Palaeozoic sentence example

palaeozoic
  • Both to the east and to the west of this depression the Archean and Palaeozoic rocks which form the greater part of the island are strongly folded, with the exception of the uppermost beds, which belong to the Permian system.
    0
    0
  • There were, therefore, two principal epochs of folding in the island, one at the close of the Palaeozoic era which affected the whole of the island, and one at the close of the Mesozoic which was felt only in the western region.
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic rocks form two extensive masses, one in the south-east and the other in the south-west.
    0
    0
  • The Central Plateau has probably been a land mass ever since this period, but the rest of the country was flooded by the Palaeozoic sea.
    0
    0
  • Towards the close of the Palaeozoic era France had become a part of a great continent; in the north the Coal Measures of the Boulonnais and the Nord were laid down in direct connection with those of Belgium and England, while in the Central Plateau the Coal Measures were deposited in isolated and scattered basins.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • In France, as in Great Britain, volcanic eruptions occurred during several of the Palaeozoic periods, but during the Mesozoic era the // /
    0
    0
  • The Coal Measures become narrower in the south, until, owing to the eastward projection of the highlands, the Lower Palaeozoic rocks reach the coast.
    0
    0
  • The Permian may be represented, but the Trias is absent, and in general the older Palaeozoic rocks are overlaid directly by the Rhaetic and Lias.
    0
    0
  • Since no graptolites are known living, or, indeed, since palaeozoic times, the interpretation of their structure and affinities must of necessity be extremely conjectural, and it is by no means certain that they are Hydrozoa at all.
    0
    0
  • The vegetation of the Palaeozoic era, till towards its close, was apparently remarkably homogeneous all over the world.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • In the southern hemisphere the Palaeozoic flora appears ultimately to have been profoundly modified by a lowering of temperature and the existence of glacial conditions over a wide area.
    0
    0
  • The Glossopteris flora gradually spread to the northern hemisphere and intermingled with the later Palaeozoic flora which still persisted.
    0
    0
  • The Falkland Islands consist entirely, so far as is known, of the older Palaeozoic rocks, Lower Devonian or Upper Silurian, slightly metamorphosed and a good deal crumpled and distorted, in the low grounds clay slate and soft sandstone, and on the ridges hardened sandstone passing into the conspicuous white quartzites.
    0
    0
  • E Arabian Sea Ba Of G A L e Geological information incomplete Desert Deposits Quaternary Tertiary Mesozoic Palaeozoic Archaean and Metamorphic Younger Volcanic Rocks English Miles b iuHi iiiiuiiiiii after llargl,aua Geology The geology of Asia is so complex and over wide areas so little known that it is difficult to give a connected account of either the structure or the development of the continent, and only the broader features can be dealt with here.
    0
    0
  • In the south, in Syria, Arabia and the peninsula of India, none but the oldest rocks are folded, and the Upper Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic and the Tertiary beds lie almost horizontally upon them.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • There are, it is true, mountain ranges which are formed of folded beds; but in many cases the direction of the chains is different from that of the folds, so that the ranges must owe their elevation to other causes; and the folds, moreover, are of ancient date, for the most part Archaean or Palaeozoic. The configuration of the region is largely due to faulting, trough-like or tray-like depressions being formed, and the intervening strips, which have not been depressed, standing up as mountain ridges.
    0
    0
  • But there is positive evidence that much of the north and east of Asia has been land since the Palaeozoic era, and it has been conclusively proved that the peninsula of India has never been beneath the sea since the Carboniferous period at least.
    0
    0
  • Excepting in the extreme north, where marine Jurassic and Cretaceous fossils have been found, there is no evidence that this part of Siberia has been beneath the sea since the early part of the Palaeozoic era.
    0
    0
  • South and east of the Palaeozoic plateau is an extensive area consisting chiefly of Archean rocks, and including the greater part of Mongolia north of the Tian-shan.
    0
    0
  • Farther south, in the Chinese provinces of Shansi and Shensi, the geological succession is similar in some respects to that of the Siberian Palaeozoic plateau, but the sequence is more complete.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • There is again a floor of folded Archean rocks overlaid by nearly horizontal strata of Lower Palaeozoic age; but these are followed by marine beds belonging to the Carboniferous period.
    0
    0
  • The latter has established, for all the Palaeozoic insects, an order Palaeodictyoptera, there being a closer similarity between the fore-wings and the hind-wings than is to be seen in most living orders of Hexapoda, while affinities are shown to several of these orders - notably the Orthoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Hemiptera.
    0
    0
  • None of the groups of existing Endopterygota have been traced with certainty farther back than the Mesozoic epoch, and all the numerous Palaeozoic insect-fossils seem to belong to forms that possessed only imperfect metamorphosis.
    0
    0
  • Endopterygota - of insects of the present epoch are descended from the predominant - if not the sole - group that existed in the Palaeozoic epoch, viz.
    0
    0
  • The first hypothesis is not negatived by direct evidence, for we do not actually know the ontogeny of any of the Palaeozoic insects; it is, however, rendered highly improbable by the modern views as to the nature and origin of wings in insects, and by the fact that the Endopterygota include none of the lower existing forms of insects.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • This last state is very frequent in Blattidae, which were amongst the most abundant of Palaeozoic insects.
    0
    0
  • The occurrence of weevils - among the most specialized of the Coleoptera - in Triassic rocks shows us that this great order of metabolous insects had become differentiated into its leading families at the dawn of the Mesozoic era, and that we must go far back into the Palaeozoic for the origin of the Endopterygota.
    0
    0
  • Along the west frontier there appear broad and strongly marked zones of Cretaceous limestone, alternating with Jurassic and Triassic, joined by a strip of Palaeozoic formations running from the north-west corner of Bosnia.
    0
    0
  • In the south-east of Bosnia the predominant formations are Triassic and Palaeozoic strata with red sandstone and quartzite.
    0
    0
  • The Cevennes proper are formed by a folded belt of Palaeozoic rocks which lies along the south-east border of the central plateau of France.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The overthrust came from the south-east, and the Palaeozoic beds were crushed and crumpled against the ancient massif of the central plateau.
    0
    0
  • Although the chain was completed in Palaeozoic times, a second folding took place along its south-east margin at the close of the Eocene period.
    0
    0
  • But by this time the ancient Palaeozoic chain had become a part of the unyielding massif, and the folding did not extend beyond its foot.
    0
    0
  • The genera Belinurus, Aglaspis, Prestwichia, Hemiaspis and Bunodes consist of small forms which occur in Palaeozoic rocks.
    0
    0
  • They became extinct in Palaeozoic times, and are chiefly found in the Upper Silurian, though extending upwards as far as the Carboniferous.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Some of the metamorphic rocks may belong to the older Palaeozoic period, but the greater part of the series is probably Archaean.
    0
    0
  • In the interior of Brazil, the Palaeozoic beds are directly overlaid by a series of red sandstones, &c., which appear to be of continental origin and of which the age is uncertain.
    0
    0
  • Eruptive rocks occur in the Devonian and Carboniferous beds, but there is no evidence of volcanic activity since the Palaeozoic epoch.
    0
    0
  • The hilly regions of Transylvania and of the northern part of Hungary consist of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks and are closely connected, both in structure and origin, with the Carpathian chain.
    0
    0
  • West of this line the rocks are chiefly Tertiary and Quaternary; east of it they are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic. In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
    0
    0
  • The Trepostomata are in the main Palaeozoic, although Heteropora, of which recent species exist, is placed by Gregory in this division.
    0
    0
  • The Cryptostomata are also Palaeozoic, and include the abundant and widely-distributed genus Fenestella.
    0
    0
  • The Cyclostomata are numerous in Palaeozoic rocks, but attained a specially predominant position in the Cretaceous strata, where they are represented by a prpfusion of genera and species; while they still survive in considerable numbers at the present day.
    0
    0
  • Overlying these amongst the Palaeozoic rocks, we meet in many parts of Japan with slates and other rocks possibly of Cambrian or Silurian age.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • There is also amongst the Palaeozoic group an interesting series of red slates containing Radiolaria.
    0
    0
  • They are, first, plutonic rocks, especially granite; secondly, volcanic rocks, chiefly trachyte and dolerite; and thirdly, palaeozoic schists.
    0
    0
  • South and west of the Fossa Magna the beds are thrown into folds which run approximately parallel to the general direction of the coast, and two zones may be recognizedan outer, consisting of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic beds, and an inner, consisting of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks, with granitic intrusions.
    0
    0
  • The Coal Measures which form part of the Palaeozoic or oldest of the three great geological divisions are mainly confined to the countries north of the equator.
    0
    0
  • While igneous and metamorphic crystalline rocks form the bulk of the Adirondack area, it is surrounded by a ring of ancient Palaeozoic sediments in which these peripheral lowlands have been developed.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Here the rocks are all essentially horizontal and of Palaeozoic age, mainly Devonian.
    0
    0
  • It appears to be composed chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks, concealed, in the plains, by Quaternary, and possibly Tertiary, deposits.
    0
    0
  • Rocks of Archean and Palaeozoic ages contribute only a small share, but there is a Scale, 1:7,700,000 English Miles o 60 80 too 200 �-' 4,, ,% 4s o,r^ ° o ?
    0
    0
  • Murray: So far as our knowledge goes, the present contours of the open Pacific Ocean are almost as they were in Palaeozoic times, and in the intervening ages changes of level and form have been slight.
    0
    0
  • We shall pass over here the labours of Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) and Sir Roderick Murchison (1792-1871) in the Palaeozoic of England, which because of their close relation to stratigraphy more properly concern geology; but must mention the grand contributions of Joachim Barrande (1799-1883), published in his Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme, the first volume of which appeared in 1852.
    0
    0
  • It is true that a great variety of evidence is afforded by the composition of the rocks, that glaciers have left their traces in glacial scratchings and transported boulders, also that proofs of arid or semiarid conditions are found in the reddish colour of rocks in certain portions of the Palaeozoic, Trias and Eocene; but fossils afford the most precise and conclusive evidence as to the past history of climate, because of the fact that adaptations to temperature have remained constant for millions of years.
    0
    0
  • Clarke, Charles Schuchert and others have re-entered the study of the Palaeozoic geography of the North American continent with work of astonishing precision.
    0
    0
  • Smith Woodward has observed that the decline of many groups of fishes is heralded by the tendency to assume elongate and finally eel-shaped forms, as seen independently, for example, among the declining Acanthodians or palaeozoic sharks, among the modern crossopterygian Polypterus and Calamoichthys of the Nile, in the modern dipneustan Lepidosiren and Protopterus, in the Triassic chondrostean Belonorhynchus, as well as in the bow-fin (A7nia) and the garpike (Lepidosteus).
    0
    0
  • That these animals were widely distributed in former times is proved by their occurrence at the present day in palaeozoic fossiliferous strata both of the northern hemisphere and of Australia; and despite the fact that their remains have not been found in rocks of the Mesozoic or Kainozoic epochs, it was conceived to be possible that living specimens might be dredged from the sea-floor during the exploration of the ocean depths undertaken by the "Challenger" expedition.
    0
    0
  • This mountain system consists essentially of two belts: one on the south-east, chiefly of ancient and greatly deformed crystalline rocks, the other on the north-west, a heavy series of folded Palaeozoic strata; and with these it will be convenient to associate a third belt, farther north-west, consisting of the same Palaeozoic strata lying essentially horizontal and constituting the Appalachian plateau.
    0
    0
  • The deformation of the Appalachianswas accomplished in two chief periods of compressive deformation, one in early Palaeozoic, the other about the close of Palaeozoic time, and both undoubtedly of long duration; the second one extended its effects farther northwest than the first.
    0
    0
  • Evi-Jently, therefore, the Appalachians as we now see them are not the still surviving remnants of the mountains of late Palaeozoic deformation; they owe their present height chiefly to the Tertiary upwaroing and uoliftinr.
    0
    0
  • The mountain-making compression of the, 4pialaheavy series of Palaeozoic strata has here produced a chians.
    0
    0
  • A curious feature appears in northern Pennsylvania: here the lateral pressure of the Palaeozoic mountain-making forces extended its effects through a belt about fifty miles wider than the folded belt of the Hudson Valley, thus compressing into great rock waves a part of the heavy stratified series which in New York lies horizontal and forms the Catskills; hence one sees, in passing south-west from the horizontal to the folded strata, a beautiful illustration of the manner in which land sculpture is controlled by land structure.
    0
    0
  • The extent of the submergence and the area over which the Palaeozoic strata were deposited are unknown; for in consequence of renewed elevation without deformation, erosion in later periods has stripped off an undetermined amount of the covering strata.
    0
    0
  • It is of greater altitude (Mt Marcy 5344 ft.) and of much greater relief than the Superior Oldland; its heights decrease gradually to the north, west and south, where it is unconformably overlapped by Palaeozoic strata like those of Minnesota and Wisconsin; it is of more broken structure and form on.
    0
    0
  • Inasmuch, however, as the floor on which the overlapping strata rest is, like the rest of the Laurentian and Superior Oldland, a worn-down mountain region, and as the lowest member of the sedimentary series usually contains pebbles of the oldiand rocks, the better interpretation of the relation between the two is that the visible oldiand area of to-day is but a small part of the primeval continent, the remainder of which is still buried under the Palaeozoic cover; and that the visible oldiand, far from being the first part of the continent to rise from the primeval ocean, was the last part of the primeval continent to sink under the advancing Palaeozoic seas.
    0
    0
  • In Wisconsin the inner lowland presents an interesting feature in a knob of resistant quartzites, known as Baraboo Ridge, rising from the buried oldland floor through the partly denuded cover of lower Palaeozoic strata.
    0
    0
  • An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.
    0
    0
  • Farther north in Montana, beyond the gorge of the Missouri river, the structure of the Front Range is altogether different; it is here the carved residual of a great mass of moderately bent Palaeozoic strata, overthrust eastward upon the Mesozoic strata of the plains; instead of exposing the oldest rocks along the axis and the youngest rocks low down on the flanks, the younger rocks of the northern range follow its axis, and the oldest rocks outcrop along its eastern flanks, where they override the much younger strata of the plains; the harder strata, instead of lapping on the mountain flanks in great slab-like masses, as in the Bighorns, form out-facing scarps, which retreat into the mountain interior where they are cut down by outfiowing streams.
    0
    0
  • The Plateau province, next west of the southern Rocky Mountains, is characterized for the most part by large-textured forms, developed on a great thickness of nearly horizontal Palaeozoic, The Plateau Mesozoic and Tertiary formations, and by a dry climate.
    0
    0
  • Prolerozoic (Algonkian) Systems.The Proterozoic group of rocks (called also Algonkian) includes all formations younger than the Archean and older than the Palaeozoic rocks.
    0
    0
  • A few geologists regard the sedimentary rocks here classed as Keweenawan as Palaeozoic; but they have yielded no fossils, and are unconformable beneath the Upper Cambrian, which is the oldest sedimentary formation of the region which bears fossils.
    0
    0
  • In all but a few places where their relations are known, the Proterozoic rocks are unconformable beneath the Palaeozoic Where conformity exists the separation is made on the basis of fossils, it having been agreed that the oldest rocks carrying the Olenellus fauna are to be regarded as the base of the Cambrian system.
    0
    0
  • As a result of this emergence the stratigraphic break between the Ordovician and the Silurian is one of the greatest in the whole Palaeozoic group.
    0
    0
  • Like the earlier Palaeozoic systems, the Devonian attains its greatest known thickness in the Appalachian Mountains, where sediments from the lands of pre-Cambrian rock to the east accumulated in quantity.
    0
    0
  • The site of these mountains had been, for the most part, an area of deposition throughout the Palaeozoic era, and the body of sediments which had gathered here at the western base of Appalachia, by the close of the Pennsylvanian period, was very great.
    0
    0
  • Permian Period.The Permian system appears in smaller areas in the United States than any other Palaeozoic system.
    0
    0
  • Triassic SystemThis system has but limited representation in the eastern part of the United States, being known only east of the Appalachian Mountains in an area which was land throughout most of the Palaeozoic era, hut which was deformed when the eastern mountains were developed at the close of the Palaeozoic. In the troughs formed in its surface during this time of deformation, sediments of great thickness accumulated during the Triassic period.
    0
    0
  • The mountain structures originated in three great orogenic periods, the earliest in the Archean, the second at the end of the Palaeozoic and the third at the end of the Mesozoic. The Archean mountain chains, which enclosed the present region of Hudson Bay, were so ancient that they had already been worn down almost to a plain before the early Palaeozoic sediments were laid down.
    0
    0
  • Round it the Palaeozoic sands and clays, largely derived from its own waste, were deposited as nearly horizontal beds, in many places still almost undisturbed.
    0
    0
  • The Mesozoic sediments were almost entirely laid down to the west and south-west of the protaxis, upon the fiat-lying Palaeozoic rocks, and in the prairie region they are still almost horizontal; but in the Cordillera they have been thrust up into the series of mountain chains characterizing the Pacific coast region.
    0
    0
  • From the map it will be noticed that the largest and most thickly strewn lakes occur within five hundred or a thousand miles of Hudson Bay, and belong to the Archean protaxis or project beyond its edges into the Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks which lean against it.
    0
    0
  • The whole region is underlain by nearly horizontal and undisturbed rocks of the Palaeozoic from the Devonian downward.
    0
    0
  • The central zone of crystalline rock consists chiefly of gneisses and schists, but folded within it is a band of Palaeozoic rocks which divides it longitudinally into two parts.
    0
    0
  • Palaeozoic beds also occur along the northern and southern margins of the crystalline zone.
    0
    0
  • The age of a great part of the Palaeozoic belts is somewhat uncertain, but Permian, Carboniferous, Devonian and Silurian fossils have been found in various parts of the chain, and it is not unlikely that even the Cambrian may be represented.
    0
    0
  • The extinct Gryptochitonidae, Pilsbry, with other Palaeozoic genera, narrow and elongated in form with terminal margins of end valves elevated, belong to this group.
    0
    0
  • The valley is bounded east and west by chains of slate and Palaeozoic rocks.
    0
    0
  • It is the " Hercynian chain " of Marcel Bertrand, and is composed entirely of Palaeozoic rocks.
    0
    0
  • The Ordovician and Silurian are absent here, and the Devonian rests unconformably upon the Cambrian; but along the northern margin of the Palaeozoic area, Ordovician and Silurian rocks appear, and beds of similar age are also exposed farther north where the rivers have cut through the overlying Tertiary deposits.
    0
    0
  • Carboniferous beds occur in the north of the Palaeozoic area.
    0
    0
  • Except along the southern border of the Ardennes, and at one or two points in the middle of the Palaeozoic massif, Triassic and Jurassic beds are unknown in Belgium, and the Palaeozoic rocks are directly and unconformably overlaid by Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits.
    0
    0
  • Zinc, lead and copper are also extensively worked in the Palaeozoic rocks of the Ardennes.
    0
    0
  • It is probable, also, that the Palaeozoic rocks of Matto Grosso extend into the northern part of the country.
    0
    0
  • Geology.Germany consists of a floor of folded Palaeozoic rocks upon which rest unconformably the comparatively little disturbed beds of the Mesozoic system, while in the North German plain a covering of modern deposits conceals the whole of the older strata from view, excepting some scattered and isolated outcrops of Cretaceous and Tertiary beds.
    0
    0
  • Other Palaeozoic systems are, however, included in the folds.
    0
    0
  • As in the south of England, the lower beds of the Cretaceous are of estuarine origin and the Upper Cretaceous overlaps the Lower, lying in the valley of the Ruhr directly upon the Palaeozoic rocks.
    0
    0
  • In Saxony also the upper Cretaceous beds rest directly upon the Palaeozoic or Archaean rocks.
    0
    0
  • This forms part of the plain of the St Lawrence, underlain by Palaeozoic limestones and shales, with some sandstone, all furnishing useful building material and working up into a good soil.
    0
    0
  • Covering the higher parts of the south-western Palaeozoic area in most places are rolling hills of boulder clay or stony moraines; while the lower levels are plains gently sloping toward the nearest of the Great Lakes and sheeted with silt deposited in more ancient lakes when the St Lawrence outlet was blocked with ice at the end of the glacial period.
    0
    0
  • Between the Palaeozoic area near Ottawa, and Georgian Bay to the north of the region just referred to, there is a southward projection of the Archaean protaxis consisting of granite and gneiss of the Laurentian, enclosing bands of crystalline limestone and schists, which are of interest as furnishing the only mines of "Old Ontario."
    0
    0
  • The core is formed by the mountain masses of Rhodope, Belasitza, Perin and Rila; and here Palaeozoic and Mesozoic beds are absent, and the earliest sedimentary deposits belong to the Tertiary period and lie flat upon the crystalline rocks.
    0
    0
  • Lower Palaeozoic strata lap up on to the crystalline rocks on all sides of the mountain group. The region is rich in magnetic iron ores, which though mined for many years are not yet fully developed.
    0
    0
  • The greater part of the Himalayan region lay beneath the sea from early Palaeozoic times to the Eocene period, and the deposits are accordingly marine; the Peninsula, on the other hand, has been land since the Permian period at least - there is, indeed, no evidence that it was ever beneath the sea - only on its margins are any marine deposits to be found.
    0
    0
  • They are however certainly Pre-Permian, and it is most probable that they belong to the early part of the Palaeozoic era.
    0
    0
  • The central plateau consists of ancient crystalline rocks with granites overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones and conglomerates considered to be of Palaeozoic age.
    0
    0
  • The median zone is composed largely of crystalline rocks with granites and some Palaeozoic unfossiliferous rocks.
    0
    0
  • The sedimentary deposits were formerly believed to be Palaeozoic, but Jurassic fossils have since been found in them, and it is probable that several different formations are represented.
    0
    0
  • Nevertheless, from 1851 to 1855, Sedgwick, in his writings on the British palaeozoic deposits, insisted on the independence of the Cambrian system, and though Murchison had pushed his Silurian system downward in the series of rocks, Sedgwick adhered to the original grouping of his Cambrian system, and even proposed to limit the Silurian to the Ludlow and Wenlock beds with the May Hill Sandstone at the base.
    0
    0
  • Crustacea occupied an extremely prominent place; there were Phyllocarids such as Hymenocaris, and Ostracods like Entomidella; but by far the most important in numbers and development were the Trilo bites, now extinct, but in palaeozoic times so abundant.
    0
    0
  • It was pointed out by Barrande that early in Palaeozoic Europe there appeared two marine provinces - a northern one extending from Russia to the British Isles through Scandinavia and northern Germany, and a southern one comprising France, Bohemia, the Iberian peninsula and Sardinia.
    0
    0
  • Farther south there are zones of serpentine, and of crystalline and schistose rocks, some of which are probably Palaeozoic. The direction of the folds of this region is from west to east, but on the borders of Phrygia and Mysia they meet the north-westerly extension of the Taurus folds and bend around the ancient mass of Lydia.
    0
    0
  • Eruptive rocks of Palaeozoic age are met with in the Kola peninsula (nepheline-syenites) and at Kuusamo (syenite).
    0
    0
  • No marine deposits younger than those just mentioned - all belonging to a pre-Cambrian epoch - are found in the central portion of Finland; and the greater part of the country has probably been dry land since Palaeozoic times.
    0
    0
  • They are known to be pre-Jurassic, but whether they are Palaeozoic or Archaean is uncertain.
    0
    0
  • Outside the arc of the mountain chain no sign of this crumpling is to be detected except in the Salt Range, and the Peninsula of India has been entirely free from folding of any importance since early Palaeozoic times, if not since the Archean period itself.
    0
    0
  • From early Palaeozoic times the peninsula of India has been dry land, a part, indeed, of a great continent which in Mesozoic times extended across the Indian Ocean towards South Africa.
    0
    0
  • The northern zone is the Tibetan, in which fossiliferous beds of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic age are largely developed - excepting in the north-west no such rocks are known on the southern flanks.
    0
    0
  • The second is the zone of the snowy peaks and of the lower Himalaya, and is composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks together with unfossiliferous sedimentary beds supposed to be of Palaeozoic age.
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic forms found in the Himalaya are very close to those of Europe, and in some cases identical.
    0
    0
  • By far the greater part of Portugal is occupied by ancient rocks of Archean and Palaeozoic age, and by eruptive masses which probably belong to various periods.
    0
    0
  • Of the Lower Palaeozoic rocks the Ordovician appears to be the most widely-spread.
    0
    0
  • The eastern ranges of the Bolivian Andes are formed of Palaeozoic rocks with granitic and other intrusions; the Western Cordillera consists chiefly of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the lavas and ashes of the great volcanoes; while the intervening plateau is covered by freshwater and terrestrial deposits through which rise ridges of Palaeozoic rock and of a series of red sandstones and gypsiferous marls of somewhat uncertain age (probably, in part at least, Cretaceous).
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic beds have yielded fossils of Cambrian, Ordovician, Devonian and Carboniferous age.
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic beds are directly overlaid by a series of red sandstones and gypsiferous marls, similar to the formacion petrolifera of Argentina and Brazil.
    0
    0
  • The volcanoes of Bolivia lie almost entirely in the Western Cordillera - the great summits of the eastern range, such as Illimani and Sorata, being formed of Palaeozoic rocks with granitic and other intrusions.
    0
    0
  • The gold, silver and tin of Bolivia occur chiefly in the Palaeozoic rocks of the eastern ranges.
    0
    0
  • The' four topographic belts of the state correspond very closely to the outcrops of its geological formations; the rocks of the Appalachian belt being of Palaeozoic age; the formation of the Highlands, Archaean; that of the Triassic Lowland, Triassic; that of the irregular hills of the Coastal Plain, Cretaceous and Tertiary.
    0
    0
  • The highlands of New South Wales consist, geographically, of a series of tablelands, now in the condition of dissected peneplains; geologically, they are built of a foundation of Archean and folded Lower Palaeozoic rocks, covered in places by sheets of more horizontal Upper Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks; these deposits occur along the edge of the highlands, and are widely distributed on the floor of the coastal districts.
    0
    0
  • The western plains contain isolated ridges of the old Archean and Lower Palaeozoic rocks; but in the main, they consist of plains of Cretaceous beds covered by Cainozoic drifts.
    0
    0
  • The stratified rocks in the highlands strike north and south, as if they had been crumpled into folds, in Upper Palaeozoic times, by pressure from east to west.
    0
    0
  • They altered the Lower Palaeozoic rocks on their edges, and were once thought to have converted wide areas of Lower Palaeozoic rocks into schists and gneisses.
    0
    0
  • The highland rocks no doubt once extended along the whole length of the state from north to south; but they are now crossed by a band of Upper Palaeozoic sediments, which extend up to the valley of the Hunter river and separate the Blue Mountains and the Southern Highlands of New South Wales from the New England tableland to the north.
    0
    0
  • The Silurian system is the best-known constituent of the Lower Palaeozoic foundation of New South Wales.
    0
    0
  • In Palaeozoic formations, from the Upper Devonian onwards, numbers of shrimp-like forms are found which have been referred to the Schizopoda and the Decapoda, but here again the scanty information which may be gleaned as to the structure of the limbs rarely permits of definite conclusions as to their affinities.
    0
    0
  • The Western Division is composed entirely of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks, embracing the whole range from pre-Cambrian up to Carboniferous.
    0
    0
  • Round these central masses of early Palaeozoic rocks there is a broken ring of Carboniferous Limestone, and several patches of Coal Measures, while the New Red Sandstone appears as a boundary belt outside the greater part of the district.
    0
    0
  • Various lines of reasoning unite in proving that the Mesozoic rocks of the south rest upon a mass of Palaeozoic rocks, which lies at no very great depth beneath the surface of the anticlinal axis running from the Bristol Channel to the Strait of Dover.
    0
    0
  • When we attempt to decipher the physical history of the country from the complicated record afforded by the stratigraphical palimpsest, we are checked at the outset by the dearth of information from being able to picture the geographical condition in the older Palaeozoic periods.
    0
    0
  • As the main range approaches the Caspian its granite core gradually disappears, giving place to Palaeozoic schists, which spread down both the northern and the southern slopes.
    0
    0
  • Beneath it, on both sides, plunge the strongly folded Palaeozoic and Jurassic schists.
    0
    0
  • The southern Mesozoic zone is absent, and the Palaeozoic zone sinks abruptly in a series of faulted steps to the plain of the Kura, beneath which no doubt the continuation of the Mesozoic zone is concealed.
    0
    0
  • Then follow the Palaeozoic schists and slates.
    0
    0
  • Fossils are extremely rare in these beds; Buthotrephis has long been known, and doubtful traces of Calamites and ferns have been found, but it was not until 1897 that undoubted Palaeozoic fossils were obtained.
    0
    0
  • Upon the Palaeozoic beds rest a series of Mesozoic deposits, beginning with the Lias and ending with the Upper Cretaceous.
    0
    0
  • The fishes of the Palaeozoic age are in no respect the ancestors of the reptiles of the Secondary age, nor does man descend from the mammals which preceded him in the Tertiary age.
    0
    0
  • Man is the end towards which all the animal creation has tended from the first appearance of the first Palaeozoic fishes."
    0
    0
  • Recent discoveries have, however, established the fact that there existed in the Palaeozoic era fernlike plants which produced true seeds of a highly specialized type; this group, for which Oliver and Scott proposed the term Pteridospermae in 1904, must also be included in the Spermophyta.
    0
    0
  • These naked-seeded plants are of special interest on account of their great antiquity, which far exceeds that of the Angiosperms, and as comprising different types which carry us back to the Palaeozoic era and to the forests of the coal period.
    0
    0
  • The line of descent of recent cycads is comparatively clear in so far as they have undoubted affinity with Palaeozoic plants which combined cycadean and filicinean features; but opinion is much more divided as to the nature of the phylum from which the conifers are derived.
    0
    0
  • A thorough examination of cycadean seeds has recently been made by Miss Stopes, more particularly with a view to a comparison of their vascular supply with that in Palaeozoic gymnospermous seeds (Flora, 1904).
    0
    0
  • Palaeozoic genera, has not entirely disappeared from the stems of modern cycads; but the mesarch bundle is now confined to the leaves and peduncles.
    0
    0
  • Among Palaeozoic genera there are some which bear a close resemblance to the recent type in Geological the form of the leaves; and petrified Palaeozoic seeds, almost identical with those of the maidenhair tree, have been described from French and English localities.
    0
    0
  • The maidenhair tree is one of the most interesting survivals from the past; it represents a type which, in the Palaeozoic era, may have been merged into the extinct class Cordaitales.
    0
    0
  • One argument that has been adduced in support of the axillary bud theory is derived from the Palaeozoic type Cordaites, in which each ovule occurs en an axis borne in the axil of a bract.
    0
    0
  • The order was more abundantly represented in Palaeozoic times by the Heliolitidae from the Upper and Lower Silurian and the Devonian, and by the Thecidae from the Wenlock limestone.
    0
    0
  • This has been particularly the case with the group of Palaeozoic corals formerly classed together as Rugosa.
    0
    0
  • This combination of circumstances has given the Graptoloidea a paramount stratigraphical importance as palaeontological indices of the detailed sequence and correlation of the Lower Palaeozoic rocks in general.
    0
    0
  • Many British species and associations of genera and species, occurring on corresponding horizons to those on which they are found in Britain, have been met with in the graptolite-bearing Lower Palaeozoic formations of other parts of Europe, in America, Australia, New Zealand :and elsewhere.
    0
    0
  • A calycinal system may be quite apparent in the later Ophiuroidea and in a few Asteroidea, but there is no trace of it in the older Palaeozoic types, unless we are to transfer the appellation to the terminals.
    0
    0
  • Neumayr adduced the Triassic sea-urchin Tiarechinus, in which the apical system forms half of the test, as an argument for the origin of Echinoidea from an ancestor in which the apical system was of great importance; but a genus appearing so late in time, in an isolated sea, under conditions that dwarfed the other echinoid dwellers therein, cannot seriously be thought to elucidate the origin of pre-Silurian Echinoidea, and the recent discovery of an intermediate form suggests that we have here nothing but degenerate descendants of a well-known Palaeozoic family (Lepidocentridae).
    0
    0
  • The evolution of the modern Echinoidea from their Palaeozoic ancestors is also well understood, but in this case the ancestral form to which the palaeontologist is led does not at first sight present many resemblances to the Pelmatozoa.
    0
    0
  • All the Palaeozoic representatives have non-pinnulate arms, while the Mesozoic and later forms have them pinnulate.
    0
    0
  • It is true that some specialized forms, such as the Brisingidae among starfish, A strophiura and Ophioteresis among ophiurans, contravene the usual diagnoses; but this neither obscures their systematic position, nor does it alter the fact that since early Palaeozoic times these two great groups of stellate echinoderms have evolved along separate lines.
    0
    0
  • The Harz is a mass of Palaeozoic rock rising through the Mesozoic strata of north Germany, and bounded on all sides by faults.
    0
    0
  • The folding of the old rocks took place towards the close of the Palaeozoic era; but the faulting to which they owe their present position was probably Tertiary.
    0
    0
  • It is only in the outer foldings of the highlands that Palaeozoic fossiliferous deposits are found - Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permo-Carboniferous.
    0
    0
  • These plants, a fuller description of which must be sought in the article Palaeobotany: Palaeozoic, underwent secondary increase in thickness and attained the size of large trees; the aerial stem was more or less branched dichotomously.
    0
    0
  • The Alai is a well-defined ridge with steep slopes, and both it and the Terek-tau, which prolongs it towards the Kokshal-tau, are flanked next the Ferghana valley by what appear to be the old uplifted strata both of the old Palaeozoic series of metamorphic limestones and of the newer Tertiary series of softer conglomerates and sandstones.
    0
    0
  • Towards the north-west, also, the Palaeozoic foundation falls beneath an increasing thickness of Cretaceous beds and lies buried far below the surface.
    0
    0
  • It is not till Silesia that the Palaeozoic formations again rise to the surface.
    0
    0
  • Here is the margin, often concealed by very modern deposits, of the great mass of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks which forms nearly the whole of Bohemia and Moravia.
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic beds no longer lie flat and undisturbed, as in the Polish plain.
    0
    0
  • In the south, the later palaeozoic rocks are also thrown into acute folds by a movement acting from the south, and which ceased towards the close of the mesozoic period.
    0
    0
  • The crystalline massif, therefore, presents a solid block which has remained elevated since early palaeozoic times, and against which earth waves of several geological periods have broken.
    0
    0
  • Up to the close of the palaeozoic period the relative positions of the ancient land masses and oceans remain unsolved; but the absence of marine strata of early palaeozoic age from Central Africa points to there being land in this direction.
    0
    0
  • It appears to approximate in time to the similar earth movement and denudation at the close of the palaeozoic period in Europe.
    0
    0
  • The Ventersdorp boulder beds of the Transvaal may be of early palaeozoic age; but as a whole the palaeozoic period in Africa was remarkably free from volcanic and igneous disturbances.
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic era is represented only by the Pennsylvanian series of the Upper Carboniferous and a scanty strip of Kansas-Nebraska Permian, and is confined to the S.E.
    0
    0
  • Geologically, Armenia consists of archaic rocks upon which, towards the north, are superimposed Palaeozoic, and towards the south later sedimentary rocks.
    0
    0
  • The Lower Palaeozoic systems begin with the Cambrian, which are found in northern Tasmania near Latrobe, and contain Cambrian fossils as Dikelocephalus Tasmanicus and Conocephalites stephensi.
    0
    0
  • It is usually regarded as beginning with a fresh-water series containing the remains of fish and labyrinthodonts; but as it also contains Vertebraria it is probably Palaeozoic; and this series is covered by sandstones and shales which are probably of Triassic age.
    0
    0
  • Volcanic action is still going on in these latitudes, as the glaciers are at times covered by ashes, but the predominant rocks to the east are the Tertiary granite, while to the west gneiss, older granite and Palaeozoic rocks prevail.
    0
    0
  • In Bolivia this eastern ridge, separated from the western Cordillera by the longitudinal valley in which Lake Titicaca lies, is formed chiefly of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks.
    0
    0
  • I.-Palaeozoic The present section is concerned with the botany of the Palaeozoic age, from the oldest rocks in which vegetable remains have been found up to the close of the Permian period.
    0
    0
  • The various groups of plants represented in the Palaeozoic rocks will first be considered in systematic order, after which some account will be given of the succession and distribution of the various floras during the period.
    0
    0
  • There is no evidence that the Angiospermous flowering plants, now the dominant class, existed during the Palaeozoic period; they do not appear till far on in the Mesozoic epoch, and their earlier history is as yet entirely unknown.
    0
    0
  • Among the lower classes of plants we have scarcely any knowledge of Palaeozoic Bryophyta; Fungi were probably abundant, but their remains give us little information; while, even among the Algae, which are better represented, well characterized specimens are scanty.
    0
    0
  • With few exceptions, the remains of Palaeozoic Algae are of comparatively little botanical interest.
    0
    0
  • Of Cyanophyceae, as we should expect, the Palaeozoic remains are very doubtful.
    0
    0
  • The non-cellular order Siphoneae is fairly well represented in Palaeozoic strata, especially by calcareous verticillate forms referable to the family Dasycladeae; the separate tubular joints of the articulated thallus, bearing the prints of the whorled branches, are sometimes cylindrical (Arthroporella, Vermiporella, &c.), sometimes oval (Sycidium) or spherical (Cyclocrinus).
    0
    0
  • It has recently been stated, however, that the supposed Algae are in reality the megaspores of Vascular Cryptogams. Scarcely anything is known of Palaeozoic Florideae; Solenopora, ranging from the Ordovician to the Jurassic, resembles, in the structure of its thallus, with definite zones of growth, Corallinaceae such as Lithothamnion, and may probably be of the same nature.
    0
    0
  • Apart from the multitude of supposed fossil Algae described as " Fucoids " but usually not of Algal nature, and never presenting determinable characters, very little remains that can be referred to Palaeozoic Brown Algae.
    0
    0
  • The existence of these gigantic Algae in Palaeozoic times, attested by such well-preserved specimens, is a fact of great interest, though their systematic position is still an open question.
    0
    0
  • On the whole, it cannot be said that the Palaeozoic remains have as yet thrown much light on the evolution of the Algae, though we may not be prepared to maintain, with Zeiller, that plants of this class appear never to have assumed a form very different from that which they present at the present day.
    0
    0
  • The first evidence for the existence of Palaeozoic Bacteria was obtained in 1879 by Van Tieghem, who found that in silicified vegetable remains from the Coal Measures of St Etienne Bacteria.
    0
    0
  • Since that time a number of fossil Bacteria, mainly from Palaeozoic strata, have been described by Renault, occurring in all kinds of fossilized vegetable and animal debris.
    0
    0
  • On the whole, the occurrence of Bacteria in Palaeozoic times - so probable a priori - may be taken as established, though the attempt to discriminate species among them is probably futile.
    0
    0
  • Fungi were no doubt abundant among Palaeozoic vegetation.
    0
    0
  • Small spores, almost certainly those of Fungi, are very common in the petrified tissues of Palaeozoic plants.
    0
    0
  • Bodies closely resembling the perithecia of Sphaeriaceous Fungi have often been observed on impressions of Palaeozoic plants, and may probably belong to the group indicated.
    0
    0
  • The few and incomplete data which we at present possess as to Palaeozoic Fungi do not as yet justify any inferences as to the evolution of these plants.
    0
    0
  • The writer is not aware of any evidence for the occurrence of Palaeozoic Lichens.
    0
    0
  • Pteridophyta, is as yet scarcely represented among known fossils of Palaeozoic age.
    0
    0
  • In one or two cases Palaeozoic plants, resembling the true Mosses in habit, have been discovered; the best example is the Muscites polytrichaceus of Renault and Zeiller, from the Coal Measures of Commentry.
    0
    0
  • In the absence, however, both of reproductive organs and of anatomical structure, it cannot be said that there is at present conclusive evidence for the existence of either Hepaticae or Musci in Palaeozoic times.
    0
    0
  • Our knowledge of the Vascular Cryptograms of the Palaeozoic period, though recent discoveries have somewhat reduced their relative importance, is still more extensive than of any.
    0
    0
  • They extend back through the Devonian, possibly to the Silurian system, but the systematic summary now to be given is based primarily on the rich materials afforded by the Carboniferous and Permian formations, from which our detailed knowledge of Palaeozoic plants has been chiefly derived.
    0
    0
  • In addition to the three classes, Equisetales, Lycopodiales and Filicales, under which recent Pteridophytes naturally group themselves, a fourth class, Sphenophyllales, existed in Palaeozoic times, clearly related to the Horsetails and more remotely to the Ferns and perhaps the Club-mosses, but with peculiarities of its own demanding an independent position.
    0
    0
  • A great group of Palaeozoic fossils, showing evident affinity to Ferns, has proved to consist of seed-bearing plants allied to Gymnosperms, especially Cycads.
    0
    0
  • The arrangement which we shall adopt for the Palaeozoic Pteridophyta is therefore as follows: I.
    0
    0
  • We must bear in mind that throughout the Palaeozoic period, and indeed far beyond it, vascular plants, so far as the existing evidence shows, were represented only by the Pteridophyta, Pteridosperms and Gymnosperms. Although the history of the Angiosperms may probably go much further back than present records show, there is no reason to suppose that they were present, as such, amongst the Palaeozoic vegetation.
    0
    0
  • It is among the fossils of the Palaeozoic rocks that we first learn the possibilities of Pteridophytic organization.
    0
    0
  • The Calamarieae, now known to have been the chief Palaeozoic representatives of the Horsetail stock, attained the dimensions of trees, reaching, according to Grand' Eury, a height of from 30 to 60 metres, and showed in all respects a higher and more varied organization than their recent successors.
    0
    0
  • In several cases heterospory, unknown among recent Equisetaceae, has been demonstrated in their Palaeozoic representatives.
    0
    0
  • In certain cases the strobili of Palaeozoic Calamarieae appear to have had essentially the same organization as in the recent genus, the axis bearing sporangiophores only, without intercalated bracts.
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic Calamarieae, though so far surpassing recent Equisetaceae, both in stature and complexity of organization, clearly belonged to the same class of Vascular Cryptogams. There is no satisfactory evidence for attributing Phanerogamic e bn FIG.
    0
    0
  • The best known of the Palaeozoic Lycopods were trees, reaching loo ft.
    0
    0
  • Broadly speaking, the Palaeozoic Lycopods, whatever their dimensions, show a general agreement in habit and structure with our living forms, though often attaining a much higher grade of organization.
    0
    0
  • Until recently it has been supposed that the class was well represented in the Palaeozoic period, and, indeed, that it was relatively, and perhaps absolutely far richer in species even than in the recent flora.
    0
    0
  • It has thus become very difficult to decide what Palaeozoic plants should still be referred to the Filices.
    0
    0
  • It is, however, probable that a considerable group of true Ferns, allied to Marattiaceae, existed in Palaeozoic times, side by side with simpler forms. In one respect the fronds of many Palaeozoic Ferns and Pteridosperms were peculiar, namely, in the presence on their rachis, and at the base of their pinnae, of anomalous leaflets, often totally different in form and venation from the ordinary pinnules.
    0
    0
  • A considerable number of the Palaeozoic fern-like plants show indications - more or less decisive - of Marattiaceous affinities; some account of this group will first be given.
    0
    0
  • On the whole there is thus good evidence for the frequency of Marattiaceae in the Palaeozoic period, though the possibility that the fructifications may really represent the microsporangia of fern-like spermophytes must always be borne in mind.
    0
    0
  • The Marattiaceae are the only recent family of Ferns which can be supposed to have existed in anything like its present form in Palaeozoic times.
    0
    0
  • Little or nothing is known of Palaeozoic Ophioglossaceae.
    0
    0
  • In the case of the Osmundaceae there is good evidence, from anatomical characters, for tracing the family back to the Palaeozoic; their oldest members show a distinct relationship to the Botryopterideae, described in the next paragraph.
    0
    0
  • The family Botryopterideae, first discovered by Renault, stands out with striking clearness among the Palaeozoic Ferns, and differs widely from any group now in existence.
    0
    0
  • A number of genera of Palaeozoic " fern-fronds " have been described, of the fructification of which nothing is known.
    0
    0
  • On the present evidence it appears that the class Filicales was well represented in the Palaeozoic flora, though by no means so dominant as was formerly supposed.
    0
    0
  • Although doubts have lately been cast on the authenticity of Palaeozoic Marattiaceae owing to the difficulty in distinguishing between their fructifications and the pollenbearing organs of Pteridosperms, the anatomical evidence (stem of Psaronius) strongly confirms the opinion that a considerable group of these Ferns existed.
    0
    0
  • Ina great number of forms, amounting to a majority of the Palaeozoic plants of fern-like habit, the indirect evidence is in favour of their having possessed seeds.
    0
    0
  • Coal Measures, is now the best-known of all Palaeozoic plants, the central wood has disappeared altogether and is replaced by pith; the primary wood is only represented in the leaf-trace strands, which form a ring of distinct collateral bundles around the pith; (From a model after Oliver.) FIG.
    0
    0
  • No similar glands are known on any other Palaeozoic plant.
    0
    0
  • It is only quite at the close of the Palaeozoic period that Cycads begin to appear.
    0
    0
  • The Pteridosperms, of which only a few examples have been considered, evidently constituted a group of vast extent in Palaeozoic times.
    0
    0
  • Gymnospermous remains are common in Palaeozoic strata from the Devonian onwards.
    0
    0
  • The investigations of the last quarter of the 10th century established that these ' Endlicher's name Dadoxylon is conveniently used for Palaeozoic specimens of the kind in question when nothing beyond the woodstructure is known.
    0
    0
  • There appears, in fact, so far as stem-structure is concerned, to have been no sharp break between the typical Palaeozoic Gymnosperms and pronounced Pteridosperms such as Lyginodendron.
    0
    0
  • Specimens of true Cycads or Conifers are rare or doubtful until we come to the latest Palaeozoic rocks.
    0
    0
  • In the light of our present knowledge of Ginkgo and the Cycads, there can scarcely be a doubt that spermatozoids were formed in the cells of the antheridium of the Cordaitean pollen-grain and that of other Palaeozoic Spermophyta; the an theridium is much more developed than in any recent Gymnosperm, and it may be doubted whether any pollen-tube was formed.
    0
    0
  • The class Cordaitales extends back to the Devonian, and it must be borne in mind that our knowledge of their fructifications is practically limited to representatives from the latest Palaeozoic horizons.
    0
    0
  • The abundance and variety of Palaeozoic seeds, still so often of undetermined nature, indicate the vast extent of the spermophytic flora of that period.
    0
    0
  • The modern Gymnospermous orders have but few authentic representatives in Palaeozoic rocks.
    0
    0
  • Now that the numerous specimens of wood formerly referred to Coniferae are known to have belonged to distinct orders, but few true Palaeozoic Conifers remain to be considered.
    0
    0
  • There is no proof of the existence of Gnetaceae in Palaeozoic times.
    0
    0
  • Our knowledge of vegetation older than the Carboniferous is still far too scanty for any satisfactory history of the Palaeozoic Floras to be even attempted; a few, however, of the facts may be advantageously recapitulated in chronological order.
    0
    0
  • We must begin by briefly considering this southern Palaeozoic province if we would trace the Mesozoic floras to their origin, and obtain a connected view of the vegetation of the globe as it existed in late Palaeozoic times and at the beginning of the succeeding era.
    0
    0
  • These strata are homotaxial with PermoCarboniferous rocks in Europe and North America, as determined by the order of succession of the rocks, and by the occurrence of typical Palaeozoic shells in associated marine deposits.
    0
    0
  • In view of recent discoveries which have demonstrated the Pteridosperm nature of many supposed ferns of Palaeozoic age, we must admit the possibility that the term fern as applied to Glossopteris and Gangamopteris may be incorrect.
    0
    0
  • Phyllotheca has been recognized in Europe in strata of Palaeozoic age, and Professor Zeiller has discovered a new species - P. Rallii- in Upper Carboniferous rocks in Asia Minor (Map A, VII.), which points to a close agreement between this genus and the well-known Palaeozoic Annularia.
    0
    0
  • The genera Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Stigmaria, or Calamites, which played so great a share in the vegetation of the same age in the northern hemisphere, have not been recognized among the Palaeozoic forms of India, but examples of Sigillaria, Lepidodendron and Bothrodendron are known to have existed in South Africa in the Permo-Carboniferous era.
    0
    0
  • These post-Permian floras, as represented by the Upper Gondwana beds of India and corresponding strata in Australia, South Africa, and South America, differ but slightly from the northern floras, and point to a uniformity in the Rhaetic and Jurassic vegetation which is in contrast to the existence of two botanical provinces during the latter part of the Palaeozoic period.
    0
    0
  • Another Triassic genus, Pleuromeia, is of interest as exhibiting, on the one hand, a striking resemblance to the recent genus Isoetes, from which it differs in its much larger stem, and on the other as agreeing fairly closely with the Palaeozoic genera Lepidodendron and Sigillaria.
    0
    0
  • There is, however, a marked difference, as regards the floras as a whole, between the uppermost Palaeozoic flora of the northern hemisphere and such species as have been recorded from Lower Triassic beds.
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic types are barely represented; the arborescent Vascular Cryptogams have been replaced by Cycads, Ginkgoales and Conifers as the dominant classes, while Ferns continue to hold their own.
    0
    0
  • From the close of the Permian period, which marks the limit of the Upper Palaeozoic floras, to the .period immediately preceding the apparently sudden appearance of Angiosperms, we have a succession of floras differing from one another in certain minor details, but linked together by the possession of many characters in common.
    0
    0
  • The Palaeozoic Calamites were succeeded in the Triassic period by large Equisetites, differing, so far as we know, in no essential Equ;se- respect from existing Equisetums. The large stems taceae.
    0
    0
  • The latter genus ranges from Upper Carboniferous to Jurassic rocks; it occurs in India, Australia, and elsewhere in the " Gondwana Land " vegetation, as well as in Palaeozoic rocks of Asia Minor, in Permian rocks of Siberia, and in Jurassic plant-beds of Italy.
    0
    0
  • The abundance of Palaeozoic plants with sporangia and sori of the Marattiaceous type is in striking contrast to the scarcity of Mesozoic ferns which can be reasonably included in the Marattiaceae.
    0
    0
  • It would appear that the eusporangiate Ferns suddenly sank to very subordinate position after the Palaeozoic era.
    0
    0
  • The Osmundaceae, represented by a few forms of Palaeozoic age, played a more prominent part in the Mesozoic floras.
    0
    0
  • The majority of the specimens included in the genus Cladophlebis, the Mesozoic representative of the Palaeozoic Pecopteris type of frond, are known only in a sterile condition, and cannot be assigned to their family position.
    0
    0
  • From Palaeozoic rocks a few fronds have been described, such as Pterophyllum Fayoli, P. Combrayi, Plagiozamites and the leaves of Todites, a genus which may often be recognized by the broad and relatively short bluntly-terminated pinnules.
    0
    0
  • Other types, again, which may be referred to the Gymnosperms, played a not unimportant part in the Palaeozoic vegetation.
    0
    0
  • It is in rocks of Upper Triassic and Rhaetic age that abundant remains of rich floras are met with, and an examination of the general features of the vegetation reveals a striking contrast between the Lower Mesozoic plants and those of the Palaeozoic period.
    0
    0
  • The change to this newer type of vegetation was no doubt less sudden than it appears as read from palaeobotanical records, but the transition period between the Palaeozoic type of vegetation and that which flourished in the Lower Mesozoic era, and continued to the close of the Wealden age, was probably characterized by rapid or almost sudden changes.
    0
    0
  • In the southern hemisphere the Glossopteris flora succeeded a Lower Carboniferous vegetation with a rapidity similar to that which marked the passage in the north from Palaeozoic to Mesozoic floras.
    0
    0
  • Physical conditions no doubt played an important part, but whatever cause may have had the greatest share in disturbing the equilibrium of evolutionary forces, it would seem that the apparently sudden appearance of Cycads and other types at the close of the Palaeozoic period made a widespread and sudden impression on the whole character of the vegetation.
    0
    0
  • They are best developed in the Macdonnell chain in Palaeozoic U Mesozoic Dolerite '&c. ' ® central Australia and in Victoria, where the fullest sequence is known; while they also extended north-eastward from Victoria into New South Wales, where, as yet, no Cambrian rocks have been found.
    0
    0
  • Freshwater and terrestrial deposits of Mesozoic age occur in many places, and the conclusion is irresistible that the greater part of this area has been land since the close of the Palaeozoic era.
    0
    0
  • At the same time we have no evidence that any Endopterygota existed amongst Palaeozoic insects, so that the phenomena of endopterygotism are comparatively recent, and we are led to infer that the Endopterygota owe their origin to the older Exopterygota.
    0
    0
  • Only three hypotheses as to the origin of Endopterygota can be suggested as possible, viz.: - (i) That some of the Palaeozoic insects, though we infer them to have been exopterygotous, were really endopterygotous, and were the actual ancestors of the existing Endopterygota; (2) that Endopterygota are not descended from Exopterygota, but were derived directly from ancestors that were never winged; (3) that the predominant division - i.e.
    0
    0
  • The chief points of correspondence between these two great land masses, besides the southward tapering, are as follows: - (i) The areas of ancient fundamental rocks of the north-east (Laurentian highlands of North America, uplands of Guiana in South America), which have remained without significant deformation, although suffering various oscillations of level, since ancient geological times; (2) the highlands of the southeast (Appalachians and Brazilian highlands) with a north-east south-west crystalline axis near the ocean, followed by a belt of deformed and metamorphosed early Palaeozoic strata, and adjoined farther inland by a dissected plateau of nearly horizontal later Palaeozoic formations - all greatly denuded since the ancient deformation of the mountain axis, and seeming to owe their present altitude to broad uplifts of comparatively modern geological date; (3) the complex of younger mountains along the western side of the continents (Western highlands, or Cordilleras, of North America; Andean Cordilleras of South America) of geologically modern deformation and upheaval, with enclosed basins and abundant volcanic action, but each a system in itself, disconnected and not standing in alignment; (4) confluent lower lands between the highlands, giving river drainage to the north (Mackenzie, Orinoco), east (St Lawrence, Amazon), and south (Mississippi, La Plata).
    0
    0
  • Rocks of Archean and Palaeozoic ages contribute only a small share, but there is a Scale, 1:7,700,000 English Miles o 60 80 too 200 �-' 4,, ,% 4s o,r^ ° o ?
    0
    0
  • The mountain group of North Wales is the largest and loftiest; its scenery resembles that of the Scottish Highlands because of the juxtaposition of ancient Palaeozoic rocks - Cambrian and Ordovician, often altered into slate - and contemporaneous volcanic outbursts and igneous intrusions.
    0
    0
  • Another instance of the production of seeds in an extinct plant which further reduces the importance of this character as a distinguishing feature is afforded by the Palaeozoic genus Lepidocarpon described by Scott in 1901; this lycopodiaceous type possessed an integumented megaspore, to which the designation seed may be legitimately applied (see Palaeobotany: Palaeozoic).
    0
    0
  • The Cordaitales (see Palaeobotany: Palaeozoic) are represented by extinct forms only, which occupied a prominent position in the Palaeozoic period; these plants exhibit certain features in common with the living Araucarias, and others which invite a comparison with the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba), the solitary survivor of another class of Gymnosperms, the Ginkgoales (see Palaeobotany: Mesozoic).
    0
    0
  • Pteridospermae (see Palaeobotany, Palaeozoic).
    0
    0
  • Cordaitales (see Palaeobotany: Palaeozoic).
    0
    0
  • The position of the pores near the centre of the ambulacrals in Bothriocidaris need not be regarded as primitive, since other early Palaeozoic genera, not to mention the young of living forms, show that the podia originally passed out between the plates, and were only gradually surrounded by their substance; thus the original structure of the echinoid ambulacra differed from that of the early asteroid in the position of the radial vessels and nerves, which here lie beneath the plates instead of outside them.
    0
    0
  • The most important and best known of the extinct Equisetales are, however, the Calamites (see Palaeobotany: Palaeozoic).
    0
    0
  • Our knowledge of the extinct Filicales cannot be readily summarized, since it is in a transition state, owing to the recent evidence which has shown that many of the fern-like plants of the Palaeozoic period belonged to a group of seed-bearing plants derived from a filicineous ancestry.
    0
    0
  • The best known of these ancient Ferns belong to the Botryopterideae; the characters of this group point to its having been the starting-point of several series of existing Ferns (see Palaeobotany: Palaeozoic).
    0
    0
  • The Lyginodendreae type of structure, however, appears to have formed the transition not only to the Cycadales, but also to the extinct family Cordaiteae, the characteristic Palaeozoic Gymnosperms (see p. 107).
    0
    0
  • The history of the Ginkgoales will be found in the Mesozoic section of this article (see also Gymnosperms); their nearest Palaeozoic representatives " were probably members of the Cordaitales, an extinct stock with which the Ginkgoaceae are closely connected " (Seward).
    0
    0