Oxide Sentence Examples
Half a century later, nitrous oxide came into use as an anesthetic.
As prepared by the reduction of the oxide it is a grey powder.
The metal is chiefly used, as the oxide, for colouring glass and porcelain.
Nitrogen peroxide is the most stable oxide of nitrogen.
It is a basic oxide, dissolving readily in acids, with the formation of salts, somewhat analogous to those of zinc.Advertisement
It is decomposed by heat into the oxide and water, and is soluble in ammonia but not in excess of dilute potassium hydroxide; this latter property serves to distinguish it from zinc hydroxide.
Cadmium nitrate, Cd(N03)2.4H20, is a deliquescent salt, which may be obtained by dissolving either the metal, or its oxide or carbonate in dilute nitric acid.
Several hydrated forms of the oxide are known, and a colloidal variety may be obtained by the dialysis of a strong hydrochloric acid solution of sodium molybdate.
Molybdenum trioxide, like chromium trioxide, is an acidic oxide, and forms salts known as molybdates.
By heating with a small quantity of magnesium it is converted into germanious oxide, GeO.Advertisement
At the same time a little trioxide is formed, and, according to Hempel (Ber., 1890, 2 3, p. 1 455), half the sulphur is converted into this oxide if the combustion be carried out in oxygen at a pressure of 40 to 50 atmospheres.
When perfectly dry this oxide has no caustic properties; it combines rapidly, however, with water to form sulphuric acid, with the development of much heat.
Although this acid appears to be derived from an oxide S203, it is not certain that the known sesquioxide is its anhydride.
He points out that the available oxygen in the oxides may react either as SO 2 + H 2 O ?-- O = H 2 SO 4 or as 2S0 2 -IH20 + 0 = H 2 S 2 0 6; and that in the case of ferric oxide 96% of the theoretical yield of dithionate is obtained, whilst manganese oxide only gives about 75%.
Amongst endothermic compounds may be noted hydriodic acid, HI, acetylene, C 2 H 2, nitrous oxide, N 2 O, nitric oxide, NO, azoimide, N 3 H, nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3.Advertisement
Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.
It is an oxide of iron having the formula Fe 3 O 4, corresponding with 72.4% of metal, whence its great value as an ore.
It may be regarded as a ferroso-ferric oxide, FeO.Fe 2 O 3, or as iron ferrate, Fe"Fe 2 '0 4.
The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.Advertisement
In a scientific definition the compounds of fatty acids with basic metallic oxides, lime, magnesia, lead oxide, &c., should also be included under soap; but, as these compounds are insoluble in water, while the very essence of a soap in its industrial relations is solubility, it is better to speak of the insoluble compounds as " plasters, " limiting the name " soap " as the compounds of fatty acids with soda and potash.
In preparing lead plaster by boiling olive oil with oxide of lead and a little water - a process palpably analogous to that of the soap-boilerhe obtained a sweet substance which, called by himself " Olsiiss " (" principium dulce oleorum "), is now known as " glycerin."
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and nitric oxide burns with a very intense blue-coloured flame, which is very rich in the violet or actinic rays.
It fuses easily in the electric arc. It oxidizes superficially when heated, but fairly rapidly when ignited in an oxidizing blowpipe flame, forming a black smoke of the oxide.
It crystallizes in octahedra isomorphous with stannic oxide.Advertisement
An oxide of composition Ru 4 0 9 is obtained as a black hydrated powder when the peroxide is heated with water for some time.
At a later date Berzelius denoted an oxide by dots, equal in number to the number of oxygen atoms present, placed over the element; this notation survived longest in mineralogy.
For example, positive iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate.
Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 1 4 of nitrogen; in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 3 2 or 8 X 4 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhydride a compound of 4 o or 8 X 5 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen.
For example take the oxides of nitrogen, N 2 0, NO, N 2 0 3, NO 2, N 2 0 5; these are known respectively as nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen trioxide, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen pentoxide.
When this oxide is brought into contact with water it combines with it forming sulphuric acid, H2S04.
The compounds of mercury attracted considerable attention, mainly on account of their medicinal properties; mercuric oxide and corrosive sublimate were known to pseudo-Geber, and the nitrate and basic sulphate to " Basil Valentine."
Sulphuretted hydrogen and nitric oxide were discovered at about the same time.
Peligot, who prepared the pure metal, that Klaproth's product was really an oxide.
In the same year as Klaproth detected uranium, he also isolated zirconia or zirconium oxide from the mineral variously known as zircon, hyacinth, jacynth and jargoon; but he failed to obtain the metal, this being first accomplished some years later by Berzelius, who decomposed the double potassium zirconium fluoride with potassium.
In the following year he discovered rhodium; and at about the same time Smithson Tennant added two more to the list - iridium and osmium; the former was so named from the changing tints of its oxides (ipcs, rainbow), and the latter from the odour of its oxide (ovµA, smell).
In the following year he announced that silica was the oxide of a hitherto unrecognized element, which he named silicium, considering it to be a metal.
Rose, who regarded niobium oxide as the element.
The term allotropy has also been applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, but assuming different crystallographic forms. Mercuric oxide, sulphide and iodide; arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide may be cited as examples.
Hisinger and Berzelius, was of ceria, the oxide of cerium, in the mineral cerite found at Ridderhytta, Westmannland, Sweden.
However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.
This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.
The mono-benzo-derivatives are coumarone, benzothiophene and indole; the dibenzo-derivatives are diphenylene oxide, dibenzothiophene or diphenylene sulphide, and carbazole.
When present in sufficient quantity the five last-named give enamel-white beads; lead oxide in excess gives a yellowish bead.
If silica be present, it gives the iron bead when heated with a little ferric oxide; if tin is present there is no change.
Any film formed in the first case is metallic, in the second it is the oxide.
The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.
Carbon is detected by the formation of carbon dioxide, which turns lime-water milky, and hydrogen by the formation of water, which condenses on the tube, when the substance is heated with copper oxide.
Beilstein determines their presence by heating the substance with pure copper oxide on a platinum wire in the Bunsen flame; a green coloration is observed if halogens be present.
The oxidizing agent in commonest use is copper oxide, which must be freshly ignited before use on account of its hygroscopic nature.
The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.
After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.
If all the connexions are sound, the copper oxide is gradually heated from the end a, the gas-jets under the spiral d are lighted, and a slow current of oxygen is passed through the tube.
Nitrogen is estimated by (I) Dumas' method, which consists in heating the substance with copper oxide and measuring the volume Nitrogen.
The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.
Substances which burn with difficulty may be mixed with mercuric oxide in addition to copper oxide.
It is remarkable that even a small addition of zinc-white (oxide of zinc) to the reddish varieties especially causes a considerable diminution in the intensity of the colour, while dilution with artificial precipitated sulphate of lime ("annalin") or sulphate of baryta ("blanc fix") acts pretty much as one would expect.
The 0-form is obtained by the direct action of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on mesityl oxide, the hydrochloride so formed being decomposed by sodium carbonate.
By the direct action of hydroxylamine on a methyl alcohol solution of mesityl oxide in the presence of sodium methylate a hydr oxylamino - ketone, diacetone hydroxylamine, (CH 3) 2 C(Nhoh) CH20OCH3,is formed.
The first product of the reaction is nitric oxide, which on cooling with the residual gases produces nitrogen peroxide.
In 1862 Fleck passed a mixture of steam, nitrogen and carbon monoxide over red-hot lime, whilst in 1904 Woltereck induced combination by passing steam and air over red-hot iron oxide (peat is used in practice).
If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.
He then tried the direct combination of nitric oxide with liquid nitrogen peroxide.
Nitrogen peroxide, NO 2 or N204, may be obtained by mixing oxygen with nitric oxide and passing the red gas so obtained through a freezing mixture.
It converts many metallic oxides into mixtures of nitrates and nitrites, and attacks many metals, forming nitrates and being itself reduced to nitric oxide.
It decomposes slowly on standing, yielding water and nitrous oxide.
It is decomposed by sulphuric acid, with evolution of nitrous oxide.
It is very unstable, decomposing into nitrous oxide and water when mixed with copper oxide, lead chromate or even powdered glass.
These methods have been purely chemical (either gravimetric or volumetric), physical (determinations of the density of nitrogen, nitric oxide, &c.) or physicochemical.
The oxide dissolves slowly in acids; it is not reduced by hydrogen and is infusible.
If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.
Barreswil found that a strongly alkaline solution of copper sulphate and potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) remained unchanged on boiling, but yielded an immediate precipitate of red cuprous oxide when a solution of glucose was added.
Volumetric methods are used, but the uncertainty of the end of the reaction has led to the suggestion of special indicators, or of determining the amount of cuprous oxide gravimetrically.
For this reason the acid copper-bath is not used for iron or zinc objects, a bath containing copper cyanide or oxide dissolved in potassium cyanide being substituted.
The first effect of the roasting is the elimination of sulphur as sulphurdioxide, with formation of oxide and sulphate of lead.
At this stage as a rule some rich slags of a former operation are added and a quantity of quicklime is incorporated, the chief object of which is to diminish the fluidity of the mass in the next stage, which consists in this, that, with closed air-holes, the heat is raised so as to cause the oxide and sulphate on the one hand and the sulphide on the other to reduce each other to metal.
Charcoal is now added, and the heat urged on to obtain Pressblei, an inferior metal formed partly by the action of the charcoal on the oxide of lead.
Thus, a mixture of lead sulphate (45%) and oxide (44%) with some sulphide (8%), zinc and carbonaceous matter, is agglomerated by a heap-roast and then smelted in a slag-eye furnace with grey slag from the ore-hearth.
This is drawn off, cooled and filtered, and forms a white paint of good body, consisting of about 65% lead sulphate, 26% lead oxide, 6% zinc oxide and 3% other substances.
In making up a charge, the ores and fluxes, whose chemical compositions have been determined, are mixed so as to form out of the components, not to be reduced to the metallic or sulphide state, typical slags (silicates of ferrous and calcium oxides, incidentally of aluminium oxide, which have been found to do successful work).
Tin is removed mainly as a powdery mixture of stannate of lead and lead oxide, arsenic and antimony as a slagged mixture of arsenate and antimonate of lead and lead oxide.
The distillation of 1000 lb charge lasts 5-6 hours, requires 500-600 lb coke or 30 gallons reduced oil, and yields about to% metallic zinc and I% blue powder - a mixture of finely-divided metallic zinc and zinc oxide.
When carbonic acid is present the dissolved oxide is soon precipitated as basic carbonate, so that the corrosion of the lead becomes continuous.
Lead generally functions as a divalent element of distinctly metallic character, yielding a definite series of salts derived from the oxide PbO.
This oxide is produced by heating lead in contact with air and removing the film of oxide as formed.
The former is produced at temperatures below, the latter at temperatures above the fusing-point of the oxide.
A hydrated oxide, 2PbO H 2 O, is obtained when a solution of the monoxide in potash is treated with carbon dioxide.
Lead dioxide, Pb0 2, also known as "puce oxide," occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite, and may be most conveniently prepared by heating mixed solutions of lead acetate and bleaching powder until the original precipitate blackens.
It is also obtained by passing chlorine into a suspension of lead oxide or carbonate, or of magnesia and lead sulphate, in water; or by treating the sesquioxide or red oxide with nitric acid.
Heating or exposure to sunlight reduces it to the red oxide; it fires when ground with sulphur, and oxidizes ammonia to nitric acid, with the simultaneous formation of ammonium nitrate.
Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.
Commercial red lead is frequently contaminated with this oxide, which may, however, be removed by repeated digestion with lead acetate.
Another oxychloride, PbC1 2.7PbO, known as "Cassel yellow," was prepared by Vauquelin by fusing pure oxide, PbO, with one-tenth of its weight of sal ammoniac. "Turner's yellow" or "patent yellow" is another artificially prepared oxychloride, used as a pigment.
Lead nitrate, Pb(N03)2, is obtained by dissolving the metal or oxide in aqueous nitric acid; it forms white crystals, difficultly soluble in cold water, readily in hot water and almost insoluble in strong nitric acid.
It is decomposed by heat into oxide, nitrogen peroxide and oxygen; and is used for the manufacture of fusees and other deflagrating compounds, and also for preparing mordants in the dyeing and calico-printing industries.
An aqueous solution readily dissolves lead oxide, with formation of a strongly alkaline solution containing basic acetates (Acetum Plumbi or Saturni).
When carbon dioxide is passed into this solution the whole of the added oxide, and even part of the oxide of the normal salt, is precipitated as a basic carbonate chemically similar, but not quite equivalent as a pigment, to white lead.
General Phenomena Pieces of a certain highly esteemed iron ore, which consists mainly of the oxide Fe 3 0 4, are sometimes found to possess the power of attracting small fragments of iron or steel.
When heated with water and mineral acids, the nitrolic acids are completely decomposed, yielding fatty acids and nitrous oxide.
In 1789 Klaproth isolated from pitchblende a yellow oxide which he viewed as the oxide of a new metal, which he named uranium, after the newly discovered planet of Herschel.
By reducing the oxide with charcoal at a high temperature, he obtained a product which he took to be metallic uranium.
Berzelius about 1823 found that the yellow oxide, when treated with excess of sulphuric acid, gave a sulphate not unlike the ferric salt.
He concluded that the uranium salt was Ur 2033S0 3, where Ur 2 0 3, according to his analysis, represents 864 parts of yellow oxide (0 = 16).
Like Fe 2 0 3, the yellow oxide lost 48 parts of oxygen per Ur203 (= 864 parts) as water, while Ur 2 = 816 parts of metal remained.
Peligot's results, though called in question by Berzelius, have been amply confirmed by all subsequent investigators; only now, on theoretical grounds, first set forth by Mendeleeff, we double Peligot's atomic weight, so that U now signifies 240 parts of uranium, while UO 3 stands as the formula of the yellow oxide, and UO 2 as that of Berzelius's metal.
The precipitate, after having been collected and washed, is digested with a warm concentrated solution of ammonium carbonate, which dissolves the uranium as a yellow solution of ammonium uranate, while the hydrated oxide of iron, the alumina, &c., remain.
This uranate when ignited in a platinum crucible leaves a green oxide of the composition U308, i.e.
The green oxide, as a rule, requires to be further purified.
The latter (U02 C204) yields a purer oxide, U02, or, in the presence of air, U308, on ignition.
If forms two series of salts, one, the uranous compounds, are derived from the oxide U02, the other, the uranyl compounds, contain the divalent group U02.
Uranous chloride, UC14, was first prepared by Peligot by heating an intimate mixture of the green oxide and charcoal to redness in a current of dry chlorine; it is obtained as sublimate of black-green metallic-looking octahedra.
Uranyl or Uranic Compounds.-Uranic oxide, UO 3 „or UO 2.
It is also obtained by dissolving the oxide in hydrochloric acid and evaporating.
The first stage has for its purpose the production of a fairly pure tinstone; the second the conversion of the oxide into metallic tin; and the third preparing a tin pure enough for commercial purposes.
This operation is no doubt intended to remove the oxygen diffused throughout the metal as oxide, part of it perhaps chemically by reduction of the oxide to metal, the rest by conveying the finely diffused oxide to the surface and causing it to unite there with the oxide scum.
Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.
The hot vapour produced combines with the oxygen of the air into white oxide, Sn02.
The sal-ammoniac removes the last unavoidable film of oxide, leaving a purely metallic surface, to .which the tin adheres firmly.
To tin cast-iron articles they must be decarburetted superficially by ignition within a bath of ferric oxide (powdered haematite or similar material), then cleaned with acid, and tinned by immersion, as explained above.
Tin forms two well-marked series of salts, in one of which it is divalent, these salts being derived from stannous oxide, SnO, in the other it is tetravalent, this series being derived from stannic oxide, Sn02.
Dry stannous oxide, if touched with a glowing body, catches fire and burns to stannic oxide, Sn02.
Stannous oxalate when heated by itself in a tube leaves stannous oxide.
Flores stanni is a finely divided mixture of the metal and oxide obtained by fusing the metal in the presence of air for some time.
The solution when subjected to distillation behaves very much like a physical solution of the oxide in hydrochloric acid, while a solution of orthostannic acid in hydrochloric acid behaves like a solution of SnC1 4 in water, i.e.
Stannous Fluoride, SnF 2, is obtained as small, white monoclinic tables by evaporating a solution of stannous oxide in hydrofluoric acid in a vacuum.
Stannic Fluoride, SnF 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving hydrated stannic oxide in hydrofluoric acid; it forms a characteristic series of salts, the stannofluorides, M 2 SnF 6, isomorphous with the silico-, titano-, germanoand zirconofluorides.
Crum was probably the first to recognize that some hydrogen atoms of the cellulose had been replaced by an oxide of nitrogen, and this view was supported more or less by other workers, especially Hadow, who appears to have distinctly recognized that at least three compounds were present, the most violently explosive of which constituted the main bulk of the product commonly obtained and known as guncotton.
The gaseous mixture obtained by burning guncotton in a vacuum vessel contains steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide, and methane.
Under very great pressures carbon monoxide, steam and nitrogen are the main products, but nitric oxide never quite disappears.
Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.
Shaken with mercury and sulphuric acid, nitroglycerin yields its nitrogen as nitric oxide; the measurement of the volume of this gas is a convenient mode of estimating nitroglycerin.
Hydriodic acid reduces it to glycerin and nitric oxide.
The outcrop of a metalliferous vein frequently manifests itself as a line of rocks stained with oxide of iron, often honeycombed and porous, the " gossan " or " eisen-hut," the iron oxide of which results from the decomposition of the pyrites, usually present as a constituent of such veins.
Semi-opacity and opacity are usually produced by the addition to the glass-mixtures of materials which will remain in suspension in the glass, such as oxide of tin, oxide of arsenic, phosphate of lime, cryolite or a mixture of felspar and fluorspar.
The same oxide may produce different colours with different glass-mixtures, and different oxides of the same metal may produce different colours.
Ferrous oxide produces an olive green or a pale blue according to the glass with which it is mixed.
Ferric oxide gives a yellow colour, but requires the presence of an oxidizing agent to prevent reduction to the ferrous state.
Silver oxide, mixed as a paint and spread on the surface of a piece of glass and heated, gives a permanent yellow stain.
Copper gives a peacock-blue which becomes green if the proportion of the copper oxide is increased.
If oxide of copper is added to a glass mixture containing a strong reducing agent, a glass is produced which when first taken from the crucible is colourless but on being reheated develops a deep crimson - ruby colour.
Ferrous oxide is the usual cause of discoloration.
By converting ferrous into ferric oxide the green tint is changed to yellow, which is less noticeable.
Manganese dioxide not only acts as a source of oxygen, but develops a pink tint in the glass, which is complementary to and neutralizes the green colour due to ferrous oxide.
The material has been considered by some to be magnetic iron ore and by others oxide of manganese.
The use of oxide of lead in glass-making was no new thing; it had been used, mainly as a flux, both by Romans and Venetians.
The invention, if it may be regarded as one, consisted in eliminating lime from the glass mixture, substituting refined potash for soda, and using a very large proportion of lead oxide.
It is found in the form of oxide (silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c., but occurs chiefly in the form of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various clays, soils and rocks.
All carbonates, except those of the alkali metals and of thallium, are insoluble in water; and the majority decompose when heated strongly, carbon dioxide being liberated and a residue of an oxide of the metal left.
It has in general one value for the powdery metal as obtained by reduction of the oxide in hydrogen below the melting point of the metal, another for the metal in the state which it assumes spontaneously on freezing, and this latter value, in general, is modified by hammering, rolling, drawing, &c. These mechanical operations do not necessarily add to the density; stamping, it is true, does so necessarily, but rolling or drawing occasionally causes a diminution of the density.
But the presence of moderate proportions of cuprous oxide has been found to correct the evil influence of small contaminations by arsenic, antimony, lead and other foreign metals.
In the case of iron, ferric sulphate, Fe2(S04) 3, is produced; tin yields a somewhat indefinite sulphate of its oxide Sn02.
Iron, zinc, cadmium, also tin under certain conditions, reduce the dilute acid, partially at least, to nitrous oxide, N 2 0, or ammonium nitrate, NH4N03.
Mercury, within XVIII.7 a a certain range of temperatures situated close to its boiling point, combines slowly with oxygen into the red oxide, which, however, breaks up again at higher temperatures.
Tin, at high temperatures, passes slowly into oxide, Sn02.
The chlorides AsC1 3, SbC1 3, BiC1 3, are at once decomposed by (liquid) water, with formation of oxide (As203) or oxychlorides (SbOC1, BiOCI) and hydrochloric acid.
Chemically pure sand is silicon dioxide (SiO 2) or quartz, a clear transparent glass-like mineral, but as ordinarily met with, it is more or less impure and generally coloured reddish or yellowish by oxide of iron.
It is present in variable amounts in limestones of all kinds, although its white ness may there be masked by the presence of iron oxide and other coloured substances.
The resulting white product is termed calcium oxide lime, burnt lime, quicklime, cob lime, or caustic lime.
Generally speaking the oxide or quicklime has a more rapid and greater effect in modifying the soil than slaked lime, and this again greater than the carbonate or chalk.
Pliny explicitly speaks of a mineral Katiµ€ia or cadmic as serving for the conversion of copper into aurichalcum, and says further that the deposit (of zinc oxide) formed in the brass furnaces could be used instead of the mineral.
Oxide of zinc, like most heavy metallic oxides, is easily reduced to the metallic state by heating it to redness with charcoal; pure red zinc ore may be treated directly; and the same might be done with pure calamine of any kind, because the carbon dioxide of the zinc carbonate goes off below redness and the silica of zinc silicate only retards, but does not prevent, the reducing action of the charcoal.
The magnetic concentrates contain enough zinc to be well adapted to the manufacture of zinc oxide.
If the zinc is present as blende, this operation offers considerable difficulties, because in the roasting process the zinc sulphide passes in the first instance into sulphate, which demands a high temperature for its conversion into oxide.
The contents of the iron recipient consist of a powdery mixture of oxide and metal, which is added to the next charge, except what is put aside to be sold as "zinc dust."
To obtain the metal chemically pure a specially prepared pure oxide or salt of zinc is distilled.
Borchers, trace it to the presence of oxide, produced, for example, either by the use of a solution containing a trace of basic salt of zinc (to prevent which the bath should be kept just - almost imperceptibly - acid), or by the presence of a more electro-negative metal, which, being co-deposited, sets up local action at the expense of the zinc. Many processes have been patented, the ore being acted upon by acid, and the resulting solution treated, by either chemical or electrolytic means, for the successive removal of the other heavy metals.
If zinc be heated to near its boiling-point, it catches fire and burns with a brilliant light into its powdery white oxide, which forms a reek in the air (lana philosophica, " philosopher's wool").
Cold dilute nitric acid dissolves zinc as nitrate, with evolution of nitrous oxide.
At higher temperatures, or with stronger acid, nitric oxide, NO, is produced besides or instead of nitrous.
Zinc forms only one oxide, ZnO, from which is derived a wellcharacterized series of salts.
Zinc oxide, ZnO, is maufactured for paint by two processes - directly from the ore mixed with coal by volatilization on a grate, as in the Wetherill oxide process, and by oxidizing the vapour given off by a boiling bath of zinc metal.
The oxide made by the latter method has generally a better colour, a finer texture, and a greater covering power.
This at least is true of the oxide produced from the metal by combustion; that produced from the carbonate, if once made yellow at a red heat, retains a yellow shade permanently.
To acids and to alkalis it behaves like the oxide, but dissolves more readily.
Zinc chloride solution readily dissolves the oxide with the formation of oxychlorides, some of which are used as pigments, cements and for making artificial teeth.
A solution of the oxide in the chloride has the property of dissolving silk, and hence is employed for removing this fibre from wool.
The anhydrous salt, when exposed to a red heat, breaks up into oxide, sulphur dioxide and oxygen.
The precipitate, even after exhaustive washing with hot water, still contains a trace of alkali; but from the oxide, prepared from it by ignition, the alkali can be washed away.
The precipitate, when heated, passes into oxide, which is yellow in the heat and white after cooling; and, if it be moistened with cobalt nitrate solution and re-heated, it exhibits a green colour after cooling.
Zinc may be quantitatively estimated by precipitating as basic carbonate, which is dried and ignited to zinc oxide.
Those treated here are the sulphate, oxide, carbonate, oleate and acetate.
Borchers predicted that, at the high temperatures available with the electric furnace, every oxide would prove to be reducible by the action of carbon, and this prediction has in most instances been justified.
Its discovery as an element was due to William Gregor in 1789 who found in the mineral ilmenite or menachinite a new earth, which was regarded as the oxide of a new metal, menachin.
Klaproth, however, was unable to prepare the pure oxide, which was first accomplished in 1821 by Rose.
The metal thus produced formed a dark brown amorphous powder resembling iron as obtained by the reduction of its oxide in hydrogen.
When heated in air it burns brilliantly with the formation of the oxide.
TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.
Amorphous titanium oxide may be obtained in a pure form.
Titanic oxide separates out as a white hydrate, which, however, is generally contaminated with ferric hydrate and often with tin oxide.
The pure salt is dissolved in hot water and decomposed with ammonia to produce a slightly ammoniacal hydrated oxide; this, when ignited in platinum, leaves pure TiO 2 in the form of brownish lumps, the specific gravity of which varies from 3.9 to 4.25, according to the temperature at which it was kept in igniting.
The oxide is fusible only in the oxy-hydrogen flame.
The solution, if boiled, deposits its titanic oxide as a hydrate called metatitanic acid, TiO(OH) 21 because it differs in its properties from orthotitanic acid, Ti(OH) 4, obtained by decomposing a solution of the chloride in cold water with alkalis.
If titanic oxide be fused with excess of alkaline carbonate a titanate, R 2 T103, is formed.
They are obtained by neutralizing the solution of the acid, or by fusing the oxide with potassium carbonate and treating the melt with hydrofluoric acid.
The solution when boiled deposits most of its oxide in the meta-hydrate form.
Titanium oxide when fused with microcosmic salt in the oxidizing flame yields a bead which is yellowish in the heat but colourless after cooling.
By warming its aqueous solution with an excess of silver oxide it is converted into tetramethylammonium hydroxide, N(CH3)40H, which crystallizes in hygroscopic needles, and has a very alkaline reaction.
Sometimes reagents are placed in the combustion tube, for example lead oxide (litharge), which takes up bromine and sulphur.
This view, which was specially supported by Gay-Lussac and Leopold Gmelin and accepted by Berzelius, necessitated that all acids were monobasic. The untenability of this theory was proved by Thomas Graham's investigation of the phosphoric acids; for he then showed that the ortho- (ordinary), pyroand metaphosphoric acids contained respectively 3, 2 and I molecules of " basic water " (which were replaceable by metallic oxides) and one molecule of phosphoric oxide, P2 05.
The oxalates are.readily decomposed onheating, leaving a residue of carbonate, or oxide of the metal.
It may conveniently be extended to similar mixtures of sulphur and selenium or tellurium, of bismuth and sulphur, of copper and cuprous oxide, and of iron and carbon, in fact to all cases in which substances can be made to mix in varying proportions without very marked indication of chemical action.
Aqueous alcohol becomes turbid when mixed with benzene, carbon disulphide or paraffin oil; when added to a solution of barium oxide in absolute alcohol, a white precipitate of barium hydroxide is formed.
Aurous oxide, Au 2 0, is obtained by cautiously adding potash to a solution of aurous bromide, or by boiling mixed solutions of auric chloride and mercurous nitrate.
When freshly prepared it dissolves in cold water to form an indigocoloured solution with a brownish fluorescence of colloidal aurous oxide; it is insoluble in hot water.
When a concentrated solution of auric chloride is treated with caustic potash, a brown precipitate of auric hydrate, Au(OH) 3, is obtained, which, on heating, loses water to form auryl hydrate, AuO(OH), and auric oxide, Au 2 0 3.
It functions chiefly as an acidic oxide, 'being less basic than aluminium oxide, and forming no stable oxy-salts.
With concentrated ammonia auric oxide forms a black, highly explosive compound of the composition AuN2H3.3H20, named " fulminating gold "; this substance is generally considered to be Au(NH 2)NH.
This method of separating gold from copper, by converting the latter into oxide and sulphate, is also used at Oker in the Harz.
The oxide, bismuth ochre, Bi 2 O 3, and the sulphide, bismuth glance or bismuthite, are also of commercial importance.
The dry process is more frequently practised, for the easy reducibility of the oxide and sulphide, together with the low melting-point of the metal, renders it possible to effect a ready separation of the metal from the gangue and impurities.
Ores containing the oxide and carbonate are treated either by smelting with carbon or by a wet process.
In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid.
In the last case it becomes coated with a greyish-black layer of an oxide (dioxide (?)), at a red heat the layer consists of the trioxide (B1203), and is yellow or green in the case of pure bismuth, and violet or blue if impure; at a bright red heat it burns with a bluish flame to the trioxide.
Traces of bismuth may be detected by treating the solution with excess of tartaric acid, potash and stannous chloride, a precipitate or dark coloration of bismuth oxide being formed even when only one part of bismuth is present in 20,000 of water.
In quantitative estimations it is generally weighed as oxide, after precipitation as sulphide or carbonate, or in the metallic form, reduced as above.
The blue colouring substance is ferrous sulphide, the upper reddish layer contains more ferric oxide, which the predominance of decomposing organic matter in the substance of the mud reduces to ferrous oxide and subsequently by further action to sulphide.
Red mud may be classed as a variety of blue mud, from which it differs on account of the larger proportion of ochreous substance and the absence of sufficient organic matter to reduce the whole of the ferric oxide.
The dredge often brings up large numbers of nodules formed upon sharks' teeth, the ear-bones of whales or turtles or small fragments of pumice or other volcanic ejecta, and all more or less incrusted with manganese oxide until the nodules vary in size from that of a potato to that of a man's head.
Derived products in the form of crystals of phillipsite are not uncommon, but the most abundant of all are the incrustations of manganese oxide, as to the origin of which Murray and Renard are not fully clear.
Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.
When coal is heated to redness out of contact with the air, the more volatile constituents, water, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are in great part expelled, a portion of the carbon being also volatilized in the form of hydro carbons and carbonic oxide,-the greater part, however, remaining behind, together with all the mineral matter or ash, in the form of coke, or, as it is also called, " fixed carbon."
The metal may be obtained by reduction of its oxide with magnesium.
The chloride, SmCl 2, is a brown crystalline powder which is decomposed by water with liberation of hydrogen and the formation of the oxide, Sm 2 O 3, and an oxychloride, SmOC1.
The carbide, SmC2, is formed when the oxide is heated with carbon in the electric furnace.
Porous carbon blocks, made by strongly heating a mixture of powdered charcoal with oil, resin, &c., were introduced about a generation later, and subsequently various preparations of iron (spongy iron, magnetic oxide) found favour.
Filtration in the chemical laboratory is commonly effected by the aid of a special kind of unsized paper, which in the more expensive varieties is practically pure cellulose, impurities like feric oxide, alumina, lime, magnesia and silica having been removed by treatment with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids.
The residue so obtained is then powdered and ignited with barium nitrate, which converts the iridium into its oxide and the osmium into barium osmiate.
It is more conveniently prepared by heating the oxide with carbon in the electric furnace.
Zirconium oxide or zirconia, Zr02, has become important since its application to the manufacture of mantles for incandescent gas-lighting.
The anhydrous oxide is with difficulty soluble even in hydrofluoric acid; but a mixture of two parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and one of water dissolves it on continued heating as the sulphate, Zr(S04)2.
The sulphate, Zr(S04)2, is a white mass obtained by dissolving the oxide or hydroxide in sulphuric acid, evaporating and heating the mass to nearly a red heat.
They are at a dull red heat and are allowed to cool gradually in the air and become blackened by the formation on the surface of a film of oxide of copper.
As stated under Phosphorus, phosphoric oxide, P 2 0 5, combines with water in three proportions to form H 2 O P 2 0 5 or HP03, metaphosphoric acid; 2H 2 O P 2 0 5 or H4P207, pyrophosphoric acid; and 3H 2 O P 2 0 5 or H 3 PO 4, orthophosphoric or ordinary phosphoric acid.
On heating with an oxide or carbonate they yield a trimetallic orthophosphate, carbon dioxide being evolved in the latter case.
This formula was very nearly confirmed for hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.
Calcium oxide or lime has been known from a very remote period, and was for a long time considered to be an elementary or undecomposable earth.
Davy, inspired by his successful isolation of the metals sodium and potassium by the electrolysis of their hydrates, attempted to decompose a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide by the electric current; an amalgam of calcium was obtained, but the separation of the mercury was so difficult that even Davy himself was not sure as to whether he had obtained pure metallic calcium.
It combines directly with most elements, including nitrogen; this can be taken advantage of in forming almost a perfect vacuum, the oxygen combining to form the oxide, CaO, and the nitrogen to form the nitride, Ca 3 N 2.
Calcium is generally estimated by precipitation as oxalate which, after drying, is heated and weighed as carbonate or oxide, according to the degree and duration of the heating.
On gentle heating, it is decomposed into water and nitrous oxide.
Heated in a current of carbon dioxide sodamide yields caustic soda and cyanamide, and with nitrous oxide it gives sodium azoimide; it deflagrates with lead or silver nitrate and explodes with potassium chlorate.
Lavoisier (1781-1788) first proved it to be an oxide of carbon by burning carbon in the oxygen obtained from the decomposition of mercuric oxide.
Pure potassium is a silvery white metal tinged with blue; but on exposure to air it at once forms a film of oxide, and on prolonged exposure deliquesces into a solution of hydrate and carbonate.
The former, "fire-air," or oxygen, he prepared from "acid of nitre," from saltpetre, from black oxide of manganese, from oxide of mercury and other substances, and there is little doubt but that he obtained it independently a considerable time before Priestley.
It rarely substitutes directly, because the hydriodic acid produced reverses the reaction; this can be avoided by the presence of precipitated mercuric oxide or iodic acid, which react with the hydriodic acid as fast as it is formed, and consequently remove it from the reacting system.
The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).
Rohner (Ber., 1909, 42, p. 4 0 93) obtained a yellowish white oxide, of the formula I 4 0 9, which they regard as an iodate of tervalent iodine, Millon's oxide being considered a basic iodate.
They are more easily reduced than the corresponding chlorates; an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid giving free iodine and a metallic oxide, whilst aqueous hydrochloric acid gives iodine trichloride, chlorine, water and a chloride.
They are decomposed on heating, with liberation of oxygen, in some cases leaving a residue of iodide and in others a residue of oxide of the metal, with liberation of iodine as well as of oxygen.
It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.
A large quantity of the salt is now prepared from the "spent oxide" of the gas works, the cyanogen compounds formed in the manufacture of the gas combining with the ferric oxide in the purifiers to form insoluble iron ferrocyanides.
It dissolves mercuric oxide, with the formation of mercuric formamide, (Hconh)2Hg.
The compounds containing this radical are treated under other headings; the hydride is better known as ethane, the alcohol, C 2 H 5 OH, is the ordinary alcohol of commerce, and the oxide (C 2 H 5) 2 O is ordinary ether.
Verneuil succeeded in imparting a sapphire-blue colour to artificial alumina by addition of i 5% of magnetic oxide of iron and o.
Vauquelin and Macquart, and in 1797 by Vauquelin, who found that the lead in crocoisite was in combination with an acid, which he recognized as the oxide of a new metal.
Thus Sainte Claire Deville prepared it as a very hard substance of steel-grey colour, capable of taking a high polish, by strong ignition of chromic oxide and sugar charcoal in a lime crucible.
Moissan (Comptes rendus, 1893, 116, p. 349; 1894, 119, p. 185) reduces the sesquioxide with carbon, in an electric furnace; the product so obtained (which contains carbon) is then strongly heated with lime, whereby most of the carbon is removed as calcium carbide, and the remainder by heating the purified product in a crucible lined with the double oxide of calcium and chromium.
Goldschmidt (Annalen, 1898, 301, p. 19) in which the oxide is reduced by metallic aluminium; and if care is taken to have excess of the sesquioxide of chromium present, the metal is obtained quite free from aluminium.
Chromium forms three series of compounds, namely the chromous salts corresponding to CrO, chromous oxide, chromic salts, corresponding to Cr203, chromium sesquioxide, and the chromates corresponding to Cr0,, chromium trioxide or chromic anhydride.
Chromium sesquioxide is a basic oxide, although like alumina it acts as an acid-forming oxide towards strong bases, forming salts called chromites.
Various other oxides of chromium, intermediate in composition between the sesquioxide and trioxide, have been described, namely chromium dioxide, Cr203 Cr03, and the oxide Cr03.2Cr203.
Chromous oxide, CrO, is unknown in the free state, but in the hydrated condition as Cr04H 2 0 or Cr(OH) 2 it may be prepared by precipitating chromous chloride by a solution of potassium hydroxide in air-free water.
Gaseous ammonia passed over the oxide reduces it to the sesquioxide with formation of nitrogen and water.
Those not containing a nitro group may be prepared by the oxidation of the corresponding mixed hydrazo compounds with mercuric oxide.
It has the characteristic appearance of pure silk - a brilliant soft white body with a pearly lustre - insoluble in water, alcohol and ether, but it dissolves freely in concentrated alkaline solutions, mineral acids, strong acetic acid and in ammoniacal solution of oxide of copper.
Silk is readily distinguished from wool and other animal fibres by the action of an alkaline solution of oxide of lead, which darkens wool, &c., owing to the sulphur they contain, but does not affect silk, which is free from that body.
Pringsheim, who, by a series of experiments of undoubted merit, tried to establish that the emission of the line spectra of the alkali metals was invariably associated with a reduction of the metallic oxide.
Black showed that the two substances were entirely different; and in 1808 Davy pointed out that it was the oxide of a metal, which, however, he was not able to isolate.
It may also be prepared by heating a mixture of carbon, oxide of iron and magnesite to bright redness; and by heating a mixture of magnesium ferrocyanide and sodium carbonate, the double cyanide formed being then decomposed by heating it with metallic zinc. Electrolytic methods have entirely superseded the older methods.
Moissan found that the oxide resisted reduction by carbon in the electric furnace, so that electrolysis of a fusible salt of the metal must be resorted to.
It preserves its lustre in dry air, but in moist air it becomes tarnished by the formation of a film of oxide.
Magnesium Oxide, magnesia, MgO, occurs native as the mineral periclase, and is formed when magnesium burns in air; it may also be prepared by the gentle ignition of the hydroxide or carbonate.
It may be prepared by dissolving the metal, its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in dilute hydrochloric acid, or by mixing concentrated solutions of magnesium sulphate and common salt, and cooling the mixture rapidly, when the less soluble sodium sulphate separates first.
When heated in a current of carbon monoxide or dioxide, it is converted into oxide, some carbon and cyanogen being formed at the same time.
The oxide and carbonate of magnesium are also invaluable as antidotes, since they form insoluble compounds with oxalic acid and salts of mercury, arsenic, and copper.
As alkaloids are insoluble in alkaline solutions, the oxide and carbonate - especially the former - may be given in alkaloidal poisoning.
The usual doses of the oxide and carbonate of magnesium are from half a drachm to a drachm.
Whatever were the means employed to rid air of accompanying oxygen, a uniform value of the density was arrived at, and this value was z% greater than that appertaining to nitrogen extracted from compounds such as nitrous oxide, ammonia and ammonium nitrite.
The various kinds of brown and yellow ochre are mixtures of limonite with clay and other impurities; whilst in umber much manganese oxide is present.
Conspicuous examples are afforded by oxygen, carbon, boron, silicon, phosphorus, mercuric oxide and iodide.
It attacks most metals readily, usually with production of a nitrate or hydrated oxide of the metal and one or other of the oxides of nitrogen, or occasionally with the production of ammonium salts; magnesium, however, liberates hydrogen from the very dilute acid.
They are all decomposed when heated to a sufficiently high temperature, with evolution for the most part of oxygen and nitrogen peroxide, leaving a residue of oxide of the metal.
Bauxite is a hydrated oxide of aluminium of the ideal composition, Al 2 0 3.2H 2 0.
The American bauxites contain from 38 to 67% of alumina, from 1 to 23% of ferric oxide, and from 1 to 32% of silica.
The French bauxites are of fairly constant composition, containing usually from 58 to 70% of alumina, 3 to 15% of foreign matter, and 27% made up of silica, iron oxide and water in proportions that vary with the colour and the situation of the beds.
The first successful idea of using electricity depended on the enormous heating powers of the arc. The infusibility of alumina was no longer prohibitive, for the molten oxide is easily reduced by carbon.
The advantages lie with the oxide because of its easier preparation.
This preparation of a chlorine compound suited for electrolysis becomes more costly and more troublesome than that of the oxide, and in addition four times as much raw material must be handled.
This purified oxide, mixed with sodium chloride and coal tar, was carbonized at a red heat, and ignited in a current of dry chlorine as long as vapours of the double chloride were given off, these being condensed in suitable chambers.
All the by-products, potassium sulphate, sulphur and aluminate of iron, were capable of recovery, and were claimed to reduce the cost of the oxide materially.
It was also necessary to give the fine charcoal a thin coating of calcium oxide by soaking it in lime-water, for the temperature was so high that unless it was thus protected it was gradually converted into graphite, losing its insulating power and diffusing the current through the lining and walls of the furnace.
That this process did not depend upon electrolysis, but was simply an instance of electrical smelting or the decomposition of an oxide by means of carbon at the temperature of the electric arc, is shown by the fact that the Cowles furnace would work with an alternating current.
After two or three hours the liquid is diluted till its density falls to 1.23, when it is passed through filter-presses to remove the insoluble ferric oxide and silica.
The solution of sodium aluminate, containing aluminium oxide and sodium oxide in the molecular proportion of 6 to 1, is next agitated for thirty-six hours with a small quantity of hydrated alumina previously obtained, which causes the liquor to decompose, and some 70% of the aluminium hydroxide to be thrown down.
The filtrate, now containing roughly two molecules of alumina to one of soda, is concentrated to the original gravity of 1.45, and employed instead of fresh caustic for the attack of more bauxite; the precipitate is then collected, washed till free from soda, dried and ignited at about looo C. to convert it into a crystalline oxide which is less hygroscopic than the former amorphous variety.
An absolutely clean surface becomes tarnished in damp air, an almost invisible coating of oxide being produced, just as happens with zinc; but this film is very permanent and prevents further attack.
In the casting of iron, steel and brass, the addition of a trifling proportion (0.005%) removes oxide and renders the molten metal more fluid, causing the finished products to be more homogeneous, free from blow-holes and solid all through.
Bare aluminium strip has recently been tried for winding-coils in electrical machines, the oxide of the metal acting as insulators between the layers.
Crystallized alumina is also obtained by heating the fluoride with boron trioxide; by fusing aluminium phosphate with sodium sulphate; by heating alumina to a dull redness in hydrochloric acid gas under pressure; and by heating alumina with lead oxide to a bright red heat.
Several hydrated forms of aluminium oxide are known.
In addition to behaving as a basic oxide, aluminium oxide (or hydrate) behaves as an acid oxide towards the strong bases with the formation of aluminates.
The iron oxide of which the ores of iron consist would be so easily deoxidized and thus brought to the metallic state by the carbon, i.e.
The oxide ores of copper would be deoxidized by the savage's wood fire even more easily than those of iron, and the resulting copper would be recognized more easily than iron, because it would be likely to melt and run together into a mass conspicuous by its bright colour and its very great malleableness.
The next great improvement in blast-furnace practice came in 1811, when Aubertot in France used for heating steel the furnace gases rich in carbonic oxide which till then had been allowed to burn uselessly at the top of the blast furnace.
In carrying out this process the castings are packed in a mass of iron oxide, which at this temperature gradually removes the fine or " temper " graphite by oxidizing that in the outer crust to carbonic oxide, whereon the carbon farther in begins diffusing outwards by " molecular migration," to be itself oxidized on reaching the crust.
Oxygen, probably dissolved in the iron as ferrous oxide FeO, also makes the metal red-short.
With oxygen it probably forms manganous oxide, which is less harmful than ferrous oxide.
Part of the resultant carbonic acid is again deoxidized to carbonic oxide by the surrounding fuel, CO 2 + C = 2C03 and the carbonic oxide thus formed deoxidizes more iron oxide, &c. As indicated in fig.
Now the heat developed by the combustion of coke to carbonic oxide with cold air containing the usual quantity of moisture, develops a temperature only slightly above this critical point; and it is only the heat represented by this narrow temperature-margin that is available for doing this critical work of fusion and deoxidation.
As the essential difference between cast iron on one hand and wrought iron and steel on the other is that the former contains necessarily much more carbon, usually more silicon, and often more phosphorus that are suitable or indeed permissible in the latter two, the chief work of all these conversion processes is to remove the excess of these several foreign elements by oxidizing them to carbonic oxide CO, silica S102, and phosphoric acid P 2 0 5, respectively.
Of these the first escapes immediately as a gas, and the others unite with iron oxide, lime, or other strong base present to form a molten silicate or silica-phosphate called " cinder " or " slag," which floats on the molten or pasty metal.
The ultimate source of the oxygen may be the air, as in the Bessemer process, or rich iron oxide as in the puddling process, or both as in the open-hearth process; but in any case iron oxide is the chief immediate source, as is to be expected, because the oxygen of the air would naturally unite in much greater proportion with some of the great quantity of iron offered to it than with the small quantity of these impurities.
The iron oxide thus formed immediately oxidizes these foreign elements, so that the iron is really a carrier of oxygen from air to impurity.
As the iron oxide is stirred into the molten metal laboriously by the workman or "puddler " with his hook or "rabble," it oxidizes the silicon to silica and the phosphorus to phosphoric acid, and unites with both these products, forming with them a basic iron silicate rich in phosphorus, called " puddling " or " tap cinder."
It oxidizes the carbon also, which escapes in purple jets of burning carbonic oxide.
But this basicity implies that for each part of the silica or silicic acid which inevitably results from the oxidation of the silicon of the pig iron, the cinder shall contain some three parts of iron oxide, itself a valuable and expensive substance.
Hence, in order to save iron oxide the pig iron used should be nearly free from silicon.
Later, when most of it has been oxidized, the carbon begins to oxidize to carbonic oxide, which in turn burns.
Part of the carbon of this spiegeleisen unites with the oxygen occluded in the molten iron to form carbonic oxide, and again a bright flame, greenish with manganese, escapes from the converter.
The oxidation of manganese is capable of generating a very high temperature, but it has the very serious disadvantage of causing such thick clouds of smoky oxide of manganese as to hide the flame from the blower, and prevent him from recognizing the moment when the blow should be ended.
The usual composition of this slag is iron oxide, i o to 16%; lime, 40 to 50%; magnesia, 5%; silica, 6 to 9%; phosphoric acid, 16 to 20%.
The oxidation of the foreign elements must be very slow, lest the effervescence due to the escape of carbonic oxide from the carbon of the metal throw the charge out of the doors and ports of the furnace, which itself must be shallow in order to hold the flame down close to the charge.
A cold lump of ore chills the slag immediately around it, just where its oxygen, reacting on the carbon of the metal, generates carbonic oxide; the slag becomes cool, viscous, and hence easily made to froth, just where the froth-causing gas is evolved.
At this time the slag is temporarily rich in iron oxide and silica, resulting from the oxidation of the iron and of its silicon as the charge slowly melts and trickles down.
At the Carnegie works Mr Monell gets the two dephosphorizing conditions, low temperature and basicity of slag, early in the process, by pouring his molten but relatively cool cast iron upon a layer of pre-heated lime and iron oxide on the bottom of the open-hearth furnace.
The lime and iron oxide melt, and, in passing up through the overlying metal, the iron oxide very rapidly oxidizes its phosphorus and thus drags it into the slag as phosphoric acid.
The ebullition from the formation of carbonic oxide puffs up the resultant phosphoric slag enough to make most of it run out of the furnace, thus both removing the phosphorus permanently from danger of being later deoxidized and returned to the steel, and partly freeing the bath of metal from the heat-insulating blanket of slag.
Where the carbon, in thus diffusing inwards, meets particles of the slag, a basic ferrous silicate which is always present in wrought iron, it forms carbonic oxide, FeO+ C = Fe+CO, which puffs the pliant metal up and forms blisters.
This in turn is in part because of the greater care which can be used in making these small lots, but probably in chief part because the crucible process excludes the atmospheric nitrogen, which injures the metal, and because it gives a good opportunity for the suspended slag and iron oxide to rise to the surface.
By rapidly stirring molten iron oxide into molten pig iron in a furnace shaped like a saucer, slightly inclined and turning around its axis, at a temperature but little above the melting-point of the metal itself, the phosphorus and silicon are removed rapidly, without removing much of the carbon, and by this means an extremely pure cast iron is made.
In the first stage the phosphorus is removed from the molten steel by oxidizing it to phosphoric acid, P205, by means of iron oxide contained in a molten slag very rich in lime, and hence very basic and retentive of that phosphoric acid.