When distilled over lead oxide, it forms diphenylene oxide, (C 6 H 4) 2 O: and when heated with oxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms aurin, C19H1403.
Carbolic acid is distinguished from all other acids so-called - except oxalic acid and hydrocyanic acid - in that it is a neurotic poison, having a marked action directly upon the nervous system.
A solution of the free acid may be prepared by adding oxalic acid to the solution of the sodium salt.
The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
Bromine water oxidizes this substance to oxalic acid and tetrabromdichloracetone (5).
Determinations have been made with calcium oxalate, CaC 2 04+H 2 0, which is easily decomposed by acids, oxalic acid and a soluble calcium salt being formed.
The affinities of acids relative to that of oxalic acid are thus found, so that the acids can be compared among themselves (column II.).
One method for this purpose is to convert it into a solution of the nitrate U02(N03)2, and from it to precipitate the metal as oxalate by oxalic acid (Peligot).
On oxidation with potassium permanganate it gives homovanillin, vanillin, &c.; with chromic acid in acetic acid solution it is converted into carbon dioxide and acetic acid, whilst nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid.
Some glycerin may be re-formed, but with very strong alkaline solutions little of the glycerin molecule escapes destruction, oxalic acid and several other products resulting.
sugar, starch and cellulose) by nitric acid, and also by the fusion of many oxygen-holding compounds with caustic alkalis, this latter method being employed for the manufacture of oxalic acid.
The antidotes for oxalic acid poisoning are milk of lime, chalk, whiting, or even wall-plaster, followed by evacuation brought about by an enema or castor oil.
Ethyl oxalate, (C0.0C2H5)2, prepared by boiling anhydrous oxalic acid with absolute alcohol, is a colourless liquid which boils at 186° C. Methyl oxalate (CO.
Mente, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 3229), crystallizes in prisms, and when boiled with water is rapidly hydrolysed to oxamide and oxalic acid.
Oxamide, (CONH 2) 2, is best prepared by the action of ammonia on the esters of oxalic acid.
The most important is naphthionic acid, I-amino-4sulphonic acid, produced by heating a-naphthylamine and sulphuric acid to 170-180° C. with about 3% of crystallized oxalic acid.
The olefines may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the alcohols of the general formula CnH2n+1 OH, using sulphuric acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous oxalic acid may frequently be substituted.
It may be prepared artificially by the oxidation of methyl alcohol and of formaldehyde; by the rapid heating of oxalic acid (J.
phys., 1831  46, p. 218), but best by heating oxalic acid with glycerin, at a temperature of iooI to° C. (M.
A concentrated acid may be obtained from the diluted acid either by neutralization with soda, the sodium salt thus obtained being then dried and heated with the equivalent quantity of anhydrous oxalic acid (Lorin, Bull.
The free acid, when heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, is decomposed into water and pure carbon monoxide; when heated with nitric acid, it is oxidized first to oxalic acid and finally to carbon dioxide.
In his widely used method for the quantitative determination of carbonic acid the gaseous mixture is shaken up with baryta or lime water of known strength and the change in alkalinity ascertained by means of oxalic acid.
The liquid which exudes from the glandular hairs clothing the leaves and stems of the plant, more especially during the cold season when the seeds ripen, contains a notable proportion of oxalic acid.
The oxide and carbonate of magnesium are also invaluable as antidotes, since they form insoluble compounds with oxalic acid and salts of mercury, arsenic, and copper.
Dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids, while potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetone, carbon dioxide and oxalic acid.
The residue is then dissolved in water, decolorized by animal charcoal and saturated at 50 C. with oxalic acid.
Parabanic acid (oxalyl urea), C0[NH C0] 21 is formed by oxidizing uric acid; or by condensing oxalic acid and urea in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride.
Hydrochloric acid at 200° C. decomposes into oxalic acid, carbon dioxide and methylamine, whilst an alcoholic solution of a caustic alkali gives dimethyl urea and oxalic acid.
Benzoic anhydride, (C 6 H 5 C0) 2 0, is prepared by the action of benzoyl chloride on sodium benzoate, or by heating benzoyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid (R.
His services to industry included his improvements in the processes for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic acid (1829); methods of estimating the amount of real alkali in potash and soda by the volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and for estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by the Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying silver by a standard solution of common salt, a volume on which was published in 1833.
A mixture of chlorine peroxide and chlorine is obtained by the action of hydrochloric acid on potassium chlorate, and similarly, on warming a mixture of potassium chlorate and oxalic acid to 70° C. on the water bath, a mixture of chlorine peroxide and carbon dioxide is obtained.
Succinic anhydride, C 2 H 4 (CO) 2 0, is obtained by heating the acid or its sodium salt with acetic anhydride; by the action of acetyl chloride on the barium salt; by distilling a mixture of succinic acid and succinyl chloride, or by heating succinyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid.
The acid when fused with caustic alkalies yields oxalic acid.
A small crystal of oxalic acid added to concentrated sulphuric acid containing about 1 per cent.
In chloroform solution it combines with anhydrous oxalic acid to form a compound, Sb2C18(C204), which is to be considered as COOSbC14 tetra-chlorstibonium oxalate I (R.
Pure Oxalic Acid May Also Be Used, Which, In The Presence Of Sulphuric Acid, Is Oxidized By The Standard Solution According To The Reaction: 5(H2C2042H20) 3H 2 So 4 2Kmn04 =10002 2Mns04 K2S04 18H20 The Reaction In Case Of Ferrous Sulphate Is: 10Fes04 2Kmn04 8H2S04 = 5Fe2(S04)3 K2S04 2Mns04 8H20; That Is, The Same Amount Of Potassium Permanganate Is Required To Oxidize 5 Molecules Of Oxalic Acid That Is Necessary To Oxidize I O Molecules Of Iron In The Form Of Ferrous Sulphate To Ferric Sulphate, Or 63 Parts By Weight Of Oxalic Acid Equal 56 Parts By Weight Of Metallic Iron.
18 99, 3 2, p. 333 2): Cn112n_10Na - >C,,H2n_10 CS.SNa(R) -->Cn,H 2 n_2+COS- FR SH; or simply by dehydrating with anhydrous oxalic acid (N.
iodide by the action of moist silver oxide; by the reduction of acrolein; or by heating glycerin with oxalic acid and a little ammonium chloride to 260° C. In this last reaction glycerol monoformin is produced as an intermediate product, but is decomposed as the temperature rises: C3H5(OH)3+H2C204 = C3H5(OH),.0.CHO+C02+H20 glycerol monoformin C 3 H 5 (OH) 2.0.
The trioxide, V 2 0 3, is formed when the pentoxide is reduced at a red heat in a current of hydrogen, or by the action of oxalic acid on ammonium metavanadate.
The tetroxide, V204, results when the pentoxide is heated with dry oxalic acid and the resulting mixture of the triand pentoxide is warmed in the absence of air, or when the pentoxide is reduced by sulphur dioxide.
It is an energetic oxidizing agent and is consequently readily reduced when heated with various metals (zinc, magnesium, &c.), with carbon and with oxalic acid.
Sulphuric acid converts it into l-arabinose; and nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid (without the intermediate formation of mucic acid as in the case of gum arable).
quince seed yields only oxalic acid when treated with nitric acid, and with a solution of iodine in zinc iodide it gives, after some time, a beautiful red tint.
To clean badly tarnished brass soak in a solution of oxalic acid overnight.
It loses its water of crystallization at loo C., and begins to sublime at about 150160Ã‚° C., whilst on heating to a still higher temperature it partially decomposes into carbon dioxide and formic acid, or into carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water; the latter decomposition being also brought about by heating oxalic acid with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Ethyl oxalate, (C0.0C2H5)2, prepared by boiling anhydrous oxalic acid with absolute alcohol, is a colourless liquid which boils at 186Ã‚° C. Methyl oxalate (CO.
The most important is naphthionic acid, I-amino-4sulphonic acid, produced by heating a-naphthylamine and sulphuric acid to 170-180Ã‚° C. with about 3% of crystallized oxalic acid.
phys., 1831  46, p. 218), but best by heating oxalic acid with glycerin, at a temperature of iooI toÃ‚° C. (M.
Hydrochloric acid at 200Ã‚° C. decomposes into oxalic acid, carbon dioxide and methylamine, whilst an alcoholic solution of a caustic alkali gives dimethyl urea and oxalic acid.
A mixture of chlorine peroxide and chlorine is obtained by the action of hydrochloric acid on potassium chlorate, and similarly, on warming a mixture of potassium chlorate and oxalic acid to 70Ã‚° C. on the water bath, a mixture of chlorine peroxide and carbon dioxide is obtained.
iodide by the action of moist silver oxide; by the reduction of acrolein; or by heating glycerin with oxalic acid and a little ammonium chloride to 260Ã‚° C. In this last reaction glycerol monoformin is produced as an intermediate product, but is decomposed as the temperature rises: C3H5(OH)3+H2C204 = C3H5(OH),.0.CHO+C02+H20 glycerol monoformin C 3 H 5 (OH) 2.0.
Indian Rhubarb Root (Rheum officinale) is a type of rhubarb that contains tannins, phytosterols, gallic acid, and oxalic acid.
Raw foods rich in oxalic acid are known to boost acne-fighting abilities.
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