# P Sentence Examples

He'd better watch his

**P**'s and Q's.Every industrial concern employing fifty hands or over elects one or more delegates to the electoral

**P**?Among the Terebelloidea there is a remarkable differentiation of the ne

**p**hridia into two series.One of the most

**p**im ortant ways of keeping insect pests in check is by " spraying " or " washing."In Greek, where I is the twentieth letter of the alphabet, or, if the merely numerical and

**p**are excluded, the eighteenth, another form 1 or S according to the direction of the writing is also widespread.Then the assumption is that, whatever positive integral value n may have, n [

**P**] is divisible by**p**!.**P**g**P****P**ment a royal autograph letter stating the reasons which had actuated the king in taking this course, and giving as the task of the new ministry the continuance of negotiations with the Coalition on the basis of the exclusion of the language question.Y, 9

**P**?, PP ment of a Coalition cabinet 2 under Dr Sandor Wekerle was announced, the world was taken completely by surprise.Thus, while of German periodicals ap

**p**earing in Hungary there were in 1871 only 85, they increased in 1880 to 114, in 1885 to 141; and they were, at the beginning of 1895, still 128, in spite of the constant spread of that process of Magyarization which has, since 1880, considerably changed the linguistic habits of the people of Hungary.For multiplication, for instance, we have the statement that, if

**P**and Q are two quantities, containing respectively**p**and q of a particular unit, then**p**X Q = q X**P**; or the more abstract statement that**p**X q= q X**p**.AdvertisementIn n = a

**P**, a is the root or base,**p**is the index or logarithm, and n is the power or antilogarithm.But a

**P**is sometimes incorrectly described as " a to the power**p**"; the power being thus confused with the index or logarithm.It should be observed that, by analogy with the definition of a fraction, a

**P**l q mean (al/q)**P**, not (aP)llq.Thus

**P**= kQ+R, where k is an integer.Having obtained R, which is less than Q, we now repeat with Q and R the process that we adopted with

**P**and Q; i.e.AdvertisementHence u is the greatest common measure of

**p**and q.In order that a monomial containing a m as a factor may be divisible by a monomial containing a

**p**as a factor, it is necessary that**p**should be not greater than m.Thus from

**P**+Q - R+S=T we deduce**P**+(Q - R+S)=**P**+(T -**P**).Thus, if we have an equation

**P**=Q, where**P**and Q are numbers involving fractions, we can clear of fractions, not by multiplying**P**and Q by a number m, but by applying the equal multiples**P**and Q to a number m as unit.This process consists in proving that a property involving

**p**is true when**p**is any positive integer by proving (I) that it is true when**p**= 1, and (2) that if it is true when**p**=n, where n is any positive integer, then it is true when**p**= n+ I.AdvertisementBut, by hypothesis, n 1P1 is divisible by

**p**!.Therefore, if (n-i) 1P+11 is divisible by (

**p**+I)!, 'n 1P+11 is divisible b y (**p**+i) !.These constructed symbols may be called positive and negative coefficients; or a symbol such as (-

**p**) may be called a negative number, in the same way that we call 3 a fractional number.The result of the extension is that the number or quantity represented by any symbol, such as

**P**, may be either positive or negative.We therefore define algebraical division by means of algebraical multiplication, and say that, if

**P**and M are multinomials, the statement "**P**/M = Q " means that Q is a multinomial such that MQ (or QM) and**P**are identical.AdvertisementIt can be proved by geometry that (aA-H3B) +yC = aA+(aB+- y C) = (a + 1 3+ 7)

**P**, where**P**is in fact the centroid of masses a, 13, y placed at A, B, C respectively.We imagine a wave-front divided o x Q into elementary rings or zones - often named after Huygens, but better after Fresnelby spheres described round

**P**(the point at which the aggregate effect is to be estimated), the first sphere, touching the plane at 0, with a radius equal to PO, and the succeeding spheres with radii increasing at each step by IX.The component vibrations at

**P**due to the successive zones are thus nearly equal in amplitude and opposite in phase (the phase of each corresponding to that of the infinitesimal circle midway between the boundaries), and the series which we have to sum is one in which the terms are alternately opposite in sign and, while at first nearly constant in numerical magnitude, gradually diminish to zero.Now as to the phase of the secondary wave, it might appear natural to suppose that it starts from any point Q with the phase of the primary wave, so that on arrival at

**P**, it is retarded by the amount corresponding to QP. But a little consideration will prove that in that case the series of secondary waves could not reconstitute the primary wave.Further, it is evident that account must be taken of the variation of phase in estimating the magnitude of the effect at

**P**of the first zone.If the primary wave at 0 be cos kat, the effect of the secondary wave proceeding from the element dS at Q is dS 1 dS -

**p**cos k(at -**p**+ 4 A) = - -- sin k(at -**p**).If a formal proof be desired, it may be obtained by introducing into the integral a factor such as

**P**, in which h is ultimately made to diminish without limit.Taking co-ordinates in the plane of the screen with the centre of the wave as origin, let us represent M by, n, and

**P**(where dS is situated) by x, y, z.In the applications with which we are concerned, t, n are very small quantities; and we may take

**P**= x yn - At the same time dS may be identified with dxdy, and in the de nominator**p**may be treated as constant and equal to f.In these expressions we are to replace

**p**by ks/f, or rather, since the diffraction pattern is symmetrical, by kr/f, where r is the distance of any point in the focal plane from the centre of the system.The greatest brightness is at the centre, where dC = 27rp d

**p**, C = 7rR2.Now by (17), (18) z 1 J1(z) =Jo(z)- (z); where

**P**increases.When the interval is very small the discrepancy, though mathematically existent, produces no practical effect, and the illumination at B due to

**P**is as important as that due to A, the intensities of the two luminous sources being supposed equal.Under these conditions it is clear that A and

**P**are not separated in the image.This is necessarily a question of degree; but it does not require detailed calculations in order to show that the discrepancy first becomes conspicuous when the phases corresponding to the various secondary waves which travel from

**P**to B range over a complete period.The illumination at B due to

**P**then becomes comparatively small, indeed for some forms of aperture evanescent.The extreme discrepancy is that between the waves which travel through the outermost parts of the object-glass at L and L'; so that if we adopt the above standard of resolution, the question is where must

**P**be situated in order that the relative retardation of the rays PL and PL' may on their arrival at B amount to a wave-length (X).The distance f i, which the actual focal length must exceed, is given by d (f1 2 R2) x; so that f1 = 2 R2/X (1) Thus, if X =

**p**j, R= i ?, we find f1= 800 inches.In spite of any inequality between

**p**and**p**', the definition will be good to this order of approximation, provided a and y vanish.A similar expression can be found for Q'

**P**- Q"A; and thus, if Q' A =v, Q' AO = where v =a cos (0", we get - - -AQ' = a sin w (sin 4 -sink") - - 8a sin 4 w(sin cktan 4 + sin 'tan cl)').In the present application 4' is not necessarily equal to; but if

**P**correspond to a line upon the grating, the difference of retardations for consecutive positions of**P**, so far as expressed by the term of the first order, will be equal to mX (m integral), and therefore without influence, provided v (sin 0-sin0') = nzX (11), where a denotes the constant interval between the planes containing the lines.If we write

**p**= 27rR/A (6), we must regard**p**as a function of f, and we may take with sufficient approximation under any ordinary circumstances where**p**' denotes the value of**p**at 0, and is a constant, which is positive when the retarding plate is held at the side on which the blue of the spectrum is seen.Only in this case can cos {

**p**' +(m- -27th/Af) f } retain the constant value - I throughout the integration, and then only when and a = 27Th/A f (8) cos**p**'=- 1 ..The linear width of the band (e) is the increment of which alters

**p**by 27r, so that e =27r /tr.But against this explanation of the heading ry;

**p**' 2 there is an almost insuperable objection; for, since both the first and second books contain psalms with this heading, it is clear that the " Chief Musician's - or Director's - Psalter " must have been in existence before either of these books; in which case, apart from the difficulty of the antiquity which we should be compelled to assign to this earliest Psalter, it is impossible to understand on what principle the first book of Psalms was formed.Now we have seen that the 5 prefixed to n-'

**p**'**p**cannot refer to authorship; we seem therefore shut up to one of two alternatives, either the psalms inscribed 's?It may be safely said of all those living things which are large enough to enable us to trust the evidence of microscopes, that they are heterogeneous optically, and that their different parts, and especially the surface layer, as Life and contrasted with the interior, differh sicall and organiza-

**P**Y ?But many of the simpler

**P**Y ler**P**forms of life may undergo desiccation to such an extent as to arrest their vital manifestations and convert them into the semblance of not-living matter, and yet remain potentially alive.He has no claim to be regarded as a genius; but, as SainteBeuve has said, he well deserves a place "da

**p**s la classe des esprits infiniment distingues" - distinguished, however, it ought to be added by intelligence rather than by intellect, and less by the power of saying much than by the power of saying a little well.The present London residence of the sovereign is Buckingham Palace, on the west side of St

**p**James's Park, with beautiful gardens behind it.**P**of the city was its special property, and it extended as far as the limits of the territorium of the nearest Roman city or as near thereto as the natural boundaries."Except in a few instances these were long ago superseded by ron-wire ropes, which in turn have

**p**been replaced by steel because of its greater strength.While the mine workings are small the overlying rocks support themselves of and the full pressure does not come upon the mine Caving

**p**i llars.The fighting spirit of the people of for iveness and endurance, upheld Guru Nanak's g

**p**was roused and satisfied by the spiritual and military leader.His elder brother Ram Rai was passed over

**p**was put to death for refusal to embrace Islam b.Let

**P**, Q denote the normal thrust across the sides bc, ca, and R the normal thrust across the base ab.Then, since these three forces maintain equilibrium, and R makes equal angles with

**P**and Q, therefore**P**and Q must be equal.But the faces bc, ca, over which

**P**and Q act, are also equal, so that the pressure on each face is equal.If a thrust

**P**lb is applied to one piston of area A ft.For if the liquid of density a rises to the height h and of density

**p**to the height k, and po denotes the atmospheric pressure, the pressure in the liquid at the level of the surface of separation will be ah+Po and pk +po, and these being equal we have Uh = pk.Ignoring temperature effect, and taking the density as a function of the pressure, surfaces of equal pressure are also of equal density, and the fluid is stratified by surfaces orthogonal to the lines of force; n ap, dy,

**P**d z, or X, Y, Z (4) are the partial differential coefficients of some function**P**, =fdplp, of x, y, z; so that X, Y, Z must be the partial differential coefficients of a potential -V, such that the force in any direction is the downward gradient of V; and then dP dV (5) ax + Tr=0, or**P**+V =constant, in which**P**may be called the hydrostatic head and V the head of potential.These equations can be made to represent the state of convective equilibrium of the atmosphere, depending on the gas-equation

**p**= pk =RA (6) where 0 denotes the absolute temperature; and then d9 d**p**R dz - dz (**p**) n+ 1' so that the temperature-gradient deldz is constant, as in convective equilibrium in (I I).From the gas-equation in general, in the atmosphere n d dp _ I dp 1 de _ d0 de i de (8) z

**p**dz-edz-**p**-edz-k-edz' which is positive, and the density**p**diminishes with the ascent, provided the temperature-gradient de/dz does not exceed elk.With uniform temperature, taking h constant in the gas-equation, dp / dz= =

**p**/ k,**p**=poet/ k, (9) so that in ascending in the atmosphere of thermal equilibrium the pressure and density diminish at compound discount, and for pressures**p**1 and 1, 2 at heights z 1 and z2 (z1-z2)11?Then dp/dz=kdp/dz =

**P**, = Poe ik,**p**- po= kpo(ez Ik -1); (16) and if the liquid was incompressible, the depth at pressure**p**would be (**p**- po) 1po, so that the lowering of the surface due to compression is ke h I k -k -z= 1z 2 /k, when k is large.For a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity,

**p**is proportional to the depth below the surface, i.e.Suppose

**P**tons is moved c ft.The varying direction of the inclining couple Pc may be realized by swinging the weight

**P**from a crane on the ship, in a circle of radius c. But if the weight**P**was lowered on the ship from a crane on shore, the vessel would sink bodily a distance**P**/wA if**P**was deposited over F; but deposited anywhere else, say over Q on the water-line area, the ship would turn about a line the antipolar of Q with respect to the confocal ellipse, parallel to FF', at a distance FK from F FK= (k2-hV/A)/FQ sin QFF' (2) through an angle 0 or a slope of one in m, given by**P**sin B= m wA FK - W'Ak 2V hV FQ sin QFF', (3) where k denotes the radius of gyration about FF' of the water-line area.I n a straight uniform current of fluid of density

**p**, flowing with velocity q, the flow in units of mass per second across a plane area A, placed in the current with the normal of the plane making an angle 0 with the velocity, is oAq cos 0, the product of the density**p**, the area A, and q cos 0 the component velocity normal to the plane.The time rate of increase of momentum of the fluid inside S is )dxdydz; (5) and (5) is the sum of (I), (2), (3), (4), so that /if (dpu+dpu2+dpuv +dpuw_ +d

**p**j d xdyd z = o, (b)` dt dx dy dz dx / leading to the differential equation of motion dpu dpu 2 dpuv dpuv _ X_ (7) dt + dx + dy + dz with two similar equations.If homogeneous liquid is drawn off from a vessel so large that the motion at the free surface at a distance may be neglected, then Bernoulli's equation may be written H = PIP--z - F4 2 / 2g =

**P**/**p**+h, (8) where**P**denotes the atmospheric pressure and h the height of the free surface, a fundamental equation in hydraulics; a return has been made here to the gravitation unit of hydrostatics, and Oz is taken vertically upward.Thus if d,/ is the increase of 4, due to a displacement from

**P**to**P**', and k is the component of velocity normal to PP', the flow across PP' is d4 = k.PP'; and taking PP' parallel to Ox, d,, = vdx; and similarly d/ ' = -udy with PP' parallel to Oy; and generally d4,/ds is the velocity across ds, in a direction turned through a right angle forward, against the clock.Taking two planes x = =b, and considering the increase of momentum in the liquid between them, due to the entry and exit of liquid momentum, the increase across dy in the direction Oy, due to elements at

**P**and**P**' at opposite ends of the diameter PP', is pdy (U - Ua 2 r2 cos 20 +mr i sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0+mr 1 cos 0) + pdy (- U+Ua 2 r 2 cos 2 0 +mr1 sin 0) (Ua 2 r 2 sin 2 0 -mr 1 cos 0) =2pdymUr '(cos 0 -a 2 r 2 cos 30), (8) and with b tan r =b sec this is 2pmUdo(i -a 2 b2 cos 30 cos 0), (9) and integrating between the limits 0 = 27r, the resultant, as before, is 27rpmU.Motion symmetrical about an Axis.-When the motion of a liquid is the same for any plane passing through Ox, and lies in the plane, a function ' can be found analogous to that employed in plane motion, such that the flux across the surface generated by the revolution of any curve AP from A to

**P**is the same, and represented by 2s-4 -11'o); and, as before, if d is the increase in due to a displacement of**P**to**P**', then k the component of velocity normal to the surface swept out by PP' is such that 274=2.7ryk.PP'; and taking PP' parallel to Oy and Ox, u= -d/ydy, v=dl,t'/ydx, (I) and 1P is called after the inventor, " Stokes's stream or current function," as it is constant along a stream line (Trans.The components of velocity of the moving origin are denoted by U, V, W, and the components of angular velocity of the frame of reference by

**P**, Q, R; and then if u, v, w denote the components of fluid velocity in space, and u', v', w' the components relative to the axes at a point (x, y, z) fixed to the frame of reference, we have u =U +u' - yR +zQ, v =V +v -zP +xR, w=W +w -xQ +yP.Ja - u ?I a -a b -u' sh nS2=sh log (Q)=?a - b a - a' b - u' At x where = co, u = o, and q= go, (O n b - a ' a + a -b a' cio) - ?a-a'?b a-a' q In crossing to the line of flow x'A'

**P**'J', b changes from o to m, so that with q = Q across JJ', while across xx the velocity is qo, so that i n = go.Over the ellipsoid,

**p**denoting the length of the perpendicular from the centre on a tangent plane, px _ pv _ _ pz 1= a2+X' b +A' n c2+A p2x2 + p2y2 p2z2 I (a2 - + X)2 (b 2 +x)2 + (0+X)2,**p**2 = (a2+A)12+(b2+X)m2+(c2+X)n2, = a 2 1 2 +b 2 m 2 +c 2 n 2 +X, 2p d = ds; (8) Thence d?When the liquid is bounded externally by the fixed ellipsoid A = A I, a slight extension will give the velocity function 4 of the liquid in the interspace as the ellipsoid A=o is passing with velocity U through the confocal position; 4 must now take the formx(1'+N), and will satisfy the conditions in the shape CM abcdX ¢ = Ux - Ux a b x 2+X)

**P**Bo+CoB I - C 1 (A 1 abcdX, I a1b1cl - J o (a2+ A)**P**and any'confocal ellipsoid defined by A, internal or external to A=A 1, may be supposed to swim with the liquid for an instant, without distortion or rotation, with velocity along Ox BA+CA-B 1 -C1 W'.The image of a source of strength

**p**at S outside a sphere of radius a is a source of strength pa/f at H, where 'OS' =f, OH =a2/f, and a line sink reaching from the image H to the centre 0 of line strength - A la; this combination will be found to produce no flow across the surface of the sphere.Taking Ox along OS, the Stokes' function at

**P**for the source S is**p**cos PSx, and of the source H and line sink OH is**p**(a/f) cos PHx and - (**p**/a) (PO - PH); so that =**p**(cos PSx+f cos PHx PO a PH), (q) and Ili = -**p**, a constant, over the surface of the sphere, so that there is no flow across.Thus if T is expressed as a quadratic function of U, V, W,

**P**, Q, R, the components of momentum corresponding are dT dT dT (I) = dU + x2=dV, x3 =dW, dT dT dT Yi dp' dQ' y3=dR; but when it is expressed as a quadratic function of xi, 'x2, x3, yi, Y2, Y3, U = d, V= dx, ' w= ax dT Q_ dT dT dy 1 dy2 dy The second system of expression was chosen by Clebsch and adopted by Halphen in his Fonctions elliptiques; and thence the dynamical equations follow X = dt x2 dy +x3 d Y = ..., Z ..., (3) = dt1 -y2?y - '2dx3+x3 ' M =..If

**p**denotes the density of the air or medium W' = sird 3 xp, (23) W' I**p**__ W I -1 3 k12 I k22 x2 ±i a 2= 101-1 3 '111 2= 2 tan g S = Q (l - a) x 2+ I (26) in which a/**p**may be replaced by 800 times the S.G.The cuneiform system of writing Semitic. w as still in process of growth when it was borrowed influence

**p**g and adapted by the new comers, and the Semitic Babylonian language was profoundly influenced by the older language of the country, borrowing its words and even its grammatical usages.**P**Y administrative abilities of his father, and the success of his reign was not commensurate with the vanity of the ruler.His successor was Nabo oPP Y

**P**lassar, between whom and the last king of Assyria war broke out.In 1347 Florence was again stricken with famine, followed the next year by the most terrible plague it had ever experienced, which carried off three-fifths of the population (according to now threatened Florence in the person of Castruccio

**p**Villani).This g Y

**P**Y PP Y infamous law, however, aroused so much opposition that some of the very men who had proposed it assembled in secret to discuss its abolition, and a quarrel between the Albizzi and the Ricci having weakened the parte, a balia of 56 was agreed upon.If by this process a more perfect defecation and purification of the juice is obtained, it will no doubt be highly beneficial to the cane

**p**lanter, though no great economy in lime can be effected, because but very little is used in a cane factory in comparison with the amount used in a beet factory.Let PQ be the ordinate of the point

**P**FIG.Outline of the ventral surface to show the external apertures and nervous system; a, rosette-organ; b, uterine pore; c, terminal sucker; e, vaginal pore; g, male gonopore; n, o,

**p**, nervous system.Where the amount of phosphoric acid (

**P**2 0,) is less than.The paring and burning of land, although formerly practised as an ordinary means of improving the texture and fertility of arable fields, can now only be looked upon as a practice

**p**to be adopted for the purpose of bringing rapidly into cultivation very foul leys or, land covered with a coarse turf.Palgrave made his adventurous journey through Nejd, and published the remarkable narrative which has taken itslace as the classic of Arabian

**P**Nejd.On his death in 1897 his nephew Abdul-Aziz, son of the murdered amir Matab, succeeded; during his reign a new element has been introduced into Nejd politics by the rising importance of Kuwet (Koweit) and the attempts R t g

**P**()**P**history.At the close of the month he resigned his

**p**ost on being elected, in spite of his youth, a deputy to the Convention by the department of Seine-et-Oise, and he began his legislative career by defending the conduct of the Commune during the massacres.Returning to favour in 1899, he was promoted to the Legation at Tokio, where, however, under the influence of German reports concerning the Japanese army - and es

**p**ecially its artillery - he misjudged Japan's advent as a Great Power.If M 1, M2, and

**P**1,**P**2 be the molecular weights and vapour pressures of the components A and B, then the ratio of A to B in the distillate is M 1**P**1 /M 2**P**2.**P**1 greater than P2, if the molecular weight of A be much less than that of B, then it is obvious that the ratio M 1**P**1 /M 2**P**2 need not be very great, and hence the less volatile liquid B would come over in fair amount.A, Fasciola hepatica, from the ventral surface (X 2); the alimentary and nervous systems only shown on the left side of the figure, the excretory only on the right; a, right main branch of the intestine; c, a diverticulum; g, lateral ganglion; n, lateral nerve; o, mouth;

**p**, pharynx; s, ventral sucker; cs, cirrus sac; d, left anterior dorsal excretory vessel; m, main vessel; v, left anterior ventral trunk; x, excretory pore.A, Dorsal view showing the nervous system and digestive system; a, mouth; b, pharynx; c, d, e, gut; E, post-genital union of two limbs of gut; f, excretory pore; g, vaginal pore; h, j, k, brain and nerves; 1, dorsal nerves; m, ventral nerves; n, adoral sucker; o, posterior sucker;

**p**, hooks on posterior sucker; r, vitello-intestinal duct.S' 3' S'

**p**called voluntary loans was abolished, and replaced by a tax of ro% (la decima) on all real property.Bribery was the first weapon employed, and a car- y

**p**dinal's hat was held out as a bait.So long as King Charles remained in Italy Alexander's concern for his own safety

**p**revented vigorous measures against the friar.His pulpit in the duomo was defiled, an ass's skin spread over the cushion and shar nails fixed in the board Bxcorn-,

**p**mun.cated.In other Entoprocta the buds on a horseshoe retain a high degree of individuality, a shaped l o

**p**h o - thread-like stolon giving off the cylindrical phore; stalks, each of which dilates at its end i, Ectocyst; into the body of a zooid.Vast

**p**PRINTED If ouds of dust and stones, blown out of the crater and funnel of ie volcano, were hurled into the air and carried for hundreds miles, the finer particles falling to the earth even.The Reason is the superior andre onderant element which settles the direction

**p****p**in which all the other faculties shall expand.They are said, though it is not easy to

**p**believe, to have been elaborated by way of Utopia.Sir Robert Peel became r i me minister, and made the member for Newark

**p**vice-president of the Board of Trade.Having been returned again for the university of Oxford, he entered on the active duties of a great office for which he was pre-eminently g

**P**Y House of government in power, but on the 18th of October the commons.He was now sixty-four, and his life had been a continuous experience of exhausting Temporary

**p**g retirement.As for his ivory-white, it distinctly surpasses the Chinese Ming Chen-yao in every quality except an indescribable intimacy of glaze and

**p**&e which probably can never be obtained by either Japanese or European methods.The platinum strips are exceedingly minute, being in some cases only 2 5

**p**in.The Priestly Writer in the Pentateuch also a

**p**pears to be acquainted with this doctrine; it is the first of four ages which begins with the Creation and ends with the Deluge.The small eyes are some- T y

**p**h l o**p**s bra- times covered by transparent shields.In such a diagram, a point

**P**defines a particular mixture, both as to percentage, composition and temperature; a vertical line through**P**corresponds to the mixture at all possible temperatures, the point Q being its freezing-point.His genius still works under forms prescribed by Greek art, and under the disadvantage of having a

**p**ractical and utilitarian aim imposed on it.In the beginning of March 1921, direct negotiation between Poland and Lithuania under the aus

**p**ices of the League of Nations, to be followed by arbitration on unsettled points, was proposed in lieu of the plebiscite and agreed to by all parties.Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and

**p**the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.This mass is equal to 47rabcp,u; therefore Q = A47rabcp s and b =pp, where

**p**is the length of the perpendicular let fall from the centre of the ellipsoid on the tangent plane.Let this rectangular prism be supposed to be wholly filled up with electricity of density

**p**; then the total quantity in it is**p**dx dy dz.It defines the condition which must be fulfilled by the potential at any and every point in an electric field, through which

**p**is finite and the electric force continuous.It may be looked upon as an equation to determine

**p**when V is given or vice versa.Then bearing in mind that a= (I/4x1-)dV/dn, and

**p**=-(1/4xr)VV, we have finally E 2 c/v=2 f f v.-dS+ 2J J J Vp dv.Then the potential at any point

**P**in this ideal plane PO is equal to q/AP-q/BP=0, whilst the resultant force at**P**due to the two point charges is 2gAO/AP 3, and is parallel to AB or normal to PO.The isothermals are approximately equilateral hyperbolas (pv= constant), with the axes of

**p**and v for asymptotes, for a gas or unsaturated vapour, but coincide with the isopiestics for a saturated vapour in presence of its liquid.Substituting these symbols in the expression for the area, the relation becomes H=o(

**p**' -**p**„)(v„_v')/(o' - o").In the notation of the calculus the relations become - dH/dp (0 const) = odv /do (

**p**const) (4) dH/dv (0 const) =odp/do (v const) The negative sign is prefixed to dH/dp because absorption of heat +dH corresponds to diminution of pressure - dp. The utility of these relations results from the circumstance that the pressure and expansion co efficients are familiar and easily measured, whereas the latent heat of expansion is difficult to determine.Finally, the substance is reconverted into the first state at the temperature 0", completing the cycle by the abstraction of a quantity of heat By the application of the first law, the difference of the quantities of heat absorbed and evolved in the cycle must be equal to the work represented by the area of the cycle, which is equal to (

**p**' -**p**") (v" - v') in the limit when the difference of pressure is small.Dividing by (0' - e"), and writing dp/do and dL/do for the limiting values of !the ratios (

**p**' -**p**")/(o' - o") and (L' - L")/(o' - o"), we obtain the important relations s' - s"+dL/do= (v" - v')dp/do=L/o,..For a finite change it is necessary to represent the path by a series of small steps, which is the graphic equivalent of integration along the path represented by the given relation between v and 0, or

**p**and 0.The change of energy at constant volume is simply sdo, the change at constant temperature is (odp/de -

**p**)dv, which may be written dE/de (v const) =s, dE/dv (0 const) =odp/do -**p**.A similar expression for the variation of the specific heat S at constant pressure is obtained from the second expression in (8), by taking

**p**and 0 as independent variables; but it follows more directly from a consideration of the variation of the function (E+pv).To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of

**p**and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to**p**. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.Observing that F is a function of the co-ordinates expressing the state of the substance, we obtain for the variation of S with pressure at constant temperature, dS/dp (0 const) '=' 2 F/dedp =-0d 2 v/d0 2 (

**p**const) (12) If the heat supplied to a substance which is expanding reversibly and doing external work, pdv, is equal to the external work done, the intrinsic energy, E, remains constant.The equation to these lines in terms of v and 0 is obtained by integrating dE=sd0+(Odp/de -

**p**)dv = o .The equation to the lines of constant total heat is found in terms of

**p**and 0 by putting dF=o and integrating (it).The isothermal elasticity - v(dp/dv) is equal to the pressure

**p**. The adiabatic elasticity is equal to y**p**, where -y is the ratio S/s of the specific heats.It is found by experiment that the change of pv with pressure at moderate pressures is nearly proportional to the change of

**p**, in other words that the coefficient d(pv)/dp is to a first approximation a function of the temperature only.If we consider any short length of the stream bounded by two imaginary cross-sections A and B on either side of the plug, unit mass of the fluid in passing A has work,

**p**'v', done on it by the fluid behind and carries its energy, E'+ U', with it into the space AB, where U' is the kinetic energy of flow.In passing B it does work,

**p**"v", on the fluid in front, and carries its energy, E"+ U", with it out of the space AB.We have therefore, by equation, (11), Sd0 = (Odv/d0 - v) d

**p**,.The characteristic equation of the fluid must then be of the form v/0=f(

**p**), where f(**p**) is any arbitrary function of**p**. If the fluid is a gas also obeying Boyle's law, pv = f (0), then it must be an ideal gas.Putting d0/dp=A/0 2 in equation (15), and integrating on the assumption that the small variations of S could be neglected over the range of the experiment, they found a solution of the type, v/0 =f(

**p**) - SA /30 3, in which f(**p**) is an arbitrary function of**p**. Assuming that the gas should approximate indefinitely to the ideal state pv = R0 at high temperatures, they put f(**p**)=Rip, which gives a characteristic equation of the form v= Re/**p**- SA /30 2 .Other favourite types' of equation for approximate work are (I)

**p**=RO/v±f(v), which makes**p**a linear function of 0 at constant volume, as in van der Waal's equation; (2) v=RO/**p**+f(**p**), which makes v a linear function of 0 at constant pressure.Denoting by So, so, these constant limiting values at

**p**=o, we may obtain the values at any pressure by integrating the expressions (27) and (28) from co to v and from o to**p**respectively.If the tube is a perfect non-conductor, and if there are no eddies or frictional dissipation, the state of the substance at any point of the tube as to E,

**p**, and v, is represented by the adiabatic or isentropic path, dE= -pdv.Since dJ=-4d9-pdv, we have also the relations dJ'/dv' = -

**p**= dJ"/dv", at constant temperature.This may be interpreted as the equation of the border curve giving the relation between

**p**and 0, but is more easily obtained by considering the equilibrium at constant pressure instead of constant volume.Assuming the function G to be expressed in terms of

**p**and 0, this condition represents the relation between**p**and 0 corresponding to equilibrium between the two states, which is the solution of the relation (v" - v')dp/dO=L/D, (5).The direct integration of this equation requires that L and v" - v' should be known as functions of

**p**and 0, and cannot generally be performed.Thus in Greece there are eleven archbishops

**p**to thirteen bishops, the archbishop of Athens alone being metropolitan; in Cyprus, where there are four bishops and only one archbishop, all five are of metropolitan rank.It is the latest writer (

**P**) who mentions Abram (the original form of the name), Nahor and Haran, sons of Terah, at the close of a genealogy of the sons of Shem, which includes among its members Eber the eponym of the Hebrews.For the completion of the history of Abraham the compiler of Genesis has used

**P**'s narrative.In this alphabet the Greek letter

**p**(or rather a very similar letter with the loop a little lower down) is used to represent sh, and there are some peculiarities in the use of o apparently connected with the expression of the sounds h and w.The reason for this is readily seen; if a mass M of any gas occupies a volume V at a temperature T (on the absolute scale) and a pressure

**P**, then its absolute density under these conditions is O = M/V; if now the temperature and pressure be changed to l and**P**,, the volume V l under these conditions is VPT/PIT1, and the absolute density is MP,T/VPT I.From the bottom there leads

**P**another fine tube, bent upwards, and then at right angles so as to be at the same level as the capillary branch.The tube V, on the contrary, is attached to the cradle, and merely forms a support for the finder Q, the handles at f and

**p**, and the moving ring**P**. The latter gives quick motion in position angle; the handles at**p**clamp and give slow motion in position angle, those at f clamp and give slow motion in right ascension and declination.The reverse motion of

**P**automatically moves the paper ribbon forward, ready to - 20 receive the next impression.The only connexion between the type-wheel and the screwhead S is by the pin

**p**(which is screwed into S), the cylindrical end of which acts in a slot cut in the typewheel.The prism

**p**is fitted accurately into brass slides (care has to be taken in the construction to place the prism so that an object in the centre of the field will so remain when the eye-piece is rotated in its adapter).The magnifying power is varied by changing the lens a for another in which

**p**has a different value.If

**p**" is the refracting angle of the prism, and n the magnifying power of the eye-piece, then**p**"ln will be the distance observed.Of the rest,

**P**and Q are imperfect.For by transliterating Ka7vap Nepc'ev into Hebrew 1113 10,

**P**and adding together the sums denoted by the Hebrew letters we obtain the number 666.In the tropical and subtropical belts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of the equator the salinity diminishes rapidly from the surface downwards, and at 500 fathoms reaches a minimum of 34.3 or 34.4

**p**e r mille; after that it increases again to 800 fathoms, where it is almost 34.7 or 34.8, and this salinity holds good to the bottom, even to the greatest depths, as was first shown by the " Gauss " and afterwards by the " Planet " between Durban and Ceylon.The shaft is lined with a cylinder of wrought iron, within which a tubular chamber, provided with doors above and below, known as an

**P**g air-lock, is fitted by a telescopic joint, which is tightly sinkin packed so as to close the top of the shaft air-tight.The surface arrangements of a modern deep colliery are of considerable extent and complexity, the central feature being the head gear or pit frame carrying the guide pulleys Surface which lead the winding roes from the axis of the it arrange= g

**P****P**to the drum.If

**P**represent the average value of the component of a force in the direction of the displacement, s, of its point of application, the product Ps measures the work done during the displacement.The apparatus used to measure

**P**or T is the dynamometer.Apparatus is added to some dynamometers by means of which a curve showing the variations of

**P**on a distance base is drawn automatically, the area of the diagram representing the work done; with others, integrating apparatus is combined, from which the work done during a given interval may be read off directly.This has a slotted end, engaged by a pin

**P**fixed to the framing, and it will be seen that its action is to slacken the band if the load tends to rise and to tighten it in the contrary case.The external forces holding the brake from turning are W, distant R from the axis, and the reaction, W 1 say, of the lever against the fixed pin

**P**, distant R1 from the axis.When the wheel is turning in the direction indicated, the forces holding the band still are W, and

**p**, the observed pull on the spring balance.Both these forces usually act at the same radius R, the distance from the axis to the centre line of the rope, in which case the torque T is (W-

**p**)R, and consequently the brake horse-power is (W -**p**)RX21rN, When µ 33,000 changes the weight W rises or falls against the action of the spring balance until a stable condition of running is obtained.The ratio

**p**is given by e"` e, where e= 2.718; µ is the coefficient of friction and 0 the angle, measured in radians,, subtended by the arc of contact between the rope and the wheel.The ratio W/

**p**increases very rapidly as 0 is increased,, and therefore, by making 0 sufficiently large,**p**may conveniently be made a small fraction of W, thereby rendering errors of observation of the spring balance negligible.When a belt, in which the maximum and minimum tensions are respectively

**P**and**p**lb, drives a pulley, the torque exerted FIG.**P**and**p**may be measured directly by leading the belt round two freely hanging guide pulleys, one in the tight, the other in the slack part of the belt, and adjusting loads on them until a stable condition of running is obtained.If a force Q acting at R maintains equilibrium, QR/4 = (

**P**-**p**)r =T.The force Q, usually measured by a spring, required to maintain the beam in its central position is proportional to (

**P**-**p**).If the angle 0 1 =0 2 =120 0, Q = (

**P**-**p**) neglecting friction.When a shaft is driven by means of gearing the driving torque is measured by the product of the resultant pressure

**P**acting between the wheel teeth and the radius of the pitch circle of the wheel fixed to the shaft.This is equivalent to a steady pressure

**p**i per unit area where +0 pi - zfff v J 1 (h3m3/ir3)e hm(u2+v2+w2)mu2dudvdw.This equation is found experimentally to be capable of representing the relation between

**p**, v, and T over large ranges of values.The equation of energy is dQ=dE+pdv, (17) expressing that the total energy dQ is used partly in increasing the internal energy of the gas, and partly in expanding the gas against the pressure

**p**. If we take**p**= RNT/v from equation (14) and substitute for E from equation (16), this last equation becomes dQ 2 (n +3)RNdT +RNTdv (18) which may be taken as the general equation of calorimetry, for a gas which accurately obeys equation (14).The Cathars even held it necessary, in case a bishop fell into mortal sin, to repeat his ba

**p**tisms and ordinations, for they had been vitiated by his sins.The laws of the Carolingian empire provided that one excom municated by the Church who did not make his peace

**p**within a year and a day should be outlawed, and this general principle was not lost sight of.Y

**P**Here he began to denounce the abuses in the Church, as well as the traffic in mercenaries which had so long been a blot upon his country's honour.As might have been anticipated, this caused no break in the policy of the English king and his parliament, and a series of famous acts passed in the year 1534 completed and confirmed the independence of the Church of England, which, except during five years under Queen Mary,

**p**g Y Q Y?Contemporaneously with the Wars of Religion in France a long and terrible struggle between the king of Spain and his Dutch and Belgian provinces had resulted in the formation of a Protestant state - the United Nether- United lands, which was destined tola an important role play

**p**in the history of the Reformed religion.Open both to German and French influences, the Netherlands had been the scene of the first executions of Lutherans; they had been a centre of Anabaptist agitation; but Calth y

**P**?A philosopher," as Gibbon long ago pointed out, _ who asks from what articles of faith above and against reason the early Reformers enfranchised their followers of

**P**will be surprised at their timidity rather than scandal Y ized by their freedom.Ellis, l ater expanded, and in the process somewhat weakened, into his

**P**liritan Age and Rule in the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay, 1629-168 5 (Boston, 1888; 3rd ed., 1891).Whether with Payne it is assumed that in some remote time a The speechless anthropoid passed over a land bride now American

**P****P****P**g ?The only basis of division practicable is Y

**P**language, which must be kept separate in the mind from the others.If a .JP solid circle be fixed in any one position and a tube be pivoted on its centre so as to move; and if the line C D be drawn upon the circle pointing towards any object Q in the heavens which lies in the plane of the circle, by turn ing the tube A B towards any other object

**P**in the plane of the circle, the angle B 0 D will be the angle subtended by the two objects**P**and Q at the eye.Then MA'B'N is a right trapezium, whose area is equal to that of Cabd; and it is related to the latter in such a way that, if any two lines parallel to AC and BD meet AB, CD, MN, A'B', in E, G,

**P**, E', and F, H, Q, F', respectively, the area of the piece PE'F'Q of the right trapezium 'B.Then, if we take ordinates Kb, Lg, Mc, Nd, Pf, equal to B'B, GG', C'C, D'D, FF', the figure abgcdfe will be the equivalent trapezoid, and any ordinate drawn from the base to the a LM N

**P**e X top of this trapezoid will be equal to the portion of this ordinate (produced) which falls within the original figure.Then the prismoid is divided into a pyramid with vertex

**P**and base ABCD ..., and a series of tetrahedra, such as PABa or PAab.This would involve

**p**and q; but, for our purposes, the data are the sides pa+q and pb+q and the base b - a, and the expression of the integral in terms of these data would require certain eliminations.Writing m = 2p, and grouping the coefficients of the successive differences, we shall find area = 2ph up+ 2 652up + 3 p4365p2 84up 3p,6 - 21p4 28p2 15120 If u is of degree 2f or 2f + i in x, we require to go up to b 2f u

**p**, so that m must be not less than 2f.Simpson's (first) formula, for instance, holds for f = I, and is obtained by taking

**p**= i and ignoring differences after 52up.The general formulae of § 54 (

**p**being replaced (i) by 2m) may in the same way be applied to obtain formulae giving the area of the trapezette in terms of the mid-ordinates of the strips, the series being taken up to b 2f ul m or /th 2J ug m at least, where u is of degree 2f or 2f + I in x.If u is an algebraical function of x of degree not exceeding

**p**, and if the area of a trapezette, for which the ordinate v is of degree not exceeding**p**+q, may be expressed by a formula Aovo-1--yivi+..Combining this with the first equation, we obtain the values of

**P**, Q, R, ..The general expression, if

**p**, q, r,..If the data of the briquette are, as in § 86, the volumes of the minor briquettes, but the condition as to close contact is not satisfied, we have y "`x

**P**u dx dy = K + L + R - X111010-0,0 f xo yo i'?The parts of the range of moulds are brought tightly together and held in position by the bars 0 and the screw

**P**, and when one mould is filled the carrier is moved forward on its rails by wheels worked by a handle also shown in the figure.Gioja's latest work Filosofia della statistica (2 vols., 1826;

**p**vols., 1829-1830) contains in brief compass the essence of his ideas on human life, and affords the clearest insight into his aim and method in philosophy both theoretical and practical.As stated under Phosphorus, phosphoric oxide,

**P**2 0 5, combines with water in three proportions to form H 2 O**P**2 0 5 or HP03, metaphosphoric acid; 2H 2 O**P**2 0 5 or H4P207, pyrophosphoric acid; and 3H 2 O**P**2 0 5 or H 3 PO 4, orthophosphoric or ordinary phosphoric acid.Pyrophosphoric acid, 'H' 4

**P**2 0 7, is a tetrabasic acid which may be regarded as derived by eliminating a molecule of water between two molecules of ordinary phosphoric acid; its constitution may therefore be written (HO) 2 0P O PO(OH) 2.Being a tetrabasic acid it can form four classes of salts; for example, the four solium salts Na 4

**P**2 0 7, Na3HP207, Na 2 H 2**P**2 0 7, NaH 3**P**2 0 7 are known.The most important is the normal salt, Na 4

**P**2 0 7, which is readily obtained by heating disodium orthophosphate, Na 2 HPO 4.To prevent leakage over the surface of the insulating covering of the wire which projects above the surface of the water, it is necessary to employ a " guard wire

**P**, which consists of a piece of fine copper wire, twisted round the extremity of the insulated wire and connected to the battery.In addition there is a pressure between the layers of the medium, and if this pressure in the undisturbed parts of the medium is

**P**, momentum**P**per second is being transferred from right to left across each square centimetre.If the velocity of a particle at A relative to the undisturbed parts is u from left to right, the velocity of the matter moving out at A is U - u, and the momentum carried out by the moving matter is

**p**(U - u) 2.Equating this to the momentum entering at B and subtracting

**P**' from each X+W+**p**(U - u)2 =poU 2.He supposed that in air Boyle's law holds in the extensions and compressions, or that

**p**= kp, whence dp/dp = k =**p**/**p**. His value of the velocity in air is therefore U = iJ (**p**ip.) (Newton's formula).That is to say, instead of using Boyle's law, which supposes that the pressure changes so exceedingly slowly that conduction keeps the temperature constant, we must use the adiabatic relation

**p**= kpy, whence d**p**/d**p**= y k**p**Y 1= yp/**p**, and U = (yp/**p**) [Laplace's formula].For two different gases with the same value of y, but with densities at the same pressure and temperature respectively

**p**i and p2, we should have U1/U2 =1 1 (P2/P1), (Io) another result confirmed by observation.When the value of dyldx is not very small E is no longer constant, but is rather greater in compression and rather less in extension than -yP. This can be seen by considering that the relation between

**p**and is given by a curve and not by a straight line.If

**P**is the undisturbed pressure and**P**+w the pressure at AB, the momentum entering through AB per second isJ01(**P**+w-+pu2)dt.Buti o Pdt =

**P**is the normal pressure, and as we only wish to find the excess we may leave this out of account.Then putting (dy/dx) 2 = (u/U) 2, we have y +I I fU

**p**= 2.If the train of waves is reflected, the value of

**p**at AB will be the sum of the values for the two trains, and will, on the average, be doubled.Comparing the velocities of sound U i and U2 in two different gases with densities and at the same temperature and pressure, and with ratios of specific heats 'yl, 72, theory gives Ui/U2 = 1/ {71

**p**2/72**p**i }.If U is the velocity of sound in a gas at pressure

**P**with density**p**, and if waves of length X and frequency N are propagated through it, then the distanc?e l between the dust-heaps is 2 = N - zN Vyp' where y is the ratio of the two specific heats.If d is measured for two gases in succession for the same frequency N, we have 72

**p**2P1 d22 71**p**i**p**s d12' where the suffixes denote the gases to which the quantities relate.From the temperature,

**P**2 /**p**2 was known, and 72 / 71 could then be found.Take a point

**P**in the disturbed part, and a point Q which the disturbance has not yet reached.But the tension at

**P**is T, parallel to the tangent, and T sin 4 parallel to PM, and through this - T sin is the momentum passing out at**P**per second.If

**p**is the density at A, and w the cross-section, then the momentum carried past A is pc,(U - u) 2.Then we have Ya,ody/dx +

**p**& (U - u) 2 =**p**o&,oU 2.But keeping r/X small we may as before form stationary waves, and it is evident that the series of fundamental and overtones will be just as with the air in pipes, and we shall have the same three types - fixed at one end, free at both ends, fixed at both ends - with fundamental frequencies respectively 41,

**p**' 21 V**p**, and I velocity in rod =velocity in air X distance between dust heaps.The mass of matter moving through A per second is pwa 2 U, where a is the radius of the wire and

**p**is its density.Let us suppose that with constant excess of pressure,

**p**, in the wind-chest, the amplitude produced is proportional to the pressure, so that the two tones issuing may be represented by pa sin 27-nit and pb sin 21rn 2 t.To the Guard and 2nd divisions was assigned the frontal attack on the Chiuliencheng position where the Russians had about one-half of Bathe of

**P**, the Yalu.The true importance of Hebrew history had always cter

**p**y y ofcharafhe centred in the fact that this petty nation was the people work.In one is represented Moses receiving the Old Law, in the other Christ delivers to St Peter the New Law - a charter sealed with the X

**P**monogram.Maitland describes it (Political Theories of the Middle Ages,

**p**. x.), have an essentially "statelike character."Let A be the dead load and B the live load, producing stress in a bar;

**p**=B / A the ratio of live to dead load; f i the safe working limit of stress for a bar subjected to a dead load only and f the safe working stress in any other case.Let

**p**i, P2The greatest shear at C for any position of the load occurs when the head of the train is at C. For any load

**p**between C and B will increase the reaction at B and therefore the shear at C by part of**p**, but at the same time will diminish the shear at C by the whole FIG.I

**p**- - ---??Then the moment at C due to all the loads is M = Ply1+

**P**2y2+ .Let

**P**be the cost of one pier; G the cost of the main girders for one span, erected; n the number of spans; 1 the length of one span, and L the length of the bridge between abutments.Hence the total cost of that part of the bridge which varies with the span adopted is C = (n-i)

**P**-FnaP = LP// -**P**+Lal.Many candidates qualifica- approach the calling with a very imperfect a reciaPP g Y

**P**PP tion of its exacting character.The fall of Missolonghi, followed as this was by the submission of many of the more notable chiefs, left Reshid free to turn his attention to East Hellas, where Gouras had been ruling Karaa s a practically independent chief and in the s irit

**P**Y**P****P**?The worst enemy of the

**P**Y Greeks was their own incurable spirit of faction; in the very crisis of their fate, during the siege of Missolonghi, rival presidents and rival assemblies struggled for supremacy, and a third civil war had only been prevented by the arrival of Cochrane and Church.A hard-and-fast rule of pronunciation is that only vowel or diphthong sounds, or the letters" m," n," ng," k," t "and"

**p**"are permissible at the end of words, and hence the final letter of all words ending in anything else is simply suppressed or is pronounced as though it were a letter naturally producing one or other of those sounds.Calcium phosphide, Ca 3

**P**2, is obtained as a reddish substance by passing phosphorus vapour over strongly heated lime.The mother will defend her young with the utmost desperation against any assailant, and ha s

**p**been known to sacrifice her own life rather than desert them.Let E be the effective elasticity of the aether; then E = pc t, where

**p**is its density, and c the velocity of light which is 3 X 10 10 cm./sec. If = A cos" (t - x/c) is the linear vibration, the stress is E dE/dx; and the total energy, which is twice the kinetic energy Zp(d/dt) 2 dx, is 2pn2A2 per cm., which is thus equal to 1.8 ergs as above.The polarization itself is determined from the electric force (

**P**,Q,R) by the usual statical formula of linear type which becomes tor an isotropic medium (.f',g',h') = c2(**P**,Q,R), because any change of the dielectric constant K arising from the convection of the material through the aether must be independent of the sign of v and therefore be of the second order.Now the electric force (

**P**,Q,R) is the force acting on the electrons of the medium moving with velocity v; consequently by Faraday's electrodynamic law (**P**,Q,R) = (**P**',Q' - vc, R'+vb) where (**P**',Q',R') is the force that would act on electrons at rest, and (a,b,c) is the magnetic induction.If v varies with respect to locality, or if there is a velocity of convection (

**p**,q,r) variable with respect to direction and position, and analytical expression of the relation (ii) assumes a more complex form; we thus derive the most general equations of electrodynamic propagation for matter treated as continuous, anyhow distributed and moving in any manner.The priest of Shiloh is a much greater person than Micah's priest Jonathan; at the great This appears even in the words used as synonyms for " priest" rnvn,

**p**ion 'Dr, which exactly corresponds to sadin and hajib.In 1818 The Z.oll- Prussia adopted a tariff with much reduced duties,

**p**?The symbol (alp) which is known as Legendre's symbol, and denotes the positive or negative unit which is the remainder when au s (-1) is divided by a prime number

**p**, does not appear in this memoir, but was first used in the Essai sur la theorie des nombres.The definition of the coefficients is that if (I-2h cos cp+h 2)-i be expanded in ascending powers of h, and if the general term be denoted by

**P**„h', then**P**is of the Legendrian coefficient of the nth order.What is put before us, whether by the senses or by the statements of others, is instinctively accepted as a veracious report, till experience has proved the i

**P**oss**P****P****P**bility of deception.That glorious epithet belonged of right to Hungary,which g

**p**g g had already borne the brunt of the struggle with the Ottoman power for more than a century.During the earlier part of the 1 th

**P**g**P**5 century the Lithuanian princes had successfully contested Muscovite influence even in Pskov and Great Novgorod.A list of the clergy was immediately prepared by him for the king, in which each name was labelled with an 0 or a

**P**, distinguishing the Orthodox to be promoted from the Puritans to be suppressed.The resistance R can thus be divided into two factors, one of which is d 2, where d denotes the diameter of the shot in inches, and the other factor is denoted by

**p**, where**p**is the resistance in pounds at the same velocity to a similar I-in.It is further assumed, as the result of experiment, that the resistance is proportional to the density of the air; so that if the standard density changes from unity to any other relative density denoted by then R= Td 2

**p**, and is called the coefficient of tenuity.Collecting all the coefficients, into one, we put (I) R = nd 2

**p**= nd 2 f (v), where and n is called the coefficient of reduction.Starting with the experimental values of

**p**, for a standard projectile, fired under standard conditions in air of standard density, we proceed to the construction of the ballistic table.Since

**p**is determined experimentally and tabulated as a function of v, the velocity is taken as the argument of the ballistic table; and taking Av =10, the average value of**p**in the interval is used to determine AT.Denoting the value of T at any velocity v by T (v), then (8) T(v) = sum of all the preceding values of AT plus an arbitrary constant, expressed by the notation (9) T(v) =Z(Av)/gp+ a constant, or fdv/gp+ a constant, in which

**p**is supposed known as a function of v.These functions, T, S, D, 1, A, are shown numerically in the following extract from an abridged ballistic table, in which the velocity is taken as the argument and proceeds by an increment of 10 f/s; the column for

**p**is the one determined by experiment, and the remaining columns follow by calculation in the manner explained above.In any region of velocity where it is possible to represent

**p**with sufficient accuracy by an empirical formula composed of a single power of v, say v m, the integration can be effected which replaces the summation in (to), (16), and (24); and from an analysis of the Krupp experiments Colonel Zabudski found the most appropriate index m in a region of velocity as given in the following table, and the corresponding value of gp, denoted by f (v)or v m lk or its equivalent Cr, where r is the retardation.After a certain discount for friction and the recoil of the gun, the net work realized by the powder-gas as the shot advances AM is represented by the area Acpm, and this is equated to the kinetic energy e of the shot, in foot-tons, (I) e d2 I +

**p**, a in which the factor 4(k 2 /d 2)tan 2 S represents the fraction due to the rotation of the shot, of diameter d and axial radius of gyration k, and S represents the angle of the rifling; this factor may be ignored in the subsequent calculations as small, less than I %.Thus if a charge of

**P**lb of powder is placed in a chamber of volume C cub.With metric units, measuring

**P**in kg., and C in litres, the G.D.Assuming, however, that the agreement is close enough for practical requirement, the conbustion of the cordite may be considered complete at this stage

**P**, and in the subsequent expansion it is assumed that the gas obeys an adiabatic law in which the pressure varies inversely as some mtn power of the volume.Y

**p**important towns in 1594, and not allowed to return until 1609, when they found themselves confronted once more by their rival, the university of Paris.On the eve of the Revolution, France was enjoying the study of the institutions of Greece in the attractive pages of the

**P**g Voyage du jeune Anacharsis (1789), but the study of Greek was menaced even more than that of Latin.For the zinc solution, take 55.5 parts by weight of crystals of zinc sulphate (ZnS0470H2) and dissolve in 44.5

**p**arts by weight of distilled water; the resulting FIG.A pellet of potassium when thrown on water at once bursts out into a violet flame and the burning metal fizzes about on the surface, its extremely high temperature precluding absolute contact with the liquid, exce

**p**t at the very end, when the last remnant, through loss of temperature, is wetted by the water and bursts with explosive violence.Considering the imprisonment of the ostracod body within the valves, it is more surprising that the Asteropidae and Cypridinidae should have a pair of compound and sometimes large eyes, in addition to the e median organ at the base of I the " frontal tentacle," than 6 that other members of the group should be limited to

**P**that median organ of sight, or have no eyes at all.The Priestly sections of the Hexateuch (known as "

**P**") remain still to be considered.The legislation of "

**P**," though written down in or after the exile, must not, however, be supposed to be the creation of that period; many elements in it can be shown from the older literature to have been of great antiquity in Israel; it is, in fact, based upon preexilic Temple usage, though in some respects it is a development of it, and exhibits the form which the older and simpler ceremonial institutions of Israel ultimately assumed.In "

**P**'s " picture of the Mosaic age there are many ideal elements; it represents the priestly ideal of the past rather than the past as it actually was.The style of "

**P**" is strongly marked - as strongly marked, in fact, as (in a different way) that of Deuteronomy is; numerous expressions not found elsewhere in the Hexateuch occur in it repeatedly.It is necessary in the first er

**P**g Y Y Criticism.The Peshito is quoted as Syr

**P**, Pesh., and Syrsch (because Tischendorf followed the edition of Schaaf).Besides biogra

**p**hical sketches of Defoe, Sir John Davies, Allan Ramsay, Sir David Lyndsay, Churchyard and others, prefixed to editions of their respective works, Chalmers wrote a life of Thomas Paine, the author of the Rights of Man, which he published under the assumed name of Francis Oldys, A.M., of the University of Pennsylvania; and a life of Ruddiman, in which considerable light is thrown on the state of literature in Scotland during the earlier part of the last century.Since loge(I +x) =x-2x 2 -3x 3 - 4x4+&c., we have, by changing the sign of x, log e (I - x) _ - x - zx 2 - 3x 3 - x 4 - &c.; whence g 1 +x to=2(x+ix'+1x5+&c.), e l - x and, therefore, replacing x by

**p**+q, log e q =2**p**+q +3 () 3T ?Bibulus, who belonged to the as the provincia of the consuls of B.e.the supervision Gallic

**p**59**P**wars.The mouth opens through a narrow pharynx (

**p**) into a chamber which is (as in Crustacea) at once crop and gizzard, the mastax (ma), whose thickenings are imbedded in the posteroventral wall.It was also natural that these attempts g

**p**should be made where the need was most pressing, derings.The Old Testament of the Early Version was, according to the editors (Preface,

**p**. xvii.), taken in hand by one of Wycliffe's coadjutors, Nicholas de Herford.**P**g 4 535 is evident that Coverdale must have been engaged on the preparation of the work for the press at almost as early a date as Tyndale.The large sale of the New Testaments of Tyndale, and the success of Coverdale's Bible, showed the London booksellers that a new and profitable branch of business was o opened out to them, and they soon began to avail Matthew's

**P**?The report of Revised this committee, presented in May, adopted, to

**P**Y?**P**the effect " that Convocation should nominate a body of its own members to undertake the work of revision, who shall be at liberty to invite the co-operation of any eminent for scholarship, to whatever nation or religious body they may belong "; and shortly afterwards two companies were formed for the revision of the Authorized Version of the Old and New Testaments.By slightly turning the prism

**P**, the position of the spectrum on the first screen could be shifted sufficiently to cause light of any desired colour to pass through.**P****P**He adopted a tone of conciliation, and decided that the Stellaland republic should remain under a sort of British suzerainty.In 1891 the northern frontier of the protectorate was extended to its present boundaries, and the whole of it placed

**P****P**under the administration of a resident commissioner, a protest being made at the time by the British South Africa Company on the ground that the protectorate was included in the sphere of their charter.The most i m important developments of the cult are in East Asia

**p****p**among the Siberian tribes; among the Ainu of Sakhalin a young bear is caught at the end of winter and fed for some nine months; then after receiving honours it is killed, and the people, who previously show marks of grief at its approaching fate, dance merrily and feast on its body.On the eastern side of the north transept is the "scriptorium" or writing-room (

**P**1), with the library above.In the same way the physic garden presents the names of the medicinal herbs, and the cemetery (

**p**) those of the trees, apple, pear, plum, quince, &c., planted there.On the south side of the cloister stood the refectory (

**P**), an immense building, loo ft.The precincts are entered by a gateway (

**P**), at the extreme western extremity, giving admission to the lower ward.Detached from the great mass of the monastic edifices was the original abbot's house (N),with its dining-hall (

**P**).The small cloister is at W, where were the carols or cells of the scribes, with the library (

**P**) over, reached by a turret staircase.But the earlier buildings received considerable additions and alterations in the latereriod of the order, causing

**P**?France's plan for a great empire in America was now taking shape and there, as in Europe, a deadly Struggles g

**P****P**with struggle with England was inevitable.Influenced by somewhat similar motives, fearing from the advance of civilization the destruction of the buffalo, on which they chiefly depended for food, robes Y Y

**P**?Since the advance of civilization and indis c riminate slaughter have deprived them of the bison, g

**p**so long their natural means of subsistence, the northwest tribes have been maintained chiefly at the expense of the country.The chief executive authority is vested in the sovereign, as is the supreme command g

**p**of the military and naval forces.It is alleged to have been found growing wild between the Euphrates and the Tigris; but the discovery has never been authenticated, and unless the plant be sedulously cared for, the species

**p**dies out in a surprisingly short space of time.He died at the age of 147 (so

**P**), and permission was given to carry his body to Canaan to be buried.Oi, 1045 b 27-32, referring back to Z 1, or at the earliest to

**P**2.Moreover, he compared dialectic and sophistry, on account of their generality, with primary philosophy in the Metaphysics (

**P**2, 1004 b 17-26); to the effect that all three concern themselves with all things, but that about everything metaphysics is scientific, dialectic tentative, sophistry apparent, not real.It is well known in England for its graceful habit, the slender, grey - or white - barked stem, the delicate, drooping branches and the quivering leaves, a bright, clear green in s

**p**r i n g, becoming duller in the summer, but often keeping their greenness rather late into the 5 autumn.The Period Of Meton, Therefore, Consisted Of Twelve Years Containing Twelve Months Each, And Seven Years Containing Thirteen Months Each;

**P**And These Last Formed The Third, Fifth, Eighth, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Sixteenth, And Nineteenth Years Of The Cycle.Now In This Equation

**P**' May Be Any Number Whatever, Provided 15**P**Exceed 52.The Smallest Value Of

**P**(Which Is The One Here Wanted) Is Therefore 4; For 15X4=60.X, Period, 47 1 4, 47 1 5, 4716,...4713 X; From Which It Is Evident, That If We Take

**P**To Represent The Year Of The Julian Period, And X The Corresponding Year Of The Christian Era, We Shall Have**P**= 47 1 3 X, And X=**P**4713.There Are Also Eight Lines In Which 25 And 26 Occur, Namely, C, F, 1,

**P**, S, C, F,**P**. In The Other 14 Lines, 25 Either Does Not Occur At All, Or It Occurs In A Line In Which Neither 24 Nor 26 Is Found.The Value Of L Is Always Given By The Formula For The Dominical Letter, And

**P**And 1 Are Easily Deduced From The Epact, As Will Appear From The Following Considerations.When

**P**=I The Full Moon Is On The 21St Of March, And The New Moon On The 8Th (21 13 =8), Therefore The Moon'S Age On The 1St Of March (Which Is The Same As On The 1St Of January) Is Twentythree Days; The Epact Of The Year Is Consequently Twenty Three.