How to use Overlying in a sentence
That it results from the weight of the overlying strata.
Thus comparing the Nearctic and Palaearctic floras we find striking differences overlying the points of agreement already indicated.
A considerable part of it has been excavated by these rivers to a level which gives their valleys the elevation and character of lowlands, though isolated hills and ranges with the characteristic overlying horizontal sandstone strata of the ancient plateau show that it was once a highland region.
Drifts and inclined shafts following the deposit may prove difficult of maintenance when the workings become large and settlement of the overlying strata begins.
While it is always desirable to provide large working-places, the size of the working-place is limited by the thickness and Size of strength of the overlying beds forming the roof Working- or hanging wall of the mine.Advertisement
In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.
Rock-filling yields and becomes consolidated under heavy pressure, and therefore does not furnish a rigid support of the overlying strata, but rather a cushion to control and equalize the subsidence.
Above, the ground has been completely worked out from the surface, and the space formerly occupied by ore is now filled with the debris of the overlying strata which has caved in above the block of ore now being worked.
On completion of any room the timbers are withdrawn and the overlying mass of timber and rock is allowed to fall and a new room is started immediately alongside of the one just completed.
In this way the whole floor is worked out and the mat of timber and overlying rock is gradually lowered and rests upon the top of the ore forming the floor below.Advertisement
The special difficulties which attend deep mining, in addition to the problems of hoisting ore and raising water from great depths, are the increase of temperature of the rocks and the pressure of the overlying strata.
While the mine workings are small the overlying rocks support themselves of and the full pressure does not come upon the mine Caving p i llars.
Its upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays with very similar results to those which have left so marked an impress on the Baluch frontier.
The Cretaceous beds have not yet been separated from the overlying Eocene, and the identification of the system rests on the discovery of a single Cenomanian ammonite.
The soils overlying red sandstone rocks would be reddish and of a sandy nature, while those overlying chalk would be whitish and contain considerable amounts of lime.Advertisement
The deposits in the great limestone caves of Kentucky, Virginia and Indiana have been probably derived from the overlying soil and accumulated by percolating water; they are of no commercial value.
Overlying these amongst the Palaeozoic rocks, we meet in many parts of Japan with slates and other rocks possibly of Cambrian or Silurian age.
In many cases we find large portions of the surface completely covered with green or yellow enamel overlying black diapers or scroll patterns.
Its diaphanous, pearl-grey glaze, uniform, lustrous and finely crackled, overlying encaustic decoration in white slip, the fineness of its warm reddish pate, and the general excellence of its technique, have always commanded admiration.
Between this lowland and Armagh city, the early Cainozoic basalts form slightly higher ground, while on the west a strip of Trias appears, overlying Carboniferous Limestone.Advertisement
In alluvial deposits the richest ground is usually found in contact with the "bed rock"; and, when the overlying cover of gravel is very thick, or, as sometimes happens, when the older gravel is covered with a flow of basalt, regular mining by shafts and levels, as in what are known as tunnel-claims, may be required to reach the auriferous ground.
Rift valley, overlying a formation of granite, gneiss and quartz.
The principal orchard districts are the valleys of the Darent and Medway, and the tertiary soils overlying the chalk, between Rochester and Canterbury.
Along the northern margin lies the intensely folded belt which constitutes the coalfield of Namur, and, beneath the overlying Mesozoic beds, is continued to the Boulonnais, Dover and beyond.
On the East Shore to the north is a marly loam overlying a yellowish-red clay sub-soil, to the south is a soil quite stiff with light coloured clay, while here and there, especially in the middle and south, are considerable areas both of light sandy soils and tidal marsh loams. On the West Shore the soils range from a light sandy loam in the lower levels south from Baltimore to rather heavy loarns overlying a yellowish clay on the rolling uplands and on the terraces along the Potomac and Patuxent.Advertisement
It is produced on light shallow soils overlying calcareous rock.
Its relief is seldom more than 200 or 300 ft., and is commonly of small measure, but its continuity and its contrast with the associated lowlands worn on the underlying and overlying weak strata suffice to sake it a feature of importance.
West of the Rocky Mountainf the Permian has not been very generally separated from overlying and underlying formations, though it has been differentiated in a few places, as in south-western Colorado and in some parts of Arizona.
The Lower Old Red Sandstone is represented by well-bedded flagstones over most of the islands; in the south of Pomona these are faulted against an overlying series of massive red sandstones, but a gradual passage from the flagstones to the sandstones may be followed from Westray S.E.
The best of all subsoils is a dry bed of clay overlying sandstone.
Beside this their chief and easy work of oxidizing carbon, silicon and phosphorus, the conversion processes have the harder task of removing sulphur, chiefly by converting it into calcium sulphide, CaS, or manganous sulphide, MnS, which rise to the top of the molten metal and there enter the overlying slag, from which the sulphur may escape by oxidizing to the gaseous compound, sulphurous acid, S02.
The two metallic masses coalesce, and the reaction between the oxygen of one and the carbon of the other is therefore extremely rapid because it occurs throughout their depth, whereas in common procedure oxidation occurs only at the upper surface of the bath of cast iron at its contact with the overlying slag.
The lime and iron oxide melt, and, in passing up through the overlying metal, the iron oxide very rapidly oxidizes its phosphorus and thus drags it into the slag as phosphoric acid.
Floating on top of the molten metal, it rapidly oxidizes its phosphorus, and the resultant phosphoric acid combines with the lime in the overlying slag as phosphate of lime.
This sulphide is nearly insoluble in the metal, but is readily soluble in the overlying basic slag, into which it therefore passes.
In order that this finely divided slag shall rise to the surface and there coalesce with the overlying layer, the metal must be tranquil.
The Ordovician and Silurian are absent here, and the Devonian rests unconformably upon the Cambrian; but along the northern margin of the Palaeozoic area, Ordovician and Silurian rocks appear, and beds of similar age are also exposed farther north where the rivers have cut through the overlying Tertiary deposits.
Figure 9, Plate I., shows the top of the De Beers' crater with basalt overlying the shale.
When the tunnels reach the side of the mine they are opened upwards and sideways so as to form a large chamber, and the overlying mass of blue ground and debris is allowed to settle down and fill up the gallery.
The spindle-muscle is seen overlying the rectum.
These sand-beds are sharply distinguished by their color from the overlying Nile deposit, and are of considerable thickness.
In Cheshire the surface-water trickling through the overlying strata dissolves the salt, which is subsequently pumped as brine, but at Middlesbrough the great depth and impermeability of the strata precludes this, so another method has been resorted to.
To the south-east of this region a narrow outcrop of Upper Llandovery, Wenlock and Ludlow sandstones and mudstones follows, uncomformably overlying the Llandeilo and Bala rocks, and dipping conformably under the Old Red Sandstone; they extend from Newbridge-on-Wye and Builth through Llangammarch (where there are mineral springs) towards Llandovery, while a tongue of Ludlow rocks brought up by faulting extends from Erwood on the Wye for 8 m.
When the land reappeared a new series of valleys would at once begin to be eroded; and the subsequent degradation of these overlying sediments might reveal portions of the older topography, as in the case of the Great Glen, Lauderdale, and other ancient valleys.
Determined by the inequalities of surface of the overlying mantle of sedimentary material, they would be wholly independent of the geological structure of the rocks lying.
Slowly sinking deeper and deeper into the land, they might eventually reach the older rocks, but they would keep in these the lines of valley that they had followed in the overlying deposits.
The most impressive form of solitary cone is that wherein after vast denudation a thick overlying formation has been reduced to a single outlier, such as Morven in Caithness, the two Bens Griam in Sutherland, and still more strikingly, the pyramids of red sandstone on the western margin of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty.
The rocks overlying them to the east of the line of disturbance in the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty are fine flaggy schists.
Rocks belonging to the Cretaceous system at one time covered considerable areas on both sides of the Highlands, but they have been entirely stripped off the eastern side, while on the western they have been reduced to a few fragmentary patches, which have survived because of the overlying sheets of basalt that have protected them.
They are prolonged southwards into Antrim, where similar basalts overlying Secondary strata cover a large territory.
Through these, again, pierce other granites in dikes or lava flows, and overlying the whole are limestones of Cretaceous and Tertiary age, themselves cut through by later volcanic eruptions.
The Cambrian rocks of Ireland, a great series of purple and green shales, slates and grits with beds of quartzite, have not yet yielded sufficient fossil evidence to permit of a correlation with the Welsh rocks, and possibly some parts of the series may be transferred in the future to the overlying Ordovician.
Marshy soils are found along the lowest portions of the Coastal Plain, and are exceedingly productive wherever reclaimed by draining, as in portions of the Dismal Swamp. Other portions of the Coastal Plain afford more valuable soils, sandy loams overlying sandy clays.
The overlying Tertiary series includes nummulitic beds and valuable seams of coal.
From the Permian to the Lias the sequence in the central Himalaya shows no sign of a break, nor has any unconformity been proved between the Liassic beds and the overlying Spiti shales, which contain fossils of Middle and Upper Jurassic age.
Usually it is found on the British coast encrusting rocks exposed at low tides, or on the flat surfaces formed by sandbanks overlying clay, the latter kind of colonies being known locally as "scalps."
Smaller patches of the Coal Measures appear near Tamworth and Burton, while deep shafts have been sunk in many places through the overlying Triassic strata to the coal below, thus extending the mining and manufacturing area beyond the actual outcrop of the Coal Measures.
Most interesting among these are the Henry Mountains, formed by the intrusion of molten igneous rock between the layers of sediments, causing the overlying layers to arch up into dome mountains.
The islands are of ironstone formation overlying quartzite and crystalline schists.
The "North Sea" water, of 34 to 35 pro male salinity, does not appear at the surface in the Skagerrak, except as a strip along part of the coast of Jutland, but it is always found as an undercurrent overlying the oceanic water.
The other metamorphic areas of the north present even greater difficulties, owing to the absence of any overlying strata older than the Old Red Sandstone.
In the case of thin, flat organs such as leaves, the whole organ may be spread out in the plane of stratification, leaving its impress on the overlying and underlying layers.
From strata in New South Wales overlying Devonian and Lower Carboniferous rocks certain plants were discovered in the early part of the 19th century which were compared with European Jurassic genera, and for several years it was believed that these plant-beds belonged to the Mesozoic period.
The extraordinary abundance of Glossopteris in PermoCarboniferous rocks of Australia, and in strata of the same age in India and South Africa, gave rise to the term " Glossopteris flora for the assemblage of plants obtained from southern hemisphere rocks overlying beds containing Devonian and Lower Carboniferous fossils.
Between these are structurally weaker palaeosol horizons of weathered basalt that encourage localized collapse as the wear back and undermine the overlying basalt.
In most cases, slides also detach head deposits overlying bedrock.
The underlying bedrock is chalk, with overlying river gravels.
The soil type is chalky loam overlying clay, mostly Grade Ill with some Grade Il.
Rupture or ulceration of a plaque, by definition, implies loss of the overlying endothelium.
A. The overlying rocks are eroded until the pink granophyre is exposed at the earth's surface.
Most of the Parks lies on light soils overlying gravel, limiting the range of plant material which can be grown.
Millions of years ago there was a volcanic dolerite intrusion into the overlying rock.
Loam overlying flaggy limestone which comes to the surface in places.
Magmas that form island arcs are produced by the partial melting of the descending plate and/or the overlying oceanic lithosphere.
The overlying ' dome ' epithelium contains large numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes.
Most GISTs are asymptomatic but may cause abdominal pain or bleeding from ulceration of the overlying mucosa.
This arrangement of dolomitised limestone and overlying mudstone is the most common feature seen through both the prehistoric and more recent workings.
In this area and at Lechlade, the Upper Thames Valley is floored by the gray mudstones of the overlying Upper Jurassic Oxford clay.
This includes a thin tract of Torridonian together with the overlying Cambrian quartzites.
Throughout the entire area are seams of diabase, with large slabs of diabase in some areas overlying ancient sandstone.
This may provide a locally significant input of clay, sand and gravel derived from Eocene bedrock and overlying drift sediment.
The sub-horizontal fissures in the breccia are infilled with laminated shale of identical lithology to the overlying basal bed of the Blue Lias Formation.
Topsoil stripping revealed a similar surface to that on Area 1. At the southern end there was an orange brown subsoil overlying glacial gravel.
These consistently showed a depth of about 35cm of gray sandy topsoil directly overlying the natural sand of the Bagshot Beds.
The rocky shores of the Purbeck coastline characteristically occur as flat ledges formed by the weathering away of softer, overlying layers of rock.
Gregory has maintained (Dead Heart of Australia, 1906, pp. 273-341) that the ascent of water in these wells is due to the tension of the included gases and the pressure of overlying sheets of rocks, and that some of the water is of plutonic origin.'
High-resolution seismic image of polygonal fault systems feeding fluid expulsion pipes in the overlying strata.
Large areas of clay-with-flints, derived from the weathering of material overlying the present day Chalk, occur across the North Downs.
The new kind has bold leafage, a glaucous tinge overlying the deep green body color; the flowers, of a rich apricot color, open out widely, and are of great substance.
Neurofibromas are small and rubbery, and the skin overlying them may be somewhat purple in color.
Other spine abnormalities such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, or soft tissue tumors overlying the spine, are not likely to have these accompanying findings.
A closed reduction involves manipulation of the bones without cutting into the overlying skin.
In an open reduction, the nasal bones are moved back to their original location after the surgeon has made an incision in the overlying skin.
When the person hits the teeth in another person's mouth hard enough to break the skin, bacteria from the saliva in the mouth get into the tendon and its overlying sheath.
Disorders of the nervous system caused by meningoencephalitis, or inflammation of the brain and its overlying layers of protective tissue.
Thyroid gland-An endocrine gland in the neck overlying the windpipe (trachea) that regulates the speed of metabolic processes by producing a hormone, thyroxin.
In general, breast reduction requires removal of internal breast tissue and some overlying skin, with repositioning of the nipple to match the new breast shape.
It's technically not a part of the bicep, but it is closely related and -- perhaps more importantly for cosmetic purposes -- it "props up" the overlying biceps to dramatic effect if you manage to grow it.
Overlying the Tuscaloosa are the Eutaw sands, characterized by sandy laminated clays, and yellow, orange, red and blue sands, containing lignite and fossil resin.
Similarly it is necessary, in view of the hydrostatical relations of water and mineral oils, and the volatile character of the latter, that the porous stratum should be protected from water and air by an overlying shale or other impervious deposit.
The overlying sandstones afford good building stones, and frequently, as at Vereeniging, yield many fossil plants.