Pacific sentence example

pacific
  • There was a crude map to the Pacific Crest Inn.
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  • This fell into the hands of the Northern Pacific railway, but was purchased by the promoters of the Canadian Northern railway.
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  • He introduced the Thurman Bill, for which he was chiefly responsible, which became law in May 1878, and readjusted the government's relations with the bond-aided Pacific railways.
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  • The fleet is divided into the Mediterranean squadron, the Northern squadron, the Atlantic division, the Far Eastern division, the Pacific division, the Indian Ocean division, the Cochin China division.
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  • Evidence of this is to be found in the altitudes of the stations on the Buenos Aires and Pacific railway running a little north of west across the pampas to Mendoza.
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  • It is the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific railway.
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  • After successfully observing the transit from the island of Tahiti, or Otaheite, as Cook wrote it, the " Endeavour's " head was turned south, and then north-west, beating about the Pacific in search of the eastern coast of the great continent whose western shores had been so long known to the Dutch.
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  • Even the sailor on the Atlantic and Pacific is awakened by his voice; but its shrill sound never roused me from my slumbers.
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  • Denver is an important railway centre, being served by nine railways, of which the chief are the Atchison, ' Topeka & Santa Fe; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the Denver & Rio Grande; the Union Pacific; and the Denver, North-Western & Pacific, Denver lies on the South Platte river, at an altitude exactly m.
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  • Vasco Nunez, the new commander, entered upon a career of conquest in the neighbourhood of Darien, which ended in the discovery of the Pacific Ocean on the 25th of September 1513.
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  • In 1903 the Gould lines determined to enter this Pacific territory.
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  • Recent American railway development, viewed in its larger aspects, has thus been characterized by what may be described as the rediscovery of the Pacific coast.
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  • Thus he came at length to stand on the verge of the Indian Ocean; " gazing upon it," a writer has said, " with as much delight as Balboa, when he crossed the Isthmus of Darien from the Atlantic to the Pacific."
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  • All voyagers agree that for varied beauty of form and colour the Society Islands are unsurpassed in the Pacific. Innumerable rills gather in lovely streams, and, after heavy rains, torrents precipitate themselves in grand cascades from the mountain cliffs - a feature so striking as to have attracted the attention of all voyagers, from Wallis downwards.
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  • There is communication both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to 1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865 that of the central government, which was then transferred to Wellington.
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  • Broadly speaking, the American portion of the sub-region consists of an Atlantic and Pacific forest area and an intervening non-forest one, partly occupied by the Rocky Mountains, partly by intervening plains.
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  • All these are wanting in the Pacific area, though there are indications in its gold-bearing gravels that it once possessed them.
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  • At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
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  • One of the crew of Enciso's ship, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the future discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, induced his commander to form a settlement on the other side of the Gulf of Darien.
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  • For this purpose Juan Diaz de Solis was despatched in October 1515, and in Pacific January 1516 he discovered the mouth of the Rio de la ocean.
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  • Reaching the Pacific through the Strait of Magellan, Drake proceeded northward along the west coast of America, resolved to attempt the discovery of a northern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The coast from the southern extremity of the Californian peninsula to Cape Mendocino had been discovered by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and Francisco de Ulloa in 1539.
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  • From Cape San Lucas Cavendish steered across the Pacific, seeing no land until he reached the Ladrone Islands.
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  • The third English voyage into the Pacific was not so fortunate.
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  • It was long before another British ship entered the Pacific Ocean.
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  • Sir John Narborough took two ships through the Strait of Magellan in 1670 and touched on the coast of Chile, but it was not until 1685 that Dampier sailed over the part of the Pacific where Hawkins met his defeat.
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  • The voyage of Drake across the Pacific was preceded by that of Alvaro de Mendana, who was despatched from Peru in 1567 to discover the great Antarctic continent which was believed to extend far northward into the South sea, the search In Pacific. for which now became one of the leading motives of Pacific. exploration.
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  • After a voyage of eighty days across the Pacific, Mendana discovered the Solomon Islands; and the expedition returned in safety to Callao.
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  • In September 1599 the fleet had entered the Pacific. The ships were then steered direct for Japan, and anchored off Bungo in April 1600.
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  • After plundering Payta and making requisitions at Acapulco, the Dutch fleet crossed the Pacific and reached the Moluccas in March 1616.
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  • The Dutch now resolved to discover a passage into the Pacific to the south of Tierra del Fuego, the insular nature of which had been ascertained by Sir Francis Drake.
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  • On the 1st of March the Dutch fleet sighted the island of Juan Fernandez; and, having crossed the Pacific, the explorers sailed along the north coast of New Guinea and arrived at the Moluccas on the 17th of September 1616.
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  • The British and French governments despatched several expeditions of discovery into the Pacific and round the world during the 18th century.
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  • The narratives Pacific of such men as Woodes Rogers, Edward Davis, George Shelvocke, Clipperton and William Dampier, can never fail to interest, while they are not without geographical value.
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  • In 1721 Jacob Roggewein was despatched on a voyage of some importance across the Pacific by the Dutch West India Company, during which he discovered Easter Island on the 6th of April 1722.
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  • The voyage of Lord Anson to the Pacific in 1740-1744 was of a predatory character, and he lost more than half his men from scurvy; while it is not pleasant to reflect that at the very time when the French and Spaniards were measuring an arc of the meridian at Quito, the British under Anson were pillaging along the coast of the Pacific and burning the town of Payta.
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  • The expedition, consisting of the " Dolphin " commanded by Wallis, and the " Swallow " under Captain Philip Carteret, sailed in September 1766, but the ships were separated on entering the Pacific from the Strait of Magellan.
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  • He then entered the Pacific, and reached Tahiti in April 1768.
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  • The third voyage was intended to attempt the passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic by the north-east.
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  • He then crossed the Pacific to Macao, and in July 1787 he proceeded to explore the Gulf of Tartary and the shores of Sakhalin, remaining some time at Castries Bay, so named after the French minister of marine.
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  • The broad Pacific depression seems to answer to the broad elevation of the Old World - the narrow trough of the Atlantic to the narrow continent of America."
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  • The remarkable line of volcanoes around the whole coast of the Pacific and along the margin of the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas is one of the most conspicuous features of the globe.
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  • The percentages of the land surface draining to the different oceans are approximately - Atlantic, 34'3%; Arctic sea, 26.5%; Pacific, 14.4%; Indian Ocean, 12.8%.'
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  • The construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific railway through this district has made it of some importance.
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  • The Maoris are Polynesians, and, in common with the majority of their kinsfolk throughout the Pacific, they have traditions which point to Savaii, originally Savaiki, the largest island of the Samoan group, as their cradleland.
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  • If earlier immigrants from Samoa or other eastern Pacific islands arrived they must have become absorbed into the native Papuan population - arguing from the absence of any distinct tradition earlier than that "of the six canoes."
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  • Their colour is usually a darker brown than that of their kinsfolk of the eastern Pacific, but light-complexioned Maoris, almost European in features, are met with.
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  • Panama is served by regular steamers to San Francisco, Yokohama and other Pacific ports.
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  • In the 16th century the city was the strongest Spanish fortress in the New World, excepting Cartagena, and gold and silver were brought hither by ship from Peru and were carried across the Isthmus to Chagres, but as Spain's fleets even in the Pacific were more and more often attacked in the 17th century, Panama became less important, though it was still the chief Spanish port on the Pacific. In 1671 the city was destroyed by Henry Morgan, the buccaneer; it was rebuilt in 1673 by Alfonzo Mercado de Villacorta about five miles west of the old site and nearer the roadstead.
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  • The picturesque Bureya Mountains above the Amur, the forest-clad Sikhota-alin on the Pacific, and the volcanic chains of Kamchatka belong, however, to quite another orographical construction, being the border-ridges of the terraces by which the great plateau formation descends to the depths of the Pacific Ocean.
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  • The double river-systems of the Volga and Kama, the Ob and Irtysh, the Angara and Yenisei, the Lena and Vitim on the Arctic slope, and the Amur and Sungari on the Pacific slope, are instances.
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  • Before the Japanese war Russia maintained four separate squadrons: the Baltic, the Black Sea, the Pacific and the Caspian.
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  • Kronstadt is the naval headquarters in the Baltic, Sevastopol in the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific.
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  • The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
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  • Russian type has thus been maintained from Novgorod to the Pacific, with but minor differentiations on the outskirts - and this notwithstanding the great variety of races with which the Russians have come into contact.
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  • At the Pacific end of the Siberian railway a line connecting Vladivostok with Khabarovsk (479 m.) at the junction of the Amur and the Usuri, was first of all built, following the valley of the Usuri.
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  • Meanwhile the Canadian Pacific, a true transcontinental line, was built from Montreal, on Atlantic tide-water, to the Pacific at Vancouver, 2906 m.
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  • At that time the so-called transcontinental railways, connecting the Pacific coast of the United States with the central portions of the country, and thus with the group of railways reaching the Atlantic seaboard, consisted of five railways within the borders of the United States, and one in Canada.
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  • In Canada the Canadian Pacific was the only transcontinental line, extending from St John, on the bay of Fundy, and from Quebec, on the river St Lawrence, to Vancouver, on the strait of Georgia, the distance from St John to Vancouver being approximately 3379 m.
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  • Next, south of the Great Northern, lay the Northern Pacific railway, starting on the west from Portland, Ore., and from Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., and extending east to Duluth, St Paul and Minneapolis by way of Helena, Mont.
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  • Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
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  • Shortly after the plans were announced for building the Western Pacific, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul also decided to extend west.
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  • At the same time that these two extensions were being undertaken by old and well-established railways, a new company-the Kansas City, Mexico && Orient-was engaged in constructing a line almost due south-west from Kansas City, Mo., to the lower part of the gulf of California in Mexico; while an additional independent line was under construction from Denver in a north-westerly direction towards the Pacific coast.
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  • The Union Pacific railroad was a military necessity to the United States if the authority of the national government was to be maintained in the Far West.
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  • According to the specification for 85 lb rails adopted by the Canadian Pacific railway about the same time, 36-77% of the metal was to be in the head, 22'21% in the web and 41 02% in the base.
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  • In the north it is due to the fact that the winds from the Pacific lose most of their moisture, especially in winter, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada; in the south it is due to the fact that the region lies in a zone of calms, and light, variable winds.
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  • Their mental and social standard is high among Pacific peoples; they are simple, honourable, generous and hospitable, but brave fighters.
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  • The Samoan language is soft and liquid in pronunciation, and has been called "the Italian of the Pacific."
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  • The state is crossed from east and west by three main lines of railway, parts of the great transcontinental systems, the Southern Pacific and the Western Pacific in the northern part of the state and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake in the southern.
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  • The oldest of these trunk lines, the Southern Pacific (formerly the Central Pacific), follows the course of the Humboldt and Truckee rivers.
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  • It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
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  • It is served by the Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe railway systems, both transcontinental; and is connected by electric lines (and ferry) with San Francisco, and by five electric lines with Oakland.
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  • The receiver of the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific railway applied for an injunction against Phelan and others, which was granted.
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  • On this tour he visited Japan, and on the 2nd of October, at Tokyo, made a speech which had an important effect in quieting the apprehensions of the Japanese on the score of the treatment of their people on the Pacific coast.
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  • The wish to meet people of the different sections of the country and to explain his position upon the questions of the day led the President to begin (14th September 1909), a tour which included the Pacific coast, the South-west, the Mississippi Valley and the South Atlantic states, and during which he travelled 13,000 miles and made 266 speeches.
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  • Chickasha is served by the St Louis & San Francisco, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and the Oklahoma Central railways.
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  • Ferns abound, some of them peculiar, and tree ferns on the higher islands, and all the usual fruit trees and cultivated plants of the Pacific are found.
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  • The natives, a branch of the Polynesian race, are the most progressive and most intellectual in the Pacific Islands, except the Hawaiians.
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  • In 1904 the financial and legal administration was put into the hands of the British High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. The native king is assisted by a legislative assembly consisting, in equal numbers, of hereditary nobles and popular (elected) representatives.
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  • The narrow coastal zone on the Pacific is only for m.
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  • Though the plateau region was settled soon after the arrival of the Spaniards in Mexico, there are large districts on the southern and Pacific slopes that still belong almost exclusively to the Indians.
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  • Gould gained control of the Union Pacific, from which in 1883 he withdrew after realizing a large profit.
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  • Buying up the stock of the Missouri Pacific he built up, by means of consolidations, reorganizations, and the construction of branch lines, the "Gould System" of railways in the south-western states.
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  • Cloquet is served by the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, the Duluth & North-Eastern, and (for freight only) the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways.
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  • On the east and south-east of Asia are several important groups of islands, the more southern of which link this continent to Australia, and to the islands of the Pacific. The Kurile Islands, the Japanese group, Luchu, Formosa and the Philippines, may be regarded as unquestionable outliers of Asia.
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  • Here the Tibetan mountains unite with the line of elevation which stretches across the continent from the Pacific, and which separates Siberia from the region commonly spoken of under the name of central Asia.
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  • From the Khingan ranges to the Pacific, south of the Amur, stretch the rich districts of Manchuria, a province which connects Russia with the Korea by a series of valleys formed by the Sungari and its affluents - a land of hill and plain, forest and swamp, possessing a delightful climate, and vast undeveloped agricultural resources.
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  • The Polynemidae, which range from the Atlantic through the Indian Ocean to the Pacific, supply animals from which isinglass is prepared; one of them, the mango-fish, esteemed a great delicacy, inhabits the seas from the Bay of Bengal to Siam.
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  • The Stromateidae, or pomfrets, resemble the dory, a Mediterranean form, and extend to China and the Pacific. The sword fishes, Xiphiidae, the lancet fishes, Acanthuridae, and the scabbard fishes, Trichuridae, are distributed through the seas of south Asia.
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  • The Salmonidae are entirely absent from the waters of southern Asia, though they exist in the rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean and the neighbouring parts of the northern Pacific, extending perhaps to Formosa; and trout, though unknown in Indian rivers, are found beyond the watershed of the Indus, in the streams flowing into the Caspian.
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  • It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Northern Pacific, the Chicago, St Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, and the Wisconsin Central railways, and by several steamboat lines on the Great Lakes.
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  • Witowt, however, convinced himself that the German knights were far more dangerous than his Lithuanian rival; he accepted pacific overtures from Jagiello and became his ally.
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  • He thoroughly organized the department, and in his able annual report advocated the construction by government aid of a railroad to the Pacific Coast.
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  • Pop. (1900) 10,588, of whom 1804 were foreign-born; (1 9 10 census) 9535 It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways, by interurban electric railways, and by the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
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  • Hitherto pacific counsels had on the whole prevailed; but Wolsey, who was nothing if not turbulent, turned the balance in favour of war, and his marvellous administrative energy first found full scope in the preparations for the English expedition to Biscay in 1512, and for the campaign in northern France in 1513.
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  • Entocolax, mouth at free extremity, animal fixed by aboral orifice of pseudopallium, Pacific. Entoconcha, body elongated and tubular, animal fixed by the oral extremity, protandric hermaphrodite, parasitic in testes of Holothurians causing their abortion.
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  • As his chances of success became more and more desperate, he ventured on a step whereby he hoped to work potently on the pacific desires of the emperor Francis.
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  • It is served by the Missouri Pacific and the Chicago & Alton railways.
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  • His opportunities of becoming acquainted with birds were hardly inferior to Brisson's, for during Latham's long lifetime there poured in upon him countless new discoveries from all parts of the world, but especially from the newly-explored shores of Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
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  • Up to this time the English had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and upon the Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean.
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  • It early became a trading centre of importance, well known as an outfitting point for miners and other emigrants to the Rocky Mountain region and the Pacific coast.
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  • He made clear his belief that the question was closely connected with the problems of the Pacific and Far East, and invitations were also sent accordingly to China and to the smaller European powers with Far-Eastern interests - Holland, Belgium and Portugal.
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  • It has been suggested that their separation did not take place until after the continent which once existed in the north Pacific had become submerged, and that the Malays wandered northward, while the Polynesian race spread itself over the islands of the southern archipelago.
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  • The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities in the northern part of the continent, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds bordering the Arctic seas.
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  • It forms part of the long line of islands which are interposed as a protective barrier between the Asiatic coast and the outer Pacific, and is the cause of the immunity from typhoons enjoyed by the ports of China from Amoy to the Yellow Sea.
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  • The rivers and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked with fish, and especial mention must be made of the turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant I coral-fish which swarm in the waters warmed by the Kurosiwo current, the gulf-stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article of diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the coast - a species of Cyrena, a species of Tapes, Cytheraea petechiana and Modiola teres being most abundant.
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  • It is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (which has repair shops here), and the Illinois Central railways, and by interurban electric lines.
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  • It is served by the Arkansas, Louisiana & Gulf, the Little Rock & Monroe, the% Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific (Queen & Crescent), and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways, and by river steamers plying between New Orleans and Camden, Arkansas.
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  • Underlying all of these issues was of course the great moral and political problem as to whether slavery was to be confined to the south-eastern section of the country or be permitted to spread to the Pacific. The two questions not growing out of the Mexican War were in regard to the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and the passage of a new fugitive slave law.
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  • The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
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  • A smaller centre occurs on the Pacific side of North America.
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  • The most noted of the Alberta passes are (I) the Crow's Nest Pass, near the southern boundary line, through which a branch of the Canadian Pacific railway runs; (2) the Kicking Horse Pass, through which the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway is built; 40 m.
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  • Through the mountain passes come at times dry winds from the Pacific coast, which lick up the snow in a few hours.
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  • This climate is much less influenced by the Pacific winds than (A) .
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  • They were destroyed by whites and Indians in 1879-1882 on the approach of the Canadian Pacific railway.
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  • In the valley of the Bow river, alongside the Canadian Pacific railway, valuable beds of anthracite coal are worked, and the coal is carried by railway as far east as Winnipeg.
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  • Over this line passes an enormous trade from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean - the railway with its "Empress" steamers on the Pacific and also on the Atlantic Ocean claiming to have as its termini Liverpool and Yokohama.
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  • A branch line of the Canadian Pacific railway runs from Medicine Hat between 49° and 50° N., passing through the Crow's Nest Pass of the Rocky Mountains and carrying on trade with British Columbia.
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  • From Calgary to Edmonton northward runs a line under the control of the Canadian Pacific railway.
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  • The Grand Trunk Pacific railway, backed by the Canadian government, forms a new transcontinental line; the prairie section from Winnipeg to Edmonton was in 1908 under contract.
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  • Afterward going westward from Lake Athabasca and through the Peace river, he reached the Pacific Ocean, being the first white man to cross the North American continent, north of Mexico.
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  • A third species, from the American coast of the North Pacific, has been described under the name of Phocaena vomerina, and another from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata as P. spinipennis.
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  • It is reached from the Pacific by way of Challapata, a station on the Antofagasta & Oruro railway.
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  • The sultan sought to appease them by pacific means, but the movement spread to the Janissaries, who insisted upon the abolition of the new troops.
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  • In general it was allowed that these means should be the " pacific blockade " proposed by the tsar.
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  • Of the sixty-one species of birds breeding in Greenland, eight are European-Asiatic, four are American, and the rest circumpolar or North Atlantic and North Pacific in their distribution.
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  • It is served by the Southern Pacific railway, by the Oregon Electric line (to Portland), and by a steamship line to Portland.
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  • On this occasion, however, though strongly drawn to the beautiful island, he stayed not longer than six weeks, and proceeded to Sydney, where, early in 1890, he published, in a blaze of righteous anger, his Father Damien: an Open Letter to the Rev. Dr Hyde of Honolulu, in vindication of the memory of Father Damien and his work among the lepers of the Pacific. At Sydney he was very ill again: it was now obvious that his only chance of health lay within the tropics.
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  • In 1893 Stevenson published the important Scottish romance of .Catriona., written as a sequel to Kidnapped, and the three tales illustrative of Pacific Ocean character, Island Nights' Entertainments.
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  • His body was carried next day by sixty sturdy Samoans, who acknowledged Stevenson as their chief, to the summit of the precipitous peak of Vaea, where he had wished to be buried, and where they left him to rest for ever with the Pacific Ocean at his feet.
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  • It is the natural terminal of three great northern transcontinental railway lines - the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound (the extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul system); and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the connecting lines of the Canadian Pacific form lines of communication with the middle Northwest and the Pacific provinces of Canada.
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  • Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
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  • The anchorage is good and safe, and the harbour is one of the best on the Pacific coast of South America.
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  • Callao was formerly the headquarters in South America of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co., Ltd.
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  • The foreign steamship companies making it a regular port of call are the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
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  • A subsidized Peruvian line is also contemplated to ply between the Pacific ports of South America with an eventual extension of the service to Europe.
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  • On the whole, oceanographical research was being taken up most actively in Europe, but much important work was also begun in America, for instance the fine hydrographical research in the Pacific by the Scripps Institute of the university of California.
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  • It is served by the Missouri Pacific, the Chicago & Alton, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
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  • Among the clubs of the city are the Pacific Club, founded in 1853 as the British Club; the Scottish Thistle Club (1891), of which Robert Louis Stevenson was a member; the Hawaii Yacht Club, and the Polo, Country and University Clubs.
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  • It is the terminus of the Nevada County Narrow Gauge railway, which connects with the Southern Pacific railway at Colfax, '23 m.
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  • Elizabeth would not consent to any pacific overtures until the original object of the league had been accomplished.
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  • On the Pacific slope extinct volcanoes (mentioned in Chinese annals) have been reported in the Ilkhuri-alin mountains in northern Manchuria.
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  • The Shilka and the Argun, which form it, flow first towards the north-east along the windings of the lower terrace of the great plateau; from this the Amur descends, cutting through the Great Khingan and flowing down the terraces of the eastern versant towards the Pacific. A noteworthy feature of the principal Siberian rivers is that each is formed by the confluence of a pair of rivers.
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  • The coast-line of Siberia is very extensive both on the Arctic Ocean and on the Pacific. The former ocean is ice-bound for at least ten months out of twelve; and, though Nordenskjold and Captain Wiggins demonstrated (1874-1900) the possibility of navigation along its shores, it is exceedingly is s.
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  • The Sea of Okhotsk, separated from the Pacific by the Kurile Archipelago and from the Sea of Japan by the islands of Sakhalin and Yezo, is notorious as one of the worst seas of the world, owing to its dense fogs and its masses of floating ice.
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  • The northern part of the Sea of Japan, which washes the Usuri region, has, besides the smaller bays of Olga and Vladimir, the beautiful Gulf of Peter the Great, on which stands Vladivostok, the Russian naval station on the Pacific. Okhotsk and Ayan on the Sea of Okhotsk, Petropavlovsk on the east shore of Kamchatka, Nikolayevsk, and Vladivostok on the Sea of Japan, and Dui on Sakhalin are the only ports of Siberia.
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  • Small Russian settlements are planted on a few bays of the North Pacific and the Sea of Okhotsk, as well as on Sakhalin.
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  • On the left of the Amur there are some 60,000 Chinese and Manchurians about the mouth of the Zeya, and 26,000 Koreans on the Pacific coast.
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  • Part of this commerce (textiles, sugar, tobacco, steel goods) is conveyed by sea to the Pacific ports.
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  • Within eighty years the Russians had reached the Amur and the Pacific. This rapid conquest is accounted for by the circumstance that neither Tatars nor Turks were able to offer any serious resistance.
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  • Cook in 1778, and after him La Perouse, settled definitively the broad features of the northern Pacific coast.
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  • In Ponape and Kusaie, massive stone structures, similar to those which occur in several other parts of the Pacific Ocean, have long been known to exist.
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  • It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Illinois Central, the Chicago Great Western, and the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern railways.
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  • The chief feature of the administration of Dr Campos Salles was the statesmanlike ability with which various disputes with foreign powers on boundary questions were seriously taken in hand and brought to a satisfactory and pacific settlement.
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  • The former is most picturesquely situated on the cliff overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
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  • The Pacific mills (1853) introduced from England in 1854 Lister combs for worsted manufacture; and the Washington mills soon afterward began to make worsted dress goods.
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  • It is served by the coast division of the Southern Pacific railway, and is the railway station for Leland Stanford Jr. University, which is about 1 m.
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  • The Sierra Madre crosses the southern part of the state parallel with the coast, separating the low, humid, forested districts on the frontier of Tabasco from the hot, drier, coastal plain on the Pacific. The mountain region includes a plateau of great fertility and temperate climate, which is one of the best parts of Mexico and contains the larger part of the population of the state.
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  • Coffee-planting is a new industry on the Pacific slope of the Sierra Madre at elevations of 2000 to 4000 ft., and has met with considerable success.
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  • They inhabit chiefly the northern seas, but many abyssal forms occur between the tropics and in the southern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific. They are represented in British waters by eight genera, and about twenty species, only one of which, the burbot (Lola vulgaris), is an inhabitant of fresh waters.
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  • The lack of transportation facilities has been partly relieved by the construction of a branch of the Southern Pacific (American) from Nogales southward to Guaymas and the Sinaloa frontier, from which it has been extended to Mazatlan.
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  • In October 1863, while he was still in minor orders, he went out as a missionary to the Pacific Islands, taking the place of his brother, who had been prevented by an illness.
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  • The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical distribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, from Canada in the north to Patagonia in the south, and formerly was generally diffused in suitable localities from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances of civilization have curtailed the extent of the districts which it inhabits.
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  • Hastings is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-western, the Missouri Pacific and the St Joseph & Grand Island railways.
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  • He was president of the Union Pacific railroad from 1884 to 1890, having previously become widely known as an authority on the management of railways.
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  • The continued attacks upon the Presbyterians led him to publish his Short, Sober, Pacific Examination of Exuberances in the Common Prayer, as well as the Apology for Tender Consciences touching Not Bowing at the Name of Jesus.
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  • Peletan classes all these limestones as Triassic. Triassic beds of the Pacific coastal type occur in a band along the south-western coast.
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  • The natives, whom the French call Kanakas (Canaques, a word meaning "man," applied indiscriminately to many Pacific peoples), live on reservations.
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  • As in some other Pacific islands, when a son is born the chiefship passes to him, but the father continues to govern as regent.
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  • The Kanakas are excellent agriculturists, being accounted superior in this matter to every other race of the Pacific. About the middle of the 19th century the indigenous population was 60,000.
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  • The capital, Noumea, was founded in 185 4 (it was then called Port de France); in 1860 New Caledonia became a colony distinct from the French possessions in the Pacific at large; in 1864 the first penal settlement was made on Nou Island, off Noumea.
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  • It is served by the Chicago Great-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways.
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  • Bering Sea is the northward continuation of the Pacific Ocean, from which it is demarcated by the long chain of the Aleutian Islands.
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  • The coast, extending from the base of the Western or Maritime Cordillera to the Pacific Ocean, consists of a sandy desert crossed at intervals by rivers flowing through narrow, fertile valleys.
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  • Passing the summit of that range, it rushes down as a cool and dry wind on the Pacific slopes beyond.
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  • Gold is found in lodes and alluvial deposit; the former on the Pacific slope at Salpo, Otuzco, Huaylas, Yungay, Ocros, Chorrillos, Canete, Ica, Nasca, Andaray and Arequipa, and on the table-lands and Amazon slope at.
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  • In 1849 the regular payment of the interest of the public debt was commenced, steam communication was established along the Pacific coast, and a railroad was made from Lima to Callao.
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  • War between Great Britain and Russia was declared on the 27th of March 1854, and it thus fell to the lot of the most pacific of ministers, the devotee of retrenchment, and the anxious cultivator of all industrial arts, to prepare a war budget, and to meet as well as he might the exigencies of a conflict which had so cruelly dislocated all the ingenious devices of financial optimism.
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  • The continent of Asia stretches two arms into the Pacific Ocean, Kamchatka in the north and Malacca in the south, between which lies a long cluster of islands constituting the Japanese empire, which covers 370 14 of longitude and 29 II of latitude.
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  • The Pacific Ocean, which washes the eastern shores, moulds their outline into much greater diversity than does the Sea of Japan which washes the western shores.
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  • In depth of water, too, the advantage is on the Pacific side.
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  • The east coast, from Cape Shiriya (Shiriyazaki) in the north, to Cape Inuboye (Inuboes4ki) near Tokyo Bay, though abounding in small indentations, has only two large bays, those of Sendai and Matsushima; but southward from Tokyo Bay to Cape Satta (Satanomisaki) in KiOshi there are many capacious inlets which offer excellent anchorage, as the Gulf of Sagami (Sagaminada), the Bays of Suruga (Surugawan), lie (Isenumi) and Osaka, the Ku Channel, the Gulf of Tosa (Tosonada), &c., Opening into both the Pacific and the Sea of Japan and separating Shikoku and KiQshi from the main island as well as from each other, is the celebrated Inland Sea, one of the most picturesque sheets of water in the world.
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  • There arc four narrow avenues connecting this remarkable body of water with the Pacific and the Japan Sea; that on the west, called Shirnonoseki Strait, has a width of 3000 yds., that on the south, known ai Hayarnoto Strait, is 8 m.
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  • From this harbour to Osaka Japans waist measures onl 77 m., and as the great lake of Biwa and some minor sheets of wate break the interval, a canal may be dug to join the Pacific and th Sea of Japan.
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  • A volcano-promontory at the Pacific end of the Tsugaru Strait: a finely formed cone surrounded on three sides by the sea, the crater breached on the land side.
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  • One steadily exercised influence is constantly at work, for the shores bordering the Pacific Ocean are slowly though appreciably rising, while on the side of the Japan Sea a corresponding subsidence is taking place.
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  • The Pacific coast of the Japanese islands is more liable than the western shore to shocks disturbing a wide area.
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  • Apparent proof has been obtained that the shocks occurring in the Pacific districts originate at the bottom of the sea the Tuscarora Deep is supposed to be the centre of seismic activity and they are accompanied in most cases by tidal waves.
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  • But during the warm season, from May to September, these conditions of atmospheric pressure are reversed, that in the Pacific rising to 767 mm.
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  • These, like the mollusca, indicate the influence of the Kuro Shiwo and the south-west monsoon, for they have close affinity with species found in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
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  • It is served by two branches of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, by the main line and one branch of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, by the Illinois Central, by the Iowa Central, and by the Minneapolis & St Louis railways.
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  • In 1847 he served on the staff of the general commanding the division of the Pacific. In 1850 he married Ellen Boyle, daughter of Thomas Ewing, then secretary of the interior.
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  • Until the redistribution of the fleet in 1905, the headquarters of the British Pacific squadron was at Esquimalt, a fine harbour about 3 m.
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  • His chance for securing the nomination, however, was materially lessened by persistent charges which were brought against him by the Democrats that as a member of Congress he had been guilty of corruption in his relations with the Little Rock & Fort Smith and the Northern Pacific railways.'
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  • The Aconcagua river rises on the southern slope of the volcano Aconcagua, flows eastward through a broad valley, or bay in the mountains, and enters the Pacific 12 m.
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  • It is served by two branches of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad, and by:the Iowa City & Cedar Rapids Interurban railway (electric), of which it is a terminus.
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  • The natives, a mixed Polynesian and Melanesian people of Samoan speech, are the most industrious in the Pacific, and many of the young men go as labourers to other islands.
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  • In working auriferous river-beds, dredges have been used with considerable success in certain parts of New Zealand and on the Pacific slope in America.
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  • It is served by the Louisiana & Texas (Southern Pacific System), the St Louis, Watkins & Gulf, the Louisiana & Pacific and the Kansas City Southern railways.
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  • It is served by the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, the Oregon & Washington, and the Spokane, Portland & Seattle railways, and by steamship lines, being accessible to sea-going vessels; a ferry connects with the Portland Electric railway.
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  • He was a man of upright, moderate and pacific intentions, but his pontificate of eleven years was anything but tranquil.
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  • Des Moines is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Wabash, the Minneapolis & St Louis, and the Des Moines, Iowa Falls & Northern railways; also by several interurban electric lines.
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  • Von Spee had come from Mas-a-Fuera, the last anchorage in his long Pacific trip. On Oct.
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  • The wide spaces of the Pacific lay behind him, he had fought a famous battle, but the southern waters of the world lay before him, behind loomed the Atlantic, and he knew that Britain's arm stretched far.
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  • The latter view prevailed and was as a rule held by the Arab geographers of the middle ages, so that until the discovery of America and of the Pacific Ocean the belief was general that the land surface was greater than the water surface, or that at least the two were equal, as Mercator and Varenius held.
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  • The efforts of individual scientific workers cannot as a rule produce such results in oceanography as in other sciences, but exceptions are found in the very special services rendered by the prince of Monaco, who founded the Oceanographical Institute in Paris and the Oceanographical Museum in Monaco; and by Professor Alexander Agassiz in the investigation of the Pacific.
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  • The four great continental masses therefore give the ocean a distinctly tripartite form, the three great divisions being known as the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, all three running together into one around Antarctica.
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  • A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.
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  • It has been found more convenient to take as northern boundaries the narrowest part of the straits near the Arctic circle, Bering Strait on the Pacific side, and on the Atlantic side the narrowest part of Davis Strait, and of Denmark Strait, then the shortest line from Iceland to the Faeroes, thence to the most northerly island of the Shetlands and thence to Cape Statland in Norway.
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  • It has also been found convenient to take the boundary between the Atlantic and Pacific, as the shortest line across Drake Strait, from Cape Horn through Snow Island to Cape Gunnar, instead of the meridian of Cape Horn.
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  • Some authors include the Arctic Sea in the Atlantic Ocean, and some prefer to consider the southern part of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans as a Great Southern Ocean.
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  • Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.
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  • Another stimulus came from the biologists, Pacific. On the 1st of November 1876 a cyclone acting in this who began to realize the importance of a more detailed investigaway submerged a great area of the level plain of the Ganges tion of the life conditions of organisms at great depths in the delta to a depth of 46 ft.; here the influence of the difference sea.
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  • The earliest deep-sea sounding on record is that of cruise in the North Pacific, sounding out lines for a projected Captain Phipps on the 4th of September 1773 in the Norwegian Pacific cable.
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  • Polar explorers making sections across the great expanses of water with everfrequently repeated those experiments in deep-sea soundings, increasing accuracy, and in that work the government surveying both William Scoresby and Sir John Ross obtaining notable ships have also been engaged, vast stretches of the Indian and results, though not reaching depths of more than 1200 fathoms. Pacific Oceans having been opened up to knowledge by H.M.SS.
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  • American scientific enterprise, mainly in very deep water, though in a few instances he overestimated under the guidance of Professor Alexander Agassiz, has been the depth by failing to detect the moment at which the lead active in the North Atlantic and especially in the Pacific Ocean, touched bottom.
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  • The soundings of the Dutch expedition on hung on the sounding-tube that it was automatically released the " Siboga " during1899-1900in the eastern part of the on striking the bottom and left behind, while the light brass tube Malay seas and those of the German surveying ship " Planet " containing a sample of the deposit was easily hauled up. This in 1906 in the South Atlantic, Indian and North Pacific Oceans principle has been adopted universally for deep soundings, and were notable, and Sir John Murray's expedition on the " Michael is now applied in many forms. In 1855 Maury published Sars " in the Atlantic in 1910 obtained important results.
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  • The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.
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  • The south-western part of the Pacific Ocean has a very rich and diversified submarine relief, abounding in small basins separated by ridges and rises.
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  • The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.
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  • The borders of the Malay Sea are everywhere shallower on the side of the Indian Ocean than on that of the Pacific, and consequently water from the Pacific preponderates in the depths.
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  • Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
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  • Blue mud prevails in large areas of the Pacific Ocean from the Galapagos Islands to Acapulco.
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  • In the form of volcanic mud it is common round the high volcanic islands of the SouthWestern Pacific.
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  • The reddish colour comes from the presence of oxides of iron, and particles of manganese also occur in it, especially in the Pacific region, where the colour is more that of chocolate; but when it is mixed with globigerina ooze it is grey.
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  • Red clay is the deposit peculiar to the abysmal area; 70 carefully investigated samples collected by the " Challenger " came from an average depth of 2730 fathoms, 97 specimens collected by the " Tuscarora " came from an average depth of 2860 fathoms, and 26 samples obtained by the " Albatross " in the Central Pacific came from an average depth of 2620 fathoms. Red clay has not yet been found in depths less than 2200 fathoms. The main ingredient of the deposit is a stiff clay which is plastic when fresh, but dries to a stony hardness.
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  • It does not occur in the Atlantic Ocean at all, and in the Indian Ocean it is only known round Cocos and Christmas Islands; but it is abundant in the Pacific, where it covers a large area between 5° and 15° N., westward from the coast of Central America to 165° W., and it is also found in patches north of the Samoa Islands, in the Marianne Trench and west of the Galapagos Islands.
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  • Observations with the xanthometer have not hitherto been numerous, but it appears that the purest blue (o--I on Forel's scale) is found in the Sargasso Sea, in the North Atlantic and in similarly situated tropical or subtropical regions in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
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  • The North Atlantic maximum is the highest with water of 37.9 per mille salinity; the maximum in the South Atlantic is 37.6; in the North Indian Ocean, 36.7; the South Indian Ocean, 36.4; the South Pacific, 36.9; and the North Pacific has the lowest maximum of all, only 35'9.
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  • Our knowledge of the Pacific in this respect is still very imperfect, but it appears to be less salt than the other oceans at depths below 800 fathoms, as on the surface, the salinity at considerable depths being 34.6 to 34.7 in the Western part of the ocean, and about 34.4 to 34.5 in the eastern, so that, although the data are by no means satisfactory, it is impossible to assign a mass-salinity of more than 34.7 per mille for the whole body of Pacific water.
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  • As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
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  • In similar depths in the Pacific south of the equator temperatures of 33.8° to 34.5° are found, and north of the equator bottom temperatures at the same depth increase to 35.1° in the neighbourhood of the Aleutian Islands, again completely justifying the conclusion as to the Antarctic control of deep water temperature throughout the ocean.
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  • No icebergs occur in the North Pacific, and none has ever.
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  • The trade-wind regions correspond pretty closely with westward-flowing currents, while in the equatorial calm belts there are eastward-running countercurrents, these lying north of the equator in the Atlantic and Pacific, but south of the equator in the Indian Ocean.
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  • Pilot Charts of the North Atlantic and North Pacific are issued monthly by the U.S. Hydrographic Office, and of the North Atlantic and of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea by the British Meteorological Office, giving a conspectus of the normal conditions of weather and sea.
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  • It appears to be less numerous on the western side of the Alleghanies, though found in suitable localities across the continent to the Pacific coast, but seldom farther north than Virginia and southern Illinois, and it is said to be common in Kansas.
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  • The principal railway systems are the Southern Pacific, the Santa Fe, the Texas & Pacific and the Colorado & Southern.
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  • The several roads are under the management of twenty-seven companies, but about 75% of the business is done by the Chicago Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul and the Chicago Rock Island & Pacific. Electric interurban railways are increasing in importance for freight and passenger service.
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  • The most important and best-known rivers are the Amberno, in the north, discharging by a wide delta at Point d'Urville; the Kaiserin Augusta, which, rising in the Charles Louis range, and entering the Pacific near Cape della Torre, is navigable by ocean steamers for 180 m.; the Ottilien, a river of great length, which discharges into the sea a short distance south of the last named; and the Mambare, navigable by steam-launch for 50 m.
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  • The land molluscs show relationship with the Indian and the Malayan sub-regions; but many forms have here their centre, and have spread hence into Australia and the Pacific islands.
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  • He had a hand in the pacific overtures which Bonaparte, early in the year 1800, sent to the court of London; and, whatever may have been the motives of the First Consul in sending them, it is certain that Talleyrand regretted their failure.
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  • The principal passenger steamers sailing from the port are those of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company for the West Indies and the Pacific (via Panama) and for Brazil and the River Plate, &c., and the Union-Castle line for the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, East Africa, &c., both of which companies have their headquarters here.
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  • The leading manufacturing industries in 1905, with the product-value of each in this year, were slaughtering and meat-packing ($4,040,162), foundry and machine shop work ($3,146,914), flour and grist milling ($ 2, 79 8, 74 0), lumber manufacturing and planing ($2,519,081), printing and publishing (newspapers and periodicals, $2,097,339 and book and job printing, $1,278,841), car construction and repairing ($1,549,836) - in 1910 there were railway shops here of the Southern Pacific, Pacific Electric, Los Angeles Street, Salt Lake and Santa Fe railways - and the manufacture of confectionery ($953,915), furniture ($879,910) and malt liquors ($789,393).
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  • It continued to grow steadily thereafter until it attained railway connexion with the Central Pacific and San Francisco in 1876, and with the East by the Santa Fe system in 1885.
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  • It is served by the Southern Pacific railway, which has car shops and terminal yards here.
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  • San Jose is the seat of the University of the Pacific (Methodist Episcopal), which was founded at Santa Clara in 1851, removed to its present site just outside the city in 1871, and had 358 students in all departments in 1909-1910; of the College of Notre Dame (1851; Roman Catholic), and of a State Normal School.
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  • Ttie railway connexions include direct communication with one port on the Gulf coast and with two on the Pacific - lines were under construction in 1909 to two other Pacific ports - and indirect communication with two on the Gulf.
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  • The Mexican and Interoceanic lines connect with Vera Cruz, the Mexican Central with Manzanillo, via Guadalajara and Colima, and the Vera Cruz & Pacific (from Cordoba) with the Tehuantepec line and the port of Salina Cruz.
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  • A southern extension of the Mexican Central, via Cuernavaca, has reached the Balsas river and will be extended to Acapulco, once the chief Pacific port of Mexico and the depot for the rich Philippine trade.
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  • A Mexican extension 'of the (American) Southern Pacific which has been completed from Nogales to Mazatlan is to be extended to Guadalajara, which will give the national capital direct communication with the thriving ports of Mazatlan and Guaymas.
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  • In 1513, Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the isthmus of Darien and saw the South Sea (Pacific).
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  • The hope that a passage through to the Spice Islands would be found near existing Spanish settlements was now given up. One was sought farther south, and in November 1520 Ferdinand Magellan passed through the strait which bears his name and sailed across the Pacific. At last the existence of a continent divided by a vast stretch of ocean from Asia, and mostly lying within the sphere of influence assigned to Spain by the pope, was revealed to the world.
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  • The yearly fairs at these places received the imports from Europe and the colonial trade of the Pacific coast, first collected at Panama and then carried over the isthmus.
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  • The eastern Eskimo are dolichocephalic, the western are less so, and the Aleuts brachycephalic. On the North Pacific coast, and in spots down to the Rio Grande, are short heads, but scattered among these are long heads, frequent in southern California, but seen northward to Oregon, as well as in Sonora and some Rio Grande pueblos.
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  • It is necessary to use geographical terms in the case of California and the North Pacific, the Caucasus or cloaca gentium of the western hemisphere, where were pocketed forty out of one hundred or more families of native tribes.
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  • Irrigation and terrace culture were practised at several points on the Pacific slope from Arizona to Peru.
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  • In the Arctic and Pacific coast provinces, about Lake Superior, in Virginia and North Carolina, as well as in ruder parts of Mexico and South America, metals were cold-hammered into plates, weapons, rods and wire, ground and polished, fashioned into carved blocks of hard, tenacious stone by pressure or blow, overlaid, cold-welded and plated.
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  • The communal houses of the Pacific coast had bunks.
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  • On the Pacific coast of America the efflorescence of basketry in every form of technic was known.
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  • Along the archipelagoes of the North Pacific coast, from Mount St Elias to the Columbia river, the dugout attained its best.
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  • Their craft would vie in form, in size, and seaworthiness with those of the North Pacific coast.
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  • The Eskimo engraved poorly, the Dene (Tinneh) embroidered in quill, the North Pacific tribes carved skilfully in horn, slate and cedar, the California tribes had nimble fingers for basketry, the Sioux gloried in feathers and painted parfleche.
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  • The American Museum in New York has prepared a series of monographs on the tribes of the North Pacific coast, of northern Mexico, and of the Cordilleras of South America.
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  • The religious concep tions of the fishing tribes on the Pacific coast between Mount St Elias and the Columbia river are worked out by Boas; the transformation from the hunting to the agricultural mode of life was accompanied by changes in belief and worship quite as radical.
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  • The fact remains, however, that the curious metal-craft of the narrow strip along the Pacific from Mexico to Titicaca is the greatest of archaeological enigmas.
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  • The centre of disturbance was the Pullman strike at Chicago, whence the disorder extended to the Pacific coast, causing riot and bloodshed in many places.
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  • The following are the seminaries founded since 1800: Andover (1808), Bangor (1816), Hartford (1834), the theological school of Oberlin College (1835), Chicago (1858), Pacific (1869; now at Berkeley, Cal.), and Atlanta (Georgia), 1901.
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  • Congregationalism in America has thus spread from New England, its primitive home, over the West to the Pacific, but has never had more than a slight foothold in the Southern states.
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  • The leached guanos and phosphatized rocks, which are grouped with them for commercial purposes, have been obtained in great quantities in many islands of the Pacific Ocean (such as Baker, Howland, Jarvis and McKean Islands) between long.
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  • During the years1850-1889New York produced about 70%, of the hop crop of the entire country, but since 1890 hop culture has been rapidly extended in the Pacific Coast states and suffered to decline in New York, and the crop from 1899 to 1907 averaged only .about one-half that of 1889 (20,063,029 ib).
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  • The Aucklands contain two of the finest harbours in the Pacific. Six hundred miles north of Auckland, the volcanic Kermadecs, covering 8208 acres, are picturesquely clothed with vegetation.
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  • New Zealand is part of the Australasian festoon, on the Pacific edge of the Australasian area.
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  • Trade with India and Ceylon reached £557,000 in 1906; that with Fiji and other Pacific islands was £622,000 in 1900.
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  • Davenport is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Iowa & Illinois (interurban), and the Davenport, Rock Island & North Western railways; opposite the city is the western terminus of the Illinois and Mississippi, or Hennepin, Canal (which connects the Mississippi and Illinois rivers).
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  • He also undertook the immediate construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, which had been postponed by the former government.
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  • After the "Pacific scandal" of 1874 the leader of the opposite party declared that "John A."
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  • The island is a station of the British Pacific cable.
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  • It is served by the Coast Line of the Southern Pacific railway system.
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  • It is now the Franciscan headquarters of the Pacific coast, and near it is a Franciscan college.
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  • The western half of Washington lies in the Pacific Mountains province, consisting of the Coast range and the Cascade range, separated by a broad basin known as the Sound Valley.
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  • Along the Pacific Coast the ridges of the Coast range are only about 1500 ft.
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  • Near the Pacific Coast the forests consist principally of hemlock, cedar and Sitka spruce.
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  • The coal deposits of Washington are the only important ones in the Pacific states, and in Washington only, of the Pacific states, is there any coking coal.
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  • The Northern Pacific and the Great Northern enter the state near the middle of its eastern boundary at Spokane, which is a centre for practically all the railway lines in the eastern part of the state.
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  • The Northern Pacific, the first of the transcontinental roads to touch the Pacific north of San Francisco, reaches Seattle with a wide sweep to the south, crossing the Columbia river about where it is entered by the Yakima and ascending the valley of the latter to the Cascade Mountains.
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  • The Great Northern, running west from Spokane, crosses the state in nearly a straight line, and between this road and the Northern Pacific, and parallelingthe Great Northern, runs the recently constructed Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, the westward extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul.
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  • The Northern Pacific sends a branch line south from Tacoma parallel with the coast to Portland on the Columbia river, where it meets the Southern Pacific and the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company's line (a subsidiary of the Union Pacific), thus affording communication southwards, and up the valley of the Columbia to the east.
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  • Seattle and Tacoma are among the four leading ports of the United States on the Pacific. Other harbours on Puget Sound of commercial importance are Olympia, Everett and Bellingham.
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  • The early exploration of the western coast of North America grew out of the search for a supposed passage, sometimes called the " Strait of Anian " between the Pacific and the Atlantic. In Purchas his Pilgrimmes (1625) was published the story of Juan de Fuca, a Greek mariner whose real name was Apostolos Valerianos, who claimed to have discovered the passage and to have sailed in it more than twenty days.
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  • Just before the purchase of Louisiana, President Jefferson had recommended to Congress (18th January 1803) the sending of an expedition to explore the headwaters of the Missouri, cross the Rockies and follow the streams to the Pacific. In accordance with the recommendation Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, both officers of the United States Army, with a considerable party left St Louis on the 14th of May 1804, ascended the Missouri to the headwaters, crossed the Rockies and, following the Columbia river, reached the ocean in November 1805.
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  • By a treaty negotiated by James Buchanan, on the part of the United States, and Richard Pakenham, on the part of Great Britain, and ratified on the 17th of July 1846, the boundary was fixed at 49° to the middle of the channel separating the continent from Vancouver Island and thence " southerly through the middle of the said channel and of Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean."
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  • Olympia was chosen as the temporary seat of government, and Governor Stevens at once set to work to extinguish the Indian titles to land and to survey a route for a railway, which was later to become the Northern Pacific. The Indians, alarmed by the rapid growth of the white population, attempted to destroy the scattered settlements and the wandering prospectors for gold, which had been discovered in eastern Washington in 1855.
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  • The development of Alaska and the completion of the Northern Pacific Railroad to the coast (1883) brought a great increase in population.
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  • The evidence contained in these state records so clearly marks the difference between the policy of Mr Kruger and the pacific, commercial policy of President Brand and his followers, that the documents call for careful consideration.
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  • He was one of the most conspicuous advocates of the Pacific railroads, and of many other internal improvements.
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  • For the navy, which had materially only a narrow margin of superiority over the Russian Pacific Squadron, the object was to keep the two halves of that squadron, at Port Arthur and Vladivostok respectively, separate and to destroy them in detail.
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  • The Russians left Kamranh on the 14th of May, and for a time disappeared into the Pacific. It was assumed that they were making for Vladivostok either via Tsushima strait or by the Pacific. Rozhestvenski chose the former course, and on the 27th of May the fleets met near Tsushima.
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  • The main range of the Rocky Mountains separates that part which is drained west into the'Columbia river and the Pacific Ocean from that which is drained east into the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and the Gulf of Mexico, and from a very small part which is drained north-east into Hudson Bay; the water-parting which in Montana separates the drainage into Hudson Bay from the drainage into the Gulf of Mexico crosses only the north-west region of Teton county.
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  • In the west the climate is generally delightful, it being there greatly affected by the warm, dry " Chinook " wind which blows from the Pacific Ocean; to some extent the wind modifies the temperature nearly to the eastern border.
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  • Montana is served by three transcontinental railways: the Great Northern traversing the north, the Northern Pacific traversing the south-east, south and south-west portions, and, north of the Northern Pacific, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, an extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul to Seattle and Tacoma, practically completed in 1909; branch lines of the Great Northern, from the north, connect with the Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound at Butte, and with the Northern Pacific at Laurel.
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  • The Oregon Short Line from the south connects with the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound at Butte, and the Burlington system, also from the south, connects with the Northern Pacific at Billings, Yellowstone county.
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  • The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific railway carries ore from the mines at Butte to the smelters at Anaconda.
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  • The first railway was the Oregon Short Line, which was completed by the Union Pacific Company from Ogden, Utah, to Butte in 1881.
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  • The Northern Pacific reached Helena two years later and the railway mileage in the state increased from 106 m.
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  • He was certain that war with Spain was inevitable, and he did much to prepare the navy for hostilities, framing an important personnel bill, collecting ammunition, getting large appropriations for powder and ammunition used in improving the marksmanship of the navy by gunnery practice, buying transports and securing the distribution of ships and supplies (especially in the Pacific) in such a way that, when hostilities were declared, American naval victories would be assured.
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  • It is served by the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific railways.
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  • It is served by the Union Pacific, the Missouri Pacific, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Chicago Great Western railways, and by electric lines connecting with Leavenworth and with Kansas City, Missouri.
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  • The herring inhabiting the corresponding latitudes of the North Pacific is another species, but most closely allied to that of the eastern hemisphere.
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  • In 1909 the Northern Pacific was building about 140 m.
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  • A period of rapid development in the Red river basin followed the entrance of the Northern Pacific railway into this region in 187 2.
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  • One vessel returned to Seville by the Cape route, thus completing the first voyage round the world; the other attempted to return by the Pacific, but was driven back to Tidore and there welcomed by the natives as a useful ally against the Portuguese.
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  • He had not been on the throne for two months when he made pacific overtures to the wellnigh vanquished king of Prussia, whom he habitually alluded to as "the king my master."
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  • A branch line connects it with the Canadian Pacific. It has steamer communication with the St Lawrence and Lake Ontario ports, and is a summer resort.
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  • The north to south distance from Bering Strait to the Antarctic circle is 9300 m., and the Pacific attains its greatest breadth, 10,000 m., at the equator.
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  • The coasts of the Pacific are of varied contour.
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  • The area and volume of the Pacific Ocean and its seas, with the mean depths calculated therefrom, are given in the article Ocean.
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  • The chief Asiatic rivers are the Amur, the Hwang-ho and the Yangtsze-kiang: none of which enters the open Pacific directly.
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  • Hence the proportion of purely oceanic area to the total area is greater in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, the supply of detritus being smaller, and terrigenous deposits are not borne so far from land.
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  • Practically the whole of the north-east Pacific is therefore more than 2000 fathoms deep, and the south-east has two roughly triangular spaces, including the greater part of the area, between 2000 and 3000 fathoms. Notwithstanding this great average depth, the " deeps " or areas over 3000 fathoms are small in number and extent.
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  • The western Pacific is in complete contrast to the part just described.
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  • A long strip within the Tuscarora deep forms the largest continuous area with a depth greater than 4000 fathoms. All the rest of the western Pacific is a region of quite irregular contour.
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  • Murray: So far as our knowledge goes, the present contours of the open Pacific Ocean are almost as they were in Palaeozoic times, and in the intervening ages changes of level and form have been slight.
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  • There is no reason to suppose that any considerable part of the vast area now covered by the waters of the Pacific has ever been exposed as dry land.
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  • Hence the Pacific basin may be regarded as a stable and homogeneous geographical unit, clearly marked off round nearly all its margin by steep sharp slopes, extending in places through the whole known range of elevation above sea-level and of depression below it - from the Cordilleras of South America to the island chains of Siberia and Australia.
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  • Over a large part of the central Pacific, far removed from any possible land-influences or deposits of ooze, the red-clay region is characterized by the occurrence of manganese, which gives the clay a chocolate colour, and manganese nodules are found in vast numbers, along with sharks' teeth and the ear-bones and other bones of whales.
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  • Partly on account of its great extent, and partly because there is no wide opening to the Arctic regions, the normal wind circulation is on the whole less modified in the North Pacific than in the Atlantic, except in the west, where the south-west logy.
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  • In the South Pacific the northwest monsoon of Australia affects a belt running east of New Guinea to the Solomon Islands.
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  • The trade-winds are generally weaker and less persistent in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, and the intervening belt of equatorial calms is broader.
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  • Except in the east of the Pacific, the south-east trade is only fully developed during the southern winter; at other seasons the regular trade-belt is cut across from north-west to south-east by a band twenty to thirty degrees wide, in which the trades alternate with winds from north-east and north, and with calms, the calms prevailing chiefly at the boundary of the monsoon region (5° N.-15° S., 160°-185° E.).
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  • The great warming and abundant rainfall of the island regions of the western Pacific, and the low temperature of the surface water in the east, cause a displacement of the southern tropical maximum of pressure to the east; hence we have a permanent " South Pacific anticyclone " close to the coast of South America.
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  • The characteristic feature of the south-western Pacific is therefore the relatively low pressure and the existence of a true monsoon region in the middle of the tradewind belt.
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  • It is to be noted that the climate of the islands of the Pacific becomes more and more healthy the farther they are from the monsoon region.
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  • The island regions of the Pacific are everywhere characterized by uniform high air-temperatures; the mean annual range varies from 1° to 9° F., with extremes of 24° to 27°, and the diurnal range from 9° to 16°.
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  • Buchan describes the island-studded portion of the western Pacific as the most extensive region of the globe characterized by an unusually heavy rainfall.
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  • Beyond the tropical high-pressure belt, the winds of the North Pacific are under the control of an area of low pressure, which, however, attains neither the size nor the intensity of the " Iceland " depression in the north Atlantic. The result is that north-westerly winds, which in winter are exceedingly dry and cold, blow over the western or Asiatic area; westerly winds prevail in the centre, and south-westerly and southerly winds off the American coast.
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  • High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.
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  • The isothermal lines, in fact, suggest that in the vast area of the Pacific something corresponding to the " planetary circulation " is established, further investigation of which may be of extreme value in relation to current inquiries concerning the upper air.
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  • In the greater depths temperature is extraordinarily uniform, 80% of the existing observations falling within the limits of 1.6° C. and 1.9° C. In the enclosed seas of the western Pacific, temperature usually falls till a depth corresponding to that of the summit of the barriers which isolate them from the open ocean is reached, and below that point temperature is uniform to the bottom.
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  • The surface waters of the North Pacific are relatively fresh, the salinity being on the whole much lower than in the other great Salinity.
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  • The surface currents of the Pacific have not been studied in the same detail as those of the Atlantic, and their seasonal variations Circulation are little known except in the monsoon regions.
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  • It splits into two parts east of the Philippines, one division flowing northwards as the Kuro Siwo or Black Stream, the analogue of the Gulf Stream, to feed a drift circulation which follows the winds of the North Pacific, and finally forms the Californian Current flowing southwards along the American coast.
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  • On reaching the western Pacific part of this current passes southwards, east of New Zealand, and again east of Australia, as the East Australian Current, part northwards to join the Equatorial CounterCurrent, and during the north-east monsoon part makes its way through the China Sea towards the Indian Ocean.
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  • Between the Kuro Siwo and the Asiatic coast a band of cold water, with a slight movement to the southward, known as the Oya Siwo, forms the analogue of the " Cold Wall " of the Atlantic. In the higher latitudes of the South Pacific the surface movement forms part of the west wind-drift of the Roaring Forties.
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  • The surface circulation of the Pacific is, on the whole, less active than that of the Atlantic. The centres of the rotational movement are marked by " Sargasso Seas " in the north and south basins, but they are of small extent compared with the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic. From the known peculiarities of the distribution of temperature, it is probable that definite circulation of water is in the Pacific confined to levels very near the surface, except in the region of the Kuro Siwo, and possibly also in parts of the Peruvian Current.
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  • The north of the chain, from the Kuriles to Formosa, belongs to the empire of Japan; southward it is continued by the Philippines (belonging to the United States of America) which link it with the vast archipelago between the Pacific and Indian oceans, to which the name Malay Archipelago is commonly applied.
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  • The peaks or sharp cones in which they Islands Of The Pacific Ocean The above figures give a total land area for the whole region of 69,561 sq.
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