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oxidizes

oxidizes Sentence Examples

  • It may be obtained in the spongy form by igniting iridium ammonium chloride, and this variety of the metal readily oxidizes when heated in air.

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  • It is a black amorphous powder soluble in concentrated sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and when in the moist state readily oxidizes on exposure.

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  • It is formed by reducing diortho-dinitrodiphenyl with sodium amalgam and methyl alcohol, or by heating diphenylene-ortho-dihydrazine with hydrochloric acid to 150° C. It crystallizes in needles which melt at 156° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridazine tetracarboxylic acid.

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  • In alkaline solution, potassium permanganate oxidizes it to inactive tartaric acid and carbon dioxide (0.

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  • Potassium phenolate, C 6 H 5 OK, crystallizes in fine needles, is very hygroscopic and oxidizes rapidly on exposure.

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  • This solution is not very stable, since on exposure to air it slowly oxidizes and becomes turbid owing to the gradual precipitation of sulphur.

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  • This solution possesses reducing properties,and gradually oxidizes to sulphuric acid on exposure.

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  • It crystallizes in monoclinic tables which melt at 148-149° C. Chromic acid oxidizes it to pyrene quinone, C16H802, and pyrenic acid, C15H1806.

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  • Carbon bisulphide slowly oxidizes on exposure to air, but by the action of potassium permanganate or chromic acid it is readily oxidized to carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid.

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  • It fuses easily in the electric arc. It oxidizes superficially when heated, but fairly rapidly when ignited in an oxidizing blowpipe flame, forming a black smoke of the oxide.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid; zinc and acetic acid reduce it to cinnamic acid, C 6 H 5 CH:CH CO 2 H, whilst sodium amalgam reduces it to hydrocinnamic acid, C6H5 CH2 C02H.

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  • More important are Kekule's observations that nitrous acid oxidizes pyrocatechol or [I.2]-dioxybenzene, and protocatechuic acid or [3.4]- dioxybenzoic acid to dioxytartaric acid, (C(OH) 2 COOH) 2 (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230); and 0.

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  • This substance is transformed into hexachlor-R-pentene oxycarboxylic acid (3) when digested with water; and chromic acid oxidizes this substance to hexachlor-R-pentene (4).

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  • Bromine water oxidizes this substance to oxalic acid and tetrabromdichloracetone (5).

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  • Potassium persulphate oxidizes it in alkaline solution, the product on boiling with acids giving hydroquiirone carboxylic acid (German Patent 81,297).

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  • Bromine oxidizes it to nitric acid, but the reaction is not quantitative.

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  • In acid solution, potassium permanganate oxidizes it to nitric acid, but in alkaline solution only to nitrous acid.

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  • After it has been melted down and brought to a red heat, the blast, admitted at the back, oxidizes the lead and drives the litharge formed towards the front, where it is run off.

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  • Heating or exposure to sunlight reduces it to the red oxide; it fires when ground with sulphur, and oxidizes ammonia to nitric acid, with the simultaneous formation of ammonium nitrate.

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  • It oxidizes a manganese salt (free from chlorine) in the presence of nitric acid to a permanganate; this is a very delicate test for manganese.

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  • Briihl) and boiling point 104° C. Dilute acids readily transform it into alcohol and aldehyde, and chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid.

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  • It oxidizes readily: exposure to air giving acrylic acid, nitric acid giving oxalic acid, bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid giving carbon dioxide and formic acid.

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  • It is a colourless aromatic-smelling oily liquid, which boils at 247° C. and readily oxidizes on exposure.

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  • On oxidation with potassium permanganate it gives homovanillin, vanillin, &c.; with chromic acid in acetic acid solution it is converted into carbon dioxide and acetic acid, whilst nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and ozone oxidizes it to ethyl peroxide.

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  • Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.

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  • When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.

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  • It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air, and burns when heated in air, oxygen, chlorine, bromine or sulphur vapour.

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  • Potassium bichromate oxidizes it to malonic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid; and hydriodic acid reduces it to succinic acid.

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  • Potassium permanganate in acid solution oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and water; the manganese sulphate formed has a catalytic accelerating effect on the decomposition.

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  • Chlorine oxidizes it to acetaldehyde, and under certain conditions chloral is formed.

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  • The action proceeds in two stages; in the first hydrogen peroxide and potassium aurocyanide are formed, and in the second the hydrogen peroxide oxidizes a further quantity of gold and potassium cyanide to aurocyanide, thus (1) 2Au+4KCN +02+2H20=2KAu(CN)2+4KOH+H202;(2)2Au+4KCN+2H202= 2KAu(CN) 2 +4KOH.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to retene quinone, phthalic acid and acetic acid.

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  • The metal oxidizes very slowly in dry air at ordinary temperatures, but somewhat more rapidly in moist air or when heated.

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  • Marcasite readily oxidizes on exposure to moist air, with the production of sulphuric acid and a white fibrous efflorescence of ferrous sulphate, and in course of time specimens in collections often became completely disintegrated.

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  • Exposed to moist air it rapidly oxidizes to the hydroxide; and it burns on heating in air with a yellow flame, yielding the monoxide and dioxide.

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  • Hot concentrated nitric acid oxidizes it to picric acid and oxalic acid, whilst on treatment with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate it yields chloranil (tetrachloroquinone).

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  • Quinone-dioxime, HON: C 6 H 4: NOH, crystallizes in colourless or yellow needles, which decompose when heated to about 240° C. Potassium ferrocyanide in alkaline solution oxidizes it to dinitrosobenzene, whilst cold concentrated nitric acid oxidizes it to para-dinitrobenzene.

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  • If wet it oxidizes the products of decomposition.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and acetic acid.

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  • Zinc and hydrochloric acid in the cold convert it into alloxantin, hydroxylamine gives nitroso-barbituric acid, C 4 H 2 N 2 0 3: NOH, baryta water gives alloxanic acid, C 4 H 4 N 2 0 5, hot dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to parabanic acid, hot potassium hydroxide solution hydrolyses it to urea and mesoxalic acid and zinc and hot hydrochloric acid convert it into dialuric acid, C4H4N204.

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  • It oxidizes arsenites, sulphites and thiosulphates immediately.

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  • It dissolves unchanged in concentrated sulphuric acid, and oxidizes readily in moist air, forming Prussian blue.

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  • The precipitate so obtained is a brown amorphous solid which readily oxidizes on exposure, and is decomposed by heat with liberation of hydrogen and formation of the sesquioxide.

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  • Potash fusion converts it into acetic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids; chromic acid mixture to acetaldehyde and acetic acid, and potassium permanganate to a0-dioxybutyric acid.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to fry-dioxybutyric acid.

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  • Villiger (Berichte, 1900, 33, pp. 858, 2480) have shown that benzoyl hydrogen peroxide C 6 H 5 CO O OH is formed as an intermediate product and that this oxidizes the indigo compound, being itself reduced to benzoic acid; they have also shown that this peroxide is soluble in benzaldehyde with production of benzoic acid, and it must be assumed that the oxidation of benzaldehyde proceeds as shown in the equations: C 6 H 5 CHO+0 2 = C6H5CO.O.OH, C 6 H 5 CO.

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  • Dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids, while potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetone, carbon dioxide and oxalic acid.

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  • Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to phenyl-glyoxyl-ortho-carboxylic acid, H02C C6H4 CO.

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  • In like manner, if the molten iron in the mixer contains manganese, this metal unites with the sulphur present, and the manganese sulphide, insoluble in the iron, slowly rises to the surface, and as it reaches the air, its sulphur oxidizes to sulphurous acid, which escapes.

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  • The iron oxide thus formed immediately oxidizes these foreign elements, so that the iron is really a carrier of oxygen from air to impurity.

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  • As the iron oxide is stirred into the molten metal laboriously by the workman or "puddler " with his hook or "rabble," it oxidizes the silicon to silica and the phosphorus to phosphoric acid, and unites with both these products, forming with them a basic iron silicate rich in phosphorus, called " puddling " or " tap cinder."

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  • It oxidizes the carbon also, which escapes in purple jets of burning carbonic oxide.

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  • Under normal conditions the silicon oxidizes first.

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  • Then the furnaceman, controlling the decarburization and purification of the molten charge by his examination of test ingots taken from time to time, gradually oxidizes and so removes the foreign elements, and thus brings the metal simultaneously to approximately the composition needed and to a temperature far enough above its present meltingpoint to permit of its being cast into ingots or other castings.

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  • At a relatively low temperature, say 1300° C., the phosphorus of cast iron oxidizes and is removed much faster than its carbon, while at a higher temperature, say 1500° C., carbon oxidizes in preference to phosphorus.

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  • The lime and iron oxide melt, and, in passing up through the overlying metal, the iron oxide very rapidly oxidizes its phosphorus and thus drags it into the slag as phosphoric acid.

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  • Floating on top of the molten metal, it rapidly oxidizes its phosphorus, and the resultant phosphoric acid combines with the lime in the overlying slag as phosphate of lime.

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  • It is practically unattainable in the open-hearth furnace, because here the oxygen of the furnace atmosphere indirectly oxidizes the carbon of the metal which is kept boiling by the escape of the resultant carbonic oxide.

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  • Chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution oxidizes it to picene-quinone, picene-quinone carboxylic acid, and finally to phthalic acid.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to f3-oxyisovaleric acid (CH 3) 2 C(OH) CH2.002H, whilst nitric acid gives, among other products, dinitropropane, (CH3)2C(N02)2.

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  • It is a colourless liquid, with a faint aromatic smell, and boils at 206° C. On oxidation with nitric acid it is converted into benzaldehyde, whilst chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid.

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  • Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and acetic acid, while alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide.

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  • Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to a-oxyisobutyric acid, (CH 3) 2.

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  • Acid potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to urea (R.

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  • It is found, more especially in the case of organic compounds, that if a substance which oxidizes readily at ordinary temperature be mixed with another which is not capable of such oxidation, then both are oxidized simultaneously, the amount of oxygen used being shared equally between them; or in some cases when the substance is spontaneously oxidized an equivalent amount of oxygen is converted into ozone or hydrogen peroxide.

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  • It rapidly oxidizes on exposure to air and turns brown, going ultimately to the sesquioxide.

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  • This may consist of a steam injector by means of which air is made to bubble through the liquid, which produces both the required agitation and the heating, and at the same time oxidizes at least part of the sulphides; but this method of agitation causes a great waste of steam and at the same time a further dilution of the liquor.

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  • Alkaline potassium ferricyanide oxidizes it to picric acid.

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  • Nickel occludes hydrogen readily, is attacked by the halogen elements, and oxidizes easily when heated in air.

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  • It rapidly oxidizes when fused with caustic soda, but is scarcely acted upon by caustic potash (W.

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  • When prepared by the precipitation of nickel salts with alkaline sulphide in neutral solution it is a greyish black amorphous compound which readily oxidizes in moist air, forming a basic nickel sulphate.

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  • It oxidizes rapidly on exposure to air, and decomposes cold water very rapidly.

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  • Potassium permanganate, in acid solution, oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and water.

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  • The first blow occupies about 25 minutes, and oxidizes all but a small quantity of the iron and some of the sulphur, raising the product to white metal.

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  • If much carbonaceous matter be present (and this is generally so when iron sponge is used as the precipitant) the crude product is heated to redness in the air; this burns out the carbon, and, at the same time, oxidizes a little of the copper, which must be subsequently reduced.

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  • It dissolves in ammonia, forming a colourless solution which rapidly oxidizes and turns blue.

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  • It oxidizes carbon compounds to carbon dioxide and water, and therefore finds extensive application in analytical organic chemistry.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes antimony either to the trioxide Sb 4 0 6 or the pentoxide Sb 2 0 5, the product obtained depending on the temperature and concentration of the acid.

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  • The idea that this film of bacteria oxidizes the alcohol beneath by merely condensing atmospheric oxygen in its interstices, after the manner of spongy platinum, has long been given up; but the explanation of the action as an incomplete combustion, depending on the peculiar respiration of these organisms - much as in the case of nitrifying and sulphur bacteria - is not clear, though the discovery that the acetic bacteria will not only oxidize alcohol to acetic acid, but further oxidize the latter to CO 2 and 01-1 2 supports the view that the alcohol is absorbed by the organism and employed as its respirable substance.

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  • The door of the muffle is then opened and the current of air which is drawn over the scorifier rapidly oxidizes the lead, while the melted litharge gradually closes over the metal.

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  • The fusion being effected in a current of air, the lead oxidizes.

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  • When heated with fuming hydriodic acid to 300° C. it yields normal pentane and ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide oxidizes it to glutarimide and to a piperidinium oxide or oxime (R.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic acid, C $ H 17 CH: CH (CH 2] 7 CO 2 H, which is crystalline and melts at 51°.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and carbon dioxide; potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyruvic acid; nitric acid to oxalic acid, and a mixture of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide.

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  • It oxidizes slowly in air, and is a reducing agent.

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  • It oxidizes on exposure to air to the pentoxide, and with a brilliant inflammation when thrown into oxygen at 50 0 _60°.

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  • The acid is very deliquescent, and oxidizes on exposure to air to phosphoric acid.

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  • Dilute nitric acid oxidizes it first to para-toluic acid and then to terephthalic acid.

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  • Nitric acid and chromic acid have little action on quinoline, but alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide, ammonia, oxalic, and quinolinic acids (S.

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  • Bleaching powder oxidizes it to chlorcarbostyril.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetylanthranilic acid, [[Hooc(') C 6 H 4 (2)Nh Coch]] 31 while chromic acid oxidizes it to quinaldic acid (quinoline-a-carboxylic acid).

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  • It is a colourless liquid which boils at 255° C. Chromic acid oxidizes it to cinchoninic acid (see below), whilst potassium permanganate oxidizes it to lepidinic acid (y-methylquinolinic acid) and cinchomeronic acid (see Pyridine).

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  • Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridine tricarboxylic acid (236).

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  • It crystallizes from water in needles or prisms and in the anhydrous state melts at 253-254° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridine tricarboxylic acid (234).

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  • 1.42) oxidizes it to succinic and acetic acids.

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  • Diphenylfulven, from benzophenone and cyclo-pentadiene, crystallizes in deep red prisms. Dimethylfulven is an orangecoloured oil which oxidizes rapidly on exposure.

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  • It boils at 80-81 ° C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to adipic acid.

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  • It is a liquid which boils at 82° C. Hypochlorous acid converts it into 2-chlor-cyclo-hexanol-I, whilst potassium permanganate oxidizes it to cyclo-hexandi-ol.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to adipic acid, and chromic acid to cyclo-hexanone.

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  • It is a colourless liquid, possessing a peppermint odour and boiling at 155° C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to adipic acid.

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  • Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to adipic acid.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and benzaldehyde.

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  • It is a colourless liquid having a peppermint odour, and boiling at 178.5-179.5° C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to n-pimelic acid.

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  • The perfectly pure metal may be prepared by heating the oxide or oxalate in a current of hydrogen; when obtained at a low temperature it is a black powder which oxidizes in air with incandescence; produced at higher temperatures the metal is not pyrophoric. Peligot obtained it as minute tetragonal octahedra and cubes by reducing ferrous chloride in hydrogen.

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  • It oxidizes on exposure with considerable evolution of heat; it rapidly absorbs carbon dioxide; and readily dissolves in acids to form ferrous salts, which are usually white when anhydrous, but greenish when hydrated.

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  • Heated in air it at first partially oxidizes to ferrous sulphate, and at higher temperatures it yields sulphur dioxide and ferric oxide.

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  • It oxidizes on heating in air, and ignites in chlorine; on solution in mineral acids it yields ferrous and ammonium salts, hydrogen being liberated.

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  • It deliquesces and oxidizes on exposure, inflames in dry chlorine and is reduced to ammonia by zinc dust.

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  • It oxidizes slowly in moist air, and dissolves easily in acids with the formation of blue solutions.

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  • Sodium amalgam reduces it to acenaphthene; chromic acid oxidizes it to naphthalic acid.

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  • It is easily oxidized by heating with concentrated nitric acid to arsenic acid, and with concentrated sulphuric acid to arsenic trioxide; dilute nitric acid only oxidizes it to arsenious acid.

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  • Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic acid, in acid solution to aniline black.

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  • Sulphuric acid converts it into l-arabinose; and nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid (without the intermediate formation of mucic acid as in the case of gum arable).

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  • The free oxygen then oxidizes the cadmium metal to form more cadmium hydroxide to prevent hydrogen from being formed.

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  • Oxygen in the air oxidizes the iron(II) hydroxide precipitate to iron(III) hydroxide precipitate to iron(III) hydroxide especially around the top of the tube.

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  • The free oxygen then oxidizes the cadmium metal to form more cadmium hydroxide to prevent hydrogen from being formed.

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  • Oxygen in the air oxidizes the iron(II) hydroxide precipitate to iron(III) hydroxide especially around the top of the tube.

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  • Like AMO, it oxidizes propene to epoxypropane, but yields a racemic product.

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  • It may be obtained in the spongy form by igniting iridium ammonium chloride, and this variety of the metal readily oxidizes when heated in air.

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  • It is a black amorphous powder soluble in concentrated sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and when in the moist state readily oxidizes on exposure.

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  • It is formed by reducing diortho-dinitrodiphenyl with sodium amalgam and methyl alcohol, or by heating diphenylene-ortho-dihydrazine with hydrochloric acid to 150° C. It crystallizes in needles which melt at 156° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridazine tetracarboxylic acid.

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  • In alkaline solution, potassium permanganate oxidizes it to inactive tartaric acid and carbon dioxide (0.

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  • Potassium phenolate, C 6 H 5 OK, crystallizes in fine needles, is very hygroscopic and oxidizes rapidly on exposure.

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  • This solution is not very stable, since on exposure to air it slowly oxidizes and becomes turbid owing to the gradual precipitation of sulphur.

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  • This solution possesses reducing properties,and gradually oxidizes to sulphuric acid on exposure.

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  • It crystallizes in monoclinic tables which melt at 148-149° C. Chromic acid oxidizes it to pyrene quinone, C16H802, and pyrenic acid, C15H1806.

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  • Carbon bisulphide slowly oxidizes on exposure to air, but by the action of potassium permanganate or chromic acid it is readily oxidized to carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid.

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  • It fuses easily in the electric arc. It oxidizes superficially when heated, but fairly rapidly when ignited in an oxidizing blowpipe flame, forming a black smoke of the oxide.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid; zinc and acetic acid reduce it to cinnamic acid, C 6 H 5 CH:CH CO 2 H, whilst sodium amalgam reduces it to hydrocinnamic acid, C6H5 CH2 C02H.

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  • More important are Kekule's observations that nitrous acid oxidizes pyrocatechol or [I.2]-dioxybenzene, and protocatechuic acid or [3.4]- dioxybenzoic acid to dioxytartaric acid, (C(OH) 2 COOH) 2 (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230); and 0.

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  • This substance is transformed into hexachlor-R-pentene oxycarboxylic acid (3) when digested with water; and chromic acid oxidizes this substance to hexachlor-R-pentene (4).

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  • Bromine water oxidizes this substance to oxalic acid and tetrabromdichloracetone (5).

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  • Potassium persulphate oxidizes it in alkaline solution, the product on boiling with acids giving hydroquiirone carboxylic acid (German Patent 81,297).

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  • Bromine oxidizes it to nitric acid, but the reaction is not quantitative.

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  • In acid solution, potassium permanganate oxidizes it to nitric acid, but in alkaline solution only to nitrous acid.

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  • After it has been melted down and brought to a red heat, the blast, admitted at the back, oxidizes the lead and drives the litharge formed towards the front, where it is run off.

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  • Heating or exposure to sunlight reduces it to the red oxide; it fires when ground with sulphur, and oxidizes ammonia to nitric acid, with the simultaneous formation of ammonium nitrate.

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  • It oxidizes a manganese salt (free from chlorine) in the presence of nitric acid to a permanganate; this is a very delicate test for manganese.

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  • Chem., 9, p. 405; To, p. Chromic acid oxidizes phenanthrene, first to phenanthrene-quinone, and then to diphenic acid, HO 2 C C 6 H 4 C 6 H 4 C02H.

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  • Briihl) and boiling point 104° C. Dilute acids readily transform it into alcohol and aldehyde, and chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid.

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  • It oxidizes readily: exposure to air giving acrylic acid, nitric acid giving oxalic acid, bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid giving carbon dioxide and formic acid.

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  • It is a colourless aromatic-smelling oily liquid, which boils at 247° C. and readily oxidizes on exposure.

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  • On oxidation with potassium permanganate it gives homovanillin, vanillin, &c.; with chromic acid in acetic acid solution it is converted into carbon dioxide and acetic acid, whilst nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and ozone oxidizes it to ethyl peroxide.

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  • Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.

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  • When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.

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  • It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air, and burns when heated in air, oxygen, chlorine, bromine or sulphur vapour.

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  • Potassium bichromate oxidizes it to malonic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid; and hydriodic acid reduces it to succinic acid.

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  • Potassium permanganate in acid solution oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and water; the manganese sulphate formed has a catalytic accelerating effect on the decomposition.

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  • Chlorine oxidizes it to acetaldehyde, and under certain conditions chloral is formed.

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  • The action proceeds in two stages; in the first hydrogen peroxide and potassium aurocyanide are formed, and in the second the hydrogen peroxide oxidizes a further quantity of gold and potassium cyanide to aurocyanide, thus (1) 2Au+4KCN +02+2H20=2KAu(CN)2+4KOH+H202;(2)2Au+4KCN+2H202= 2KAu(CN) 2 +4KOH.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to retene quinone, phthalic acid and acetic acid.

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  • The metal oxidizes very slowly in dry air at ordinary temperatures, but somewhat more rapidly in moist air or when heated.

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  • Marcasite readily oxidizes on exposure to moist air, with the production of sulphuric acid and a white fibrous efflorescence of ferrous sulphate, and in course of time specimens in collections often became completely disintegrated.

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  • Exposed to moist air it rapidly oxidizes to the hydroxide; and it burns on heating in air with a yellow flame, yielding the monoxide and dioxide.

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  • Dilute potassium permanganate oxidizes the olefines to glycols (G.

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  • Hot concentrated nitric acid oxidizes it to picric acid and oxalic acid, whilst on treatment with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate it yields chloranil (tetrachloroquinone).

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  • Quinone-dioxime, HON: C 6 H 4: NOH, crystallizes in colourless or yellow needles, which decompose when heated to about 240° C. Potassium ferrocyanide in alkaline solution oxidizes it to dinitrosobenzene, whilst cold concentrated nitric acid oxidizes it to para-dinitrobenzene.

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  • If wet it oxidizes the products of decomposition.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and acetic acid.

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  • Zinc and hydrochloric acid in the cold convert it into alloxantin, hydroxylamine gives nitroso-barbituric acid, C 4 H 2 N 2 0 3: NOH, baryta water gives alloxanic acid, C 4 H 4 N 2 0 5, hot dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to parabanic acid, hot potassium hydroxide solution hydrolyses it to urea and mesoxalic acid and zinc and hot hydrochloric acid convert it into dialuric acid, C4H4N204.

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  • It oxidizes arsenites, sulphites and thiosulphates immediately.

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  • It dissolves unchanged in concentrated sulphuric acid, and oxidizes readily in moist air, forming Prussian blue.

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  • The precipitate so obtained is a brown amorphous solid which readily oxidizes on exposure, and is decomposed by heat with liberation of hydrogen and formation of the sesquioxide.

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  • Potash fusion converts it into acetic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids; chromic acid mixture to acetaldehyde and acetic acid, and potassium permanganate to a0-dioxybutyric acid.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to fry-dioxybutyric acid.

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  • Villiger (Berichte, 1900, 33, pp. 858, 2480) have shown that benzoyl hydrogen peroxide C 6 H 5 CO O OH is formed as an intermediate product and that this oxidizes the indigo compound, being itself reduced to benzoic acid; they have also shown that this peroxide is soluble in benzaldehyde with production of benzoic acid, and it must be assumed that the oxidation of benzaldehyde proceeds as shown in the equations: C 6 H 5 CHO+0 2 = C6H5CO.O.OH, C 6 H 5 CO.

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  • On heating with dilute sulphuric acid it yields acetone, but with the concentrated acid it gives mesitylene, Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetic acid and hydroxyisobutyric acid (A.

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  • Dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids, while potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetone, carbon dioxide and oxalic acid.

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  • Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to phenyl-glyoxyl-ortho-carboxylic acid, H02C C6H4 CO.

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  • In like manner, if the molten iron in the mixer contains manganese, this metal unites with the sulphur present, and the manganese sulphide, insoluble in the iron, slowly rises to the surface, and as it reaches the air, its sulphur oxidizes to sulphurous acid, which escapes.

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  • The iron oxide thus formed immediately oxidizes these foreign elements, so that the iron is really a carrier of oxygen from air to impurity.

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  • As the iron oxide is stirred into the molten metal laboriously by the workman or "puddler " with his hook or "rabble," it oxidizes the silicon to silica and the phosphorus to phosphoric acid, and unites with both these products, forming with them a basic iron silicate rich in phosphorus, called " puddling " or " tap cinder."

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  • It oxidizes the carbon also, which escapes in purple jets of burning carbonic oxide.

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  • Under normal conditions the silicon oxidizes first.

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  • Then the furnaceman, controlling the decarburization and purification of the molten charge by his examination of test ingots taken from time to time, gradually oxidizes and so removes the foreign elements, and thus brings the metal simultaneously to approximately the composition needed and to a temperature far enough above its present meltingpoint to permit of its being cast into ingots or other castings.

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  • At a relatively low temperature, say 1300° C., the phosphorus of cast iron oxidizes and is removed much faster than its carbon, while at a higher temperature, say 1500° C., carbon oxidizes in preference to phosphorus.

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  • The lime and iron oxide melt, and, in passing up through the overlying metal, the iron oxide very rapidly oxidizes its phosphorus and thus drags it into the slag as phosphoric acid.

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  • Floating on top of the molten metal, it rapidly oxidizes its phosphorus, and the resultant phosphoric acid combines with the lime in the overlying slag as phosphate of lime.

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  • It is practically unattainable in the open-hearth furnace, because here the oxygen of the furnace atmosphere indirectly oxidizes the carbon of the metal which is kept boiling by the escape of the resultant carbonic oxide.

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  • Chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution oxidizes it to picene-quinone, picene-quinone carboxylic acid, and finally to phthalic acid.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to f3-oxyisovaleric acid (CH 3) 2 C(OH) CH2.002H, whilst nitric acid gives, among other products, dinitropropane, (CH3)2C(N02)2.

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  • It is a colourless liquid, with a faint aromatic smell, and boils at 206° C. On oxidation with nitric acid it is converted into benzaldehyde, whilst chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid.

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  • Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and acetic acid, while alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide.

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  • Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to a-oxyisobutyric acid, (CH 3) 2.

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  • Acid potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to urea (R.

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  • It is found, more especially in the case of organic compounds, that if a substance which oxidizes readily at ordinary temperature be mixed with another which is not capable of such oxidation, then both are oxidized simultaneously, the amount of oxygen used being shared equally between them; or in some cases when the substance is spontaneously oxidized an equivalent amount of oxygen is converted into ozone or hydrogen peroxide.

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  • It rapidly oxidizes on exposure to air and turns brown, going ultimately to the sesquioxide.

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  • This may consist of a steam injector by means of which air is made to bubble through the liquid, which produces both the required agitation and the heating, and at the same time oxidizes at least part of the sulphides; but this method of agitation causes a great waste of steam and at the same time a further dilution of the liquor.

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  • Alkaline potassium ferricyanide oxidizes it to picric acid.

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  • Nickel occludes hydrogen readily, is attacked by the halogen elements, and oxidizes easily when heated in air.

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  • It rapidly oxidizes when fused with caustic soda, but is scarcely acted upon by caustic potash (W.

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  • When prepared by the precipitation of nickel salts with alkaline sulphide in neutral solution it is a greyish black amorphous compound which readily oxidizes in moist air, forming a basic nickel sulphate.

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  • It oxidizes rapidly on exposure to air, and decomposes cold water very rapidly.

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  • Potassium permanganate, in acid solution, oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and water.

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  • The first blow occupies about 25 minutes, and oxidizes all but a small quantity of the iron and some of the sulphur, raising the product to white metal.

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  • If much carbonaceous matter be present (and this is generally so when iron sponge is used as the precipitant) the crude product is heated to redness in the air; this burns out the carbon, and, at the same time, oxidizes a little of the copper, which must be subsequently reduced.

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  • It dissolves in ammonia, forming a colourless solution which rapidly oxidizes and turns blue.

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  • It oxidizes carbon compounds to carbon dioxide and water, and therefore finds extensive application in analytical organic chemistry.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes antimony either to the trioxide Sb 4 0 6 or the pentoxide Sb 2 0 5, the product obtained depending on the temperature and concentration of the acid.

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  • The idea that this film of bacteria oxidizes the alcohol beneath by merely condensing atmospheric oxygen in its interstices, after the manner of spongy platinum, has long been given up; but the explanation of the action as an incomplete combustion, depending on the peculiar respiration of these organisms - much as in the case of nitrifying and sulphur bacteria - is not clear, though the discovery that the acetic bacteria will not only oxidize alcohol to acetic acid, but further oxidize the latter to CO 2 and 01-1 2 supports the view that the alcohol is absorbed by the organism and employed as its respirable substance.

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  • The door of the muffle is then opened and the current of air which is drawn over the scorifier rapidly oxidizes the lead, while the melted litharge gradually closes over the metal.

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  • The fusion being effected in a current of air, the lead oxidizes.

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  • When heated with fuming hydriodic acid to 300° C. it yields normal pentane and ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide oxidizes it to glutarimide and to a piperidinium oxide or oxime (R.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic acid, C $ H 17 CH: CH (CH 2] 7 CO 2 H, which is crystalline and melts at 51°.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and carbon dioxide; potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyruvic acid; nitric acid to oxalic acid, and a mixture of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide.

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  • It oxidizes slowly in air, and is a reducing agent.

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  • It oxidizes on exposure to air to the pentoxide, and with a brilliant inflammation when thrown into oxygen at 50 0 _60°.

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  • The acid is very deliquescent, and oxidizes on exposure to air to phosphoric acid.

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  • Dilute nitric acid oxidizes it first to para-toluic acid and then to terephthalic acid.

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  • Nitric acid and chromic acid have little action on quinoline, but alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide, ammonia, oxalic, and quinolinic acids (S.

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  • Bleaching powder oxidizes it to chlorcarbostyril.

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  • Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetylanthranilic acid, [[Hooc(') C 6 H 4 (2)Nh Coch]] 31 while chromic acid oxidizes it to quinaldic acid (quinoline-a-carboxylic acid).

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  • It is a colourless liquid which boils at 255° C. Chromic acid oxidizes it to cinchoninic acid (see below), whilst potassium permanganate oxidizes it to lepidinic acid (y-methylquinolinic acid) and cinchomeronic acid (see Pyridine).

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  • Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridine tricarboxylic acid (236).

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  • It crystallizes from water in needles or prisms and in the anhydrous state melts at 253-254° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridine tricarboxylic acid (234).

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  • 1.42) oxidizes it to succinic and acetic acids.

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  • Diphenylfulven, from benzophenone and cyclo-pentadiene, crystallizes in deep red prisms. Dimethylfulven is an orangecoloured oil which oxidizes rapidly on exposure.

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  • It boils at 80-81 ° C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to adipic acid.

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  • It is a liquid which boils at 82° C. Hypochlorous acid converts it into 2-chlor-cyclo-hexanol-I, whilst potassium permanganate oxidizes it to cyclo-hexandi-ol.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to adipic acid, and chromic acid to cyclo-hexanone.

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  • It is a colourless liquid, possessing a peppermint odour and boiling at 155° C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to adipic acid.

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  • Alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to adipic acid.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and benzaldehyde.

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  • It is a colourless liquid having a peppermint odour, and boiling at 178.5-179.5° C. Nitric acid oxidizes it to n-pimelic acid.

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  • The perfectly pure metal may be prepared by heating the oxide or oxalate in a current of hydrogen; when obtained at a low temperature it is a black powder which oxidizes in air with incandescence; produced at higher temperatures the metal is not pyrophoric. Peligot obtained it as minute tetragonal octahedra and cubes by reducing ferrous chloride in hydrogen.

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  • It oxidizes on exposure with considerable evolution of heat; it rapidly absorbs carbon dioxide; and readily dissolves in acids to form ferrous salts, which are usually white when anhydrous, but greenish when hydrated.

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  • Heated in air it at first partially oxidizes to ferrous sulphate, and at higher temperatures it yields sulphur dioxide and ferric oxide.

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  • It oxidizes on heating in air, and ignites in chlorine; on solution in mineral acids it yields ferrous and ammonium salts, hydrogen being liberated.

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  • It deliquesces and oxidizes on exposure, inflames in dry chlorine and is reduced to ammonia by zinc dust.

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  • It oxidizes slowly in moist air, and dissolves easily in acids with the formation of blue solutions.

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  • Sodium amalgam reduces it to acenaphthene; chromic acid oxidizes it to naphthalic acid.

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  • It is easily oxidized by heating with concentrated nitric acid to arsenic acid, and with concentrated sulphuric acid to arsenic trioxide; dilute nitric acid only oxidizes it to arsenious acid.

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  • Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic acid, in acid solution to aniline black.

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  • Sulphuric acid converts it into l-arabinose; and nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid (without the intermediate formation of mucic acid as in the case of gum arable).

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  • Some users report that it oxidizes on them, giving a lovely orange hue to their complexions!

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  • Silver, in particular, oxidizes when it is exposed to air and this deep and dark patina emphasizes the texture of a three dimensional bead.

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  • Along with this, it also helps to prevent high blood pressure because it oxidizes and thins the blood.

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  • A very small fraction of hemoglobin spontaneously oxidizes per day, producing a protein of a slightly different structure called methemoglobin.

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  • The blood is unable to process this form of cholesterol properly; it oxidizes cholesterol, creating a substance called plaque.

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