Carmen made a ball out of a pair of socks.
You two make a fine pair, you know that?
Bianca put on a pair of jeans and a T-shirt.
I saw a pair on your car out there.
Molly smiled and the pair and dog left.
Slipping into a pair of tennis shoes, she headed for the kitchen.
She woke to bright sunlight shining through her window and jumped from the bed, tugging on a pair of shorts and a blouse.
You know that pair of women's gloves?
A pair of legs paused in front of her cubby hole.
Having sat some time at table, Speranski corked a bottle of wine and, remarking, "Nowadays good wine rides in a carriage and pair," passed it to the servant and got up.
They gave me a pair of her "wings," which I keep still.
The female dealer was in her bra and a soaked pair of pants.
Randy and Jen made a great pair and Dean knew it would all work out in the long haul.
When is the pair in California to return?
Katie chose a pair of wool-lined clogs, shower sandals, and waterproof ankle boots.
Dean wanted to question Edith further but she rose, with Effie following, her arm on Edith's elbow and the pair returned upstairs.
After you went up in a balloon, and escaped us, I got back to Kansas by means of a pair of magical silver shoes.
Instead of a trunk for his clothing, he carried a pair of saddlebags.
Unnerved by the idea of being somewhere she clearly didn't belong, she opened drawers until she found a pair of shears.
Things are nice as it is, she said to herself, and she began walking up and down the room, not stepping simply on the resounding parquet but treading with each step from the heel to the toe (she had on a new and favorite pair of shoes) and listening to the regular tap of the heel and creak of the toe as gladly as she had to the sounds of her own voice.
Three pair of hostile eyes turned on the sandy-haired youth.
Bordeaux studied the dust through a pair of field glasses.
Dean smiled at a pair of climbers rounding a bend in the trail and waited for them to pass before responding.
Testing her ankle in a pair of low heels, she nodded silent approval and hurried down the hall.
She walked stiffly to the closet, deciding quickly on a pair of blue jeans and a light shirt with a collar that would hide most of her neck.
The skull looked up through hollow eyes, just as the flashlight died, plunging the pair into a blackened void of darkness.
"I'm sure you're exhausted," Cynthia said as she followed the pair into the room.
Then the pair reached a side passageway that was unmarked!
Once when a boy gave him a pair of doves which he had snared, St. Francis had a nest made for them, and the mother bird laid her eggs in it.
Bird Song's managerial pair tried to present a breakfast happy face over coffee cake and muffins, but their efforts continued to fall short as they waited for Martha to make an appearance.
The three largest quarters were located on the third floor, all presently booked by the two Dawkins brothers and wives, one pair of whom was not sleeping with his mate.
Fred finished his breakfast in a rush and hauled out the pair of his garage-sale skis.
Or sometimes I watched a pair of hen-hawks circling high in the sky, alternately soaring and descending, approaching, and leaving one another, as if they were the embodiment of my own thoughts.
The pair drove down Seventh Street, crossed over the Uncompahgre River and followed the dirt road to the small cluster of mobile homes.
I one evening overtook one of my townsmen, who has accumulated what is called "a handsome property"--though I never got a fair view of it--on the Walden road, driving a pair of cattle to market, who inquired of me how I could bring my mind to give up so many of the comforts of life.
Amused, he dropped the sweater into the bag, grabbed a few more and a pair jeans.
Dean just smiled, wondering how Ginger and Joseph would know where brother and sister-in-law were if they themselves hadn't lied like the proverbial rug and done the exact same thing as the pair they were accusing.
The Emperor was not dancing, he stood in the doorway, stopping now one pair and now another with gracious words which he alone knew how to utter.
My furniture, part of which I made myself--and the rest cost me nothing of which I have not rendered an account--consisted of a bed, a table, a desk, three chairs, a looking-glass three inches in diameter, a pair of tongs and andirons, a kettle, a skillet, and a frying-pan, a dipper, a wash-bowl, two knives and forks, three plates, one cup, one spoon, a jug for oil, a jug for molasses, and a japanned lamp.
clothing, finding a pair of jeans, another pair of cargo pants, a scarf, and a few shirts.
Deidre managed to pull them on and then went back to the wardrobe, selecting the softest sweater and a pair of jeans.
We were a pair of sobbing women trying to console each other.
Dean continued to make sandwiches the pair would eat on the road.
The pair returned to the first floor where they located Janet O'Brien dusting the parlor.
Tikhon followed behind and Petya heard the Cossacks laughing with him and at him, about some pair of boots he had thrown into the bushes.
The pair tramped further to the next closest point where they could see his line of descent to the river far below.
I've got a pair of skis out in the shed.
But as she passed the sitting room she noticed two couples sitting, one pair at each window.
Dean clapped as a pair of poodles pranced by.
"This is the only good part of the afternoon," he muttered, pulling out a pair of wrinkled slacks and holding them up.
Dean knew from his prior life the pair were just doing their job but that didn't mean he had to like being watched like a street felon.
I think we make a good pair.
He pulled out a pair of spiked apparatuses, with lengthy teeth extending both down and forward.
"That's it, that's it!" exclaimed the count, and gaily seizing his son by both hands, he cried, "Now I've got you, so take the sleigh and pair at once, and go to Bezukhov's, and tell him 'Count Ilya has sent you to ask for strawberries and fresh pineapples.'
With a pair of felt boots on his thin bony legs, and keeping on a worn, nankeen-covered, sheepskin coat, the traveler sat down on the sofa, leaned back his big head with its broad temples and close-cropped hair, and looked at Bezukhov.
Just then, the man waved the cop away and began moving toward the pair, but not before giving a nod to second man Dean hadn't noticed.
Fred suggested the pair speak with Edith, Ryland and the others, but Dean pointed out the difficulty in doing so while Corday continued his interviews in the parlor.
Berg drove up to his father-in-law's house in his spruce little trap with a pair of sleek roans, exactly like those of a certain prince.
He felt this in the looks of the soldiers who, marching in regular ranks briskly and gaily, were escorting him and the other criminals; he felt it in the looks of an important French official in a carriage and pair driven by a soldier, whom they met on the way.
Cynthia said as the pair stumbled down the path.
The mine tunnel narrowed and the pair was forced to hunch down under the low ceiling that closed in the fetid air around them like a soaked and musty blanket.
All four Dawkinses joined the showing, which grew to include a widow from Texas, an Illinois couple with a sixyear-old and a handholding pair of seventy-something's with different last names.
After that they took his right hand, placed it on something, and told him to hold a pair of compasses to his left breast with the other hand and to repeat after someone who read aloud an oath of fidelity to the laws of the Order.
The pair spent the balance of the morning emptying the washing machine and dryer, only to fill them with never-ending loads, while in between clearing dishes, brewing more coffee, and playing the jovial innkeepers.
After Maria left to return to her duties, the pair lingered at the kitchen table.
It was a German cart with a pair of horses led by a German, and seemed loaded with a whole houseful of effects.
- The plane of the articulation of the appendages of the 1st pair to the prosoma (the retrovert) vertical, the basal segment pro jecting straight forwards at its proximal end, the t raegcn - distal segment or fang closing backwards in a direction subparallel to the long axis of the body.
Of this period also there is a royal pair, Netekamane and Amanetari, imitating the names of their conspicuous predecessors.
It has been found in practice advantageous to prepare the canes for crushing in the mills, as above described, by passing them through a pair of preparing rolls which are grooved or indented in such manner as to draw in and flatten down the canes, no matter in which way they are thrown or heaped upon the canecarrier, and thus prepare them for feeding the first mill of the series; thus the work of crushing is carried on uninterruptedly and without constant stoppages from the mills choking, as is often the case when the feed is heavy and the canes are not prepared.
sp2, The third pair of tracheal apertures.
Pair your sandwich with soda, chips and cookies for a complete meal.
The single cone of light flickered on the dripping stone, casting yellow dancing goblins in its shadowy glow as the pair stumbled forward.
With renewed caution, the pair followed the chalk arrow, not the stones, expecting any minute to find someone barring their return.
I cleaned out our bank accounts and wrapped the withdrawal slips in the same pair of shorts and pinned it to his pillow with a steak knife and took off.
The ding-dong prompted the pair to look across the bed to shame the other into a bathrobe to answer the door.
There followed a call from Groucho, whose name Dean learned was Coleridge, telling of a report that the Boyd pair was sighted in Kansas, stopped for a tail light violation on Sunday afternoon.
Cop two remained a dozen steps behind them as if to let the pair know they'd better do as they were told.
As to the first pair of gloves, a man's, he said that Pierre could not know their meaning but must keep them.
The second pair of man's gloves he was to wear at the meetings, and finally of the third, a pair of women's gloves, he said: Dear brother, these woman's gloves are intended for you too.
The real celebration of Fred's release from jail didn't begin until the pair returned to Bird Song where Cynthia had baked a fresh apple pie, complete with vanilla ice cream, tagged on to the end of a healthy lunch.
She eagerly informed the pair how she planned to attend tomorrow's ice festival activities, in search of first hand research for what was sure to be a winning chapter.
She took a pair of pear-shaped ruby earrings from her huge reticule and, having given them to the rosy Natasha, who beamed with the pleasure of her saint's-day fete, turned away at once and addressed herself to Pierre.
Everyone back in high school figured you and Martha we're the pair.
They made a sexy pair.
Cynthia joined the pair.
Others turned around and stared at the pair.
Dean hadn't detailed the last evening's happenings to the pair.
Paul and Paulette were huddled in the parlor looking almost as happy as the front porch pair.
You always were a good pair.
Cynthia bounced down to the floor to join the pair.
Dean too was curious about Annie Quincy's writings but decided not to join the pair.
The sisters Quincy were anything but a matched pair.
He was in no mood to talk to the pair.
I'd kill the pair of them, if I hadn't already bought my wedding gown.
He picked up her bags and followed the pair to the small room.
The pair was interrupted from further speculation by the sound of Martha's laughter and footsteps bounding down the stairs.
But they did believe, fervently, that together they made an unstoppable pair, whatever the situation.
Martha, who couldn't have run that fast from her trailer if she did have a decent pair of sneakers—which she didn't—was at the door, pulling a sled upon which was piled a bundle far smaller than any ten-year-old's belongings ought to represent.
Those two, Ryland and Franny—what a pair!
But Gladys was delighted and after a night, ostensibly in adjoining rooms, the pair were off, with giggles and tears and a proud pronouncement that Arlen had agreed to present all seven volumes of Belfair and her galactic cohorts to the waiting world of letters—in paperback form.
Fred picked up a pair of children's cross country skies from an ad in the paper and the group spent a number of after school afternoons on Red Mountain utilizing the free trails at Ironton.
Maybe the Shiptons had a matched pair, like his and hers?
But given the pair of parents the boy was forced to live with, it's a wonder he's as well adjusted as he is.
The pair sat embraced, grieving their lost lives.
He wore black jeans, a dark gray Versace silk sport shirt with the cuffs rolled up, and a pair of A. Testoni loafers.
Throwing on some jeans, a T-shirt and a pair of Nikes, he decided to take a walk, but first, he would check on Sarah.
Jackson often joked that the day would come when she would spend more on a pair of shoes than he did on a car.
Inside she found a stunning pair of diamond and ruby drop earrings.
She took off the pair she was wearing.
In heels, she stood as tall as Jackson and they made quite a pair.
I would like to ask everyone to raise their glass in a toast to my sister and her new husband, Sarah and Connor; a pair who complement each other perfectly.
Inside the dairy she shucked her coat and rubber boots, slipping into a pair of western boots she always kept in the barn.
Three pair of blue eyes stared back at her from the first stall, and tiny pink cleft muzzles lifted in a cute imitation of their mother's broken cry of joy.
A dark form moved at the edge of the tree line and when she shined the flashlight in that direction, the light reflected off more than one pair of eyes.
She shooed the goat back into the pasture and grabbed a pair of linesman pliers and some bailing wire from the barn.
Brady had piled his weapons on the couch and stripped down to a pair of pants and nothing else.
Rhyn yanked the dart free and looked from it to the small welt forming on his arm. It matched the welt on his other arm. He gazed at his other arm for a long moment then strode to Toby's bag. Snatching it, he unzipped it and dumped its contents onto the ground. Alongside Toby's 3DS, a pair of clean underwear and socks, and gamers magazine was a small shaving bag. Rhyn opened it, surprised to find a syringe and two small bottles, one empty and one filled with wine-colored solution.
We made a good pair in the jungle.
"Put on your glasses, you'll go blind doing that," Dean said, handing Fred his beer and reclaiming his rocker from Mrs. Lincoln, the large black cat that had adopted the pair the prior February.
While the pair was a definite annoyance to the Parkside police, the two were seldom a serious problem...
"Naw, we don't know no twins at all," piped up Flanders, who Dean pegged as the really smart one of the pair.
After handshakes and a brief chat, the pair left in Dean's pool car for the motel where Vinnie Baratto awaited.
They're a pair of fat, stupid, nasty punks who got in over their heads.
Yeah, this is one slick pair of wheels.
The pair was further delayed securing a rental car, and it was after 5:00 by the time the two tired travelers pulled away from the airport grounds.
He closed his eyes and tugged on a pair of lavender briefs before pulling up the bottom to the PJ's.
She was dressed in a pair of light colored slacks, a pale blue blouse and was barefoot.
We think it's your pal Nota and his sleazebag friend—the pair you hassled at Baratto's place.
The pair finished their burglary report and agreed to try and keep the matter out of the papers in deference to Dean's other police activities.
If I have to boot Arthur, I'll just get another pair of long pants to take his place.
It was for a pair of bike shoes.
The light jackets came off early as the pair pedaled along, mostly riding side by side since the rural roads carried sparse traffic.
Jeffrey Byrne's wife was in far better physical shape than she had let on, and the pair managed 20 miles before finally calling it quits, not because she was tired, but because, as she said, her what-sis was so sore.
When they finally finished and left the station, Jenny drove the exhausted pair home.
It was after 4 a.m. when the pair slid into the brightly lit parking lot of the Philadelphia hospital.
But it was only a pair of shoes, fastidiously wrapped in newspaper to prevent them from soiling the fabric.
Jonathan dangled a second pair of handcuffs in front of Dean.
Seven pair of eyes landed on Carmen as she considered the question.
The box contained a pair of earrings - delicate filigree in white gold with sparkling diamonds.
Slipping into a pair of sandals with 2 heels, she headed for the kitchen.
Donning a pair of low sandals, she decided to check on the lamb one last time before Alex arrived.
Alex had made arrangements in Houston to purchase a pair of Texas Longhorns, and he was scouting out some more fence line.
She pulled out a rusted dagger and the best pair of boots she had.
We're a good pair.
All it took was a pair of teal eyes.
Selecting a pair of shorts and a halter-top to wear around the house, she searched for something to hold the hair off the back of her neck.
She slipped into a pair of white sandals and grabbed her purse, giving her long curls a toss to send them cascading down her back instead of tickling her shoulders.
A pair of ballet flats caught her attention, and Jessi pulled them on.
In common with the okapi, giraffes have skin-covered horns on the head, but in these animals, which form the genus Giraffa, these appendages are present in both sexes; and there is often an unpaired one in advance of the pair on the forehead.
Of the largest pair in the possession of the British Museum, which belonged to an elephant killed in 1866 by Colonel G.
In C. nigrescens and in some other species a zooid may contain a pair of ovaries, a pair of testes, or an ovary and a testis, although the males, females and hermaj phrodites do not differ from one another in external characters.
Mastodons, like elephants, always have a pair of upper tusks, while the earlier ones likewise have a short pair in the lower jaw, which is prolonged into a snout-like symphysis for their support.
In the former the upper tusks are bent down so as to cross the tips of the short and chisel-like lower pair.
The number of spiracles is greatly reduced; in the adult a pair is present on the mesothorax, sometimes also a pair on the metathorax, and there is always a pair on the first and another pair on the eighth abdominal segment.
The light proceeds from a pair of conspicuous smooth ovoid spots on the pronotum and from an area beneath the base of the abdomen.
The angle between two objects, such as stars or the opposite limbs of the sun, was measured by directing an arm furnished with fine " sights " (in the sense of the " sights " of a rifle) first upon one of the objects and then upon the other (q.v.), or by employing an instrument having two arms, each furnished with a pair of sights, and directing one pair of sights upon one object and the second pair upon the other.
Such a pair are 220 and 284; for the factors of 220 are 1,2,4,5,10,11,20,22,44,55 and 110, of which the sum is 284; and the factors of 284 are 1,2,4,71, and 142, of which the sum is 220.
The pair 6232 and 6368 are amicable, but they cannot be derived from this formula.
The wing-quills are brownish black, banded with mottled white, and those of the tail, except the middle pair, which are wholly greyish brown, are banded with mottled white at the base and the tip, but dark brown for the rest of their length.
Gardiens de la pair (sometimes called sergents de yule, gardes de yule or agents de police) are not to be confounded with the gendarmerie, being a branch of the administrative police and corresponding more or less nearly with the English equivalent police constables, which the gendarmerie do not, although both perform police duty.
CHOPSTICKS, the "pidgin-English" name for the pair of small tapering sticks used by the Chinese and Japanese in eating.
Their length is nearly equal to that of the longest pair of the ordinary form hitherto recorded, while the tip-to-tip interval is nearly double that of any other known specimen.
In all cases a more or less full series of teeth is developed, these being differentiated into incisors, canines, premolars and molars, when all are present; but only a single pair of teeth in each jaw has deciduous predecessors.
In addition to this replacement of a single pair of functional teeth in each jaw, it has been discovered that marsupials possess rudimentary tooth-germs which never cut the gum.
According to one theory, these rudimentary teeth, together with the one pair of functional teeth in each jaw that has vertical successors, represent the milk-teeth of placental mammals.
The limbs are five-toed, with the third and fourth toes of the front pair armed with enormous digging claws; FIG.
8) has four pairs of upper incisors and long upper canines, while in the lower jaw there is a single pair of procumbent incisors, After Thomas.
As a sub-order, the Paucituberculata are characterized by the presence of four pairs of upper and three of lower incisor teeth; the enlargement and forward inclination of the first pair of lower incisors, and the presence of four or five sharp cusps on the cheek-teeth, coupled with the absence of "syndactylism" in the hind limbs.
The tail is rudimentary, the first hind-toe opposable, the first pair of upper incisors very large, but the second and third either absent or small and placed partially behind the larger pair; and only five pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw.
pair of large cutting incisors situated close to the middle line, and one great, cutting, compressed premolar, on each side above and below.
The interior consists of the usual pair of vaulted corridors.
It consists of four hemispherical cups, mounted one on each end of a pair of horizontal arms, which lie at right angles to each other and form a cross.
Further, 2 horns, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets and a pair of kettle-drums.
These cells are disposed in pairs, though the members of each pair are not always at the same level.
To each group is connected a set of apparatus; hence during a complete revolution of the arms a pair of instruments (at station A and station B) will be in communication four times, and the intervals during which any particular set of instruments at the two stations are not in connexion with each other become much smaller than in the case of fig.
35) were sunk in the water; the pair on one side were connected by a battery B, and the pair on the other by a galvanometer or telegraphic receiver R.
The secondary circuit of this last is either connected between an aerial A and the earth E, or it may be again in turn connected to a second pair of spark balls and these again to a second condenser oscillation transformer and the aerial A.
A pair of fine wires of iron and constantan are twisted together in the middle, and one pair of unlike ends are connected to a galvanometer.
If then oscillations are sent through the other pair heat is produced at the junction and the galvanometer indicates a thermoelectric current (Wied.
In the inner space between the test tubes one pair of these platinum wires are connected by a fine constantan wire about 02 mm.
The other pair of platinum wires are connected by a tellurium-bismuth thermo-couple, the junction of which just makes contact with the centre of the fine wire.
The operator, whose attention is thus attracted, inserts a peg in the jack, then throws over the speaking key of the cord circuit, and having ascertained particulars of the requirement places the other peg of the pair in the nearest multiple jack of the wanted subscriber, whom she proceeds to ring up. In the meantime the callinglamp has darkened; and each subscriber's line being equipped with a cut-off relay whose function it is to disconnect tl, e calling apparatus while the circuit is in use, the insertion o r a peg is immediately followed by the disappearance of the calling signal.
The four telephones on a circuit are so wired that the relays 9-- P ..,, connect two of the bells between each wire and fl-- 0 7-..9 *"y earth, and further that one of each pair of bells responds to positive and the other to negative o-- pulsations.
In the terrestrial type a pair of well-developed wings traverse the length of the pitcher; in the tubular or funnelshaped form the wings are narrow or ridge-like.
Similarly the ring-canal runs round the edge of the lobe as the so-called festoon-canal, and then runs upwards under the peronium to the base of the tentacle as one of a pair of peronial canals, the limbs of the V-like figure already mentioned.
from a single pair.
Part of the membranous roof between the supra-occipital and parietal bones frequently remains unossified and presents in the macerated skull a pair of fontanelles.
later on fused with, a pair of membrane bones, the basi-temporals, homologous in part with the parasphenoid of lower vertebrates.
Between these, resting vertically upon the rostrum, appears the vomer; very variable in shape and size, often reduced to a mere trace, as in the Galli, or even absent, broken up into a pair of tiny splints in Pici.
(4) A pair of thyrohyals, homologous with the posterior hyoid horns of mammals, i.e.
As the most developed pair in birds they are com monly, although wrongly, called the hyoid horns.
This pad varies much; it is morphologically the homologue of the pair of basiventral elements which by their lateral extension give origin to the corresponding ribs.
(I) Cervical vertebrae, or those between the skull and the first vertebra which is connected with the sternum by a pair of complete ribs.
The majority of birds possess a pair of internal tympaniform membranes forming the inner or median walls of the bronchi, which are there furnished with semi-rings only.
The essential feature is that the proximal end of the inner membranes is attached to the last pair of tracheal rings; outer tympaniform membranes exist generally between the 2nd, 3rd and 4th bronchial semi-rings.
Their numbers vary from one pair to seven, and they are inserted either upon the middle portion of the bronchial semi-rings (Mesomyodi), or upon the ends of these semi-rings where these pass into the inner tympaniform membrane (Acromyodi).
Desmognathous, without basipterygoid processes; with one pair of sternotracheal muscles.
The four sepals are arranged symmetrically, an outer median and an inner lateral pair.
The outer pair receive the strain of the rotator, and the inner are for adjustment and to prevent lateral movement.
The name expresses the most universal character of the class, the importance of which was first noticed by John Ray, namely, the presence of a pair of seed-leaves or cotyledons, in the plantlet or embryo contained in the seed.
The abdomen is oval, sandy-grey in hue and beset with warts and bristles; the prothorax forms a mobile neck for the large square head, which carries a pair of long and powerful toothed mandibles.
1, Bd) are very intimately fused together to form what is called the "lower lip" or labium, a firm transverse plate representing the fused basal portions of the maxillae, which may carry a small median "ligula," representing apparently the fused inner maxillary lobes, a pair of paraglossae (outer maxillary lobes), and a pair of palps.
The head - carrying feelers, mandibles and two pairs of maxillae - is succeeded by the three thoracic segments, each bearing a pair of strong five-segmented legs, whose feet, like those of the adult, carry two claws.
They breathe by piercing the surface film with the tail, where a pair of spiracles are situated.
This is a somewhat heterogeneous group, most of whose members are characterized by clubbed feelers and simple, unbroadened tarsal segments - usually five on each foot - but in some familie andenera the males have less than the normal number on the feet of one pair.
Baldwin, the founder of the famous Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia, built his first engine, Old Ironsides, for the Philadelphia, Germantown & Morristown railroad; first tried in November 1832, it was modelled on Stephenson's Planet, and had a single pair of driving wheels at the firebox end and a pair of carrying wheels under the smoke-box.
In this case the rack had pin teeth carried in a pair of angle bars.
Preferably, they are so arranged that those in both lines of rails come opposite each other and are placed between the same pair of sleepers.
To enable trains to be transferred from one pair of rails to another pair, as from the main line to a siding, " points " or " switches " are provided.
Where, as at a double-line junction, one pair of rails crosses another pair, " diamond " crossings (p) are formed.
At terminal stations, especially at such as are used by short-distance trains which arrive at and start from the same platform, a third track is often laid between a pair of platform tracks, so that the engine of a train which has arrived at the platform can pass out and place itself at the other end of the train, which remains undisturbed.
The shed may have a single pair of rails for wagons running through it along one side of a raised platform, there being a roadway for carts on the other side; or if more accommodation is required there may be two tracks, one on each side of the platform, which is then approached by carts at the end.
These in turn converge to a pair of single lines which lead to two groups of marshalling sidings, called " gridirons " from their shape, and these again converge to single lines leading to " lower reception and departure lines " at the bottom of the slope.
The maximum weight which one pair of wheels are usually allowed to carry on a first-class track is from 18 to 20 tons.
value of the tractive force is required than this provides for, namely from 4 to 5 tons, the driving-wheels are coupled to one or more pairs of heavily loaded wheels, forming a class of what are called " coupled engines " in contradistinction to the " single engine " with a single pair of loaded driving-wheels.
Every axle of an electric locomotive may thus be subjected to a torque, and the large weight which must be put on one pair of wheels in order to secure sufficient adhesion when all the driving is done from one axle may be distributed through as many pairs of wheels as desired.
The drivingwheels are coupled to a pair of trailing wheels.
In this engine the two piston-rods of one side are not coupled to a common cross-head, but drive on separate cranks at an angle of 180°, the pair of 180° cranks on each side being placed at right angles.
Thus 4-4-2 represents a bogie engine with four-coupled wheels and one pair of trailing wheels, the wellknown Atlantic type; 4-2-2 represents a bogie engine with a single pair of driving-wheels and a pair of trailing wheels; 0-4-4 represents an engine with four-coupled wheels and a trailing bogie, and 4-4-o an engine with four-coupled wheels and a leading bogie.
This coupling gear is placed centrally between a pair of buffers; formerly these were often left " dead " - that is, consisted of solid prolongations of the frame of the vehicle, but now they are made to work against springs which take up the shocks that occur when the wagons are thrown violently .against one another in shunting.
One pair of tracks is used for a local service with stations about one-quarter of a mile apart, following the general plan of operation in vogue on all other intra-urban railways.
The other, or central, pair of tracks is for trains making stops at longer distances.
As the sun loses heat it contracts, and every pair of particles in the sun are nearer to each other after the contraction than they were before.
The chief characteristic of the Diptera is expressed in the name of the Order, since, with the exception of certain aberrant and apterous forms, flies possess but a single pair of membranous wings, which are attached to the meso-thorax.
Wing-covers and hind-wings are alike absent, and the latter are represented by a pair of little knobbed organs, the halteres or balancers, which have a controlling and directing function in flight.
(2) Hebrew has one more sibilant than Arabic or Syriac: thus, as corresponding to s (samekh), s (sin) sh in Hebrew, Arabic has only s (sin) sh, while Syriac has a different pair s (samekh) sh.
The head of an ant carries a pair of elbowed feelers, each consisting of a minute basal and an elongate second segment, forming the stalk or "scape," while from eight to eleven short segments make up the terminal "flagellum."
In Cypripedium all three stigmas are functional, but in the great majority of orchids only the lateral pair form receptive surfaces (st, fig.
It has, however, been alleged that this cavity is formed by a pair of mesoblastic somites (N.
Ray Lankester to the members of a series of tubes, proved in some cases to be excretory in nature, which exist typically to the number of a single pair in most of the segments of the Chaetopod body, and open each by a ciliated orifice into the coelom on the one hand, and by a pore on to the exterior of the body on the other.
D, Optical section of a branch of organs are present to the number of a single pair per somite, and are commonly present in the majority of the segments of the body, failing often among the Oligochaeta in a varying number of the anterior segments.
Frequently reduced in number of pairs; rarely (Capitellidae) more than one pair per segment.
It is held, however, that these are a pair of parapodia which have shifted forwards.
The same arrangement is found in some other Polychaetes; for instance, in Sabellaria there is a single pair of large anterior nephridia, which open by a common pore, followed after an interval by large-funnelled and short nephridia.
It is noteworthy that in this family only among the Polychaeta, the nephridia are not restricted to a single pair in each segment; so that the older view that the gonad ducts are metamorphosed nephridia is not at variance with the anatomical facts which have been just stated.
It has been ascertained that the nephridia of Oligochaeta are preceded in the embryo by a pair of delicate and sinuous tubes, also found in the Hirudinea and Polychaeta, which are larval excretory organs.
It is not quite certain whether these are to be regarded as the remnant of an earlier excretory system, replaced among the Oligochaeta by the subsequently developed paired structures, or whether these "head kidneys" are the first pair of nephridia precociously developed.
The former view has been extensively held, and it is supported by the fact that in Octochaetus the first segment of the body has a pair of nephridia which is exactly like those which follow, and, like them, persists.
The prevalent number of testes is one pair in the aquatic genera and two pairs in earthworms. But there are exceptions; thus a species of Lamprodrilus has four pairs of testes.
The ovaries are more usually one pair, but two are sometimes present.
The spermathecae are usually paired structures, one pair to each of the segments where they occur.
The intestine has a pair of caeca or two or three pairs (but all lie in one segment) in the genus Pheretima and in one species of Rhinodrilus.
In Benhamia caecifera and at least one other earthworm there are numerous caeca, one pair to each segment.
The nervous system is embedded in the epidermis, and the pairs of ganglia are separated as in Serpula, &c.; each pair has a longish commissure between its two ganglia.
There are no setae and apparently only two pairs of nephridia, of which the anterior pair open commonly by a common pore on the third segment after the head, whose segments have not been accurately enumerated.
The intervening segments contain the genitalia, which are on the Oligochaeta plan in that the gonads are independent of their ducts and that there are special spermathecae, one pair.
The male ducts are either one pair or two pairs, which open by a common and complicated efferent terminal apparatus furnished with a protrusible penis.
In Pontobdella and Branchellion the nephridia form a network extending from segment to segment, but there is only one pair of funnels in each segment.
The testes are more numerous than the ovaries, of which latter there are never more than one pair.
The sole difference is therefore that in Eudrilus the ovarian sac gives rise to a tube which bifurcates, one branch meeting a corresponding branch of the other ovary of the pair, while the second branch reaches the exterior.
An interesting member of this constellation is a-Capricorni, a pair of stars of 3rd and 4th magnitudes, each of which has a companion of the 9th magnitude.
The head bears only one pair of tentacles.
Spengel has, however, in a most ingenious way shown that these bodies are the representatives of the typical pair of ctenidia, here reduced to a mere rudiment.
Thus, then, we find that the limpet possesses a symmetrically disposed pair of ctenidia in a rudimentary condition, and justifies its position among Aspidobranchia.
The head is seen in front resting on the foot and carrying a median non-retractile snout or rostrum, and a pair of cephalic tentacles at the base of each of which is an eye.
It carries two pairs of cephalic tentacles and a pair of sessile eyes.
Laterally the foot gives rise to a pair of mobile fleshy lobes, the parapodia (ep), which can be thrown up so as to cover in the dorsal surface of the animal.
Our figure of the nervous system of Aplysia does not give the small pair of buccal ganglia which are, as in all glossophorous Molluscs, present upon the nerves passing from the cerebral region to the odontophore.
They are all pelagic, the foot being entirely transformed into a pair of anterior fins; eyes are absent, and the nerve centres are concentrated on the ven tral side of the oesophagus.
b, Pair of cephalic tentacles.
Body elongated; visceral mass marked off from foot posteriorly; dorsal appendages absent, or reduced to a single pair; spicules in the integument.
Never more than one pair of tentacles, and these are absent in Alderia and some species of Limapontia.
59) is sufficiently described in the letterpress attached to it; the pair of buccal ganglia joined by the connectives to the cerebrals are, as in most of our figures, omitted.
Karl Semper has shown that these slugs have, in addition to the usual pair of cephalic eyes, a number of eyes developed upon the dorsal integument.
The head bears a single pair of contractile but not invaginable tentacles, at the base of which are the eyes.
Pulmonata with two pairs of tentacles, except Janellidae and Vertigo; these tentacles are invaginable, and the eyes are borne on the summits of the posterior pair.
The god was probably son and mate of the goddess, and the divine pair represented the genius of Reproductive Fertility in its relations with humanity.
At the same time he enjoined the pair to marry and people the world.
The Sidra Rabbet knows of three total destructions of the human race by fire and water, pestilence and sword, a single pair alone surviving in each case.
Wheeler (1893) and others in various insect embryos, while in the lowest insect order - the Aptera - a pair of minute jaws - the maxillulae - in close association with the tongue are present, as has been shown by H.
The maxillae of the hinder pair become more or less fused together to form a " lower lip " or labium, and the segment of these appendages is, in some insects, only imperfectly united with the head-capsule.
The thorax is composed of three segments; each bears a pair of jointed legs, and in the vast majority of insects the two hindmost bear each a pair of wings.
As previously mentioned, a pair of minute jaws - the maxillulae- are present in the lowest order of insects, between the mandibles and the first maxillae.
The second pair of maxillae are more or less completely fused together to form what is known as the labium or " lower lip."
In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
This second pair of maxillae (or labium) form then the hinder or lower boundary of the mouth.
It does not appear to represent a pair of appendages, but the maxillulae of the Aptera become closely associated with it.
Each segment of the thorax carries a pair of legs.
Most insects possess a pair of compound eyes, and many have, in addition, three simple eyes or ocelli on the vertex.
The labrum and clypeus are developed as a single prolongation of the oral piece, not as a pair of appendages.
The antennal segment apparently entirely disappears, with the exception of a pair of appendages it bears; these become the antennae; it is possible that the original segment, or some part of it, may even become a portion of the actual antennae.
Great difference of opinion exists as to the hypopharynx, which has even been thought to represent a distinct segment, or the pair of appendages of a distinct segment.
They are developed on the ventral surface of the body and are six in number, one pair arising from the eighth ventral plate and two pairs from the ninth.
In some embryos there is but a single pair of these rudiments (or vestiges) situate on the first abdominal segment, and in some cases they become invaginations of a glandular nature.
The continuous layer of cells from which the nervous system is developed undergoes a segmentation analogous with that we have described as occurring in the ventral plate; there is thus formed a pair of contiguous ganglia for each segment of the body, but there is no ganglion for the telson.
In Orthoptera, Heymons has demonstrated the existence of eleven pairs, the terminal pair becoming, however, soon united with the tenth.
The extreme of this " division of labour " is seen, in those insects whose jaws are vestigial in the winged state, when, the need for feeding all behind them, they have but to pair, to lay eggs and to die.
numbers on the mud flats at the mouths of rivers in the tropics, skipping about by means of the muscular, scaly base of their pectoral fins, with the head raised and bearing a pair of strongly projecting versatile eyes close together.
These glands are represented externally by a special plate, the cribellum, which lies in front of the ordinary spinning mamillae, and by a comb of short bristles, the calamistrum, placed in the penultimate segment of the left of the last pair.
The sexes then pair and perish soon after the female has constructed her cocoon.
All spiders possess a pair of poison-glands, one in each of the chelicerae or mandibles and opening by means of a duct at the tip of the fang.
As instances of procryptic or celative coloration may be mentioned that of the species of the genus Dolomedes, one of the Lycosidae, which lives amongst reeds and is marked with a pair of longitudinal yellow lines which harmonize with the upright stalks of the vegetation, and Lycosa pitta, which lives on the sand, can scarcely be seen on account of its mottled pattern: Sparassus smargdulus and the species of Pecucetia, which are found amongst grass or low green herbage, are mostly green in colour, and Salticus scenicus is banded with white and black to match the grey tint of the rocks and stone walls on which it hunts its prey.
The brain-lobes are generally four in number, a ventral and a dorsal pair, respectively united together by the above-mentioned commissures, and moreover anteriorly interfusing with each other, right and left.
nerves for the proboscis, those for the sense organs in the head and the strong nerve pair (n.
These posterior brain-lobes, which in all Heteronemertines are in direct continuity of tissue with the upper pair of principal lobes, cease to have this intimate connexion in the Metanemertini; and, although still constituted of (I) a ciliated duct, opening out externally, (2) nervous tissue surrounding it, and (3) histological elements distinctly different from the nervous, and most probably directly derived from the oesophageal outgrowths, they are nevertheless here no longer constantly situated behind the upper brain-lobes and directly connected with them, but are found sometimes behind, sometimes beside and sometimes before the brain-lobes.
The more highly organized species have often very numerous eyes (Amphiporus, Drepanophorus), which are provided with a spherical refracting anterior portion, with a cellular " vitreous body," with a layer of delicate radially arranged rods, with an outer sheath of dark pigment, and with a separate nerve-twig each, springing from a common or double pair of branches which leave the brain as n.
Associated with the lateral blood-vessels are the single pair of nephridia.
5), be a pair of semi-cylindrical fixed trunnions which are carried on a supporting frame and held with flat sides downwards.
Let -I- B, - B, be two smaller trunnions which project out from the sides of the two strips connecting together a pair of rings CC. The rings and the connecting strips constitute the circuit which is to be rendered movable.
Each instrument is accompanied by a pair of weights and by a square root table, so that the product of the square root of the number corresponding to the position of the sliding weight and the ascertained constant for each weight, gives at once the value of the current in amperes.
In front of the pylon Rameses set up colossi and a pair of obelisks (one of which was taken to Paris in 1831 and re-erected in the Place de la Concorde).
In the female the ovary is a large unpaired organ from the anterior end of which arise two oviducts, and connected with the latter are a pair of large so-called copulatory pouches, which perhaps act as receptacula seminis.
The orifice leads into a large pouch lodging a pair of very long penes, which are coiled up when not in use.
Also communicating with this pouch is a pair of long slender flagelliform tubes, of which the function is unknown.
She is usually represented with a pair of scales and a crown of stars.
Hence the positions occupied by the nitro groups in the two different nitrobrombenzoic acids must be symmetrical with respect to the carboxyl group. In 1879, Hubner (Ann., 1 95, p. 4) proved the equivalence of the second pair, viz.
Therefore there must be another pair of hydrogen atoms, other than 2 and 6, which are symmetrical with respect to 1.
The symmetry of the second pair was also established in 1878 by E.
A doubly linked pair of atoms is denoted by the sign A with the index corresponding to the side; if there are two pairs of double links, then indices corresponding to both sides are employed.
Restricting ourselves to compounds resulting from the fusion of benzene rings, we have first to consider naphthalene, C10H8, which consists of two benzene rings having a pair of carbon atoms in common.
Again, the pyroxenes, RS103 (R=Fe, Mg, Mn, &c.), assume the forms (I) monoclinic, sometimes twinned so as to become pseudo-rhombic; (2) rhombic, resulting from the pseudo-rhombic structure of (I) becoming ultramicroscopic; and (3) triclinic, distinctly different from (I) and (2); (I) and (2) are polysymmetric modifications, while (3) and the pair (I) and (2) are polymorphs.
The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam.
Lastly there is a pair of giant globes of artistic design, turned out by V.
A pair of globes of 1592 by Emeric Molineux (diam.
The feet are five-toed, and the third and fourth toes of the front pair armed with enormous claws adapted for digging.
Their plan is for the most part that of a house, with a door of entrance and passage leading into a central chamber or atrium, with others of smaller size opening from it, each having a stone-hewn bench or triclinium on three of its sides, on which the dead, frequently a pair of corpses side by side, were laid as if at a banquet.
The upper cheek-teeth are short-crowned and without cement, and show distinct traces of the primitive tubercles; the two outer columns form a more or less complete external wall, connected with the inner ones by a pair of nearly straight transverse crests; and the premolars are originally simpler than the molars.
The other upper premolars and molars all formed on the same plan and of nearly the same size, with four roots and quadrate crowns, rather wider transversely than from before backwards, each having four columns, connected by a pair of transverse ridges, anterior and posterior.
The first lower premolar compressed in front; the others composed of a single pair of transverse crests, with a small anterior and posterior basal ridge.
Finally, in the Oligocene Colodon the last three upper premolars are like the molars, and the first pair of lower incisors is lost.
As stated above, the lower molars have the crown formed by a pair of crescents; the last having no third lobe.
Possibly they belonged to the Amynodontidae, but they may have been related to the Upper Oligocene Diceratherium, in which the nasal bones formed a transverse pair; this genus being common to Europe and North America.
The ordinal number is the class whose sole member is the null relation - that is, the relation which never holds between any pair of entities.
But even this did not quite complete the distance, and the line was carried on for still another kilometre and there stopped, " with its pair of rails gauntly projecting from the permanent way " (Fraser, The Short Cut to India, 1909).
Mme de Stael was accused of extravagance, and latterly an amicable separation of goods had to be effected between the pair.
The wings are carried erect: the anterior pair large, with numerous longitudinal nervures, and usually abundant transverse reticulation; the posterior pair very much smaller, often lanceolate, and frequently wanting absolutely.
In accordance with this manner of feeding, the mouth is kept permanently open and prevented from collapsing by a pair of skeletal cornua belonging to a sustentacular apparatus (the nuchal skeleton), the body of which lies within the narrow neck of the proboscis; the latter is inserted into the collar and surrounded by the anterior free flap of this segment of the body.
Of these divisions of the coelom the first two communicate with the exterior by means of a pair of ciliated pore-canals placed at the posterior end of their respective segments.
Correlated with the presence of the genital pleurae there is a pair of vascular folds of the basement membrane proceeding from the dorsal wall of the gut in the postbranchial portion of the branchio-genital region, and from the dorsal angles made by the pleural folds with the body-wall in the pharyngeal region; they pass, in their most fully developed condition, to the free border of the genital pleurae.
If two solutions containing the salts AB and CD be mixed, double decomposition is found to occur, the salts AD and CB being formed till a certain part of the first pair of substances is transformed into an equivalent amount of the second pair.
The proportions between the four salts AB, CD, AD and CB, which exist finally in solution, are found to be the same whether we begin with the pair AB and CD or with the pair AD and CB.
Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.
The Shilka and the Argun, which form it, flow first towards the north-east along the windings of the lower terrace of the great plateau; from this the Amur descends, cutting through the Great Khingan and flowing down the terraces of the eastern versant towards the Pacific. A noteworthy feature of the principal Siberian rivers is that each is formed by the confluence of a pair of rivers.
may be, as in Cistella, applied flat to the inner surface of the dorsal mantle fold, but more usually they are raised free from the body like a pair of moustaches, and as they are usually far too long to lie straight in the mantle cavity, they are folded or coiled up. The brachial skeleton which in many cases supports the arms has been mentioned above.
In Rhynchonella, where there are two pairs of kidneys, the internal opening of the anterior pair is supported by the gastroparietal band and that of the posterior pair by the ileoparietal band.
The latter pair alone persists in all other genera.
The function of this pair of muscles is the closing of the valves.
The accessory divaricators are, according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and again to the extreme point of the cardinal process.
of the peduncle, and to become attached by one pair of their extremities to the ventral valve, one on each side and a little behind the expanded base of the divaricators.
King makes out five pairs and an odd one, and individualizes their respective functions as follows: - Three pairs are lateral, having their members limited to the sides of the shell; one pair are transmedians, each member passing across the middle of the reverse side of the shell, while the odd muscle occupies the umbonal cavity.
Moreover, instead of having one pair of variables x i, x2 we may have several pairs yl, y2; z i, z2;...
in addition, and transform each pair to a new pair by substitutions, having the same coefficients a ll, a12, a 21, a 22 and arrive at functions of the original coefficients and variables (of one or more quantics) which possess the abovedefinied invariant property.
We may in any relation substitute for any pair of quantities any other cogredient pair so that writing -}-d 2, -d l for x 1 and x 2, and noting that gx then becomes (gd), the above-written identity bceomes (ad)(bc)+(bd)(ca)+(cd)(ab) = 0.
(II.) Similarly in (I.), writing for c l, c 2 the cogredicnt pair -y2, +y1, we obtain axb5-a5bx=(ab)(xy)..
The existence of such forms seems to have been brought to Sylvester's notice by observation of the fact that the resultant of of and b must be a factor of the resultant of Xax+ 12 by and X'a +tA2 for a common factor of the first pair must be also a common factor so we obtain P: = of the second pair; so that the condition for the existence of such common factor must be the same in the two cases.
As new axes of co-ordinates we may take any other pair of lines through the origin, and for the X, Y corresponding to x, y any new constant multiples of the sines of the angles which the line makes with the new axes.
Orthogonal System.-In particular, if we consider the transformation from one pair of rectangular axes to another pair of rectangular axes we obtain an orthogonal system which we will now briefly inquire into.
b, pair of bracteoles below the flower; s, sepals; p, petals; st, stamens; o, ovary.
A magnet may be regarded as consisting of an infinite number of elementary magnets, each having a pair of poles and a definite magnetic moment.
For this reason a thin bar suspended at its centre of gravity between a pair of magnetic poles will, if paramagnetic, set itself along the line joining the poles, where the field is strongest, and if diamagnetic, transversely to the line.
Ewing (Magnetic Induction, § 194) has devised an arrangement in which two similar test bars are placed side by side; each bar is surrounded by a magnetizing coil, the two coils being connected to give opposite directions of magnetization, and each pair of ends is connected by a short massive block of soft iron having holes bored through it to fit the bars, which are clamped in position by set-screws.
The standard rod and the test specimen, which must be of the same dimensions, are placed side by side within two magnetizing coils, and each pair of adjacent ends is joined by a short rectangular block or " yoke " of soft iron.
23) were furnished with a pair of truncated cones b b, of soft iron forming an extension of the conical ends of the bobbin c. The most suitable form for the pole faces is investigated in the paper, and the conclusion arrived at is that to produce the greatest concentration of force upon the central neck, the cones FIG.
A pair of cones having a semi-vertical angle of 45° were considered to combine high concentrative power with a sufficient approximation to uniformity of field.
The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).
On the surface of the carapace there are in both animals a pair of central eyes with simple lens and a pair of lateral eyetracts, which in Limulus consist of closely-aggregated simple eyes, forming a " compound" eye, whilst in Scorpio they present several AC separate small eyes.
14 and 15), each carrying a pair of plate-like appendages in both Limulus and Scorpio.
The first pair of foliaceous appendages in each animal is the genital operculum; beneath it are found the openings of the genital ducts.
The second pair of mesosomatic appendages in Scorpio are known as the " pectens."
VIII to XIII, The six somites of the mesosoma, each with a movable pleural spine and a pair of dorsal entopophysis or muscle-attaching ingrowths.
In the case of Scorpio this segment is indicated in the embryo by the presence of a pair of rudimentary appendages, carried by a well-marked somite.
(After Lankester, loc. cit.) the last pair of legs in both Scorpio and Limulus, viz.
But it is necessary to remember, in the light of recent discoveries, that the sixth prosomatic pair of appendages is carried on the seventh somite of the whole series, there being two prosthomeres or somites in front of the mouth, the first carrying the eyes, the second the chelicerae; also that the first mesosomatic or genital somite is not the seventh or even the eighth of the whole series of somites which have been historically present, 1 See the article Arthropoda for the use of the term " prosthomere."
The second has for its pair of appendages the small pair of limbs which in all living Arachnids is either chelate or retrovert (as in spiders), and is known as the chelicerae.
The cerebral mass is in Limulus more easily separated by dissection as a median lobe distinct from the laterally placed ganglia of the cheliceral somite than is the case in Scorpio, but the relations are practically the same in the two forms. Formerly it was supposed that in Limulus both the chelicerae and the next following pair of appendages were prosthomerous, as in Crustacea, but the dissections of Alphonse Milne-Edwards (6) demonstrated VI FIG.
VIIgo, The genital somite or first somite of the mesosoma with the genital operculum (a fused pair of limbs).
- Limulus agrees with Scorpio not only in having a pair of central eyes and also lateral eyes, but in the microscopic structure of those organs, which differs in the central and lateral eyes respectively.
--Diagrams of the meta-sternite st, who showed that with genital operculum op, and the first lamellithe statements of gerous pair of appendages ga, with uniting von Graber were sternal element st of Scorpio (left) and Limulus erroneous, and (right).
IX, The first pair of lung-books of Scorpio and the second branchial plate of Limulus.
A similar pair of coxal glands, lobate instead of ovoid in shape, was described by Lankester in Mygale, and it was also shown by him that the structures in Limulus called " brick-red glands " by Packard have the same structure and position as the coxal glands of Scorpio and Mygale.
In all the embryonic or permanent opening is on the coxa of the fifth pair of prosomatic limbs.
The latter open at the base of the fifth pair of limbs of the Crustacean, just as the coxal glands open on the coxal joint of the fifth pair of limbs of the Arachnid.
in length and i in breadth, with a pair of tendinous outgrowths standing out from it at right angles on each side.
In Limulus small entosternites are found in each somite of the appendage-bearing mesosoma, and we find in Scorpio, in the only somite of the mesosoma which has a welldeveloped pair of appendages, that of the pectens, a small entosternite with ten pairs of muscles inserted into it.
(After Lankester.) placed in the same somites as those of Scorpio, but there is one additional posterior pair.
v., 1892.) heart differs in Limulus from the arrangement obtaining in Scorpio, in that a pair of lateral commissural arteries exist in Limulus (as described by Alphonse Milne-Edwards (6)) leading to a suppression of the more primitive direct connexion of the four pairs of posterior II.
The only point in which the gut of Limulus resembles that of Scorpio rather than that of any of the Crustacea, is in possessing more than a single pair of ducts or lateral outgrowths connected with ramified gastric glands or gastric caeca.
The Crustacea never have more than one pair.
Scorpio is here provided with a single or double pair of renal excretory tubes, which have been identified by earlier authors with the Malpighian tubes of the Hexapod and Myriapod insects.
It is not a pair of simple tubes, nor of dendriform tubes, but a closed network.
(From Lankester, "Limulus an Arachnid.) of adaptation to the changed physiological conditions of respiration, and not of morphological significance, since a pair of renal excretory tubes of this nature is found in certain Amphipod Crustacea (Talorchestia, &c.) which have abandoned a purely aquatic life.
31) of the second (pectiniferous) mesosomatic somite; this is the most anterior pair of the series of six, none are present in the genital somite.
There is some reason to admit the existence of another more anterior pair of these muscles in Scorpio; this would make the number exactly correspond with the number in Limulus.
They differ from the Crustacea in that they have only a single pair of prae-oral appendages, the second pair being definitely developed as mandibles.
The fact that the single pair of prae-oral appendages of trilobites, known only as yet in one genus, is in that particular case a pair of uni-ramose antennae - does not render the association of trilobites and Arachnids improbable.
Although the prae-oral pair of appendages in the higher Arachnida is usually chelate, it is not always so; in spiders it is not so; nor in many Acari.
On the 1 A pair of round tubercles on the labrum (camerostome or hypostoma) of several species of Trilobites has been described and held to be a pair of eyes (22).
sal, Prosomatic pair of gastric caeca in Scorpio, called salivary glands by some writers.
The single pair of palpiform appendages in front of the mouth has been found in one instance to be antenniform, whilst the numerous post-oral appendages in the same genus were bi-ramose.
These plates may fuse, and yet the somites to which they belong may remain distinct, and each have its pair of appendages well developed.
In the latter the single pair of antennae springing up from each side of the camerostome or hypostome or upper lip-lobe are seen.
The reduction of the organism to seven leg-bearing somites, of which the first pair, as in so many Eu-arachnida, are chelate, is a form of degeneration connected with a peculiar quasi-parasitic habit resembling that of the crustacean Laemodipoda.
The genital pores are situate at the base of the 7th pair of limbs, and may be repeated From Parker and Haswell's Text-book after Hoek.
In certain derivative forms constituting the family Pallenidae, however, the appendages of the 2nd pair are either rudimentary or atrophied altogether.
- Appendages of the 2nd and 3rd pairs retained and developed, as in the more primitive types of Nymphonomorpha; but those of the 1st pair are either rudimentary, as in the Ascorhynchidae, or atrophied, as in the Colossendeidae.
- Derivative forms in which the reduction in number of the anterior appendages is carried farther than in the other orders, reaching its extreme in the Pycnogonidae, where the 1st and 2nd pairs are absent in both sexes, and the 3rd pair also are absent in the female.
In the Hannoniidae, however, which resemble the Pycnogonidae in the absence of the 3rd pair in the female and of the 2nd pair in both sexes, the 1st pair are retained in both sexes.
The first pair of limbs is often chelate or prehensile, rarely antenniform; whilst the second, third and fourth may also be chelate, or may be simple palps or walking legs.
In the same and other leading forms a pair of much-coiled glandular tubes, the coxal glands (coelomocoels in origin), is found with a duct opening on the coxa of the fifth pair of appendages of the prosoma.
The alimentary canal is uncoiled and cylindrical, and gives rise laterally to large gastric glands, which are more than a single pair in number (two to six pairs), and may assume the form of simple caeca.
Mesosomatic segments furnished with large plate-like appendages, the 1st pair acting as the genital operculum, the remaining pairs being provided with branchial lamellae fitted for breathing oxygen dissolved in water.
The mouth lying far back, so that the basal segments of all the prosomatic appendages, excepting those of the 1st pair, are capable of acting as masticatory organs.
operc, the fused first pair of mesosomatic appendages forming the genital operculum.
The small first pair of appendages is concealed from view by the carapace.
(From Zittel's Textbook of Palaeontology, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1896.) Appendages of anterior pair very large and chelate.
Appendages of anterior pair minute and chelate.
[Observe the powerful gnathobases of the sixth pair of prosomatic limbs and the median plates behind m.
There still appears to be some doubt whether in the sub-order Eurypteromorpha the first pair of prosomatic appendages (fig.
46) is atrophied, or whether, if present, it has the form of a pair of tactile palps or of minute chelae.
- The primitive distinction between the mesosoma and the metasoma retained, the latter consisting of six somites and the former of six somites in the adult, each of which is furnished during growth with a pair of appendages.
Appendages of 1st pair.tri-segmented, chelate; of 2nd pair chelate, with their basal segments subserving mastication; of 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs similar in form and function, except that in recent and Carboniferous forms the basal segments of the 3rd and 4th are provided with sterno-coxal (maxillary) lobes, those of the 4th pair meeting in the middle line and underlying the mouth.
- The 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs of appendages slender, not evenly tapering, the segments longer than wide; the apical segment short, distally truncate, and provided with a pair of movable claws.
The meeting of the coxae of all the prosomatic limbs in front of the pentagonal sternum; the space for a genital operculum; the pair of pectens, and the absence of any evidence of pulmonary stigmata are noticeable in this specimen.