nitrous oxide, N 2 0, nitric oxide, NO, nitrogen trioxide, N203, nitrogen peroxide, N02, and nitrogen pentoxide, N205, whilst three oxyacids of nitrogen are known: hyponitrous acid, H2N202, nitrous acid, HN02, and nitric acid, HNO 3 (q.v.).
Thus the chlorine oxyacids enumerated above form salts named respectively hypochlorites, chlorites, chlorates and perchlorates.
difference between non-metallic and metallic hydroxides; the former are invariably acids (oxyacids), the latter are more usually basic, although acidic metallic oxides yield acidic hydroxides.
If more than two be known, the one inferior in oxygen content has the prefix hypo- and the termination -ous, and the one superior in oxygen content has the prefix per- and the termination -ic. This is illustrated in the four oxyacids of chlorine, HC10, HC10 2, HC10 3, HC10 4, which have the names hypochlorous, chlorous, chloric and perchloric acids.
Oxyacids.-Phosphorus forms several oxyacids: hypophosphorous acid, H 3 P0 2, and hypophosphoric acid, H 4 P 2 0 6 or H2P03, of which the anhydrides are unknown; phosphorous acid, H 3 P0 3, derived from P 4 0 5; monoperphosphoric acid, H 3 P0 5; perphosphoric acid, H4P208; and meta-, pyro-, and ortho-phosphoric acids, derived from P4010, for which see Phosphates.
The important oxidizing agents include: oxygen, ozone, peroxides, the halogens chlorine and bromine, oxyacids such as nitric and those of chlorine, bromine and iodine, and also chromic and permanganic acid.
The important reducing agents include hydrogen, hydrides such as those of iodine, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., carbon, many metals, potassium, sodium, aluminium, magnesium, &c., salts of lower oxyacids, lower salts of metals and lower oxides.
The unsaturated acids also received much attention, and he discovered the internal anhydrides of oxyacids, termed lactones.
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