Oxidized sentence example

oxidized
  • The Istrian stone of which the edifice is built has taken a fine patina, which makes the whole look like some richly embossed casket in oxidized silver.

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  • The use of mercury cups is open to many objections on account of the fact that the mercury becomes oxidized, and such instruments are not very convenient for transportation.

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  • Its methyl derivatives yield the corresponding carboxylic acids when oxidized by potassium permanganate.

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  • It is somewhat readily oxidized; nitric acid gives carbonic and oxalic acids, and chromic acid, carbonic and acetic acids.

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  • Heated with sulphuric acid and with nitric acid it is oxidized to boric acid, whilst on fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it gives a borate of the alkali metal.

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  • It is obtained by the oxidation of orthophenylene diamine with ferric chloride; when a mixture of para-aminodimethylaniline and meta-toluylenediamine is oxidized in the cold, toluylene blue, an indamine, being formed as an intermediate product and passing into the red when boiled; and also by the oxidation of dimethylparaphenylene diamine with metatoluylene diamine.

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  • It is readily oxidized by nitric acid, and when strongly heated_ in a current of hydrogen is reduced to the metallic condition.

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  • The cut cells die, and oxidized products are concerned in the change of color, the brown juices exuding and soaking into the cell-walls.

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  • Glycerin when treated with hydrochloric acid gives propenyl dichlorhydrin, which may be oxidized to s-dichloracetone.

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  • Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body.

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  • Carbon bisulphide slowly oxidizes on exposure to air, but by the action of potassium permanganate or chromic acid it is readily oxidized to carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid.

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  • It is also oxidized when fused with caustic potash and nitre, forming a ruthenate.

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  • After this treatment, the mixture is run into lead-lined vats and treated with sulphuric acid, steam is blown through the mixture in order to bring it to the boil, and the anthracene is rapidly oxidized to anthraquinone.

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  • The pentammine purpureo-salts are formed from the luteo-salts by loss of ammonia, or from an air slowly oxidized ammoniacal cobalt salt solution, the precipitated luteosalt being filtered off and the filtrate boiled with concentrated acids.

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  • Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.

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  • Other hydrocarbon nuclei generally classed as aromatic in character result from the union of two or more benzene nuclei joined by one or two valencies with polymethylene or oxidized polymethylene rings; instances of such nuclei are indene, hydrindene, fluorene, and fluoranthene.

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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.

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  • Klaproth in 1799, is obtained when pure carbon (graphite or charcoal) is oxidized by alkaline permanganate, or when carbon forms the positive pole in an electrolytic cell (Ber., 1883, 16, p. 1209).

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  • Carius showed that potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid oxidized benzene to trichlorphenomalic acid, a substance afterwards investigated by Kekule and 0.

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  • From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.

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  • From the fact that reduction products containing either one or two double linkages behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule.

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  • This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus.

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  • In the first group, we have to notice the titration of a cyanide with silver nitrate, when a milkiness shows how far the reaction has gone; the titration of iron with permanganate, when the faint pink colour shows that all the iron is oxidized.

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  • On the surface, where the sand is bathed by the tidal water, the ferrous sulphide becomes oxidized and the sand is bleached, but underneath it is dense black or grey, as the case may be.

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  • The aldehyde group also reacts with phenyl hydrazine to form two phenylhydrazones; under certain conditions a hydroxyl group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidized and glucosazone is produced; this glucosazone is decomposed by hydrochloric acid into phenyl hydrazine and the keto-aldehyde glucosone.

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  • When this compound is acted on by water, hydrogen peroxide and levulinic aldehyde are formed, the aldehyde being subsequently oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide, forming levulinic acid.

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  • The dressed ore is introduced through a "hopper" at the top, and exposed to a moderate oxidizing flame until a certain proportion of ore is oxidized, openings at the side enabling the workmen to stir up the ore so as to constantly renew the surface exposed to the air.

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  • In Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham and latterly the United States, the reverberatory furnace is used only for roasting the ore, and the oxidized ore is then reduced by fusion in a low, square blastfurnace (a "Scottish hearth furnace") lined with cast iron, as is also the inclined sole-plate which is made to project beyond the furnace, the outside portion (the "work-stone") being provided with grooves guiding any molten metal that may be placed on the "stone" into a cast iron pot; the "tuyere" for the introduction of the wind was, in the earlier types, about half way down the furnace.

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  • At the same time small bars of argentiferous lead, inserted at the back, are slowly pushed forward, so that in melting down they may replace the oxidized lead.

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  • The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.

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  • In the kettle covered with a hood the zinc is oxidized by means of dry steam, and incidentally some lead by the air which cannot be completely excluded.

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  • They are easily oxidized to the corresponding fatty acid, in many cases simply by exposure to air.

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  • Paraldehyde is oxidized by dilute nitric acid, with formation of much glyoxal, (CHO) 2.

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  • These are oxidized and precipitated conjointly by excess of ammonia.

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  • Exposed to air this mixture is oxidized to the pigment uranium red, U6(NH4)2S09, which is a fine blood-coloured amorphous powder.

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  • The solutions are oxidized, precipitated with ammonia, the precipitate dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and re-thrown down by boiling with sodium sulphate.

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  • Calcium or potassium sulphides and potassium hydrosulphides completely reduce nitroglycerin to glycerin, some of the sulphur being oxidized and some precipitated.

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  • Aniline and similar bases are oxidized and partially nitrated by nitroglycerin, with the production of non-explosive compounds.

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  • Even when the outcrop is oxidized, and Surface the mineral character and richness of the deposit is Explora- altered thereby, it is possible to determine variations tion.

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  • Below the oxidized outcrop the vein is often increased in value by secondary enrichment, sometimes to a depth of several hundred feet.

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  • The men who manipulate the stirring bars are therefore changed at short intervals, while the bars themselves have also to be changed at somewhat longer intervals, as they rapidly become oxidized, and accumulated scale would tend to fall off them, thus contaminating the glass below.

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  • By the joint action of water and air, thallium, lead, bismuth are oxidized, with formation of more or less sparingly soluble hydroxides (ThHO, PbH 2 O 2, BiH303), which, in the presence of carbonic acid, pass into still less soluble basic carbonates.

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  • Of the rest, the following are readily oxidized by steam at a red heat, with formation of hydrogen gas - zinc, iron, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, tin.

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  • Aluminium is barely affected even at a white heat, if it is pure; the ordinary impure metal is liable to be very readily oxidized.

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  • Aluminium, when pure and kept out of contact with siliceous matter, is only oxidized at a white heat, and then very slowly, into alumina, Al 2 O 3.

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  • All chlorides, except those of silver and mercury (and, of course, those of gold and platinum), are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, with elimination of hydrochloric acid.

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  • When oxidized this aldohexose is first converted into the monobasic galactonic acid, and then into dibasic mucic acid; the latter is optically inactive, so that its configuration must be one of those given in the sixth and seventh columns of the table.

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  • It is oxidized by nitric acid to d-saccharic and mucic acids; and acetic anhydride gives an octa-acetate.

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  • Styrolene is oxidized by nitric or chromic acids to benzoic acid; reduction gives ethylbenzene; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids yield a-haloid ethylbenzenes, e.g.

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  • It has long been known that when organic materials such as the dung and urine of animals, or even the bodies of animals and plants, are applied to the soil, the nitrogen within them becomes oxidized, and ultimately appears in the form of nitrate of lime, potash or some other base.

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  • The compounds of ammonia thus formed from the complex substances by many varied kinds of micro-organisms are ultimately oxidized into nitrates.

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  • In the first stage the ammonium compounds are oxidized to nitrites by the agency of very minute motile bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrosomonas.

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  • In 1885 the brothers Cowles patented a process for the electrothermal reduction of oxidized ores by exposure to an intense current of electricity when admixed with carbon in a retort.

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  • By continuing the treatment of these in the ordinary way of refining, poling and granulating, all the foreign matters other than gold, copper and silver are removed, and, by exposing the granulated metal to a high oxidizing heat for a considerable time the copper may be completely oxidized while the precious metals are unaltered.

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  • Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.

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  • When heated in air the metal burns if in the form of thin wire, and is superficially oxidized if more compact.

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  • The cables are wrapped in cotton duck soaked in oxidized oil and varnish, and are sheathed in sheet iron.

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  • A violent reaction ensues with phosphorus and sulphur, and many metals are oxidized by it, some with incandescence.

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  • It is often associated with blende and pyrites, and with calcite, fluorspar, quartz, barytes, chalybite and pearlspar as gangue minerals; in the upper oxidized parts of the deposits, cerussite and anglesite occur as alteration products.

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  • It is completely oxidized to iodic acid when boiled with fuming nitric acid.

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  • After absorption into the blood, the acetates are oxidized to carbonates, and therefore are remote alkalies, and are administered whenever it is desired to increase the alkalinity of the blood or to reduce the acidity of the urine, without exerting the disturbing influence of alkalies upon the digestive tract.

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  • It is stable ir, dry air, but is easily oxidized when fused, in which condition it is a powerful reducing agent.

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  • The free acid, when heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, is decomposed into water and pure carbon monoxide; when heated with nitric acid, it is oxidized first to oxalic acid and finally to carbon dioxide.

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  • It possesses all the characteristic properties of an aldehyde; being readily oxidized to benzoic acid; reducing solutions of silver salts; forming addition products with hydrogen, hydrocyanic acid and sodium bisulphite; and giving an oxime and a hydrazone.

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  • Theoretically 36 parts by weight of carbon are oxidized in the production of 54 parts of aluminium; practically the anodes waste at the same rate at which metal is deposited.

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  • The metal in mass is not affected by hot or cold water, the foil is very slowly oxidized, while the amalgam decomposes rapidly.

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  • In the preparation of chloroform by the action of bleaching powder on ethyl alcohol it is probable that the alcohol is ..rst oxidized to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently chlorinated and then decomposed.

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  • Rosenstiehl (Jahres., 1869, p. 693) found also that different rosanilines were obtained according to whether orthoor para-toluidine was oxidized with aniline; and he gave the name rosaniline to the one obtained from aniline and ortho-toluidine, reserving the term pararosaniline for the other.

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  • They do not reduce silver solutions, and are not so readily oxidized as the aldehydes.

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  • From this we may infer that copper and iron probably came into use at about the same stage in man's development, copper before iron in regions which had oxidized copper ores, whether they also had iron ores or not, iron before copper in places where there were pure and easily reduced ores of iron but none of copper.

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  • In carrying out this process the castings are packed in a mass of iron oxide, which at this temperature gradually removes the fine or " temper " graphite by oxidizing that in the outer crust to carbonic oxide, whereon the carbon farther in begins diffusing outwards by " molecular migration," to be itself oxidized on reaching the crust.

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  • Though it contains far too much sulphur to be used in iron manufacture without first being desulphurized, yet great quantities of slightly cupriferous pyrite, after yielding nearly all their sulphur in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, and most of the remainder in the wet extraction of their copper, are then used under the name of " blue billy " or " purple ore," as an ore of iron, a use which is likely to increase greatly in importance with the gradual exhaustion of the richest deposits of the oxidized ores.

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  • In this process molten pig iron with much silicon but little sulphur has its silicon oxidized to silica and thus slagged off, by means of a blast of air playing on the iron through a blanket of burning coke which covers it.

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  • Later, when most of it has been oxidized, the carbon begins to oxidize to carbonic oxide, which in turn burns.

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  • The removal of the greater part of the phosphorus takes place after the carbon has been oxidized and the flame has consequently " dropped," probably because the lime, which is charged in solid lumps, is taken up by the slag so slowly that not until late in the operation does the slag become so basic as to be retentive of phosphoric acid.

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  • Indeed, no limit has yet been found to the temperature which can be reached, if matters are so arranged that not only the carbon and silicon of the pig iron, but also a considerable part of the metallic iron which is the iron itself, are oxidized by the blast; or if, as in the Walrand-Legenisel modification, after the combustion of the initial carbon and silicon of the pig iron has already raised the charge to a very high temperature, a still further rise of temperature is brought about by adding more silicon in the form of ferro-silicon, and oxidizing it by further blowing.

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  • Briihl (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2847) is of opinion that a very unstable, more highly oxidized product is produced in small quantity in the process.

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  • Soc., 1900, 77, p. 69), and sugars are readily oxidized in the presence of ferric chloride (0.

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  • It burns in air, and also in chlorine and bromine, and is readily oxidized by nitric acid.

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  • When heated in air it is readily oxidized, with the formation of a reddish or violet vapour.

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  • It is found, more especially in the case of organic compounds, that if a substance which oxidizes readily at ordinary temperature be mixed with another which is not capable of such oxidation, then both are oxidized simultaneously, the amount of oxygen used being shared equally between them; or in some cases when the substance is spontaneously oxidized an equivalent amount of oxygen is converted into ozone or hydrogen peroxide.

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  • This form of the sulphide is readily oxidized when exposed in the moist condition, and is easily decomposed by dilute mineral acids.

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  • Strecker, who oxidized guanine with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate.

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  • It is then oxidized to anthraquinone by means of sodium dichromate and sulphuric acid in leaden vats, steam heated so that the mixture can be brought to the boil.

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  • He also studied the alkaloids and organic acids, introduced a classification of the metals according to the facility with which they or their sulphides are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, and effected a comparison of the chemical composition of atmospheric air from all parts of the world.

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  • It dissolves in potash, giving potassium tungstate and hydrogen, and is readily oxidized to the trioxide.

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  • When taken into the body the drug is partly oxidized and partly eliminated unchanged.

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  • The concentrated solution is a powerful oxidizing agent; organic matter being oxidized so rapidly that it frequently inflames.

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  • Hydrochloric acid, sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphurous acid are rapidly oxidized by chloric acid.

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  • During the second blow the sulphur is rapidly oxidized, and the charge reduced to metal of 99% in from 30 to 40 minutes.

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  • Cuprous oxide corresponds to the series of cuprous salts, which are mostly white in colour, insoluble in water, and readily oxidized to cupric salts.

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  • Guntz (Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 872) electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically, a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about looo C. The metal when freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead, and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.

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  • It combines directly with sulphur and phosphorus, and is readily oxidized when heated with metallic oxides (such as litharge, mercuric oxide, manganese dioxide, &c.).

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  • When the latter have oxidized ammonia to nitrite, however, the former step in and oxidize it still further to nitric acid.

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  • The ammonia may be oxidized to nitrites and nitrates, and then pass into the higher plants and be worked up into proteids, and so be handed on to animals, eventually to be broken down by bacterial action again to ammonia; or the nitrates may be degraded to nitrites and even to free nitrogen or ammonia, which escapes.

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  • The iron must be in certain soluble conditions, however, and the soluble bicarbonate of the protoxide of chalybeate springs seems most favourable; the hydrocarbonate absorbed by the cells is oxidized, probably thus 2FeCO 3 1-30H 2 +O = Fee (OH)6+2C02.

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  • Nearly all lead ores contain more or less sulphur; and as in the process of solution in nitric acid this is oxidized to sulphuric acid which unites with the lead to form the very insoluble lead sulphate, it is simpler to add sulphuric acid to convert all the lead into sulphate and then evaporate until the nitric acid is expelled.

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  • This takes place in seven to ten days, but the bags are left for four to six weeks until the oil remaining on the opium has become oxidized and hardened.

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  • Silver is not oxidized by oxygen, but resembles mercury in being oxidized by ozone.

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  • The so-called "oxidized" silver is a copper-silver alloy coated superficially with a layer of the sulphides by immersion in sodium sulphide or otherwise.

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  • This process when carefully carried out, especially as to the details of the roasting process whereby the silver sulphide is oxidized, yields 92% of the silver originally present.

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  • When finely divided it decomposes water giving hydrogen phosphide; it also reduces sulphurous and sulphuric' acids, and when boiled with water gives phosphine and hypophosphorous acid; when slowly oxidized under water it yields, hypophosphoric acid.

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  • It is a monobasic acid forming salts which are permanent in air, but which are gradually oxidized in aqueous solution.

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  • The solution is stable to oxidizing agents such as dilute hydrogen peroxide and chlorine, but is oxidized by potassium permanganate to phosphoric acid; it does not reduce salts of the heavy metals.

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  • The alkaloid is a strong base and is very readily oxidized; chromic acid converts it into normal butyric acid and ammonia; hydrogen peroxide gives aminopropylvalerylaldehyde, NH 2 CH(C 3 11 7) (CH2)3 CHO, whilst the benzoyl derivative is oxidized by potassium permanganate to benzoyl-a-aminovaleric acid, C 6 H 5 CO NH CH(C 3 H 7) (CH 2)3 COOH.

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  • Quinaldic acid (quinoline-a-carboxylic acid) is produced when quinaldine is oxidized by chromic acid.

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  • Cinchoninic acid (quinoline-y-carboxylic acid) is formed when cinchonine is oxidized by nitric acid, or by the oxidation of lepidine.

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  • The NO 2 (or NO + 0) reacts upon SO 2 + H20, forming SO 5 NH 21 which, being extremely unstable, is at once oxidized to SO 5 NH (nitroso-sulphuric acid).

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  • It forms a benzal compound, and gives an oyxmethylene derivative and cannot be oxidized to an acid, reactions which point to it being a ketone containing the grouping -CH 2 CO-.

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  • Many oxychlorides are known; soluble forms are obtained by dissolving precipitated ferric hydrate in ferric chloride, whilst insoluble compounds result when ferrous chloride is oxidized in air, or by boiling for some time aqueous solutions of ferric chloride.

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  • This modification is rapidly oxidized by the air with such an elevation of temperature that the mass may become incandescent.

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  • The primary alcohols are first oxidized to aldehydes, which, on further oxidation, yield acids containing the same number of carbon atoms as in the original alcohol.

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  • Secondary alcohols yield ketones, which are subsequently oxidized to a mixture of two acids.

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  • Almost the whole of this region is covered by a red soil, often of great thickness, which resembles and is often described as " clay," but is really decomposed rock, chiefly gneiss, reddened with oxidized magnetite.

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  • It is easily oxidized by heating with concentrated nitric acid to arsenic acid, and with concentrated sulphuric acid to arsenic trioxide; dilute nitric acid only oxidizes it to arsenious acid.

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  • The chlorides AsCl2CH3 and AsCl(CH3)2 as well as As(CH3)3 are capable of combining with two atoms of chlorine, the arsenic atom apparently changing from the tri- to the penta-valent condition, and the corresponding oxygen compounds can also be oxidized to compounds containing one oxygen atom or two hydroxyl groups more, forming acids or oxides.

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  • Metallic arsenic is probably not poisonous, but as it usually becomes oxidized in the alimentary canal, the usual symptoms of arsenical poisoning follow its use.

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  • It also appears that rust changes in composition on exposure to the atmosphere, both the ferrous oxide and carbonate being in part oxidized to ferric oxide.

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  • It is shown that the blue solution most probably contains the acid of composition, H2Cr203, whilst in the presence of an excess of hydrogen peroxide more highly oxidized products probably exist.

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  • The non-drying oils, the type of which is olive oil, do not become oxidized readily on exposure to the air, although gradually a change takes place, the oils thickening slightly and acquiring that peculiar disagreeable smell and acrid taste, which are defined by the term "rancid."

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  • The methods sketched here do not yet exhaust the armoury of the analytical chemist, but it can only be pointed out in passing that the detection of hydroxylated acids enables the analyst to ascertain the presence of castor oil, just as the isolation and determination of oxidized fatty acids enables him to differentiate blown oils from other oils.

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  • It is also obtained when sebacic, stearic and oleic acids are oxidized with nitric acid.

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  • The various camphors, such as laurel camphor, Borneo camphor, menthol and cumarin, are oxidized derivatives of essential oils, and differ only superficially from them in their action.

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  • In a few places a red colour prevails, the iron being mostly oxidized; elsewhere the muds are green owing to abundant glauconite.

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  • Interceed absorbable adhesion barrier is composed of oxidized regenerated cellulose.

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  • Here is the spectrum of cytochrome c. The absorption pattern for all three cytochrome c. The absorption pattern for all three cytochromes changes markedly when these molecules are oxidized and reduced.

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  • Oxidation of Alcohols Alcohols are oxidized by warming with an oxidizing agent, such as acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution.

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  • Metal atoms of a metal electrode can also be oxidized to form positive metal ions which pass into the liquid electrolyte.

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  • This is oxidized in air with a catalyst to form ethylene oxide, which is then hydrated to produce ethylene glycol.

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  • Pieces may be adorned with precious gemstones or oxidized to enhance the contrast of the different colored metals.

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  • In short, your view of " oxidized " may be because you know and sell lighters.

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  • The retinol is oxidized to its aldehyde, retinal, which complexes with a molecule in the eye called opsin.

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  • However, researchers now know that allicin is rapidly oxidized.

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  • There was evidence also of mechanism [magnesium] which had been completely oxidized.

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  • I then took it to a jeweler to have it oxidized in the same manner the case from the early movies was oxidized in the same manner the case from the early movies was oxidized.

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  • In well oxygenated waters, sulfide is rapidly oxidized to sulfate.

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  • I now make mainly multi-coloured slipware, but still enjoy making oxidized stoneware, and Raku.

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  • In the atmosphere is usually oxidized to form sulfur trioxide, a secondary pollutant.

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  • It is now known that the action takes place in two stages; the ammonium salt is first oxidized to the nitrite stage and subsequently to the nitrate.

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  • Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body (see Acetic Acid).

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  • An oxysulphide, 2CaS CaO, is sometimes present in "soda - waste," and orangecoloured, acicular crystals of 4CaS CaSO 4.18H 2 O occasionally settle out on the long standing of oxidized "sodaor alkali-waste" (see Alkali Manufacture).

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  • Crace-Calvert in 1871 showed that the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere was a factor; and in 1888 Crum Brown published the theory - termed the "carbonic acid theory" - that water and carbon dioxide react with iron to form ferrous carbonate and hydrogen, the ferrous carbonate being subsequently oxidized by moist oxygen to ferric hydrate and regenerating carbon dioxide, which again reacts with more iron.

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  • Metallic chromium has an oxidized surface and no soluble chromium is released.

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  • Some high fashion and designer jewelry are actually are enhanced by the darkening of the silver and are artificially oxidized to give the silver a blackened surface.

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  • Where black and oolong teas go through withering, rolling, oxidizing, drying, and sorting, green and white teas are not oxidized, or fermented, as part of processing.

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  • Oxidized wine has been exposed to air and is therefore, spoiled.

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  • The hornsilvers all occur under similar conditions and are often associated together; they are found in metalliferous veins with native silver and ores of silver, and are usually confined to the upper oxidized parts of the lodes.

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