Similarly, if we know by experiment the composition of water and of ammonia, we can predict the probable composition of the oxides of nitrogen.
Three characteristic oxides of cobalt are known, the monoxide, CoO, the sesquioxide, C0203, and tricobalt tetroxide, C0304; besides these there are probably oxides of composition Co02, Co 8 0 9, C0607 and C0405.
Dumas' on the composition of the two oxides of carbon.
To see how this law follows from Dalton's theory let us consider his diagrams for the molecules of water, ethylene and the oxides of carbon.
Tricobalt tetroxide, C0304, is produced when the other oxides, or the nitrate, are heated in air.
The gas contains a certain amount of hydrogen and oxides of carbon, also traces of nitrogen.
Thorianite, however, contains no silica, and until it is shown that metallic oxides behave in the same way this explanation must be accepted with reserve.
It reduces many metallic oxides, such as lead monoxide and cupric oxide, and decomposes water at a red heat.
It also possesses the power of combining with most metallic oxides at high temperatures, forming borates, which in many cases show characteristic colours.
The ore generally occurs in the form of oxides, manganite and pyrolusite, and contains a high percentage of sesquioxide of manganese.
Gothite occurs with other iron oxides, especially limonite and hematite, and when found in sufficient quantity is mined with these as an ore of iron.
of yttria, Y203, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium.
ethylene dibromide) with silver acetate or with potassium acetate and alcohol, the esters so produced being then hydrolysed with caustic alkalis, thus: C 2 H 4 Br 2 + C2H302 Ag-*C2H4(O C2H30)2->C2H4(OH)2+2K C2H302 by the direct union of water with the alkylen oxides; by oxidation of the olefines with cold potassium permanganate solution (G.
Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.
Precipitate, red, and all oxides of mercury.
Berthollet's theoretical views regarding the composition of the metallic oxides, and he also showed Berthollet's "zoonic acid" to be impure acetic acid (1802); but Berthollet (q.v.), so far from resenting these corrections from a younger man, invited him to become a member of the Societe d'Arcueil.
Molybdenum combines with oxygen to form many oxides, the most important of which are: the monoxide, MoO.n (H 2 O), the sesquioxide, M0203, the dioxide, MoO 2, and the trioxide, MoO 3.
The molybdates are also capable of combining with other oxides (such as phosphorus and arsenic pentoxides) yielding very complex salts.
Davy showed that they were oxides of various metals.
The metals comprising this group are never found in the uncombined condition, but occur most often in the form of carbonates and sulphates; they form oxides of the type RO, and in the case of calcium, strontium and barium, of the type R02.
The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.
Two oxides of germanium are known, the dioxide, GeO2, being obtained by roasting the sulphide and treatment with nitric acid.
Four oxides of sulphur a.re known, namely sulphur dioxide, S02, sulphur trioxide, S03, sulphur sesquioxide, S203, and persulphuric anhydride, S 2 0 7.
The sulphites are prepared by the action of sulphur dioxide on the oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of the metals, or by processes of precipitation.
He points out that the available oxygen in the oxides may react either as SO 2 + H 2 O ?-- O = H 2 SO 4 or as 2S0 2 -IH20 + 0 = H 2 S 2 0 6; and that in the case of ferric oxide 96% of the theoretical yield of dithionate is obtained, whilst manganese oxide only gives about 75%.
Some of the "porphyroids" which have grains of quartz and felspar in a finely schistose micaceous matrix are intermediate between porphyries and micaschists of this group. Still more numerous are orthoschists of hornblendic character (hornblende-schists) consisting of green hornblende with often felspar, quartz and sphene (also rutile, garnet, epidote or zoisite, biotite and iron oxides).
In a scientific definition the compounds of fatty acids with basic metallic oxides, lime, magnesia, lead oxide, &c., should also be included under soap; but, as these compounds are insoluble in water, while the very essence of a soap in its industrial relations is solubility, it is better to speak of the insoluble compounds as " plasters, " limiting the name " soap " as the compounds of fatty acids with soda and potash.
Several oxides of ruthenium have been described, the definite existence of some of which appears to be doubtful.
As an example of the complexity of this system we may note the five oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolized as the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the liquid oxides.
The basic oxides must have the general formula MO.
For example, compounds of oxygen are oxides, of chlorine, chlorides, and so on.
For example take the oxides of nitrogen, N 2 0, NO, N 2 0 3, NO 2, N 2 0 5; these are known respectively as nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen trioxide, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen pentoxide.
The phlogistic theory, which pervaded the chemical doctrine of this period, gave rise to continued study of the products of calcination and combustion; it thus happened that the knowledge of oxides and oxidation products was considerably developed.
In the following year he discovered rhodium; and at about the same time Smithson Tennant added two more to the list - iridium and osmium; the former was so named from the changing tints of its oxides (ipcs, rainbow), and the latter from the odour of its oxide (ovµA, smell).
In the same year Berzelius discovered selenium in a deposit from sulphuric acid chambers, his masterly investigation including a study of the hydride, oxides and other compounds.
In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
Formerly the sparkand absorption-spectra were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically.
Mosander's erbia has been shown to contain various other oxides - thulia, holmia, &c. - but this has not yet been perfectly worked out.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
These compounds may be regarded as oxides in just the same way as the alcohols are regarded as hydroxides.
Oxygen, recognized by its power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other highly oxygenized salts.
Nitrogen oxides, recognized by their odour and brown-red colour, result from the decomposition of nitrates.
The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.
The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.
As a general rule the modification stable at higher temperatures possesses a lower density; but this is by no means always the case, since the converse is true for antimonious and arsenious oxides, silver iodide and some other substances.
The insufficiency of this argument, however, is shown by the data for arsenious and antimonious oxides, and also for the polymorphs of calcium carbonate, the more symmetrical polymorphs having a lower density.
Deep residual clay soils derived from underlying limestones, and coloured red or black according to the predominance of oxides of iron or vegetable detritus, characterize the plains.
to form (1) oxides and nitric acids, (2) ammonia, (3) readily decomposable nitrides, (4) cyanides, (5) cyanamides.
Mehner patented heating the oxides of silicon, boron or magnesium with coal or coke in an electric furnace, and then passing in nitrogen, which forms, with the metal liberated by the action of the carbon, a readily decomposable nitride.
Nitrogen forms five oxides, viz.
The first four oxides are gases, the fifth is a solid.
It combines directly with lithium, calcium and magnesium when heated, whilst nitrides of the rare earth metals are also produced when their oxides are mixed with magnesium and heated in a current of nitrogen (C. Matignon, Comptes rendus, 1900, 131, p. 837).
It converts many metallic oxides into mixtures of nitrates and nitrites, and attacks many metals, forming nitrates and being itself reduced to nitric oxide.
188188); or by passing air, or a mixture of oxygen and ammonia, over heated metallic oxides (ibid., 168272).
They are separated from the minerals by converting them into oxalates, which by ignition give the corresponding oxides.
The oxides are then converted into double sulphates which are separated from each other by repeated fractional crystallization or by fractional precipitation with ammonia or some other base.
Few obsidians are entirely vitreous; usually they have small crystals of felspar, quartz, biotite or iron oxides, and when these are numerous the rock is called a porphyritic obsidian (or hyalo-liparite).
Cleavage sheets are frequently disfigured and rendered of little value by brown, red or black spots and stains, often with a dendritic arrangement of iron oxides.
The native carbonate or cerussite (q.v.) occasionally occurs in the pure form, but more frequently in a state of intimate intermixture with clay ("lead earth," Bleierde), limestone, iron oxides, &c. (as in the ores of Nevada and Colorado), and some times also with coal ("black lead ore").
In making up a charge, the ores and fluxes, whose chemical compositions have been determined, are mixed so as to form out of the components, not to be reduced to the metallic or sulphide state, typical slags (silicates of ferrous and calcium oxides, incidentally of aluminium oxide, which have been found to do successful work).
A yellowish powdery mixture of zinc and lead oxides collects on the lead; it is skimmed off and sold as paint.
Lead combines with oxygen to form five oxides, viz.
Its common adulterants are iron oxides, powdered barytes and brick dust.
The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isomorphous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments.
Three oxides of columbium are certainly known, namely the dioxide, Cb202, the tetroxide, Cb 2 0 4, and the pentoxide, Cb 2 0 5, whilst a fourth oxide, columbium trioxide, Cb203, has been described by E.
It is obtained as fine lemon yellow deliquescent prisms by evaporating a solution of any of the oxides in nitric acid.
Analysis.-A borax bead dissolves uranium oxides in the reducing flame with a green, in the oxidizing flame with a yellow, colour.
Strong sulphuric acid in contact with it liberates first nitric acid and later oxides of nitrogen, leaving a charred residue or a brown solution according to the quantity of acid.
They pass through a viscous stage in cooling from a state of fluidity; they develop effects of colour when the glass mixtures are fused with certain metallic oxides; they are, when cold, bad conductors both of electricity and heat, they are easily fractured by a blow or shock and show a conchoidal fracture; they are but slightly affected by ordinary solvents, but are readily attacked by hydrofluoric acid.
The theory most widely accepted at present is that glass is a quickly solidified solution, in which silica, silicates, borates, phosphates and aluminates may be either solvents or solutes, and metallic oxides and metals may be held either in solution or in suspension.
The colouring agents are generally metallic oxides.
The same oxide may produce different colours with different glass-mixtures, and different oxides of the same metal may produce different colours.
Aided by grants from the Prussian government, these workers systematically investigated the effect of introducing a large number of different chemical substances (oxides) into vitreous fluxes.
The newer glasses, on the other hand, contain a much wider variety of chemical constituents, the most important being the oxides of barium, magnesium, aluminium and zinc, used either with or without the addition of the bases already named in reference to the older glasses, and - among acid bodies - boric anhydride (B20 3) which replaces the silica of the older glasses to a varying extent.
The materials are generally used in the form either of oxides (lead, zinc, silica, &c.) or of salts readily decomposed by heat, such as the nitrates or carbonates.
The oxides of lead, barium, zinc and antimony are found perceptibly to retard the rays.
The glass tubes, therefore, from which the X-ray bulbs are to be fashioned, must not contain any of these oxides, whereas the glass used for making the funnel-shaped shields, which direct the rays upon the patient and at the same time protect the hands of the operator from the action of the rays, must contain a large proportion of lead.
Oxides of iron and manganese can only be used in glass manufacture in comparatively small quantities for the purpose of colouring or neutralizing colour in glass, and their introduction would not be a matter of sufficient importance to be specially recorded.
It reduces many non-metallic oxides.
It combines directly with ammonia to form the compound SiF 4 2NH,, and is absorbed by dry boric acid and by many metallic oxides.
oxides which yield acids with water.
Mercury and copper and some other metals are capable of dissolving their own oxides.
Tin and antimony (also arsenic) are converted by it (ultimately) into hydrates of their highest oxides Sn0 2, Sb205 (As 2 O 5) - the oxides of tin and antimony being insoluble in water and in the acid itself.
All other metals, including palladium, are dissolved as nitrates, the oxidizing part of the reagent being generally reduced to oxides of nitrogen.
All other metals, when heated in oxygen or air, are converted, more or less readily, into stable oxides.
Heated with many metals it converts them into oxides, and with combustible substances, such as charcoal, sulphur, &c., a most intense conflagration occurs.
The patient inhales the fumes, which contain a considerable proportion of nitrogen oxides.
Second in importance is the carbonate, calamine (q.v.) or zinc spar, which at one time was the principal ore; it almost invariably contains the carbonates of cadmium, iron, manganese, magnesium and calcium, and may be contaminated with clay, oxides of iron, galena and calcite; "white calamine" owes its colour to much clay; "red calamine" to admixed iron and manganese oxides.
Oxide of zinc, like most heavy metallic oxides, is easily reduced to the metallic state by heating it to redness with charcoal; pure red zinc ore may be treated directly; and the same might be done with pure calamine of any kind, because the carbon dioxide of the zinc carbonate goes off below redness and the silica of zinc silicate only retards, but does not prevent, the reducing action of the charcoal.
A green pigment known as Rinmann's green is prepared by mixing I oo parts of zinc vitriol with 2.5 parts of cobalt nitrate and heating the mixture to redness, to produce a compound of the two oxides.
It forms several oxides, TiO 2, Ti 2 O 3 and TiO 3 being the best known; others (some of doubtful existence) have been described from time to time.
Sulphides are known corresponding to the bestknown oxides.
Titanic oxides when fused on charcoal, even with potassium cyanide, yield no metal.
Silver is generally found as red oxides (locally called rosicler), sulphides and argentiferous galena.
This view, which was specially supported by Gay-Lussac and Leopold Gmelin and accepted by Berzelius, necessitated that all acids were monobasic. The untenability of this theory was proved by Thomas Graham's investigation of the phosphoric acids; for he then showed that the ortho- (ordinary), pyroand metaphosphoric acids contained respectively 3, 2 and I molecules of " basic water " (which were replaceable by metallic oxides) and one molecule of phosphoric oxide, P2 05.
Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.
The substances which we at present term anhydrous acids (acid oxides) only become, for the most part, capable of forming salts with metallic oxides after the addition of water, or they are compounds which decompose these oxides at somewhat high temperatures."
The simplest syntheses are undoubtedly those in which a carboxyl group is obtained directly from the oxides of carbon, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.
p. 358; " Ors the Dielectric Constants of Metallic Oxides dissolved or suspended in Ice cooled to the Temperature of Liquid Air," id.
Other oxides, e.g.
Gold forms three sulphides corresponding to the oxides; they readily decompose on heating.
Three stages in the process are to be distinguished: (i.) calcination, to convert all the metals, except gold and silver, into oxides, which are unacted upon by chlorine; (ii.) chlorinating the gold and lixiviating the product; (iii.) precipitating the gold.
The former is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Meymac) and other localities; it also occurs admixed with bismuth carbonate and hydrate.
Bismuth forms four oxides, of which the trioxide, B1203, is the most important.
Two oxides of the element are definitely known, viz., the dioxide, Te02, and the trioxide, Te03, whilst a monoxide, TeO, has also been described.
The reddish colour comes from the presence of oxides of iron, and particles of manganese also occur in it, especially in the Pacific region, where the colour is more that of chocolate; but when it is mixed with globigerina ooze it is grey.
Several oxides of osmium are known.
Zirconia, like stannic and titanic oxides, unites not only with acids but also with basic oxides.
Nitric acid and lower nitrogen oxides are present, being formed by electrical discharges, and by the oxidation of atmospheric ammonia by ozone.
In 1799 he proved that carbonate of copper, whether natural or artificial, always has the same composition, and later he showed that the two oxides of tin and the two sulphides of iron always contain the same relative weights of their components and that no intermediate indeterminate compounds exist.
His analytical skill enabled him to demonstrate the inaccuracy of the researches by which Berthollet attempted to support the opposite view, and to show among other things that some of the compounds which Berthollet treated as oxides were in reality hydrates containing chemically combined water, and the upshot was that by 1808 he had fully vindicated his position.
Calcium forms two oxides - the monoxide, CaO, and the dioxide, CaO 2.
The salts of hydrofluoric acid are known as fluorides and are easily obtained by the action of the acid on metals or their oxides, hydroxides or carbonates.
Several oxides are known.
Acids yield a sodium salt and free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; with carbon dioxide it gives sodium carbonate and free oxygen; carbon monoxide gives the carbonate; whilst nitrous and nitric oxides give the nitrate.
The oxides of nitrogen convert them into nitrosites and nitrosates (0.
Three oxides of carbon are known, namely, carbon suboxide, C,02, carbon monoxide, CO, and carbon dioxide, C02.
It may be prepared by passing carbon dioxide over red-hot carbon, or red-hot iron; by heating carbonates (magnesite, chalk, &c.) with zinc dust or iron; or by heating many metallic oxides with carbon.
It does not burn, and does not support ordinary combustion, but the alkali metals and magnesium, if strongly heated, will continue to burn in the gas with formation of oxides and liberation of carbon.
When heated in air it fuses and then takes fire, burning into a mixture of oxides.
Oxides and Hydroxide.
- Potassium forms two well-defined oxides, K 2 0 and K204, whilst several others, of less certain existence, have been described.
Dr. Goldschmidt's principal discovery related to a simple and safe method of ignition, as the action of aluminium when mixed with various oxides, sulphides, and chlorides was well known.
Of the two classes of iron minerals used as ores of that metal, namely, oxides and carbonates, the latter furnish to-day an insignificant proportion of the countrys product, although such ores were the basis of a considerable part of the early iron industry, and even so late as 1889 represented one-thirteenth of the total.
Of the oxides, various forms of the brown ores in locations near to the Atlantic coast were the chief basis of the early iron industries.
The blue colour in sapphire has been variously referred to the presence of oxides of chromium, iron or titanium, whilst an organic origin has also been suggested.
Various other oxides of chromium, intermediate in composition between the sesquioxide and trioxide, have been described, namely chromium dioxide, Cr203 Cr03, and the oxide Cr03.2Cr203.
Other hydrated oxides such as Cr 2 0 3.2H 2 0 have also been described.
Thechromites maybe looked upon as salts of chromium sesquioxide with other basic oxides, the most important being chromite (q.v.).
The spectra, for instance, of the oxides and haloid salts of the alkaline earths show great resemblance to each other, the bands being similar and similarly placed.
The general formulae of hydroxides are: M i OH, M ii (OH) 2, M il i (OH) 3, M i `'(OH) 4, &c., corresponding to the oxides M21O, M iiO, M21i103 M i °O 2, &c., the Roman index denoting the valency of the element.
difference between non-metallic and metallic hydroxides; the former are invariably acids (oxyacids), the latter are more usually basic, although acidic metallic oxides yield acidic hydroxides.
In many cases it has been formed from other iron oxides, like haematite and magnetite, or by the alteration of pyrites or chalybite.
It attacks most metals readily, usually with production of a nitrate or hydrated oxide of the metal and one or other of the oxides of nitrogen, or occasionally with the production of ammonium salts; magnesium, however, liberates hydrogen from the very dilute acid.
If, according to the present method of winning the metal, a bath containing silica as well as alumina is submitted to electrolysis, both oxides are dissociated, and as silicon is a very undesirable impurity, an alumina contaminated with silica is not suited for reduction.
At elevated temperatures the metal decomposes nearly all other metallic oxides, wherefore it is most serviceable as a metallurgical reagent.
When there is an injurious preponderance of metallic oxides or other deleterious substances, the roots of trees would be affected by them, and they must therefore be removed.
Many metals have the power of dissolving their own oxides and sulphides, but not those of other metals.
It is necessary that it should be as pure as possible since the commercial product usually contains traces of ferric, manganic and aluminium oxides, together with some silica.
Borax is very frequently employed; it melts to a clear liquid and dissolves silica and many metallic oxides.
Litharge and red lead are used in silver and gold assays, acting as solvents for silica and any metallic oxides present.
These acid esters retain some of the characteristic properties of the acids, forming, for example, salts, with basic oxides.
It is therefore more probably due to metallic oxides than to hydrocarbons.
Under all these three conditions the diamond is associated with fragments of the rocks of the country and the minerals derived from them, 'especially quartz, hornstone, jasper, the polymorphous oxide of titanium (rutile, anatase and brookite), oxides and hydrates of iron (magnetite, ilmenite, haematite, limonite), oxide of tin, iron pyrites, tourmaline, garnet, xenotime, monazite, kyanite, diaspore, sphene, topaz, and several phosphates, and also gold.
Many of the Egyptian rocks in the desert areas and at the cataracts are coated with a highly polished film, of almost microscopic thinness, consisting chiefly of oxides of iron and manganese with salts of magnesia and lime.
Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.
Oxygen is also administered in chloroform poisoning, and in threatened death from the inhalation of coal gas or nitrous oxides.
Ann., 1830, 21, p. 584); or by reducing the higher oxides with hydrogen or carbon monoxide.
Trimanganese tetroxide, Mn304, is produced more or less pure when the other oxides are heated.
Manganese sesquioxide, Mn203, found native as the mineral braunite, may be obtained by igniting the other oxides in a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, containing not more than .26% of the latter gas (W.
The metals, which by combination with oxygen became oxides, were antimony, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, tin, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, gold, platinum, lead, tungsten and zinc; and the "simple earthy salifiable substances" were lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina and silica.
From the crude oxide so obtained (which contains lanthanum and didymium oxides) the cerium may be separated by conversion into its double sulphate on the addition of potassium sulphate, the sulphates of the cerium group being insoluble in a saturated solution of potassium sulphate.
Three oxides of cerium are known.
The female figure is largely made use of, and rich and harmonious colours are sought, the glitter of metal being invariably subdued by deadening its lustre, or by patinas and oxides.
Its value as a dyestuff depends on its power of forming insoluble compounds (lakes) with metallic oxides.
It belongs to the group of metals whose oxides are generally denominated "rare earths," and its history is bound up in the history of the group, which is especially interesting from the fact that it supplies the material for the manufacture of the mantles used in incandescent gaslighting, and also that the radio-active substances are almost invariably associated with these oxides.
Several oxides of nickel are known.
Rengade (Comptes rendus, 1907, 1 44, P. 920), by partially oxidizing the metal in a current of dry oxygen and removing excess of metal by distillation in vacuo, has obtained oxides of composition Rb202 (yellowish white), Rb203 (black) and Rb204 (yellow).
FRANKLINITE, a member of the spinel group of minerals, consisting of oxides of iron, manganese and zinc in varying proportions, (Fe, Zn, Mn)"(Fe, Mn) 2"'0 4.
It thus resembles magnetite in external characters, but is readily distinguished from this by the fact that it is only slightly magnetic. It is found in considerable amount, associated with zinc minerals (zincite and willemite) in crystalline limestone, at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, where it is mined as an ore of zinc (containing 5 to 20% of the metal); after the extraction of the zinc, the residue is used in the manufacture of spiegeleisen (the mineral containing 15 to 20% of manganese oxides).
The metal may be used uncombined, but large quantities of ferrotungsten are made in the electric furnace; other alloys are prepared by acting on a mixture of the oxides with aluminium.
The hydrides of the halogens are all colourless, strongly fuming gases, readily soluble in water and possessing a strong acid reaction; they react readily with basic oxides, forming in most cases well defined crystalline salts which resemble one another very strongly.
Three oxides are known: chlorine monoxide, Cl 2 0, chlorine peroxide, C102, and chlorine heptoxide, C1207.
Roscoe, pure perchlo: is acid distils over at first, but if the distillation be continued a white crystalline mass of hydrated perchloric acid, HC104 H20, passes over; this is due to the decomposition of some of the acid into water and lower oxides of chlorine, the water produced then combining with the pure acid to produce the hydrated form.
The principal ores of copper are the oxides cuprite and melaconite, the carbonates malachite and chessylite, the basic chloride atacamite, the silicate chrysocolla, the sulphides chalcocite, chalcopyrite, erubescite and tetrahedrite.
Hydrochloric acid is applied in the same way as sulphuric acid; it has certain advantages of which the most important is that it does not admit the formation of basic salts; its chief disadvantage is that it dissolves the oxides of iron, and accordingly must not be used for highly ferriferous ores.
The liquor was then filtered from the iron oxides, and the filtrate treated with scrap iron, which precipitated the copper and reformed ferrous chloride, which could be used in the first stage of the process.
The advantage of this method rests chiefly on the small amount of iron required; but its disadvantages are that any silver present in the ores goes into solution, the formation of basic salts, and the difficulty of filtering from the iron oxides.
In this process (" new Douglas-Hunt ") there are no iron oxides formed, the silver is not dissolved, and the quantity of iron necessary is relatively small, since all the copper is in the cuprous condition.
Other precipitants such as sulphuretted hydrogen and solutions of sulphides, which precipitate the copper as sulphides, and milk of lime, which gives copper oxides, have not met with commercial success.
Compounds of Copper.-Copper probably forms six oxides, viz.
The most important are cuprous oxide, Cu 2 0, and cupric oxide, CuO, both of Oxides which give rise to well-defined series of salts.
The other and hy- oxides do not possess this property, as is also the case droxides.
of the hydrated oxides Cu30 2 2H 2 O and Cu 4035H 2 O, described by M.
Several hydrated oxides, e.g.
Three oxides of barium are known, namely, the monoxide, BaO, the dioxide, Ba02, and a suboxide, obtained by heating Ba0 with magnesium in a vacuum to 110o (Guntz, loc. cit., 1906, p. 359).
The monoxide is formed when the metal burns in air, but is usually prepared by the ignition of the nitrate, oxygen and oxides of nitrogen being liberated.
Fused borax dissolves many metallic oxides, forming complex borates which in many cases show characteristic colours.
It combines directly with sulphur and phosphorus, and is readily oxidized when heated with metallic oxides (such as litharge, mercuric oxide, manganese dioxide, &c.).
There are three known oxides of antimony, the trioxide Sb406 which is capable of combining with both acids and bases to form salts, the tetroxide Sb204 and the pentoxide Sb205.
==Zinc== Chemically the ores of zinc consist of the silicates, carbonates, oxides, and sulphides of zinc associated with other metals, some of which complicate the methods of assay.
He summed up his results in the general statement that "hydrogen, the alkaline substances, the metals and certain metallic oxides are attracted by negatively electrified metallic surfaces, and repelled by positively electrified metallic surfaces; and contrariwise, that oxygen and acid substances are attracted by positively electrified metallic surfaces and repelled by negatively electrified metallic surfaces; and these attractive and repulsive forces are sufficiently energetic to destroy or suspend the usual operation of elective affinity."
Hydrobromic acid reacts with metallic oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to form bromides, which can in many cases be obtained also by the direct union of the metals with bromine.
No oxides of bromine have as yet been isolated, but three oxy-acids are known, namely hypobromous acid, HBrO, bromous acid, HBr02, and bromic acid, HBrO 3.
On oxidation they yield phosphine oxides, R 3 P O.
They differ from the organic ammonium hydroxides in their behaviour when heated, yielding phosphine oxides and paraffin hydrocarbons: R4P OH=R3PO+RH.
Oxides.-Phosphorus forms three well-defined oxides, P406, P204 and P205; two others, P 4 O and P 2 O, have been described.
Free sulphur is also contained as "gas sulphur" in the "spent oxides" of gasworks, which are actually utilized for the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
The production of sulphuric acid by the assistance of the oxides of the nitrogen is carried out in the" vitriol chambers."These are immense receptacles, mostly from 100 to 200 ft.
As this reaction of its own accord takes place only to a very small extent, an" oxygen carrier "is always introduced in the shape of the vapours of nitric acid or the lower oxides of nitrogen.
By the play of reactions induced in this way practically the whole of the SO 2 is ultimately converted into sulphuric acid, and at the same time the nitrogen oxides are always recovered with comparatively very slight losses and made to serve over again.
The latter is now either converted by hydrolysis into sulphuric acid and nitrogen oxides: 2SO 5 NH + H 2 O = 2H 2 SO 4 + NO + N02, the latter acting as before: or it reacts with more S02, forming again sulphonitronic acid: 2SO 5 NH + SO 2 + 2H 2 O = H 2 SO 4 + 2SO 5 NH 2.
The commercial production of sulphuric acid imperatively requires that the nitrogen oxides (which originally were always introduced in the shape of nitric acid) should be available as long as possible, before being lost mechanically or by reduction to the inactive forms of nitrous oxide or elementary nitrogen.
Here the reactions sketched above take place, so that "chamber-acid" as already described is formed, while a mixture of gases escapes containing all the atmospheric nitrogen, some oxygen in excess, about 0.5% of the total S02, and some oxides of nitrogen.
The principal iron ores are the oxides and carbonates, and these readily yield the metal by smelting with carbon.
p. 469) has shown that water is decomposed at all temperatures from 0 to 100° by the finely divided metal with liberation of hydrogen, the action being accelerated when oxides are present.
It dissolves in dilute cold nitric acid with the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates, no gases being liberated; when heated or with stronger acid ferric nitrate is formed with evolution of nitrogen oxides.
Oxides and Hydroxides.-Iron forms three oxides: ferrous oxide, FeO, ferric oxide, Fe2O3, and ferroso-ferric oxide, Fe304.
Calcium ferrite, magnesium ferrite and zinc ferrite, ROFe203(R=Ca, Mg, Zn), are obtained by intensely heating mixtures of the oxides; magnesium ferrite occurs in nature as the mineral magnoferrite, and zinc ferrite as franklinite, both forming black octahedra.
Ferri arsenas, iron arsenate, ferrous and ferric arsenates with some iron oxides, a greenish powder.
In general, oxides are the most important compounds with which the chemist has to deal, a study of their composition and properties permitting a valuable comparative investigation of the elements.
Baker), and when this is not so, indirect methods are available, except with bromine and fluorine (and also with the so-called inert gases - argon, helium, &c.), which so far have yielded no oxides.
Most of the elements combine with oxygen in several proportions, for example nitrogen has five oxides: N 2 0, NO, N 2 0 3, NO 2, N205; for classificatory purposes, however, it is advantageous to assign a typical oxide to each element, which, in general, is the highest having a basic or acid character.
Five species of oxides may be distinguished: (I) basic oxides, (2) acidic oxides, (3) neutral oxides, (4) peroxides, (5) mixed anhydrides and salts.
Basic oxides combine with acids or acidic oxides to form salts; similarly acidic oxides combine with basic oxides to form salts also.
The former are more usually yielded by the metals (some metals, however, form oxides belonging to the other groups), whilst the latter are usually associated with the non-metals.
aluminium and zinc. Neutral oxides combine neither with acids nor bases to give salts nor with water to give a base or acid.
A typical member is nitric oxide; carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide may also be put in this class, but it must be remembered that these oxides may be regarded, in some measure at least, as the anhydrides of formic and hyponitrous acid, although, at the same time, it is impossible to obtain these acids by simple hydration of these oxides.
Peroxides may in most cases be defined as oxides containing more oxygen than the typical oxide.
Peroxides may be basic or acidic. Some basic oxides yield hydrogen peroxide with acids, others yield oxygen (these also liberate chlorine from hydrochloric acid), and may combine with lower acidic oxides to form salts of the normal basic oxide with the higher acidic oxide.
Acidic peroxides combine with basic oxides to form "per" salts, and by loss of oxygen yield the acidic oxide typical of the element.
Mixed anhydrides are oxides, which yield with water two acids, or are salts composed of a basic and acidic oxide of the same metal.
The important reducing agents include hydrogen, hydrides such as those of iodine, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., carbon, many metals, potassium, sodium, aluminium, magnesium, &c., salts of lower oxyacids, lower salts of metals and lower oxides.
In a somewhat impure condition it may be obtained by the reduction of vanadium pentoxide with a mixture of the rare earth metals which are obtained by reduction of the waste oxides formed in the manufacture of thoria (Weiss and Aichel, Ann., 1904, 337, p..
Gain (Comptes rendus, 1906, 1 43, p. 823) by calcining ammonium metavanadate and saturating a solution of the resulting oxides with sulphur dioxide; the resulting blue solution (from which a sulphate of composition 2V 2 0 4.3S0 2.10H 2 O can be isolated) is then boiled with water, when sulphur dioxide is liberated and a pale red crystalline powder of hypovanadic acid, H4V205, is precipitated.
Two oxides of arsenic are definitely known to exist, namely the trioxide (white arsenic), As406, and the pentoxide, As205, while the existence of a suboxide, As20(?), has also been mooted.
They do not possess basic properties; the halogen in the chlorine compounds is readily replaced by oxygen, and the oxides produced behave like basic oxides.
The chlorides AsCl2CH3 and AsCl(CH3)2 as well as As(CH3)3 are capable of combining with two atoms of chlorine, the arsenic atom apparently changing from the tri- to the penta-valent condition, and the corresponding oxygen compounds can also be oxidized to compounds containing one oxygen atom or two hydroxyl groups more, forming acids or oxides.
The name is also given to the neutral carbon dioxide from its power of forming salts with oxides, and on account of the acid nature of its solution; and, although not systematic, this use is very common.
Magnesium chloride Magnesium bromide Iron and aluminium oxides Organic matter, water of tion, loss .
If oils and fats are treated with water alone under high pressure (corresponding to a temperature of about 220° C.), or in the presence of water with caustic alkalis or alkaline earths or basic metallic oxides (which bodies act as "catalysers") at lower pressures, they are converted in the first instance into free fatty acids and glycerin.
If an amount of the bases sufficient to combine subsequently with the fatty acids be present, then the corresponding salts of these fatty acids are formed, such as sodium salts of fatty acids (hard soap) or potassium salts of the fatty acids (soft soap), soaps of the alkaline earth (lime soap), or soaps of the metallic oxides (zinc soap, &c.).
Gault); (5) oxides of iron (staining the clay bright red when ferric oxide, red ochre; yellow when hydrous, e.g.
Their typical colour is blackishblue, owing to the abundance of sulphuretted hydrogen; when fresh they have a sulphurous odour, when weathered they are brown, as their iron is present as hydrous oxides (limonite, &c.).
Calcining furnaces have a less extended application, being chiefly employed in the conversion of metallic sulphides into oxides by continued exposure to the action of air at a temperature far below that of fusion, or into chlorides by roasting with common salt.
This supposes them to be free from metallic oxides forming easily fusible compounds with silica, such as lime or iron, the presence of the former even in comparatively small proportion being very detrimental.
Nitrogen oxides can irritate airways, especially your lungs.
Mixed metal oxides and phases containing mixed anions, such as oxide fluorides, provide our current focus.
bismuth oxides which exhibit exceptionally high oxide ion conductivity at low temperatures.
The flint artifacts found in the ancient river gravels are frequently rolled, battered, and stained brown by iron oxides.
I use oxides, pigments and colored slips on unfired clay, employing various techniques, which include brushwork, sponging and sgraffito.
A small proportion of PV contains cadmium, the oxides of which are toxic in very small doses.
calcine the ore to convert any sulfides to oxides.
In geology, the cement of breccias and conglomerates is usually silica, iron oxides or calcite (mineral calcium carbonate ).
cirrus formation; chemistry of nitrogen oxides ), the basic science of the relevant processes is poorly understood.
destruction of ozone by nitrous oxides, CFCs and other chlorine compounds.
Nitrogen oxides are therefore a contributory factor in the production of acid rain.
As it exists today, the third era was enriched with minerals dominated by ferric oxides.
Complexes of carbon, their synthesis and structures, are discussed including the halides, oxides and carbides.
Burning also releases soot, nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons among other harmful compounds.
hydrous iron oxides inherited from the parent material or formed by weathering remain attached to any silicate clays.
Bases are substances that react with acids to form a salt and water ONLY, e.g. metal hydroxides and metal oxides.
The acidic nature of the oxides All of these oxides also react with bases like sodium hydroxide solution.
iron oxides, which are purely natural.
They can consist of clays, muds, sands or gravels or a mixture of these, often cemented together by iron oxides.
Other land can contain magnetic iron oxides, which are purely natural.
limonite iron ore is a yellowish or orange color and was made up of a variety of iron oxides.
manganese oxides clearly needs further work.
Colors, as in many gemstones, are caused by small amounts of impurity, usually metallic oxides.
Smog forming emissions are generally 30-50% lower including nitric oxides and hydrocarbons emissions.
These include the nitrides, halides, oxides and hydrides.
nitrogen oxides are formed.
Emissions dangerous to health include nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, lead and particulates.
nitrogen oxides emitted in vehicle exhausts.
nitrogen oxides produced by cars reacts with hydrocarbons in sunlight.
State that nitrogen and oxygen from the air react inside a car engine to form nitrogen oxides (these are poisonous gasses ).
Busses emit 68 times more nitrogen oxides and 37 times more particulates than an equivalent car.
It also absorbs oxygen to reduce the amount of harmful nitrogen oxides released.
oxides of nitrogen are.. .
oxides of manganese and zinc.
oxides of sulfur and nitrogen are emitted from factories and power stations and also from cars.
Glass may be clear and colorless, or may be colored by the addition of metallic oxides.
Main Sources Whenever anything is burnt in air, nitrogen oxides are formed.
photolysis pyrolysis reaction with metal oxides.
pollutethan half of emissions of polluting agents such as nitrogen oxides or carbon monoxide come from road transport vehicles.
react with the oxygen to form acidic oxides.
sorption measurements on different oxides.
Common vitamin and mineral supplements will contain this as simple sulfates or oxides.
sulfur oxides, and hydrocarbons.
The Eco-Balls contain mineral oxides and act as a natural non-ionic surfactant that reduces surface tension and releases dirt.
I am also playing with linocuts to produce textured, patterned clay surfaces which may be decorated with colored slips or oxides before glazing.
Erebus is the main point source for NO 2 (and very likely other reactive nitrogen oxides) in the antarctic troposphere.
Two oxides of iridium are known, namely the sesquioxide, Ir203, and the dioxide, Ir02, corresponding to which there are two series of salts, the sesqui-salts and the iridic salts; a third series of salts is also known (the iridious salts) derived from an oxide IrO.
On the oxides see L.
If we compare Dalton's diagrams of the two oxides of carbon or of the three oxides of nitrogen that are given in the preceding table, we at once see the necessity of this law; for the more complex molecule has to be formed from the simpler one by the addition of one or more whole atoms. In the oxides of carbon the same weight of carbon must be combined with weights of oxygen that are as 2, and in the oxides of nitrogen a fixed weight of nitrogen must be in union with weights of oxygen that are as 1: 2: 2, which are the same ratios as 2: 4: r.
This law has been abundantly verified by experiment; for example, five oxides of nitrogen are known, and independent analyses show that, if we consider the same weight of nitrogen in every case, the weights of oxygen combined with it are to one another as i: 2: 3: 4: 5.
We can therefore predict that all oxides of carbon will have compositions represented by the ratio of 8m parts of oxygen to 6n parts of carbon, where m and n are whole numbers.
Experiment shows that, in water and ammonia, we have, respectively, 8 parts of oxygen and 4.67 parts of nitrogen in union with one part of hydrogen; we can therefore infer that the oxides of nitrogen will all have the composition of 8m parts of oxygen to 4.67n parts of nitrogen.
From their work it follows that the ratio of the weights of oxygen combined with unit weight of carbon in the two oxides is 1.99995, or with somewhat different data, 1.9996.
Wieland and his collaborators regard " glyoxime peroxide " as an oxide of furazane (q.v.), and have shown that a close relationship exists between the nitrile oxides, furoxane, and fulminic acid (see Ann.
For example, at first he represented ferrous and ferric oxides by the formulae Fe02, Fe03, and by the analogy of zinc and other basic oxides he regarded these substances as constituted similarly to Fe02, and the acidic oxides alumina and chromium oxide as similar to FeO 3.
But not only is the combining power or valency (atomicity) of the elements different, it is also observed that one element may combine with another in several proportions, or that its valency may vary; for example, phosphorus forms two chlorides represented by the formulae PC1 3 and PC1 51 nitrogen the series of oxides represented by the formulae N 2 0, NO, (N203), N 2 O 4, N205, molybdenum forms the chlorides MoC1 2, MoC1 3, MoC1 4, MoC1 5, MoCls(?), and tungsten the chlorides WC1 2, WCl 4, WC1 5, WC16.
2 a but may unite with three of chlorine, which never combines with more than a single atom of hydrogen; an atom of phosphorus unites with only three atoms of hydrogen, but with five of chlorine, or with four of hydrogen and one of iodine; and the chlorides corresponding to the higher oxides of lead, nickel, manganese and arsenic, Pb0 2, Ni 2 0 3, Mn0 2 and As 2 0 5 do not exist as stable compounds, but the lower chlorides, PbCl 2j NiC12, MnC1 2 and AsC1 3j are very stable.
It is also prepared by heating ammonium nitrite (or a mixture of sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride): NH 4 NO 2 =2H20+N21 by heating a mixture of ammonium nitrate and chloride (the chlorine which is simultaneously produced being absorbed by milk of lime or by a solution of sodium hydroxide): 4NH4N03+2NH4C1=5N2 +C1 2 +12H 2 O; by heating ammonium dichromate (or a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium dichromate): (NH4)2Cr207 = Cr203+4H20+ N2; by passing chlorine into a concentrated solution of ammonia (which should be present in considerable excess): 8NH3+3C12=6NH4C1-F-N2; by the action of hypochlorites or hypobromites on ammonia: 3NaOBr-+2NH 3 =3NaBr+3H 2 OH-N 2; and by the action of manganese dioxide on ammonium nitrate at 180-20oÃ‚° C. It is also formed by the reduction of nitric and nitrous oxides with hydrogen in the presence of platinized asbestos at a red heat (G.
They may also be prepared by the action of mercuric or cupric oxides on alkaline solutions of hydroxylamine (A.
arsenic, may be placed in either division, their properties approximating to both metallic and non-metallic. One chemical differentia utilizes the fact that metals always form at least one basic oxide which yields salts with acids, while nonmetals usually form acidic oxides, i.e.
Dalton's idea that elements preferentially combined in equiatomic proportions had as an immediate inference that metallic oxides contained one atom of the metal to one atom of oxygen, and a simple expansion of this conception was that one atom of oxide combined with one atom of acid to form one atom of a neutral salt.
It forms oxides of composition Nd203 and Nd 2 O 5, the latter being obtained by ignition of the nitrate (B.
Praseodymium (Pr) forms oxides of composition Pr 2 O 3, Pr205,xH20 (B.
The general formulae of hydroxides are: M i OH, M ii (OH) 2, M il i (OH) 3, M i `'(OH) 4, &c., corresponding to the oxides M21O, M iiO, M21i103 M i Ã‚°O 2, &c., the Roman index denoting the valency of the element.
Aluminium oxide or alumina, Al 2 0 3, occurs in nature as the mineral corundum, notable for its hardness and abrasive power (see Emery), and in well-crystallized forms it constitutes, when coloured by various metallic oxides, the gem-stones, sapphire, oriental topaz, oriental amethyst and oriental emerald.
So obtained, it contains many impurities, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxides of nitrogen, phosphoretted hydrogen, arseniuretted hydrogen, &c., the removal of which is a matter of great difficulty (see E.
On the other hand, the occurrence in meteoric stones, and the experiments mentioned above, show that the diamond may also crystallize from a basic magma, capable of yielding some of the metallic oxides and ferro-magnesian silicates; a magma, therefore, which is not devoid of oxygen.
(See Iron And Steel.) Compounds Manganese forms several oxides, the most important of which are manganous oxide, MnO, trimanganese tetroxide, Mn304, manganese sesquioxide, Mn203, manganese dioxide, Mn02, manganese trioxide, Mn03, and manganese heptoxide, Mn207.
Manganese dioxide combines with other basic oxides to form manganites, and on this property is based the Weldon process for the recovery of manganese from the waste liquors of the chlorine stills (see Chlorine).
Phosphorus suboxide, P 4 O, is said to be formed, mixed with the other oxides, when the element is burnt in a limited supply of air or in pure oxygen under reduced pressure (E.
Until recently the only agent practically used for this purpose was furnished by the oxides of nitrogen; more recently other oxygen carriers, acting by" contact processes,"have also come into use (see below).
p. 469) has shown that water is decomposed at all temperatures from 0 to 100Ã‚° by the finely divided metal with liberation of hydrogen, the action being accelerated when oxides are present.
Chem., 1903, 43, p. 1), on the other hand, regarded it as due to surface films of a gas; submitting that the difference between iron made passive by nitric acid and by anodic polarization was explained by the film being of nitrogen oxides in the first case and of oxygen in the second case.
The term is also used for a meshed cap of refractory oxides employed in systems of incandescent lighting (see Lighting).
In his researches, Roscoe showed that the atomic weight of the metal as determined by Berzelius and the formulae given to the oxides were incorrect, and pointed out that the element falls into its natural place in group V of the periodic classification along with phosphorus and arsenic, and not in the chromium group where it had originally been placed.
Five oxides of vanadium are known (cf.
If oils and fats are treated with water alone under high pressure (corresponding to a temperature of about 220Ã‚° C.), or in the presence of water with caustic alkalis or alkaline earths or basic metallic oxides (which bodies act as "catalysers") at lower pressures, they are converted in the first instance into free fatty acids and glycerin.
Less frequently present are the following: - rock salt (Triassic clays, and marls of Cheshire, &c.); gypsum (London Clay, Triassic clays); dolomite, phosphate of lime, vivianite (phosphate of iron), oxides of manganese, copper ores (e.g.
Elements like phosphorus and silicon react with the oxygen to form acidic oxides.
This is demonstrated in this paper by hexane and cyclohexane sorption measurements on different oxides.
This APC fee covers such pollutants as suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and hydrocarbons.
The ingredients used in this Welsbach process are oxides of metal: aluminum oxide and thorium oxide.
Erebus is the main point source for NO 2 (and very likely other reactive nitrogen oxides) in the Antarctic troposphere.
Among the long list of pollutants that the burning of fossil fuels emits into the air are sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.
When sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are present together in the atmosphere, they combine to form the compounds that are the source of acid rain.
Smog is created when nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, also produced by fossil fuels, are exposed to sunlight, causing a chemical reaction.
It combines with nitrogen oxides and forms tropospheric ozone.
Nitrogen oxides trap 300 times more heat per volume than carbon dioxide, making fertilizer use in farming one of the leading causes of global warming.
Ozone, or tropospheric ozone, is a pollutant formed by the reaction of sunlight on hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.
Not only do these chemicals cause cropland to store more heat due to the high percentage of nitrogen, they also create nitrogen oxides that are released into the air and mingle with the carbon dioxide to create greenhouse gasses.
The mantle in an Aladdin lamp is made from a unique mixture of rare earth oxides.
Minerals such as zinc, iron oxides, ultramarine, titanium oxide, bismuth oxychloride and mica are all finely ground into a powder that is gently dusted onto the face with a makeup brush.
They mixed, pressed and broke down precious copper based minerals, such as malachite, along with carbon and manganese oxides to create colored powders used for face powders or eye colors.
Liquid eyeliner contains ingredients like water, iron oxides and titanium dioxide.
Allergic responses to tattoos may occur due to the pigment compounds used, such as oxides of iron, mercury, chromium, cadmium, and cobalt and synthetic organic dyes.
Diamonds can be found in many different colors, and so can CZ, depending on what different mineral oxides have been added to the zirconium oxide during crystal stabilization and cooling.
What gives the stones their smoky coloration are actually mineral inclusions, usually iron oxides such as magnetite, hematite, or sulfide compounds.
For example, manufacturing of one kilogram of PET involves releasing 40 grams of hydrocarbons, 25 grams of sulfur oxides, 18 grams of carbon monoxide, 20 grams of nitrogen oxides, and 2.3 kilograms of carbon dioxide.
Dr. Zwerling claims that some pigments, such as the inorganic metal oxides described earlier (often seen in brown and black pigments), are safe and non-reactive for human tissue.
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