour in Egypt and the Holy Land, the result of which was his well-known volume on Sinai and Palestine (1856).
In 1862, Stanley, at Queen Victoria's wish, accompanied the prince of Wales on a tour in Egypt and Palestine.
Soon we begin to hear the names of the pilgrims. In the course of the 3rd century, as Jerome relates, Firmilian, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, travelled to Palestine to view the sacred places (De Vir.
With regard to his own times - the early years of the 4th century - the same authority recounts that believers kept streaming to Palestine from all regions, there to offer their prayers at a cavern shown on the Mount of Olives (Demonstr.
The pilgrimage to Palestine received a powerful impetus from the erection of the memorial churches on the holy sites, under Constantine the Great, as described by Eusebius in his biography of the emperor (iii.
She went as a pilgrim to Jerusalem (c. 380), and from there traversed the whole of Palestine, in order to visit every site which was consecrated by memories of the Lord's earthly life.
333, undertook the journey from Bordeaux to Palestine.
The most important places of resort both for voluntary and involuntary pilgrimages, were still Palestine and Rome.
His authority was a Frankish bishop named Arculf, who resided for nine months as a pilgrim in Jerusalem, and visited the remaining holy sites of Palestine in addition to Alexandria and Constantinople.
A long list might be compiled of men of distinction who performed the pilgrimage to Palestine.
In the 9th century the French monk Bernard visited Palestine with two companions, and afterwards wrote a simple and.
In the 13th century the annual number of those who visited Palestine amounted to many thousands: in the 14th and 15th it had hardly shrunk.
When Ignatius de Loyola (q.v..) set sail in 1523 from Venice to Palestine, only some thirteen souls could be mustered on the pilgrim-ship, while eight or nine others sailed with the Venetian state-vessel as far as Cyprus.
In France, Marseilles was the main harbour for the pilgrims. From there ships belonging to the knights of St John and the knights templars conducted the commerce with Palestine, and carried annually some 6000 passengers.
The expenses of the journey to Palestine were no light matter.
1); and at the beginning of the medieval period it was believed that his corpse was laid in Palestine (Venant.
Hermias Salamanes (Salaminius) Sozomenus (c. 400443) came of a wealthy family of Palestine, and it is exceedingly probable that he himself was born and brought up there - in Gaza or the neighbourhood.
What he has to tell us of the history of South Palestine was derived from oral tradition.
Perhaps also he wrote for the monks in Palestine, and could be sure that the work of his predecessor would not be known.
or it is plain that Jesus Christ stands in some close relation to " God the Father," and that on the ground of that relation a society has been built up, apparently by Jews, in a Greek city far distant from Palestine.
It seems designed to meet the requirements of Christians living far away from Palestine.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.