Output Sentence Examples
The output for the year is less than 4000 tons.
In 1877 the maximum annual output for the mines was attained, being $3 6, 3 01, 537.
The annual production has fallen to a small fraction of the former output, its value in 1905 being only £340, and in 1906 £495.
Printing, in fact, has supplied a great incentive to the development of literature, the output has increased enormously, and will doubtless continue to do so for a long time to come.
It is said that the output of single shafts has been raised by this method to 3500 and 4500 tons in the double shift of sixteen hours.Advertisement
Modern screening and washing plants, especially when the small coal forms a considerable proportion of the output, are large and costly, requiring machinery of a capacity of ioo to 150 tons per hour, which absorbs 350 to 400 H.P. In this, as in many other cases, electric motors supplied from a central station are now preferred to separate steam-engines.
The value of the bituminous coal output was $465,900 (184,440 short tons) in 1890; $1,581,914 (968,373 short tons) in 1900; $ 2, 77 8, 811 (1,648,069 short tons) in 1907; and $3,419,481 (1,805,377 short tons) in 1908.
In 1907 during a period of severe and prolonged trade depression the imports had fallen to £5,263,930, but the exports owing entirely to the increased output of gold from the Rand mines had increased to £37,994,658; gold and diamonds represented over £37,000,000 of this total.
The value of the product (including a small output of igneous rocks) was in 1903, $ 2, 35 1, 02 7; 1904, $ 2, 554,74 8; 1905, $ 2, 2 5 1, 3 1 9; 1906, $3,3 2 7,4 16; 1907, $ 2, 3 28, 777; 1908, $2,027,463.
The output of lime in 1908 was 107,813 tons, valued at $566,022.Advertisement
The textile industries (the making of carpets and rugs, cotton goods, cotton smallwares, dyeing and finishing textiles, felt goods, felt hats, hosiery and knit goods, shoddy, silk and silk goods, woollen goods, and worsted goods), employed 32.5% of all manufacturing wage earners in 1905, and their product ($271,369,816) was 24.1% of the total, and of this nearly one-half ($129,171,449) was in cotton goods, being 28.9% of the total output of the country, as compared with I I% for South Carolina, the nearest competitor of Massachusetts.
The output of worsted goods in 1905 ($51,973944) was more than three-tenths that of the entire country, Rhode Island being second with $44,477,596; in Massachusetts the increase in the value of this product was 28.2% between 1900 and 1905.
About this date the output of alcohol in Germany and its use in stationary internal-combustion engines increased rapidly.
The total output of Canada in 1907 was only 680 tons.
All the other states together produce less phosphate than Florida, and among them Tennessee takes the first place with an output of 403,180 tons.Advertisement
The total output of the state increased from 651,228 long tons in 1884 to 1,253,393 long tons in 1890, decreased to 179,951 long tons in 1898, again increased to 1,375,020 long tons in 1907, when only three states produced more, and was only 697,473 long tons in 1908 when the state held the same rank as in 1907.
In 1908 the total value of the output of this stone was $ 2, 5 8 4,559.
The first oil well in the state was drilled at Limestone in Cattaraugus county in 1865, and the state's output of oil was 1,160,128 barrels, valued at $2,071,533 in 1908.
Graphite is widely distributed in the Adirondack region, but the mining of it is confined for the most part to Essex and Warren counties; in 1908 the output was 1,932,000 lb.
Niagara Falls and New York City manufacture a large part of the chemicals, and the value of the state's output rose to $29,090,484 in 1905.Advertisement
The progressive output of coal from 1880 to 1900 is shown below.
At the end of 1885 about 22,000 work-people were being employed in 1946 workshops, and the aggregate output was valued at six millions and three-quarters.
Twenty years later the number of establishments was 4186; the number of hands 56,000; and the output twenty-three millions and a half.
In 1895 began a marked commercial revival, mainly due to the steady conversion of the colony's waste lands into pasture; the development of frozen meat and dairy exports; the continuous increase of the output of coal; the invention of gold-dredging; the revival and improvement of hemp manufacture; the exploiting of the deposits of kauri gum; the reduction in the rates of interest on mortgage money; a general rise in wages, obtained without strikes, and partially secured by law, which has increased the spending power of the working classes.
The largest output of each of these ores in 1908 was in Stevens county; Ferry, King and Okanogan counties ranked next in the output of gold; Okanogan and Ferry counties in the output of silver; Okanogan in the output of copper; and King in the output of lead.Advertisement
The war hindered operations, but the output was valued at £648,000 in 1904 and at £1,048,000 in 1909.
Before 1905 the mines were little worked; in that year the output was 118,000 tons, while in 1907 over 500,000 tons were raised.
In 1907 the output had increased to nearly 23,000,000 lb.
The Trans-Siberian railway was the only line of communication with Europe and western Siberia, and its calculated output of men was 40,000 a month in the summer.
Other discoveries about Butte followed, and the output of copper increased from I I,01I long tons in 1883 to 129,805 long tons in 1906, more than 99.6% from Silverbow county.
In 1907 the output was 2,016,857 tons, and in 1908 1,920,190 tons.
The output steadily increased until 1895 when it was 1,504,193 short tons; but from then to 1905, when it was 1,643,832 short tons, the quantity varied little from year to year.
From 1905 to 1907, when the output was valued at $3,907,082, the increase in production was steady.
Brown coal or lignite is found chiefly in the north and north-west, but not in sufficiently large quantities to be exported; the total value of the output in 1907 was nearly £3,500,000.
In its output of flax, grown almost entirely for the seed, the state held second rank with a product of 5,640,000 bush.
In 1889 a cement plant was built at Yankton, and it is still worked although the output is small.
This increase was due almost entirely to the gain in the gold output which advanced in value from $4,138.200 in 1907 to $7,742,200 in 1908.
The output of alum averages 4000 to 5000 tons a year, and is mostly exported from Civitavecchia.
The average output of petroleum annually in1900-1905was 120,000,000 gallons; this, again, has fluctuated greatly.
In its output of graphite Czechoslovakia takes second place among European countries, Great Britain being the first.
Some three-fourths of the entire output in both these wares are exported, largely to England and to Germany.
On the latter they act as diuretics, but less powerfully than potassium, increasing the flow of water and the output of urea and rendering the urine less acid.
In 1905 Haverhill's manufacturing establishments produced goods valued at $24,446,594, 8 3.9% of this output being represented by boots and shoes or their accessories.
In 1891 the output of gold in the district was valued at $449, in 1892 at $583,010, and in the next three years at $2,010,367, $2,908,702 and $6,879,137 respectively.
From 1891 to 1906 the total production of gold was valued at $168,584,331; in 1905 1 the product of gold was valued at $15,411,724, the total for the whole state being valued at $25, 02 3,973; in 1906 the output for the district was valued at $14,253,245, out of $23,210,629 for the entire state.
The deposits were discovered early in the 19th century (probably first in 5804 near the present Frostburg), but were not exploited until railway transport became available in 1842, and the output was not large until after the close of the Civil War; in 1865 it was 1,025,208 short tons, from which it steadily increased to 5,532,628 short tons in 1907.
From 1722 until the War of Independence the iron-ore product of North and West Maryland was greater than that of any of the other colonies, but since then ores of superior quality have been discovered in other states and the output in Maryland, taken chiefly from the west border of the Coastal Plain in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, has become comparatively of little importance-24,367 long tons in 1902 and only 8269 tons in 1905.
Bituminous coal is the principal mineral, and in 1907 Kentucky ranked eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union; the output in 1907 amounted to 10,753,124 short tons, and in 1902 to 6,766,984 short tons as compared with 2,399,755 tons produced in 1889.
In 1907 the output of the western district was 6,295,397 tons; that of the eastern, 4,457,727.
Of cannel coal Kentucky is the largest producer in the Union, its output for 1902 being 65,317 short tons, and, according to state reports, for 1903, 72,856 tons (of which 46,314 tons were from Morgan county), and for 1904, 68,400 tons (of which 52,492 tons were from Morgan county); according to the Mineral Resources of the United States for 1907 (published by the United States Geological Survey) the production of Kentucky in 1907 of cannel coal (including 4650 tons of semi-cannel coal) was 77,733 tons, and exclusive of semi-cannel coal the output of Kentucky was much larger than that of any other state.
Coal was first mined in Kentucky in Laurel or Pulaski county in 1827; between 1829 and 1835 the annual output was from 2000 to 6000 tons; in 1840 it was 23,527 tons and in 1860 it was 285,760 tons.
The value of the state's natural gas output increased from $38,993 in 1891 to $99,000 in 1896, $286,243 in 1900, $365,611 in 1902, and $380,176 in 1907.
In 1898 there began an increased activity in the mining of fluorspar, and Crittenden, Fayette and Livingston counties produced in 1902, 29,030 tons (valued at $143,410) of this mineral, in 1903 30,835 tons (valued at $153,960) and in 1904 19,096 tons (valued at $111,499), amounts (and values) exceeding those produced in any other state for these years; but in 1907 the quantity (21,058 tons) was less than the output of Illinois.
Lead and zinc are mined in small quantities near Marion in Crittenden county and elsewhere in connexion with mining for fluorspar; in 1907 the output was 75 tons of lead valued at $7950 and 358 tons of zinc valued at $4 2, 2 44.
Better cultivation would probably increase the output and make it an article of export.
The early methods of making cane sugar, clarified with clay and dried in conical moulds, are to be found all over Mexico, and the annual output of this brown or muscovado sugar (called "panela " by the natives) is still very large.
The sugar crop of1907-1908was reported as 123,285 metric tons, in addition to which the molasses output was estimated at 70,947.5 metric tons, and " panela " at 50,000 tons.
Other estimates make the " panela " output much larger, the product being largely consumed in the rural districts and never appearing in the larger markets.
The Concord granite is a medium bluish-grey coloured muscovitebiotite granite, with mica plates so abundant as to effect the durability of the polish of the stone; it is used for building-the outer walls of the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., are made of this stone-to a less degree for monuments, for which the output of one quarry is used exclusively, and for paving blocks.
The Conway quarries, four in number in 1908, are on either side of the Saco river, south-east and south-west of North Conway; their output is coarse constructional stones, all biotite or biotite-hornblende, but varying in colour, pinkish (" red ") and dark-yellow greenish-grey (" green ") varieties being found remarkably near each other at Redstone, on the east side of the Saco valley.
In that year New Hampshire ranked fourth among the states in output of granite, with 6.3% of the total value of granite quarried in the entire country; in 1908 the value of granite ($867,028) was exceeded by that of each of seven other states but was more than one-half of the total value of all mineral products of the state.
Since the English board of trade estimated the exports of British manufactured goods at from 17 to 20% of the industrial output of the United Kingdom in 1902, this would indicate a manufactured product hardly two-thirds as great as that of the true factory establishments of the United States in 1900.
In the production of pig iron, the share of the United States seems to have been in 1850 about one-eighth and that of Great Britain onehalf of the worlds product; while in 1903 the respective shares were 38.8 and 19.3%; and Germanys also slightly exceeded the British output.
From 1830 the increase in the production was very rapid, and in 1841 the annual shipments from the Pennsylvania anthracite region had nearly reached 1,000,000 tons, the output of iron at that time being estimated at about 300,000 tons.
The North Atlantic and the North Central census groups of states (that is, the territory east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, and north of Maryland) produced two-thirds of the total output.
Since 1901 the United States has produced more than one-third of the worlds output.
The total oiitnijt amounted to zLIc.8a2.6o2 short tons, valued at $532 3 i4,1 17 in 1908 and to 480,363,424t0ns, valued at $614,798,898 in 1909 Pennsylvania produced three-fourths of the total output of the country in 1860, and since 1900 slightly less than one-half.
The geological conditions of the different fields, and the details of the composition of the oils yielded, are exceedingly varied, and their study has been little more than begun In 1859 when the total output of the country is supposed to have been only 2000 barrels of oil, production was confined to Pennsylvania and New York.
From 1859 to 1876 the Appalachian field yielded IoO% of the total output of the country; in 1908 its share had fallen to 13.9%.
Ia the same period of 50 years the yearly output rose from 2000 to 179,572,479 barrels (134,717,580 in 1905) and to a grand total of 1,986,180,942 barrels, worth $1,784,583,943, or more than half the value of all the gold, and more than the commercial value of all the silver produced in the country since 1792.
The production in 1908 exceeded in value the output of both metals.
The worlds output of oil was trebled between 1885 and 1895, and quadrupled between 1885 and 1900.
So recently as 1902 the output of the United States was little greater than that of Kussia (the two yielding 91.4% of the worlds product), but this advantage has since then been greatly increased, so that the one has produced 63.1 and the other 21.8% of the total output of the world.
The total output of the country rose from a value of $215,000 ifl 1882 to one of $54,640,374 ifl 1908, with several fluctuations up and down in that interval.
Stone is of the greatest actual importance, the value of the quarry output, including some prepared or manufactured product, such as dressed and crushed stone, averaging $65,152,312 annually in 1904-1908.
It may be noted that the output in almost every item of mineral production was considerably greater in 1907 than in 1908, and the isolated figures of the latter year are of little interest apart from showing in a general way the relative commercial importance of the products named.
The share of the whole district for some years past has been practically four-fifths of the total output of the country; and together with the yield of the southern district, more than 90%.
Michigan held first place in output until 1901.
Their output was almost seventeenfold the quantity reported by the census of 186o.
During the decade ending with that year the average yearly output of the three first-named was 197,706,968 Ib, 267,172,951 lb and 192,187,488 lb respectively.
The United States is the gleatest lead producer and consumer in the world, its percentage of the total output and consumption averaging 30.4% and 32-5% respectively in the years 1904-1908.
The census of the latter year reported an output of product valued at $72,600.
From 1904 to 1908 the share of the United States in the worlds output averaged 28-2%, and in the worlds consumption (disregarding stocks) 27.5%.
The only local industries are the preparation of salt (Italian and Indian concessions, with an output of 124,000 tons in 1916-7), the unhuking of Arabian coffee berries and the making of cigarettes from tobacco imported from Egypt.
The farmers of the United States have now to meet a greatly increased output from Canada-the cost of transport from that country to England being much the same as from the United States.
Sulphurous and other mineral springs, both hot and cold, exist in several districts, and deposits of silver, iron, copper, sulphur, coal and other minerals have been discovered; but the exploitation of these is retarded by lack of communications, and, apart from building materials, sulphur and salt, the actual output is insignificant.
Irrigation protects large tracts against famine, and has immensely increased the wheat output of the Punjab; the Irrigation Commission of 1903 recommended the addition of 62 million acres to the irrigated area of India, and that recommendation is being carried out at an annual cost of 12 millions sterling for twenty years, but at the end of that time the list of works that will return a lucrative interest on capital will be practically exhausted.
Whereas in 1863 the output was only 550o tons of crude naphtha, in 1904 it amounted to 9,833,600 tons; but business was much injured by a serious fire in 1905.
The output in 1905 exceeded 34 million tons, valued at £12,500,000 sterling, and equal to more than a quarter of the entire yield of Germany.
In 1815 the output was reported as only 50 tons, but it steadily rose to 74,347,102 tons (valued at $158,178,849) in 1908.
In 1840 the state's output was 464,826 tons.
In 1880 the output of coal (anthracite and bituminous) in Pennsylvania was 66% of that of the entire country; in 1908 it was 48.2%; but in the latter year the Pennsylvania mines produced more coal than the combined production of all the countries of the world excepting Great Britain, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it was nearly four times as much as the total mined in Austria, nearly five times as much as that mined in France, and seven times as much as the output of Russia in that year.
By the close of 1861 wells had been drilled from which 2000 to 3000 barrels flowed in a day without pumping, and the state's yearly output continued to increase until 1891, when it amounted to 31,424,206 barrels.
The value of the state's output increased from approximately $75,000 in 1882 to approximately $19,282,000 in 1888, and the total value of its output during these and the intervening years was more than 80% that of all the United States.
This temporary decline was, however, followed by a rather steady rise and in 1908 the output was valued at $19,104,944, which was still far in excess of that of any other state and nearly 35% of that of the entire country.
The total value of the limestone output in 1908 amounted to $4,057,471, and the total value of all stone quarried was $6,371,152.
Northampton, Lehigh and York counties contain the most productive slate quarries in the country, and in 1908 the value of their output was $3,902,958; the Northampton and Lehigh slate is the only kind in the United States used for school blackboards.
In 1908 the state ranked first in the value of its output of brick and tile ($ 18, 9 81, 743), which was 14.74% of the entire product of the United States, and was second only to Ohio in the total value of its clay products ($14,842,982), which was 11.14% of that for the entire country.
The value of the output of iron and steel increased from $264,571,624 in 1890 to $471,228,844 in 1905, and the state furnished 46.5% of the pig-iron and 54% of the steel and malleable iron produced in the entire country.
Then follows Portugal, with its important output of cupreous pyrites.
The United Kingdom yields but little pyrites, the annual output being not more than about io,000 tons.
Connellsville is the centre of the Connellsville coke district (in Fayette and Westmoreland counties), which has the largest production in the United States, the output in 1907 (13,089,427 tons) being 32.1% of that of the whole country.
The combined output of these three districts in 1907 was 50.1% of the total of the entire country.
The coal mines of Belgium give employment to nearly 150,000 persons, and for some years the average output has exceeded 22,000,000 tons.
Whereas in 1864 the annual production of all factories in Poland was valued at not more than 54 millions sterling, in 1875, when the workers numbered 27,000, the output was estimated at even less; but in 1905 the value of the industrial production reached 53 millions sterling.
The output of coal is 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 tons in the year, the number of hands employed being 18,000 to 20,000.
The annual output of diamonds from the De Beers mines was valued in 1906 at nearly £5,000,00o; the value per carat ranging from about 35s.
A production temporarily in excess of the world's demand of several years ago, led to the offering of bonuses for the production in India and Ceylon of green teas, with a view to lessening the black tea output.
The output of the ore has enormously increased of recent years, and the production of pig iron, as given for I 905, amounted to 10,875,000 tons of a value of 28,900,000.
Huge blast furnaces are in constant activity, and the output of rolled iron and steel is constantly increasing.
Hanover is second only to East Prussia in output of horses.
Elba (March 5), it remained a mere sketch, the hasty output of a few hurried sessions, of which the elaboration was reserved for the future.
The Renaissance was followed by the fierce controversies aroused by the Reformation, and the result was the output of an enormous mass of writings covering every phase of the mighty combat and possessing every literary virtue save that of impartiality.
The veins are small, but contain native silver and other rich silver ores running sometimes several thousand ounces per ton, the output being 5,500,000 oz.
The total mineral output of Ontario, including building materials and cement, is larger than that of any other province of the dominion, and as more careful exploration is carried on in the northern parts, no doubt many more deposits of value will be discovered.
The output of gold is decreasing.
The district around Petrolea produces about 30,000,000 gallons of petroleum yearly, practically the whole output of the dominion.
The formation of the Anglo-Italian sulphur syndicate arrested the downward tendency of prices and increased the output of sulphur, so that the amount exported in 1899 was 424,018 tons, worth £ 1, 73 8, 475, whereas some years previously the value of sulphur exported had hardly been £800,000.
The value of the annual output is about £40,000, and the exports in 1906 amounted to nearly 103,000 tons.
In 1905 the cleaning and polishing of rice was the most important industry, its output being valued at $1,203,123, being nearly twice the value of the product of the rice mills of the city in 1900, 25.9% of the total value of the state's product of polished and cleaned rice, 46.1% of the value ($2,609,829) of all of Beaumont's factory products, and about.
The output will be about 30 tons of "clinker" ready to be ground into cement.
The output of these kilns varies from 200 to 400 tons per kiln per week according to their size and the nature of the raw materials burned; as against 30 tons per week for an ordinary chamber kiln.
It contains the great coal-field of Raniganj, first opened in 1874, with an output of more than three million tons.
In 1840 this had grown to 241,000 tons, in 1845 to 475, 000 tons and in 1865 to 1,164,000 tons, almost the height of its prosperity, for in 1905 the product of 101 blast furnaces only amounted to 1,375,125 tons, and in the interval there were years when the output was below one million tons.
The ironproducing counties in the order of their output are Ayr, Lanark, Renfrew, Linlithgow, Dumbarton, Fife, Midlothian and Stirling, the first three being the most productive.
Linlithgowshire yields nearly three-fourths of the total output, Midlothian produces nearly one-fourth, a small quantity is obtained from Lanarkshire, and there is an infinitesimal supply from Sutherland.
Fire-clay is produced in Lanarkshire, which yields nearly half of the total output, and Ayrshire and, less extensively, in Stirlingshire, Fifeshire, Renfrewshire, Midlothian and a few other shires.
On the island of Palau Brani stand the largest tin-smelting works in existence, which for many years have annually passed through their furnaces more than half the total tin output of the world.
The output of sugar and tobacco is small, but could be largely increased, as the conditions of soil and climate are favourable.
Consequently, in 1890, in 1900 and again in 1905, Illinois surpassed any one of the other states in the production of agricultural implements, the product in 1900 being valued at $42,033,796, or 41.5% of the total output of agricultural machinery in the United States; and in 1905 with a value of $38,412,452 it represented 34.3% of the product of the entire country.
The output of petroleum in Illinois was long unimportant.
In 1905 the total output of the state was 181,084 barrels; in 1906 the amount increased to 4,397,050 barrels, valued at $3,274,818; and in 1907, according to state reports, the output was 24,281,973 barrels, being nearly as great as that of the Appalachian field.
Thousands of years before Christ the pearls of Bahrein were sold in Egypt; Bahrein still supplies 80% of the world's output of pearls.
Towards the end of the 5th century the output was diminished, partly owing to the Spartan occupation of Decelea.
All the same his output of work was as large as it was valuable.
A great deal of work is done in this way, though this sphere has also been invaded by the draw presses, whose output would seem incredible to those not familiar with the work.
The colonies of hand-workers in silk, cotton, carpets, brass and silver ware, wood and ivory, and other skilled craftsmen, which formerly existed in various parts of India, have fallen off both in the extent of their output and in the artistic excellence of their work.
But now the larger part of the cotton goods used in India is manufactured in mills in that country or in England, and the handloom weavers' output is confined to the coarsest kinds of cloth, or to certain special kinds of goods, such as the turbans and " saris " of Bombay, or the muslins of Arni, Cuddapah, and Madura in Madras, and of Dacca in Bengal.
It was estimated in 1905 that the world's output of cotton was 19,000,000 bales, of which 134 millions were produced in the United States, 3 millions in India, and nearly millions in Egypt, Japan and China being India's best customers for the raw article.
Australia and Argentina need it for wool and wheat, Chili and Brazil for nitrates and coffee, Asiatic countries for rice, and the world as a whole for its increased output of produce.
The output of the woollen mills is chiefly used for the army and the police.
In respect, however, of both the number and size of its mines Bengal comes easily first, with seven-eighths of the total output, the largest mines being those of Raniganj, Jherria, and Giridih, while the Singareni mine in Hyderabad comes next.
The total output in1905-1906was 8,417,739 tons; while there were 47 companies engaged in coal-mining, of which 46 were in Bengal.
Up to the end of 1903 the total output of the Kolar mines reached the value of £19,000,000.
The great oilfields of the Indian empire are in Burma, which supplies 98% of the total output.
In both provinces the growth of the yield has been very great, the total output in 1901 being six times as large as in 1892; but even so it has failed to keep pace with the demand.
The coal exported is brought from the Kaiping colliery to the east of Tientsin; its output in 1885 was 181,039 tons and in 1904 28,956 tons.
There are upwards of 12,000 silk power-looms in operation, and the value of the annual output in this branch alone is estimated at £ 3, 000,000.
Zinc, lignite and common salt are mined, but the output is small and of slight value.
About two-thirds of the increase between 1890 and 1900 was in the lumber industry, which was of slight importance before the former year; it represented more than half the total value of the manufactures of the state in 1905 (output, 1905, $28,065,171 and of mill products $3,786, 7 72 additional); in the value of lumber and timber products the state ranked sixth among the states of the United States in 1900, and seventh in 1905.
Since then the output has greatly increased in all three Pacific states.
There has been a general parallelism between the amount of rain and the amount of wheat produced; but as yet irrigation is little used for this crop. In the eighth decade of the 19th century, the value of the wheat product had come to exceed that of the annual output of gold.
In 1899 California's output of fruit was more than a fifth of that of the whole Union.
Over half of the prune crop comes from Santa Clara county, and the bulk of the raisin output from Fresno county.
In 1899 California produced more than two-thirds in value ($3,937,871) and three-fourths in bulk (19,020,258 gallons) of the total wine output of the United States.
This was a stock speculation based on the remarkable output ($ 3 00,000,000 in 20 years) of the silver " bonanzas " of the Comstock lode at Virginia City, Nevada, which were opened and financed by San Francisco capitalists.
In 1906 some three-fourths of the gold output was from such mines.
The annual output since 1875 has been about $15,000,000 to $17,000,000; in 1905, according to the Mines Report, it was $18,898,545.
In borax (of which California's output in 1904 was 45,647 tons) and structural materials San Bernardino has a long lead.
This has been mined since 1824; the output was greatest from 1875-1883, when it averaged about 43,000,000 pounds.
A vivid realization of the industrial revolution in the state is to be gained from the reflection that in 1875 California was pre-eminent only for gold and sheep; that the aggregate mineral output thirty years later was more than a third greater than then, and that nevertheless the value of farm produce at the opening of the 10th century exceeded by more than $100,000,000 the value of mineral produce, and exceeded by $50,000,000 the most generous estimate of the largest annual gold output in the annals of the state.
In 1908 Wyoming ranked twelfth among the states of the Union in the value of its output of bituminous coal.
Considerable progress has been made in the development of the oil-fields in Dutch Borneo, and the Nederlandsch Indische Industrie en Handel Maatschappij, the Dutch business of the Shell Transport and Trading Company, increased its output from 123,50 tons in 1901 to 285,720 tons in 1 9 04, and showed further satisfactory increase thereafter.
Sugar is grown and there are many small sugar factories, but little of the output is exported.
Their output consisted of lead, with very small quantities of copper.
In factory output ($46,879,212 in 1905; $41,202,984 in 1900) Lowell ranked fifth in value in 1905 and fourth in 1900 among the cities of Massachusetts; more than three-tenths of the total population are factory wage-earners, and nearly 19% of the population are in the cotton mills.
In the production of pyrite, which is found in Louisa county and is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid employed in the treatment of wood pulp for paper-making and in the manufacture of superphosphates from phosphate rock, Virginia took first rank in 1902 with an output valued at $501,642, or 64.7% of the total yield of this mineral in the United States; and this rank was maintained in 1908, when the product was 116,340 long tons, valued at $435,522.
Virginia was by far the most important state in 1908 in the production of soapstone, nearly the whole product being taken from a long narrow belt running north-east from Nelson county into Albemarle county; more than 90% of the output was sawed into slabs for laundry and laboratory appliances.
Barytes is mined near Lynchburg; the value of the output in 1907 was $32,833, since which date the output has decreased.
The annual output of the Gironde during the last few years has been roughly 70 to 100 million gallons.
The output of the classed growths varies considerably according to the vintage, but is on the average, owing to the great care exercised in the vineyards, greater than that of the lower-grade areas.
Thus within recent years the output of the Château Lafite was at a minimum in 1903 when only 229 hogsheads (the hogshead of claret = 46 gallons) were produced, into wine, are entirely different from those prevalent in the red wine districts.
The total output of the Marne district has for the past three years averaged about 9 million gallons, but it occasionally runs as high as 20 million gallons.
Thus in 1901 the department of the Herault alone produced nearly 300 million gallons of wine, or approximately a quarter of the whole output of France.
The present output amounts to roughly 150 million gallons, and the acreage under the vine has increased from 107,048 hectares in 1890 to 167,657 hectares in 1905.
The output in 1906 amounted to 10,000 pipes (Madeira pipe =92 gallons) and the export to 6010 pipes, of which quantity 1951 pipes went to Germany, 1680 pipes to France, 796 pipes to Russia and 755 pipes to the United Kingdom.
Whereas in 1850 the production amounted to little more than a million gallons, the output to-day is, in good years, not far short of 50 million gallons.
The copper output was of slight importance until 1889 - $ 1, 457,749 in 1905, and $1,544,918 in 1907; and that of zinc was nil until 1902, when discoveries made it possible to rework for this metal enormous dumps of waste material about the mines, and in 1906 the zinc output was valued at $5,304,884.
Lead products declined with silver, but a large output of low ores has continued at Leadville, and in 1905 the product was valued at $5,111,570, and in 1906 at $5,933,829.
Up to 1895 the gold output was below ten million dollars yearly; from 1898 to 1904 it ran from 21.6 to 28.7 millions.
Their product trebled from 1889 to 1903; and in 1907 the output of manganiferous ores amounted to 99,711 tons, valued at $251,207.
In 190t about a third and in 1907 nearly two-fifths of the state's output came from Las Animas county.
About one-fifth of the total product is made into coke, the output of which increased from 245,746 tons in 1890 to 1,421,579 tons (including a slight amount from Utah) in 1907; in 1907 the coke manufactured in Colorado (and Utah) was valued at 4,747,436.
The Federal census of 1900 credited the manufacturing establishments of the state with a capital of $62,825,472 and a product of $102,830,137 (increase 1890-1900, 142.1%); of which output the gold, silver, lead and copper smelted amounted to $44,625,305.
Some gold is obtained in Lapland on the Ivalajoki, but the output, which amounted in 1871 to 56,692 grammes, had fallen in 1904 to 1951 grammes.
There is also a small output of silver, copper and iron.
As to the timber trade, there are upwards of 500 saw-mills, employing 21,000 men, and with an output valued at over £3,000,000 annually.
After 1885 there was a gradual decline in the output, whose bullion value in 1908 was $250,986.
The production of gold has shown a somewhat similar movement; the output in 1881 was valued at $185,000; in 1889, at $1,000,000, and in 1908 at $298,757.
Nearly all the product comes from Grant county, and in 1908 nearly 98% of the output was from Grant and Otero counties.
In1905-1908the decrease in output was large.
In the same years there was an increase in the output of zinc, which in 1906 was valued at $67,710 and in 1908 at $168,096.
The output of precious stones in 1902 was valued at $51,100, in 1908 at $72,100.
The chief mineral product of the Principality is coal, of which the output amounts to over 23,000,000 tons annually.
The average output of the modern hand-press, when all is made ready for running, is about two hundred and fifty impressions per hour.
Various schemes had been propounded with a view of increasing the output of the hand-press, and in 1790 William Nicholson (1753-1815) evolved his ideas on the subject, which were suggestions rather than definite Cylinder inventions.
Around the large type cylinders were placed the smaller impression cylinders, the number of these being governed by the output required.
Two-revolution machines, which, although with but one cylinder, have largely superseded perfecting machines, as their output has been increased and the quality of their work compares favourably with that of the average two-cylinder.
As its name implies, the type bed and impression platen are both flat surfaces as in the hand-press, but as they are self-inking and are easily driven, the average output is about moo copies per hour, and but one operator is required, whereas two men at a handpress can produce only 250 copies in the same time.
If the reader wish to keep pace with the output of literature on this vast subject, he will find L'Annee sociologique (1896 onwards) a wonderfully complete bibliographical guide.
Modern methods in copper smelting and refining have effected enormous economy in time, space, and labour, and have consequently increased the world's output.
About 7 o% of the world's annual copper output is refined electrolytically, and from the 461,583 tons refined in the United States in 1907, there were recovered 13,995,436 oz.
The value of the output of these is nearly thrice those of Malmo or Gothenburg, the next most important manufacturing towns, and the industries of Stockholm exceed those of every ldn (administrative division) except MalmOhus.
There are iron and lignite mines, but the output is small.
About 73% represents the value of the coal output.
The production of coal in Great Britain, though marked by, fluctuation, has, on the whole, largely increased, and in 1901 the output was 42% greater than that of 1881.
The annual output of iron ore in the United Kingdom has on the whole decreased since 1882.
It is now less than one-half of the output of about 1877, and the value has decreased more than proportionately.
The annual output of tin ore, which in 1878 amounted to 1 5, 0 45 tons, valued at £530,737, fell to 12,898 tons in 1881, though the value in that year rose to £697,444.
During the years1882-1892the average output was over 14,000 tons, and its average value about £770,000, but in 1893 a decline began in the output (not however accompanied closely by a decline in the value), slightly relieved about 1905.
In 1881 the output reached 35,527 tons, valued at £110,043; in 1891 the output was only Zinc. 22,216 tons, but its value was £113,445.
In 1897 the quantity was 19,278 tons, and the value £69,134; but in 1898 the price had risen so that the output of 23,552 tons was worth £117,784.
In 1900 the output of 24,675 tons was worth £97,606; and in 1905 that of 23,909 tons was worth £139,806.
The iron-mining industry is of high importance, the output of iron ore forming by far the largest item in the total output of ores and minerals.
Thus in 1902 the total output was nearly 32 million tons, of which 2,850,000 tons were iron ore.
The output of iron ore has greatly increased; in1870-1880it averaged annually little more than one-quarter of the amount in 1902.
A little gold and silver are extracted at Falun, and the silver mines at Sala in Vestmanlands Lan have been worked at least since the 16th century, but here again the output has decreased.
The total annual value of the output is about £72,000,000.
Gold is found in nearly all the provinces from Antofagasta to Concepcion, and in Llanquihue, Chiloe and Magallanes territory, but the output is not large.
Low prices afterwards caused a large shrinkage in the output, but she is still classed among the principal producers.
The states which lead in the quantity of oysters taken are Maryland, Virginia, New York, New Jersey and Connecticut; the annual value of the output in each of these is over $ I, 000,000.
The output of cultivated oysters in 1899 was about 9,800,000 bushels, worth $8,700,000.
The oyster output of the Dominion has never exceeded 200,000 bushels in a single year, and in 1898 was 134,140 bushels, valued at $217,024.
Fully 40,000 men, women and children are employed, and the output in 1896 was 1,536,417,968 oysters, worth 1 7,537,77 8 francs.
As the rentf and royalties, excepting those on the turquoise mines, amount to about one-fifth of the net proceeds, it may be estimated that th value of the annual output does not exceed 50,000, while thi intrinsic value of the ores, particularly those of lead, iron, cohali and nickel, which have not yet been touched can be estimated al millions.
When turbines, as often happens in land practice, are directly coupled to electrical generators, their horse-power can be deduced from the electrical output.
The mine, which is work d on the open system and has a depth of 450 ft., yields stones of very fine quality, but the annual output does not exceed in value 500,000.
The average yearly output from 1901 to 1905 was worth less than £300,000.
Here, and in other cities, tanning, distilling, various metallurgical industries, and manufactures of soap, flour, tobacco, &c., are carried on; the entire output is sold in Portugal or its colonies.
The Royal Academy of Sciences founded in 1780 by the 2nd duke of Lafoes, uncle of Queen Maria I., still exists, though its Royal output and influence are small.
Yet the annual output of fry from each of these hatcheries rarely exceeds zoo millions, i.e.
But again the maximum output of fry from any one of these establishments has not exceeded 40 millions in any single year.
As a single female plaice produces about 200,000 eggs per annum, this output does not exceed the natural produce of a few hundred fish.
It is the largest distilling centre in the state and one of the largest in the country, the value of the output of this industry in 1905 being more than half the total value of the city's factory product for the year.
San Francisco in 1900 held twelfth place among the cities of the Union in value of output; in 1905 it ranked thirteenth.
The most prominent and profitable of these is that of rubber-collecting, which was begun in Bolivia between 1880 and 1890, and which reached a registered annual output of nearly 35 oo metric tons just before Bolivia's best rubber forests were transferred to Brazil in 1903.
The Copper Queen at Bisbee from 1880-1902 produced 378,047,210 lb of crude copper, which was practically the total output of the territory till after 1900, when other valuable mines were opened; the Globe, Morenci and Jerome districts are secondary to Bisbee.
In 1907 the legislature passed an elaborate act providing for the taxation of mines, its principal clause being that the basis of valuation for taxation in each year be one-fourth of the output of the mines in question for the next preceding year.
It has extensive breweries and vies in the amount of the output of this production with Munich.
Idaho was the first of the states in its output of lead from 1896, when it first passed Colorado in rank, to 1906, excepting the year 1899, when Colorado again was first; the value of the lead mined in 1906 was $ 1 4,535, 82 3, and of that mined in 1907 (state report), $12,470,375.
High grade copper ores have been produced in the Seven Devils and Washington districts of Washington county; there are deposits, little developed up to 1906, in Lemhi county (which was almost inaccessible by railway) and in Bannock county; the copper mined in 1905 was valued at $1,134,846, and in 1907, according to state reports, at $2,241,177, of which about two-thirds was the output of the Cceur d'Alene district in Shoshone county.
Zinc occurs in the Ceeur d'Alene district, at Hailey, Blaine county and elsewhere; according to the state reports, the state's output in 1906 was valued at $91,426 and in 1907 at $534,087.
Bingham and Fremont counties, with an output in 1906 of 5365 tons, valued at $18,538 as compared with 20 and 10 tons respectively in 1899 and 1900.
The mining of coal began in Jackson county in 1835 and there was a slow increase in the output until 1882 (135,339 short tons); then there was a tendency to decrease until 1897, from which time the product increased from 223,592 short tons to 2,035,858 short tons in 1907.
For a number of years prior to 1893 Michigan was the leading salt-producing state, and, though her output was subsequently (except in 1901) exceeded by that of New York, it continued to increase up to 1905, when it was 9,492,173 barrels; in 1907, the product was 10,786,630 barrels.
Operations on the deposit near Grand Rapids were begun in 1841, and although that near Alabaster was opened in 1862, it was not until 1902 that it became of much importance; in that year the output of the state was 208,563 short tons; in 1907 317,261 short tons were mined.
The Sheffield cutlery manufacturers, however, refused to buy it, on the ground that it was too hard, and for a long time Huntsman exported his whole output to France.
The mines of Spain, neglected late in the 15th century on the advent of supplies from America, came into note in 1827; the output has since greatly increased, amounting to 3,774,989 oz.
The output was about 1,800,00o oz.
In New Jersey the mining of clays is more important than in any other state, the amount mined and sold in 1902 being a third of the entire output of the United States, and the amount in 1907 (44 0, 1 3 8 tons) being more than one-fifth of all clay mined and sold in the United States; and in 1907 in the value of clay products ($16,005,460; brick and tile, $9,019, 834, and pottery, $6,985,626) New Jersey was outranked only by Ohio and Pennsylvania.
Some roofing slate is produced in Sussex county; in 1907 the output was valued at $8000.
The mining of natural fertilizers - white and greensand marls - is a long established industry; the output in 1907 was 14,091 tons, valued at $8429.
The product of the iron mines has fluctuated greatly in quantity, being nearly 1,000,000 tons of ore in 1892, 257,235 tons in 1897, and 549,760 tons in 1907, when the output was valued at $1,815,586, and was about nine-tenths magnetite and one-tenth brown ore.
In the production of zinc New Jersey once took a prominent part; in 1907 the only producer was The New Jersey Zinc Company's mine at Franklin Furnace, Sussex county, with an output of 13,573 short tons, valued at $1,601,614.
The textile industries taken together are the most important of the manufacturing industries, having a greater output (in 1900, $81,910,850; in 1905, $96,060,407), employing more labourers and capital, and paying more wages than any other group. Among the various textiles silk takes the first place, the value of the factory product in 1900 being $39,966,662, and in 1905, $42,862,907.
In 1900 the value of the silk output was 48.8% of the total value of the textiles, and silk manufacturing was more important than any other industry (textile or not); in 1905, however, owing to the great progress in other industries, silk had dropped to fourth place, but still contributed 44.6% of the value of the textiles.
The city of Trenton is one of the two great centres of the American pottery industry, and in 1905 it manufactured more than one-half of the state's output of pottery, terra cotta and fire-clay products.
Glass is also an important product of New Jersey; the output being valued at $5,093,822 in 1900 and at $6,450,195 in 1905.
In 1900 the output was valued at $38,365,131; in 1905, at $ 62, 795,7 1 3, an increase of 63.7%; and in 1905 21.6% of the product of the United States came from New Jersey.
The output of alluvial gold is now increased by the employment of dredges.
His output is perhaps the greatest of any isolated worker in the whole history of historiography.
A series of periodicals keeps watch over this enormous output.
Coal surpasses all the other minerals to such an extent that, taking the year 1903 as a type, when the total value of the mineral output was very nearly £70,000,000, that of coal is found to approach £61,000,000.
Salt, obtained principally from brine but also as rock-salt, is an important object of industry in Cheshire, the output from that county and Staffordshire exceeding a million tons annually.
The total output (in 1901, 100,000,000 lb; in 1906, about 72,000,000 lb), which since 1900 has been more than half the total salmon product of the United States, is more than ten times the product of all other fish.
The output of eggs increased from 9,3 6 9,534 dozen in 1889 to 13,304,150 dozen in 1899.
In 1905 Maine held first rank among the states of the Union as a producer of granite, the value of the output being $2,713,795.
The total value of the manufactures of the state increased from $95,689,500 in 1890 to $127,361,485 in 1900; and in 1905 the value of factory-made products alone was $144,020,197, or 2 7.5% greater than their value in 1900.1 Measured by the value of the output, paper and wood pulp rose from fifth among the state's manufactures in 1890 to third in 1900 and to first in 1905; from $3,281,051 in 1890 to $13,223,275 in 1900, an increase of 303% within the decade, and to $22,951,124 in 1905, a further increase of 73.6% in this period.
In the value of its manufactures as compared with those of the other states of the Union, in wooden ships and boats, Maine in 1900 and in 1905 was outranked by New York only; in canned and preserved fish by Washington only (the value of fish canned and preserved in Maine in 1900 was 21.7% of the total for the United States, and in 1905 19.2%); in the output of woollen mills by Massachusetts and Pennsylvania only; in the output of paper mills by New York and Massachusetts only.
The annual output of gold is worth not less than £500,000.
Far larger in value than either gold or silver, and larger than both together, was the output of copper in Utah in 1907 ($12,851,377) and in 1908 ($11,463,383).
Up to 1905 the output of silver in the state was greater than that of copper.
Most of the metal was produced in the Bingham, or West Mountain district, Salt Lake county, where there were four mines in 1908 with an output of more than 1,000,000 ib; the Tintic district in Juab county; the Frisco district in Beaver county; and the Lucin district I The 1907 and 1908 statistics are from the Mineral Resources of the United States, published by the United States Geological Survey.
In 1908 more than two-thirds of the total output was from the low-grade porphyry ores mined at Newhouse, Beaver county, and at Bingham, Salt Lake county.
The production of copper in 1883 was 341,885 lb; in 1890, 1,006,636 lb; in 1895, 2,184,708 lb; in 1900, 18, 354,7 26 ib; in 1904, 4 6, 4 1 7, 2 34 ib; in 1907, 64,256,884 ib; and in 1908, 81,843,812 lb.2 Third in value (less than copper or silver) in 1908, but usually equalling silver in value, was the state's output of lead.
The maximum production, 125,342,836 lb, was in 1906; in 1908 the output was 88,777,498 lb (valued at $3,728,655).
The decrease in output and value is largely due to the lower price of lead in the market and the higher smelting rate.
In 1906 the output was 6,474,615 lb, valued at $394,952; in 1908 it was 1, 4 60, 554 ib, valued at $68,646, and almost the entire output was from Summit county.
The only important region of coal mining in the state up to 1910 was in Carson county, where more than nine-tenths of the total output of the state was mined in 1907 and in 1908.
The shales of Utah, Sanpete, Juab and San Juan counties may furnish a valuable supply of petroleum if transportation facilities are improved; and there are rich supplies of asphalt-19,033 tons (valued at $100,324) was the output for 1908.
The town is among the first twelve manufacturing centres of Sweden in value of output, the principal industries being tanning and sugar manufacture and refining from beetroot.
In the extent of his knowledge, in keenness of observation, in variety of style, in his literary output, he has been compared to Voltaire; but it is perhaps as the forerunner of the great Renaissance Platonists that he will be chiefly remembered.
The total output, coming chiefly from the departments of Bacau, Buzeu, Dimbovitza and Prahova, was 250,000 metric tons in 1900, 615,000 in 1905, and 1,300,000 in 1909.
Whatever the causes may have been, the fact remains, that now there is a great dearth of talent and great poverty in output.
Since 1880 the output of the state has been falling, and the total production up to 1902 did not exceed 9,000,000 tons of ore; in 1906 the output was 80,910 tons.
Macon, Lafayette and Adair are the leading counties in output; Lexington and Bevier are the leading mining centres.
The total output from 1840 to 1902 was about 78,500,000 short tons; the annual output first passed 1,000,00o tons in 1876, and 2,000,000 tons in 1882; and from 1901 to 1905 the yearly output, steadily increasing, averaged 4,196,688 tons, of a value at the mines of $6,266,154; the output in 1908 was 3,317,315 tons, with a spot value of $5,444,907.
The total output for the state in 1908 was 114,459 tons, valued at $12,134,556; of this 116,J31 tons came from the central and southeast field, and of the remainder 15,240 tons from the Webb CityProsperity camp. Zinc was originally a hindering by-product of lead mining in the south-west, and was thrown away; but it long ago became the chief product in value in this field.
Mining in southwestern Missouri began about 1851, but zinc was of no importance in the output until 1872.
The output from 1894 to 1905 averaged 219,874 tons of ore yearly; in 1908 it was 107,404 tons.
Silver is found in connexion with lead and zinc mining; in 1908 the total output was 49, 1 3 1 oz., valued at $26,039.
Although Missouri is not a great tobacco state, St Louis is one of the greatest centres of the country in the output of tobacco products.
The department of Santander, however, is the largest producer, and much of its output in the past has been placed upon the market as "Maracaibo," the outlet for this region being through the Venezuelan port of that name.
Humboldt and Chevalier estimated the total output down to 1845 at £1,200,000, which Professor Soetbeer subsequently increased to £169,422,750.
In the vicinity of the city there are salt wells, and Saginaw county is the most productive coalfield in the state - in 1907 its output was 1,047, 9 2 7 tons, more than half the total for the state.
The vines number about 80,000,000, and the annual output of wine is about 6,000,000 gallons, besides 1,50o,000 gallons of brandy.
The output for 1904 was 5,30 9, 000 lb.
In 1904 the output of the mills was valued at over £2,200,000, more than 7,000,000 bushels of wheat being ground.
The colonial output increased from 23,000 tons in 1891 to 188,000 tons in 1904.
The value of the total output of the state was $2,113,356 in 1894, but only $865,076 in 1908.
Silver is obtained almost wholly in the form of alloy with gold, and in 1908 the value of the output was only $23,109.
The quantity of the output was 86,259 short tons in 1908.
Copper ores are known to be quite widely distributed in the mountain districts, but there has been little work on any except some in Josephine and Grant counties; in 1908 the state's output amounted to 291,377 lb of copper.
The introduction of trawling revived this to some extent, and despite the distance of the city from the iron fields there is a fair yearly output of iron vessels.
The output in 1905 ($5,981,541) of the city's establishments for the canning and preserving of fruits and vegetables was 7.7% of that of the whole United States; in 1900 it had been 15% of the country's total.
Baltimore is also a well-known centre for the manufacture of clothing, in which in 1905 ($22,684,656) it ranked fourth among the cities of the United States; for cigar and cigarette-making (1905, $4,360,366); for the manufacture of foundry and machine shop products (1905, $6,572,925), of tinware (1905, $5,705,980), of„shirts (1905, $5,710,783), of cotton-duck (the output of sailduck being about three-fourths of the total for the United States), bricks (about 150,000,000 annually), and fertilizers; it also manufactures furniture,malt liquors,and confectionery, and many other commodities in smaller amounts.
The output for 1906-1908 was valued at £40,000.
The output for1908-1909was valued at £36,000.
Bellaire is the shipping centre of the Belmont county coalfield which in 1907 produced 1 9.3% of the total output of coal for the state.
The value of the output fell from $7,254,539 in 1900 to $1,750,715 in 1906, when the state's product was only 4.2% of that of the entire country.
The annual output increased from 33,375 barrels in 1889 to 11,339,124 barrels in 1904, the latter amount being valued at $12,235,674 and being 12.09% of the value of the product of the entire country.
In 1906 there was an output of only 7,673,477 barrels, valued at $6,770,066, being 7.3% of the product value of the entire country.
The production of natural rock cement, chiefly in Clark county, is one of the two oldest industries in the state, but in Indiana as elsewhere it is falling off - from an output in 1903 of about 1,350,000 barrels to 212,901 barrels (valued at $240,000) in 1908.
Winter wheat constitutes almost the entire output.
Greater even than wheat in absolute output, though not relatively to the output of other states, is Indian corn.
From 1876 to 1897 the total value of the output of the Galena field was between $25,000,000 and $26,000,000; but at present Kansas is far more important as a smelter than as a miner of zinc and lead, and in 1906 58% of all spelter produced in the United States came from smelters in Kansas.
In 1908 the mines' output was 2293 tons of lead valued at $192,612 and 8628 tons of zinc valued at $811,032.
The value of the manufactured product in 1900, according to the Twelfth United States Census, was $172,129,398, an increase of 56.2% over the output of 1890; of this total value, the part representing establishments under the " factory system " was $154,008,544,1 and in 1905 the value of the factory product was $198,244,992, an increase of 28.7%.
The maximum output was in 1890, being 948,965 long tons; in 1902 it was 783,996 long tons (79% from Iron county); and in 1908, 733,993 tons.
The output is almost entirely haematite.
By far the most valuable mineral output is building stone, which was valued in 1908 at $2,850,920, including granite ($1,529,781), limestone ($1,102,009) and sandstone ($219,130).
Limestone is found in a broad belt in the east, south and west; more than 40% of the total output in 1908, which was valued at $1,102,009, was used for roadmaking and more than one-sixth in the manufacture of concrete.
But these large collections of documents are not his entire output.
Sericulture, a growing industry, is chiefly carried on in Ferghana, whence silk cocoons are an important item of export, the output having doubled between 1892 and 1903 (3869 tons).
The manufactures of Quincy were long unimportant, with the exception of "Quincy granite,'" which was first quarried in 1825,-this being the first "systematic siliceous crystalline rock quarrying" in New England-and of which the output in the form of tombstones and monuments in 1905 was valued at $2,018,198, and in the form of "marble and stone work" was valued at $364,924.
They are worked by the state, by Belgian companies and by private enterprise, the output in 1907 being valued at £121,000.
The output increased from 446,429 short tons in 1885 to 1,922,298 short tons in 1900, and to 2,948,116 short tons in 1908, the output for the last-named year being much less than for 1906 or 1907, when it was over 3,500,000 tons.
The value of the output increased from $360 in 1902 to $130,137 in 1905 and to $860,159 in 1908.
These planters were encouraged to grow sugar-cane for export, and the output for 1913 was 4,600 tons.
Forestry and mining are both undeveloped, but the syndicate which since 1908 has worked the Kasai diamond area of the Belgian Congo has also concessions on the Portuguese side, and in 1920 the output of diamonds from Angola was estimated at 120,000 carats.
Here, too, are a plant (covering more than Boo acres) of the Standard Oil Company and a large establishment for the manufacture of the "Singer" sewing machine - according to the U.S. census the largest manufactory of sewing machines in the world - employing more than 6000 workmen in 1905; among the other manufactures of Elizabeth are foundry and machine shop products (value in 1905, $3,887,139), wire, oil (value in 1905, $2,387,656), refined and smelted copper, the output of railway repair shops, edge tools and lager beer.