In 1877 the maximum annual output for the mines was attained, being $3 6, 3 01, 537.
The output for the year is less than 4000 tons.
Since high average speed on a line with frequent stops depends largely on rapidity of acceleration, the tendency in modern equipment is to secure as great an output of power as possible during the accelerating period, with corresponding increase in weight available for adhesion.
The value of the output in 1905 was £226,110.
The output of zinc was 2,168,783 lb (valued at $127,958).
A great decline in the output occurred during the last half of the 19th century; but a new field was discovered in 1908 at Abbadia dos Dourados, in the western part of the state.
The output of zinc was 2,168,783 lb (valued at $127,958).
Wine is manufactured in large quantities, but the output is not sufficient to meet the home demand.
were produced with a value of $10,481; and there is a small output of bromine.
Electric motors for barrel cranes are not essentially different from those used for other purposes, but in proportioning the sizes the intermittent output has to be taken into consideration.
were produced with a value of $10,481; and there is a small output of bromine.
In 1903 and 1907 Nevada ranked second among the American states in the production of sulphur, but its output is very small in comparison with that of Louisiana.
For many years the average output was from 10,000 to 13,000 tons of ore, yielding from 22 to 23% of copper.
A successful well in Marion county, near Mannington, far from the region of the earlier wells, was drilled in 1889, and the output of the state increased from 119,448 bbls.
The company also owns iron mines, limestone and quartz quarries, large iron-works at Domnarfvet and elsewhere, a great extent of forests and saw-mills, and besides the output of the copper mines it produces manufactured iron and steel, timber, wood-pulp, bricks and charcoal.
The fields of New South Wales have proved to be of immense value, the yield of silver and lead during 1905 being £2,500,000, and the total output to the end of the year named over £40,000,000.
Tasmania is now the largest copper-producing state of the Commonwealth; in 1905 the output was over £672,010 and in earlier years even larger.
In 1908 the output of limestone was valued at $20,731; there are limestone quarries in Washington and Orange counties and on Isle La Motte.
Chemical industries show an output worth 2,640,000 in 1902 al against 1,040,000 in 1893.
To the magician, endowed in the opinion of his fellows (and doubtless of himself) with this wonderful power of effective suggestion, the output of such power naturally represents itself as a kind of unconditional willing.
At Lodz alone the workmen, in great part Germans and Jews, number between 50,000 and 60,000, and the total output of the factories is estimated at £9,000,000 to £10,500,000 annually.
The department of Meurthe-et-Moselle (basins of Nancy and Longwy-Briey) furnished 84% of the total output during the quinquennial period 1901-1905, may be reckoned as one of the principal iron-producing regions of the world.
If you and I both had our DNA sequenced and compared the output, the information would be virtually identical.
Gold is found chiefly in placers, and in colonial times the output was large, but the deposits were long ago exhausted and the industry is now comparatively unimportant.
The output is to-day relatively small in comparison with that of many other fields, but there are one or two permanent gold mines of great value working low-grade ore.
After this last year the output of the Comstock mines declined on account of the exhaustion of the ore supply, the increased expense of mining at great depths, and the decrease in the price of silver.
Minas Geraes is a mining state, though the mining industry has lost much of its importance through the decline in the output of gold and diamonds.
The overall economic output of the planet, GWP (gross world product), will rise dramatically in the years to come, but its distribution will be quite skewed.
Closely allied with this industry was shirt-making, with an output valued at $4,263,610.
Tasmania during the last few years has attained the foremost position in the production of tin, the annual output now being about £363,000.
In Queensland the fields were all showing development in 1891, when the output exhibited a very large increase compared with that of former years; but, as in the case of Victoria, the production of the metal seems to have ceased.
The output of marble in 1908 was valued at $4,679,960 (out of a total of $7,733,920 for the entire production of marble in the United States).
The production of pig-iron nearly doubled between 1890 and 1900, increasing from 446,800 tons in the former year to 801,600 in the latter; but since 1900 the output has declined, the total for 1904 (inclusive of Siberia) being 644,000 tons.
But the fall in the price of silver led to a reaction, and from 1893 the gold output predominated.
The output of lead in 1907 was 6,271,341 lb (valued at $322,381).
The production of pig-iron nearly doubled between 1890 and 1900, increasing from 446,800 tons in the former year to 801,600 in the latter; but since 1900 the output has declined, the total for 1904 (inclusive of Siberia) being 644,000 tons.
The total value of the output of granite in the state in 1908 was $2,451,933.
In 1898f 899 there were only four sugar factories, with an output of 5972 tons; In 1905 there were thirty-three, with an output of 93,916 tons.
Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5,315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908 - in 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons.
Queensland's annual output is between 750,000 and 800,000 oz.; the number of men engaged in goldmining is io,000.
The mining of corundum was begun at Corundum Hill in Macon county in 1871, and from 1880 to 1902 the output was considerable, but with the discovery of the Canadian corundum Scale, 1:2,500,000 English Miles 20 30 4 0 So County Seats e County Boundaries Railitlays Canals Swamps deposits the importance of those of North Carolina greatly declined.
In New South Wales the greatest production was in 1852, soon after the first discovery of the precious metal, when the output was valued at £2,660,946; the production in 1905 was about 270,000 oz., valued at £1,150,000.
Several companies are devoting all their energies to zinc extraction, and the output is now equal to about 5% of the world's production.
In 1871 o~ily 20 hectolitres were produced, but in 1881 the output was 318,000 hectolitres, the maximum hitherto attained.
The output of coal in the Urals is, altogether, less than 3% of the total for all the empire and 4% of the output of European Russia (exclusive of Poland) alone.
Gold has been mined in the Urals since 1820; but since 1892 the output has fallen off very considerably.
It thus appears that the live stock industry is one of the most important in the state; the value of its product in 1899 exceeded its output of gold and silver, which had then reached its lowest point, by over one million dollars.
Pop. (1901), 4135 It is in the midst of the oil region of Canada, and numerous wells in the vicinity have an aggregate output of about 30,000,000 gallons of crude oil per annum, much of which is refined in the town.
The ancient glass-bead industry (conterie), which some years since suffered severely from over-production, has now regained its position through the union of the different factories, by which the output is controlled in such a way as to render trade profitable.
The preceding table shows the average output of the chief coal-groups for the years 1901-1905 inclusive.
Gold-mining has been carried on in a primitive manner for more than two centuries, but the output has never been large and no very rich mines have been discovered.
At one time all Russia was supplied with salt from the Urals, but at the present time the output is extremely small, less than 350 tons annually.
The mines, however, are situated too far from the coast to permit of serious competition with Newcastle in an export trade, and the output is practically restricted to supplying local requirements.
The size of the accumulators employed varies from a cell capable of an output of 8 ampere-hours, to a size giving 750 ampere-hours.
The value of the output had, however, by 1902 risen to 1,600,000, representing a tonnage of about 10,000,000.
In the post-Nicene period the literary output of the Church was greater.
As a producer of iron Russia nevertheless runs France neck and neck for the fourth place amongst the iron-producing countries of the world, her annual output having increased from 1,004,800 metric tons in 1891 to 2,808,000 in 1901 and to 2,900,000 in 1904.
No less than 96% of the world's supply of platinum comes from the Urals; but the total output only ranges between 10,000 and 16,000 lb annually.
as early as 1859, but the state's output was comparatively small until after petroleum was discovered in the N.W.
The output in 1881 was worth about 1/22,800,000, but by 1895 had decreased to 1,800,000, chiefly on account of the fall in the price of sulphur.
Ihe output of pig iron and steel in 1907 was 25,781,361 and 23,362,594 long tons respectively.
In the Gundagai district the industry was rapidly becoming a valuable one, but the low price of chrome has greatly restricted the output.
in 1884; in 1883 the output was only L7,632 barrels, four years later it was 5,022,632 barrels, and in 1896 it was 23,941,169 barrels, or 39% of the total output in the United States.
For the next ten years, however, there was a decrease, and in 1908 the output had fallen to 10,858,797 barrels, of which 6,748,676 barrels (valued at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima district, 4,109,935 barrels (valued at $7,315,667) from the southeast district, and 186 barrels (valued at $950), suitable for lubricating purposes, from the Mecca-Belden district in Trumbull and Lorain counties.
From the Ohio sandstone known as Berea grit a very large portion of the country's grindstones and pulpstones has been obtained; in 1908 the value of Ohio's output of these stones was $482,128.
There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only 26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908.
Sugar factories, distilleries, flour-mills, woollen mills, tanneries, potteries, tobacco factories, breweries, candle and soap factories, have an annual output valued at 4,000,000.
With this primitive machine, worked by hand, about 5 lb of lint is the daily output.
With more water available, the output could be considerably increased, e.g.
This well yielded 25 barrels a day for some time, but at the end of the year the output was at the rate of 15 barrels.
It must be borne in mind that although the explosion may increase the production for a time, it is by no means certain that the actual output of a well is increased in all such cases, though from some wells there would be no production without the use of the torpedo.
The output of ore was insignificant until 1892, when it stood at 178,000 tons; but in 1902 it amounted to 1,074,000 tons.
In 1907 Louisiana ranked sixth among the salt-producing states of the country (after New York, Michigan, Ohio, Kansas and California), its output being valued at $226,892, only a few hundred dollars more than that of Texas.
The Jennings field, one of the greatest in the United States, produced up to and including 1907 more than 26,000,000 barrels of high-grade oil, twelve-thirteenths of which came from an area of only 50 acres, one well producing a tenth of the entire output.
From 1890 to 1900 the capital invested, the cost of materials used and the value of output (in 1goo, $1 21,181,683) increased respectively 22 5'4, 1 47.3 and 109 6%.
Following the resuscitation of the industry after the last war, the island's crop rose steadily from one-sixth to a full quarter of the total cane sugar output of the world, its share in the world's product of sugar of all kinds ranging from a tenth to an eighth.
Of this enormous output, from 98.3% upward went to the United States;' of whose total importation of all sugars and of cane sugar the proportion of Cuban cane - steadily rising - was respectively 49.8 and 53.7% in the seasons of 1900-1901 and 1904-1905.
The yearly output of cigars was locally estimated in 1908 at about 500,000,000, but this is probably too high an estimate.
The copper output has not greatly increased since 1890, and is of slight importance in mineral exports.
The trade of the city is principally in Bolivian products - mineral ores, alpaca wool, &c. - but it also receives and exports the products of the neighbouring Peruvian provinces, and the output of the borax deposits in the neighbourhood.
The practical object of the enterprise required that the proportionate quantity of yearly output in the various branches, and that the liability of various topics as a matter of fact to occur in connexion with each other, should modify the classification.
Since that date the development of iron mining in Minnesota has been remarkable, and the increase both in volume and value of the output has been practically uninterrupted.
Eight years later (1892) the much richer Mesabi Range, the most productive iron range in the world, was opened up; it soon surpassed the Vermilion in its output, and by 1902 the product was nearly ten times greater.
The bulk of the foreign trade of Servia passes through Belgrade, but the industrial output of the city itself is not large, owing to the scarcity both of labour and capital.
Gold-mining and quartz-mining are its principal industries, and in 1907 Nevada county's output of gold (104,J90.76 oz., worth $2,162,083) was second only to that of Butte county (134,813.39 oz., worth $2,786,840) in California; the county is the leading producer 1 Died the 21st of September, 1890, and Frank Bell became governor by virtue of his office as lieutenant-governor.
The first settlement was made here in 1849; rich deposits of gold were soon afterwards found on or near the surface, and the settlement had the characteristic growth of a western mining town; its output of gold reached its maximum in 1850-1851.
Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.
Each year, however, the output of " plantation " rubber will show a considerable increase, and it is to be expected that ultimately this will form the chief source of supply, unless unforeseen circumstances should arise to interfere with the development of the plantation industry, which has been vigorously started chiefly with European capital in the tropical possessions of Great Britain, France and Germany.
As soon as the output of plantation rubber of constant composition has reached much larger dimensions it is probable that the manufacturer will be able to dispense with washing.
In West Siberia, however, quartz-mining is steadily increasing in importance: whereas in 1900 the output of gold from this source was less than 10,000 oz., in 1904 it amounted, to close upon 50,000 oz.
On the other hand gravel-washing gives a declining yield in West Siberia, for while in 1900 the output from this source was approximately 172,000 oz., in 1904 it was only 81,000 oz.
Nearly one-third of the total value of the output represents winespirit, 23% tanneries, 18% tallow-melting and a considerable sum cigarette-making.
The output in 1900 was 35,000 tons, and in 2905, 25,000 tons.
The United States, which ranked third with a production of 20,000 tons in 1850, maintained this annual yield, until 1870, when it began to increase; the United States now ranks as the chief producer; in 1900 the output was 253,000 tons, and in 1905, 3 1 9,744 tons.
Germany has likewise made headway; an output of 12,000 tons in 1850 being increased to 120,000 tons in 1900 and to 152,590 in 1905.
Italy has been a fairly steady producer; the output in 1896 was 20,000 tons, and in 1905, 25,000 tons.
In 1896 the total output of coal was 216,106 tons (valued at £108,053 at the pit's mouth), in 1908 it had increased to 1,669,774 tons (valued at the pit's mouth at £737,169).
Since that time (1895) the number of periodical as well as of non-periodical literary works has been constantly rising, although, as in all countries with a literature of rather recent origin, the periodical publications are, in proportion to the whole of the output, far more numerous than the non-periodical.
The richest in gold are to be found among the Main Reef series, which yields by far the greater part of the total output of gold from the Transvaal.
In 1905 when a full supply of labour was again available the output was 4,760,000 oz., in which year the sum distributed in dividends to shareholders in the Rand mines was over £4,800,000.
The total output from the Rand mines up to the end of 1908 was 56,477,240 oz.
The output, 35,000 oz.
Though several large nuggets have been found (the largest weighing 215 oz.), the total production is not great, the highest output obtained by washing being worth about £300,000 in one year.
The chief centres of the fields are Lydenburg, Pilgrims Rest and Spitzkop. The total output of the Lydenburg fields up to the end of 1908 is estimated at 1,200,000 oz.
In 1898 the output for the whole of the Transvaal was valued at £44,000.
The output since the opening of the Premier mine has been: 1903-1904, £685,720; 1904-1905, £1,198,530; 1905-1906, £968,229; 1906-1907, £2,203,511; 1907-1908, £1,879,551; 1908-1909, £1,295,296.
deep. The output in 1893, the first year in which statistics are available, was 548,534 tons (of 2000 lb); in 1898 it was 1,907,808 tons, and for the year ending 30th of June 1909 was 3,312,413 tons, valued at £851,150.
The consequent small gold output meant a serious decrease of revenue, which was not compensated for by the heavy tax levied on the output of the Premier diamond mine, where operations began in 1903.
By the introduction of the Chinese the gold output from the mines was greatly increased, with the result that the Transvaal suffered less than any other part of South Africa from the restriction of commerce, which lasted for several years.
Apart from this movement the most notable events in the Transvaal at this period were the development of agriculture,' the gradual revival of trade (the output of the gold mines in 1909 totalled f 30,925,000, and at the end of the year 156,000 native labourers were employed), and the continued difficulty with regard to British Indians.
In the opening decades of the 19th century supplies began to be drawn from Banka; in 1820 this island contributed 1200 tons; the production was increased to 12,000 tons in 1900, when a diminution set in, 9960 tons being the output during 1905.
An official work (Veloz Goiticoa, Venezuela, Washington, 1904)1904) gives the number of coffee trees in Venezuela as 250,000,000 belonging to 33,000 estates; the output was 42,806 tons in 1907.
The annual output is about 3000 tons.
Cotton was produced in several places in colonial times, but the output has declined to a few thousand pounds.
from 1871 to 1890, while another report gives an output valued at $23,000,000 U.S. gold in the fifteen years from 1884 to 1899.
The output from 1878 to 1891 was 329,218 tons of ore and 53,053 tons of regulus, valued at £2,794,986.
The principal coal deposits developed are at Naricual, near Barcelona, and a railway has been constructed to bring the output to the port of Guanta.
There are no trustworthy returns of the value of the output, but in 1849 the total was.
In irregular and uncertain deposits this work of development should be kept at all times so far in advance of mining operations as to ensure a regular and uniform output.
The subdrift system is somewhat cheaper than the top-slice system, the output per man being greater.
These are common in Europe, and are sometimes employed in the United States and elsewhere in mines where the output is large and the shafts deep and of small cross section.
His literary output at this time, all inspired by a moderate Liberalism, was astounding, and included an essay on the results of the discovery of America, and another, written in French, on the English financial system (Essa y sur l'etat de l'administration des finances de la Grande-Bretagne, London, 1800).
The output of copper rose from 997 tons in 1911 to 27,462 tons in 1917; it was 22,000 tons in 1919 and 19,000 tons in 1920.
The output was about 90,000 carats in 1917 and over 200,000 carats in 1920.
The gold mines at Kilo and Moto, worked since 1905, had an output in 1918 of some 90,000 ozs.
There were 173 of these factories working in Cuba in 1908-1909, among which the " Chaparra," in the province of Oriente, turned out upwards of 69,000 tons of sugar in the crop of about 20 weeks, and the " Boston " had an output of about 61,00o tons in the same time.
The increase in the output for a given time obtained by the use of the Krajewski crusher has been estimated at 20 to 25% and varies with the quality of the canes; while the yield of juice or extraction is increased by I or 2%.
high, and of such diameter as to hold a given quantity of animal charcoal (also called " bone-black " and " char ") in proportion to the contemplated output of the refinery.
The annual aggregate output of cane and date sugar in India was short of 4,000,000 tons.
The yearly output of nickel and chrome is considerable, and these minerals, with cobalt, constitute the characteristic wealth of the island.
Cultivation under shade was recently tried with satisfactory results; " 166.65 acres cultivated under cheesecloth produced in 1903 10 bales of wrappers and 1.5 bales of fillers of tobacco per acre, the output under the old system having been 4'5 bales of tobacco per acre of which only 10% represented wrappers of good colour " (Diplomatic and Consular Report on Cuba, 1904, No.
Belgium entered in 1837 with an output of about 2000 tons; England in 1855 with 3000; and the United States in 1873 with 6000 tons.
His output of work, in catalogues, &c., was enormous, and his services to the Bibliotheque Nationale in this respect cannot be overestimated.
The industry was nearly ruined by the Chileans in 1880, but its recovery soon followed the termination of the war and the output has been steadily increasing.
It is a universal article of food in Peru, and the output is consumed in the country.
Wheat is widely grown but the output is not large.
The Cerro de Pasco district, with its 342 mines, is credited with a production, in value, of £40,000,000 between 1784 and 1889, and is still productive, the output for 1906 being valued at £972,958..
The annual production has fallen to a small fraction of the former output, its value in 1905 being only £340, and in 1906 £495.
In 1905 the factory product was valued at $3,453,094; the boots and shoes manufactured in 1905 were valued at $2,896,110 or 83.9% of the town's total, the output of brogans being especially important.
In short, the artistic output of Chinese kilns in their palmiest days was, not faience or pottery,, but porcelain, whether of soft or hard paste.
- Of the area, 56.8% is cultivated and 38% forest, but the agricultural industry, which formerly yielded the bulk of the wealth of the country, is now equalled, if not surpassed, by the industrial output, which has attained very considerable dimensions.
The river furnishes considerable water-power; and among the city's most important manufactures are rubber and elastic goods (value, 1905, $ 1 3,39 6, 974; 8 3.9% of the total of this industry in the state and 21 ï¿½ 3% of the total for the United States, Akron ranking first among the cities of the country in this industry), printing and publishing product (value, 1905, $ 2, 8 34,639), foundry and machine-shop product (value, 1905, $2,367,764), and pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay (value, 1905, $1,718,033; nearly twice the value of the output in 1900, Akron ranking fourth among the cities of the United States in this industry in 1905).
The decline of literature proper was attended by an increased output of grammatical and critical studies.
Sixty per cent of the present output of timber being needed for internal consumption, about 200,000 festmetres are available annually for export.
The mines within the municipal area produce nearly half the total gold output of the Transvaal.
During 1901-1903, while the war was still in progress or but recently concluded, the gold output was comparatively slight.
It was not until after 1885 that the annual output of the world began to expand.
Among the regions not previously important as gold-producers which now contribute to the annual output, the most remarkable are the goldfields of South Africa (Transvaal and Rhodesia, the former of which were discovered in 1885).
In 1900 the output was valued at £1,891,804, in 1905 at £2,450,536, and in 1908 at £2,270,000.
Canada, too, assumed an important rank, having contributed in 1900 £5,583,300; but the output has since steadily declined to £1,973,000 in 1908.
The output of the United States increased from £7,050,000 in 1881 to £16,085,567 in 1900, £17,916,000 in 1905, and to £20,065,000 in 1908.
Colorado is a case in point, its output having increased from about £600,000 in 1880 to £6,065,000 in 1900; it was £5,139,800 in 1905.
On the other hand, the output of California, which was producing over £3,000,000 per annum in 1876, has fallen off, the average annual output from 1876 to 1900 being £2,800,000; in 1905 the yield was £3,839,000.
Alaska appeared in the list of gold-producing countries in 1886, and gradually increased its annual output until 1897, when the country attracted much attention with a production valued at over £500,000; the opening up of new workings has increased this figure immensely, from about £1,400,000 in 1901 to £3,006,500 in 1905.
The result of a few months' working during that year was more than £500,000 of gold, and a very much larger annual output may reasonably be anticipated in the future; in 1905 it was about £900,000.
The annual output of Victoria declined until the year 1892, when it began to increase rapidly, but not to its former level, the values for 1900 and 1905 being £3,142,000 and £3,138,000.
There has been no increase, and, indeed, no large fluctuation until quite recently in the output of New Zealand, which averaged £1,054,000 per annum from 1876 to 1898, but the production of the two years 190oand 1905 rose to £1,425,459 and £2,070,407 respectively.
Boots and shoes are the principal products; in 1905 seven-tenths of the city's wage-earners were engaged in their manufacture, and Auburn's output ($4,263,162 = 66.5% of the total factory product of the city) was one-third of that of the whole state.
As regards the duration of British coal resources, the commissioners reported (1905): " This question turns chiefly upon the maintenance or the variation of the annual output.
The present annual output is in round numbers 230 million tons, and the calculated available resources in the proved coalfields are in round numbers 100,000 million tons, exclusive of the 40,000 million tons in the unproved coalfields, which we have thought best to regard only as probable or speculative.
For the last thirty years the average increase in the output has been 22% per annum, and that in the exports (including bunkers) 42% per annum.
' It is the general opinion of the District Commissioners that owing to physical considerations it is highly probable that the present rate of increase of the putput of coal can long continue - indeed, they think that some districts have already attained their maximum output, but that on the other hand the developments in the newer coalfields will possibly increase the total output for some years.
In view of this opinion and of the exhaustion of the shallower collieries we look forward to a time, not far distant, when the rate of increase of output will be slower, to be followed by a period of stationary output, and then a gradual decline."
In the United Kingdom the drawing of coal is generally confined to the day shift of eight hours, with an output of from 100 to 150 tons per hour, according to the depth, capacity of coal tubs, and facilities for landing and changing tubs.
In the deeper German pits, where great thicknesses of water-bearing strata have to be traversed, the first establishment expenses are so great that in order to increase output the shaft is sometimes provided with a complete double equipment of cages and engines.
It is said that the output of single shafts has been raised by this method to 3500 and 4500 tons in the double shift of sixteen hours.
Modern screening and washing plants, especially when the small coal forms a considerable proportion of the output, are large and costly, requiring machinery of a capacity of ioo to 150 tons per hour, which absorbs 350 to 400 H.P. In this, as in many other cases, electric motors supplied from a central station are now preferred to separate steam-engines.
per minute under such conditions, and the number of working places would thus be restricted, and consequently the output reduced to about 500 tons per shift of Io hours, which could be raised by a single engine at the surface without requiring any very different appliances from those in current use.
The value of the bituminous coal output was $465,900 (184,440 short tons) in 1890; $1,581,914 (968,373 short tons) in 1900; $ 2, 77 8, 811 (1,648,069 short tons) in 1907; and $3,419,481 (1,805,377 short tons) in 1908.
In 1907 during a period of severe and prolonged trade depression the imports had fallen to £5,263,930, but the exports owing entirely to the increased output of gold from the Rand mines had increased to £37,994,658; gold and diamonds represented over £37,000,000 of this total.
m., with a total output of nearly 13,000,000 tons annually).
In 1906 Massachusetts led all states in the value of its granite output, but in 1907 and 1908 it was second to Vermont.
The value of the product (including a small output of igneous rocks) was in 1903, $ 2, 35 1, 02 7; 1904, $ 2, 554,74 8; 1905, $ 2, 2 5 1, 3 1 9; 1906, $3,3 2 7,4 16; 1907, $ 2, 3 28, 777; 1908, $2,027,463.
The output of lime in 1908 was 107,813 tons, valued at $566,022.
The textile industries (the making of carpets and rugs, cotton goods, cotton smallwares, dyeing and finishing textiles, felt goods, felt hats, hosiery and knit goods, shoddy, silk and silk goods, woollen goods, and worsted goods), employed 32.5% of all manufacturing wage earners in 1905, and their product ($271,369,816) was 24.1% of the total, and of this nearly one-half ($129,171,449) was in cotton goods, being 28.9% of the total output of the country, as compared with I I% for South Carolina, the nearest competitor of Massachusetts.
The output of worsted goods in 1905 ($51,973944) was more than three-tenths that of the entire country, Rhode Island being second with $44,477,596; in Massachusetts the increase in the value of this product was 28.2% between 1900 and 1905.
The value of boots and shoes and cut stock in 1905 was $173,612,660, being 23% greater than in 1900; the value of boots and shoes in 1905 ($144,291,426) was 45.1% of the country's output, that of New York, the second state, being only 10.7 A.
About this date the output of alcohol in Germany and its use in stationary internal-combustion engines increased rapidly.
The total output of Canada in 1907 was only 680 tons.
All the other states together produce less phosphate than Florida, and among them Tennessee takes the first place with an output of 403,180 tons.
The total output of the state increased from 651,228 long tons in 1884 to 1,253,393 long tons in 1890, decreased to 179,951 long tons in 1898, again increased to 1,375,020 long tons in 1907, when only three states produced more, and was only 697,473 long tons in 1908 when the state held the same rank as in 1907.
In 1908 the total value of the output of this stone was $ 2, 5 8 4,559.
border of the state in Erie county is a narrow belt containing large deposits of gypsum, and in 1908 the value of the state's output ($760,759) was greater than that of any other state, although Michigan produced a larger quantity.
The first oil well in the state was drilled at Limestone in Cattaraugus county in 1865, and the state's output of oil was 1,160,128 barrels, valued at $2,071,533 in 1908.
Graphite is widely distributed in the Adirondack region, but the mining of it is confined for the most part to Essex and Warren counties; in 1908 the output was 1,932,000 lb.
Niagara Falls and New York City manufacture a large part of the chemicals, and the value of the state's output rose to $29,090,484 in 1905.
The progressive output of coal from 1880 to 1900 is shown below.
At the end of 1885 about 22,000 work-people were being employed in 1946 workshops, and the aggregate output was valued at six millions and three-quarters.
Twenty years later the number of establishments was 4186; the number of hands 56,000; and the output twenty-three millions and a half.
In 1895 began a marked commercial revival, mainly due to the steady conversion of the colony's waste lands into pasture; the development of frozen meat and dairy exports; the continuous increase of the output of coal; the invention of gold-dredging; the revival and improvement of hemp manufacture; the exploiting of the deposits of kauri gum; the reduction in the rates of interest on mortgage money; a general rise in wages, obtained without strikes, and partially secured by law, which has increased the spending power of the working classes.
Between 1850 and 1860 coal was found on the Stilaguamish river (Snohomish county) and on the Black river (near Seattle) and in 1863 at Gilman (King county); but it was not until between 1880 and 1885, when the Green river field in King county and the Roslyn mines in Kittitas county were opened, that commercial production became important: the output was 3,024,943 tons (valued at $6,690,412) in 1908, when nearly onehalf (1,414,621 tons) of the total was from Kittitas county and most of the remainder from the counties of King (931,643 tons) and Pierce (551,678 tons).
The largest output of each of these ores in 1908 was in Stevens county; Ferry, King and Okanogan counties ranked next in the output of gold; Okanogan and Ferry counties in the output of silver; Okanogan in the output of copper; and King in the output of lead.
The value of the output from the diamond mines rose from £224,000 in 1890 to £1,508,000 in 1898.
The war hindered operations, but the output was valued at £648,000 in 1904 and at £1,048,000 in 1909.
Before 1905 the mines were little worked; in that year the output was 118,000 tons, while in 1907 over 500,000 tons were raised.
In 1907 the output had increased to nearly 23,000,000 lb.
The Trans-Siberian railway was the only line of communication with Europe and western Siberia, and its calculated output of men was 40,000 a month in the summer.
Other discoveries about Butte followed, and the output of copper increased from I I,01I long tons in 1883 to 129,805 long tons in 1906, more than 99.6% from Silverbow county.
In 1907 the output was 2,016,857 tons, and in 1908 1,920,190 tons.
The output steadily increased until 1895 when it was 1,504,193 short tons; but from then to 1905, when it was 1,643,832 short tons, the quantity varied little from year to year.
From 1905 to 1907, when the output was valued at $3,907,082, the increase in production was steady.
Brown coal or lignite is found chiefly in the north and north-west, but not in sufficiently large quantities to be exported; the total value of the output in 1907 was nearly £3,500,000.
(Thousands of tons.) The number of looms increased steadily, but the output per loom showed partially a distinct decrease.
In its output of flax, grown almost entirely for the seed, the state held second rank with a product of 5,640,000 bush.
In 1889 a cement plant was built at Yankton, and it is still worked although the output is small.
This increase was due almost entirely to the gain in the gold output which advanced in value from $4,138.200 in 1907 to $7,742,200 in 1908.
The output of alum averages 4000 to 5000 tons a year, and is mostly exported from Civitavecchia.
Printing, in fact, has supplied a great incentive to the development of literature, the output has increased enormously, and will doubtless continue to do so for a long time to come.
The average output of petroleum annually in1900-1905was 120,000,000 gallons; this, again, has fluctuated greatly.
The output of steel amounts to 298,000 tons, iron in bars 400,000 tons, iron girders 130,000 tons and sheet-iron 34,000 tons.
In its output of graphite Czechoslovakia takes second place among European countries, Great Britain being the first.
Some three-fourths of the entire output in both these wares are exported, largely to England and to Germany.
On the latter they act as diuretics, but less powerfully than potassium, increasing the flow of water and the output of urea and rendering the urine less acid.
In 1905 Haverhill's manufacturing establishments produced goods valued at $24,446,594, 8 3.9% of this output being represented by boots and shoes or their accessories.
In 1891 the output of gold in the district was valued at $449, in 1892 at $583,010, and in the next three years at $2,010,367, $2,908,702 and $6,879,137 respectively.
From 1891 to 1906 the total production of gold was valued at $168,584,331; in 1905 1 the product of gold was valued at $15,411,724, the total for the whole state being valued at $25, 02 3,973; in 1906 the output for the district was valued at $14,253,245, out of $23,210,629 for the entire state.
The deposits were discovered early in the 19th century (probably first in 5804 near the present Frostburg), but were not exploited until railway transport became available in 1842, and the output was not large until after the close of the Civil War; in 1865 it was 1,025,208 short tons, from which it steadily increased to 5,532,628 short tons in 1907.
From 1722 until the War of Independence the iron-ore product of North and West Maryland was greater than that of any of the other colonies, but since then ores of superior quality have been discovered in other states and the output in Maryland, taken chiefly from the west border of the Coastal Plain in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, has become comparatively of little importance-24,367 long tons in 1902 and only 8269 tons in 1905.
Bituminous coal is the principal mineral, and in 1907 Kentucky ranked eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union; the output in 1907 amounted to 10,753,124 short tons, and in 1902 to 6,766,984 short tons as compared with 2,399,755 tons produced in 1889.
In 1907 the output of the western district was 6,295,397 tons; that of the eastern, 4,457,727.
Of cannel coal Kentucky is the largest producer in the Union, its output for 1902 being 65,317 short tons, and, according to state reports, for 1903, 72,856 tons (of which 46,314 tons were from Morgan county), and for 1904, 68,400 tons (of which 52,492 tons were from Morgan county); according to the Mineral Resources of the United States for 1907 (published by the United States Geological Survey) the production of Kentucky in 1907 of cannel coal (including 4650 tons of semi-cannel coal) was 77,733 tons, and exclusive of semi-cannel coal the output of Kentucky was much larger than that of any other state.
Coal was first mined in Kentucky in Laurel or Pulaski county in 1827; between 1829 and 1835 the annual output was from 2000 to 6000 tons; in 1840 it was 23,527 tons and in 1860 it was 285,760 tons.
The value of the state's natural gas output increased from $38,993 in 1891 to $99,000 in 1896, $286,243 in 1900, $365,611 in 1902, and $380,176 in 1907.
In 1898 there began an increased activity in the mining of fluorspar, and Crittenden, Fayette and Livingston counties produced in 1902, 29,030 tons (valued at $143,410) of this mineral, in 1903 30,835 tons (valued at $153,960) and in 1904 19,096 tons (valued at $111,499), amounts (and values) exceeding those produced in any other state for these years; but in 1907 the quantity (21,058 tons) was less than the output of Illinois.
Lead and zinc are mined in small quantities near Marion in Crittenden county and elsewhere in connexion with mining for fluorspar; in 1907 the output was 75 tons of lead valued at $7950 and 358 tons of zinc valued at $4 2, 2 44.
Better cultivation would probably increase the output and make it an article of export.
The early methods of making cane sugar, clarified with clay and dried in conical moulds, are to be found all over Mexico, and the annual output of this brown or muscovado sugar (called "panela " by the natives) is still very large.
The sugar crop of1907-1908was reported as 123,285 metric tons, in addition to which the molasses output was estimated at 70,947.5 metric tons, and " panela " at 50,000 tons.
Other estimates make the " panela " output much larger, the product being largely consumed in the rural districts and never appearing in the larger markets.
The Concord granite is a medium bluish-grey coloured muscovitebiotite granite, with mica plates so abundant as to effect the durability of the polish of the stone; it is used for building-the outer walls of the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., are made of this stone-to a less degree for monuments, for which the output of one quarry is used exclusively, and for paving blocks.
The output of the Auburn quarry, 7 m.
The Conway quarries, four in number in 1908, are on either side of the Saco river, south-east and south-west of North Conway; their output is coarse constructional stones, all biotite or biotite-hornblende, but varying in colour, pinkish (" red ") and dark-yellow greenish-grey (" green ") varieties being found remarkably near each other at Redstone, on the east side of the Saco valley.
In that year New Hampshire ranked fourth among the states in output of granite, with 6.3% of the total value of granite quarried in the entire country; in 1908 the value of granite ($867,028) was exceeded by that of each of seven other states but was more than one-half of the total value of all mineral products of the state.
Since the English board of trade estimated the exports of British manufactured goods at from 17 to 20% of the industrial output of the United Kingdom in 1902, this would indicate a manufactured product hardly two-thirds as great as that of the true factory establishments of the United States in 1900.
In the production of pig iron, the share of the United States seems to have been in 1850 about one-eighth and that of Great Britain onehalf of the worlds product; while in 1903 the respective shares were 38.8 and 19.3%; and Germanys also slightly exceeded the British output.
From 1830 the increase in the production was very rapid, and in 1841 the annual shipments from the Pennsylvania anthracite region had nearly reached 1,000,000 tons, the output of iron at that time being estimated at about 300,000 tons.
It held primacy, with a large margin, in the yield of coal, iron, lead and copper, the minerals most important in manufactures; in gold its output ini~usifrIcs was second only to that, of South Africa (though practically equalled by that of Australia); and in silver to that of Mexico.
The North Atlantic and the North Central census groups of states (that is, the territory east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, and north of Maryland) produced two-thirds of the total output.
The total mineral output for the decade1899-1908according to the United States Geological Survey was as follows:
Since 1901 the United States has produced more than one-third of the worlds output.
The total oiitnijt amounted to zLIc.8a2.6o2 short tons, valued at $532 3 i4,1 17 in 1908 and to 480,363,424t0ns, valued at $614,798,898 in 1909 Pennsylvania produced three-fourths of the total output of the country in 1860, and since 1900 slightly less than one-half.
The geological conditions of the different fields, and the details of the composition of the oils yielded, are exceedingly varied, and their study has been little more than begun In 1859 when the total output of the country is supposed to have been only 2000 barrels of oil, production was confined to Pennsylvania and New York.
From 1859 to 1876 the Appalachian field yielded IoO% of the total output of the country; in 1908 its share had fallen to 13.9%.
Ia the same period of 50 years the yearly output rose from 2000 to 179,572,479 barrels (134,717,580 in 1905) and to a grand total of 1,986,180,942 barrels, worth $1,784,583,943, or more than half the value of all the gold, and more than the commercial value of all the silver produced in the country since 1792.
The production in 1908 exceeded in value the output of both metals.
So rapid has been the extension of the yielding areas, so diverse the fate of many fields, so shifting their relative rank in output, that the otitlook from year to year as regards all these elements is too uncertain to admit of definite statements respecting the relative importance of the five fields already mentioned The total output of these, it may be stated, from 1901 to 1908uniting the yield of the Illinois to the Lima-Indiana field (since their statistics were long so united, until their industrial differences became apparent), and adding a sixth division for the production of scattered areas of productionwas as follows:
The worlds output of oil was trebled between 1885 and 1895, and quadrupled between 1885 and 1900.
So recently as 1902 the output of the United States was little greater than that of Kussia (the two yielding 91.4% of the worlds product), but this advantage has since then been greatly increased, so that the one has produced 63.1 and the other 21.8% of the total output of the world.
The total output of the country rose from a value of $215,000 ifl 1882 to one of $54,640,374 ifl 1908, with several fluctuations up and down in that interval.
Stone is of the greatest actual importance, the value of the quarry output, including some prepared or manufactured product, such as dressed and crushed stone, averaging $65,152,312 annually in 1904-1908.
It may be noted that the output in almost every item of mineral production was considerably greater in 1907 than in 1908, and the isolated figures of the latter year are of little interest apart from showing in a general way the relative commercial importance of the products named.
The share of the whole district for some years past has been practically four-fifths of the total output of the country; and together with the yield of the southern district, more than 90%.
Michigan held first place in output until 1901.
Their output was almost seventeenfold the quantity reported by the census of 186o.
During the decade ending with that year the average yearly output of the three first-named was 197,706,968 Ib, 267,172,951 lb and 192,187,488 lb respectively.
The United States is the gleatest lead producer and consumer in the world, its percentage of the total output and consumption averaging 30.4% and 32-5% respectively in the years 1904-1908.
The census of the latter year reported an output of product valued at $72,600.
From 1904 to 1908 the share of the United States in the worlds output averaged 28-2%, and in the worlds consumption (disregarding stocks) 27.5%.
The only local industries are the preparation of salt (Italian and Indian concessions, with an output of 124,000 tons in 1916-7), the unhuking of Arabian coffee berries and the making of cigarettes from tobacco imported from Egypt.
The farmers of the United States have now to meet a greatly increased output from Canada-the cost of transport from that country to England being much the same as from the United States.
Sulphurous and other mineral springs, both hot and cold, exist in several districts, and deposits of silver, iron, copper, sulphur, coal and other minerals have been discovered; but the exploitation of these is retarded by lack of communications, and, apart from building materials, sulphur and salt, the actual output is insignificant.
Irrigation protects large tracts against famine, and has immensely increased the wheat output of the Punjab; the Irrigation Commission of 1903 recommended the addition of 62 million acres to the irrigated area of India, and that recommendation is being carried out at an annual cost of 12 millions sterling for twenty years, but at the end of that time the list of works that will return a lucrative interest on capital will be practically exhausted.
Whereas in 1863 the output was only 550o tons of crude naphtha, in 1904 it amounted to 9,833,600 tons; but business was much injured by a serious fire in 1905.
The output in 1905 exceeded 34 million tons, valued at £12,500,000 sterling, and equal to more than a quarter of the entire yield of Germany.
In 1815 the output was reported as only 50 tons, but it steadily rose to 74,347,102 tons (valued at $158,178,849) in 1908.
In 1840 the state's output was 464,826 tons.
In 1880 the output of coal (anthracite and bituminous) in Pennsylvania was 66% of that of the entire country; in 1908 it was 48.2%; but in the latter year the Pennsylvania mines produced more coal than the combined production of all the countries of the world excepting Great Britain, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it was nearly four times as much as the total mined in Austria, nearly five times as much as that mined in France, and seven times as much as the output of Russia in that year.
By the close of 1861 wells had been drilled from which 2000 to 3000 barrels flowed in a day without pumping, and the state's yearly output continued to increase until 1891, when it amounted to 31,424,206 barrels.
in 1895, the output fell to 19,144,390 barrels it was exceeded by that of Ohio.
The value of the state's output increased from approximately $75,000 in 1882 to approximately $19,282,000 in 1888, and the total value of its output during these and the intervening years was more than 80% that of all the United States.
This temporary decline was, however, followed by a rather steady rise and in 1908 the output was valued at $19,104,944, which was still far in excess of that of any other state and nearly 35% of that of the entire country.
The output of the natural-rock cement continued greater than that of the Portland until 1896, but for the succeeding ten years the enormous development of the cement industry was almost entirely in the Portland branch, its production in the state increasing from 825,054 barrels in 1896' to 8,770,454 barrels in 1902, and to 18,254,806 barrels (valued at.
The total value of the limestone output in 1908 amounted to $4,057,471, and the total value of all stone quarried was $6,371,152.
Northampton, Lehigh and York counties contain the most productive slate quarries in the country, and in 1908 the value of their output was $3,902,958; the Northampton and Lehigh slate is the only kind in the United States used for school blackboards.
In 1908 the state ranked first in the value of its output of brick and tile ($ 18, 9 81, 743), which was 14.74% of the entire product of the United States, and was second only to Ohio in the total value of its clay products ($14,842,982), which was 11.14% of that for the entire country.
The value of the output of iron and steel increased from $264,571,624 in 1890 to $471,228,844 in 1905, and the state furnished 46.5% of the pig-iron and 54% of the steel and malleable iron produced in the entire country.
per lb and the output about 250 lb per day.
Then follows Portugal, with its important output of cupreous pyrites.
The United Kingdom yields but little pyrites, the annual output being not more than about io,000 tons.
The gold output from Ashanti amounted in 1905 to 68,259 oz., valued at 2J4,790.
Connellsville is the centre of the Connellsville coke district (in Fayette and Westmoreland counties), which has the largest production in the United States, the output in 1907 (13,089,427 tons) being 32.1% of that of the whole country.
The combined output of these three districts in 1907 was 50.1% of the total of the entire country.
The coal mines of Belgium give employment to nearly 150,000 persons, and for some years the average output has exceeded 22,000,000 tons.
Whereas in 1864 the annual production of all factories in Poland was valued at not more than 54 millions sterling, in 1875, when the workers numbered 27,000, the output was estimated at even less; but in 1905 the value of the industrial production reached 53 millions sterling.
The output of coal is 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 tons in the year, the number of hands employed being 18,000 to 20,000.
The annual output of diamonds from the De Beers mines was valued in 1906 at nearly £5,000,00o; the value per carat ranging from about 35s.
A production temporarily in excess of the world's demand of several years ago, led to the offering of bonuses for the production in India and Ceylon of green teas, with a view to lessening the black tea output.
The output of the ore has enormously increased of recent years, and the production of pig iron, as given for I 905, amounted to 10,875,000 tons of a value of 28,900,000.
Huge blast furnaces are in constant activity, and the output of rolled iron and steel is constantly increasing.
Hanover is second only to East Prussia in output of horses.
Elba (March 5), it remained a mere sketch, the hasty output of a few hurried sessions, of which the elaboration was reserved for the future.
The Renaissance was followed by the fierce controversies aroused by the Reformation, and the result was the output of an enormous mass of writings covering every phase of the mighty combat and possessing every literary virtue save that of impartiality.
The veins are small, but contain native silver and other rich silver ores running sometimes several thousand ounces per ton, the output being 5,500,000 oz.
The total mineral output of Ontario, including building materials and cement, is larger than that of any other province of the dominion, and as more careful exploration is carried on in the northern parts, no doubt many more deposits of value will be discovered.
The output of gold is decreasing.
The district around Petrolea produces about 30,000,000 gallons of petroleum yearly, practically the whole output of the dominion.
The formation of the Anglo-Italian sulphur syndicate arrested the downward tendency of prices and increased the output of sulphur, so that the amount exported in 1899 was 424,018 tons, worth £ 1, 73 8, 475, whereas some years previously the value of sulphur exported had hardly been £800,000.
The value of the annual output is about £40,000, and the exports in 1906 amounted to nearly 103,000 tons.
In 1905 the cleaning and polishing of rice was the most important industry, its output being valued at $1,203,123, being nearly twice the value of the product of the rice mills of the city in 1900, 25.9% of the total value of the state's product of polished and cleaned rice, 46.1% of the value ($2,609,829) of all of Beaumont's factory products, and about.
the average number of wage-earners, and the iron and steel output was much less.
The output will be about 30 tons of "clinker" ready to be ground into cement.
The output of these kilns varies from 200 to 400 tons per kiln per week according to their size and the nature of the raw materials burned; as against 30 tons per week for an ordinary chamber kiln.
It contains the great coal-field of Raniganj, first opened in 1874, with an output of more than three million tons.
In 1840 this had grown to 241,000 tons, in 1845 to 475, 000 tons and in 1865 to 1,164,000 tons, almost the height of its prosperity, for in 1905 the product of 101 blast furnaces only amounted to 1,375,125 tons, and in the interval there were years when the output was below one million tons.
The ironproducing counties in the order of their output are Ayr, Lanark, Renfrew, Linlithgow, Dumbarton, Fife, Midlothian and Stirling, the first three being the most productive.
Linlithgowshire yields nearly three-fourths of the total output, Midlothian produces nearly one-fourth, a small quantity is obtained from Lanarkshire, and there is an infinitesimal supply from Sutherland.
Fire-clay is produced in Lanarkshire, which yields nearly half of the total output, and Ayrshire and, less extensively, in Stirlingshire, Fifeshire, Renfrewshire, Midlothian and a few other shires.
On the island of Palau Brani stand the largest tin-smelting works in existence, which for many years have annually passed through their furnaces more than half the total tin output of the world.
The output of sugar and tobacco is small, but could be largely increased, as the conditions of soil and climate are favourable.
Consequently, in 1890, in 1900 and again in 1905, Illinois surpassed any one of the other states in the production of agricultural implements, the product in 1900 being valued at $42,033,796, or 41.5% of the total output of agricultural machinery in the United States; and in 1905 with a value of $38,412,452 it represented 34.3% of the product of the entire country.
river from the forests of other states), whose output increased from 1890 to 1900 nearly 50%, but declined slightly between 1900 and 1905; of furniture ($22,131,846 in 1905; $15,285,475 in 1900; showing an increase of 44.8%), and of musical instruments ($ 1 3,3 2 3,35 8 in 1905; $ 8, 1 5 6, 445 in 1900; an increase of 6 3.3% in the period), in both of which Illinois was second in 1900 and in 1905; book and job printing, in which the state ranked second in 1900 ($28,293,684 in 1905; $19,761,780 in 1900; an increase of 43.2%), newspaper and periodical printing ($28,644,981 in 1905; $ 1 9,4 0 4,955 in 1900; an increase of 47.6%), in which it ranked third in 1900; and the manufacture of clothing, boots and shoes.
The output of petroleum in Illinois was long unimportant.
In 1905 the total output of the state was 181,084 barrels; in 1906 the amount increased to 4,397,050 barrels, valued at $3,274,818; and in 1907, according to state reports, the output was 24,281,973 barrels, being nearly as great as that of the Appalachian field.
Pope and Hardin counties were the only sources of fluorspar in the United States from 1842 until 1898, when fluorspar began to be mined in Kentucky; in 1906 the output was 28,268 tons, valued at :8160,623, and in 1905 33, 2 75 tons, valued at $220,206.
Thousands of years before Christ the pearls of Bahrein were sold in Egypt; Bahrein still supplies 80% of the world's output of pearls.
Towards the end of the 5th century the output was diminished, partly owing to the Spartan occupation of Decelea.
All the same his output of work was as large as it was valuable.
A great deal of work is done in this way, though this sphere has also been invaded by the draw presses, whose output would seem incredible to those not familiar with the work.
The colonies of hand-workers in silk, cotton, carpets, brass and silver ware, wood and ivory, and other skilled craftsmen, which formerly existed in various parts of India, have fallen off both in the extent of their output and in the artistic excellence of their work.
But now the larger part of the cotton goods used in India is manufactured in mills in that country or in England, and the handloom weavers' output is confined to the coarsest kinds of cloth, or to certain special kinds of goods, such as the turbans and " saris " of Bombay, or the muslins of Arni, Cuddapah, and Madura in Madras, and of Dacca in Bengal.
It was estimated in 1905 that the world's output of cotton was 19,000,000 bales, of which 134 millions were produced in the United States, 3 millions in India, and nearly millions in Egypt, Japan and China being India's best customers for the raw article.
Australia and Argentina need it for wool and wheat, Chili and Brazil for nitrates and coffee, Asiatic countries for rice, and the world as a whole for its increased output of produce.
The output of the woollen mills is chiefly used for the army and the police.
In respect, however, of both the number and size of its mines Bengal comes easily first, with seven-eighths of the total output, the largest mines being those of Raniganj, Jherria, and Giridih, while the Singareni mine in Hyderabad comes next.
The total output in1905-1906was 8,417,739 tons; while there were 47 companies engaged in coal-mining, of which 46 were in Bengal.
But the output of gold in Mysore represents 99 A.
Up to the end of 1903 the total output of the Kolar mines reached the value of £19,000,000.
The great oilfields of the Indian empire are in Burma, which supplies 98% of the total output.
In both provinces the growth of the yield has been very great, the total output in 1901 being six times as large as in 1892; but even so it has failed to keep pace with the demand.
The coal exported is brought from the Kaiping colliery to the east of Tientsin; its output in 1885 was 181,039 tons and in 1904 28,956 tons.
There are upwards of 12,000 silk power-looms in operation, and the value of the annual output in this branch alone is estimated at £ 3, 000,000.
Zinc, lignite and common salt are mined, but the output is small and of slight value.
About two-thirds of the increase between 1890 and 1900 was in the lumber industry, which was of slight importance before the former year; it represented more than half the total value of the manufactures of the state in 1905 (output, 1905, $28,065,171 and of mill products $3,786, 7 72 additional); in the value of lumber and timber products the state ranked sixth among the states of the United States in 1900, and seventh in 1905.
the output of Virginia and Georgia.
Since then the output has greatly increased in all three Pacific states.
There has been a general parallelism between the amount of rain and the amount of wheat produced; but as yet irrigation is little used for this crop. In the eighth decade of the 19th century, the value of the wheat product had come to exceed that of the annual output of gold.
In 1899 California's output of fruit was more than a fifth of that of the whole Union.
Over half of the prune crop comes from Santa Clara county, and the bulk of the raisin output from Fresno county.
In 1899 California produced more than two-thirds in value ($3,937,871) and three-fourths in bulk (19,020,258 gallons) of the total wine output of the United States.
This was a stock speculation based on the remarkable output ($ 3 00,000,000 in 20 years) of the silver " bonanzas " of the Comstock lode at Virginia City, Nevada, which were opened and financed by San Francisco capitalists.
In 1906 some three-fourths of the gold output was from such mines.
The annual output since 1875 has been about $15,000,000 to $17,000,000; in 1905, according to the Mines Report, it was $18,898,545.
In borax (of which California's output in 1904 was 45,647 tons) and structural materials San Bernardino has a long lead.
This has been mined since 1824; the output was greatest from 1875-1883, when it averaged about 43,000,000 pounds.
A vivid realization of the industrial revolution in the state is to be gained from the reflection that in 1875 California was pre-eminent only for gold and sheep; that the aggregate mineral output thirty years later was more than a third greater than then, and that nevertheless the value of farm produce at the opening of the 10th century exceeded by more than $100,000,000 the value of mineral produce, and exceeded by $50,000,000 the most generous estimate of the largest annual gold output in the annals of the state.
In 1908 Wyoming ranked twelfth among the states of the Union in the value of its output of bituminous coal.
Considerable progress has been made in the development of the oil-fields in Dutch Borneo, and the Nederlandsch Indische Industrie en Handel Maatschappij, the Dutch business of the Shell Transport and Trading Company, increased its output from 123,50 tons in 1901 to 285,720 tons in 1 9 04, and showed further satisfactory increase thereafter.
Sugar is grown and there are many small sugar factories, but little of the output is exported.
Their output consisted of lead, with very small quantities of copper.
In factory output ($46,879,212 in 1905; $41,202,984 in 1900) Lowell ranked fifth in value in 1905 and fourth in 1900 among the cities of Massachusetts; more than three-tenths of the total population are factory wage-earners, and nearly 19% of the population are in the cotton mills.
In the production of pyrite, which is found in Louisa county and is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid employed in the treatment of wood pulp for paper-making and in the manufacture of superphosphates from phosphate rock, Virginia took first rank in 1902 with an output valued at $501,642, or 64.7% of the total yield of this mineral in the United States; and this rank was maintained in 1908, when the product was 116,340 long tons, valued at $435,522.
Virginia was by far the most important state in 1908 in the production of soapstone, nearly the whole product being taken from a long narrow belt running north-east from Nelson county into Albemarle county; more than 90% of the output was sawed into slabs for laundry and laboratory appliances.
Barytes is mined near Lynchburg; the value of the output in 1907 was $32,833, since which date the output has decreased.
The annual output of the Gironde during the last few years has been roughly 70 to 100 million gallons.
The output of the classed growths varies considerably according to the vintage, but is on the average, owing to the great care exercised in the vineyards, greater than that of the lower-grade areas.
Thus within recent years the output of the Château Lafite was at a minimum in 1903 when only 229 hogsheads (the hogshead of claret = 46 gallons) were produced, into wine, are entirely different from those prevalent in the red wine districts.
The total output of the Marne district has for the past three years averaged about 9 million gallons, but it occasionally runs as high as 20 million gallons.
Thus in 1901 the department of the Herault alone produced nearly 300 million gallons of wine, or approximately a quarter of the whole output of France.
The present output amounts to roughly 150 million gallons, and the acreage under the vine has increased from 107,048 hectares in 1890 to 167,657 hectares in 1905.
The output in 1906 amounted to 10,000 pipes (Madeira pipe =92 gallons) and the export to 6010 pipes, of which quantity 1951 pipes went to Germany, 1680 pipes to France, 796 pipes to Russia and 755 pipes to the United Kingdom.
Whereas in 1850 the production amounted to little more than a million gallons, the output to-day is, in good years, not far short of 50 million gallons.
The copper output was of slight importance until 1889 - $ 1, 457,749 in 1905, and $1,544,918 in 1907; and that of zinc was nil until 1902, when discoveries made it possible to rework for this metal enormous dumps of waste material about the mines, and in 1906 the zinc output was valued at $5,304,884.
Lead products declined with silver, but a large output of low ores has continued at Leadville, and in 1905 the product was valued at $5,111,570, and in 1906 at $5,933,829.
Up to 1895 the gold output was below ten million dollars yearly; from 1898 to 1904 it ran from 21.6 to 28.7 millions.
Their product trebled from 1889 to 1903; and in 1907 the output of manganiferous ores amounted to 99,711 tons, valued at $251,207.
In 190t about a third and in 1907 nearly two-fifths of the state's output came from Las Animas county.
About one-fifth of the total product is made into coke, the output of which increased from 245,746 tons in 1890 to 1,421,579 tons (including a slight amount from Utah) in 1907; in 1907 the coke manufactured in Colorado (and Utah) was valued at 4,747,436.
The Federal census of 1900 credited the manufacturing establishments of the state with a capital of $62,825,472 and a product of $102,830,137 (increase 1890-1900, 142.1%); of which output the gold, silver, lead and copper smelted amounted to $44,625,305.
Some gold is obtained in Lapland on the Ivalajoki, but the output, which amounted in 1871 to 56,692 grammes, had fallen in 1904 to 1951 grammes.
There is also a small output of silver, copper and iron.
As to the timber trade, there are upwards of 500 saw-mills, employing 21,000 men, and with an output valued at over £3,000,000 annually.
After 1885 there was a gradual decline in the output, whose bullion value in 1908 was $250,986.
The production of gold has shown a somewhat similar movement; the output in 1881 was valued at $185,000; in 1889, at $1,000,000, and in 1908 at $298,757.
Nearly all the product comes from Grant county, and in 1908 nearly 98% of the output was from Grant and Otero counties.
In1905-1908the decrease in output was large.
In the same years there was an increase in the output of zinc, which in 1906 was valued at $67,710 and in 1908 at $168,096.
The output of precious stones in 1902 was valued at $51,100, in 1908 at $72,100.
The chief mineral product of the Principality is coal, of which the output amounts to over 23,000,000 tons annually.
The average output of the modern hand-press, when all is made ready for running, is about two hundred and fifty impressions per hour.
Various schemes had been propounded with a view of increasing the output of the hand-press, and in 1790 William Nicholson (1753-1815) evolved his ideas on the subject, which were suggestions rather than definite Cylinder inventions.
Around the large type cylinders were placed the smaller impression cylinders, the number of these being governed by the output required.
Two-revolution machines, which, although with but one cylinder, have largely superseded perfecting machines, as their output has been increased and the quality of their work compares favourably with that of the average two-cylinder.
As its name implies, the type bed and impression platen are both flat surfaces as in the hand-press, but as they are self-inking and are easily driven, the average output is about moo copies per hour, and but one operator is required, whereas two men at a handpress can produce only 250 copies in the same time.
If the reader wish to keep pace with the output of literature on this vast subject, he will find L'Annee sociologique (1896 onwards) a wonderfully complete bibliographical guide.
Modern methods in copper smelting and refining have effected enormous economy in time, space, and labour, and have consequently increased the world's output.
About 7 o% of the world's annual copper output is refined electrolytically, and from the 461,583 tons refined in the United States in 1907, there were recovered 13,995,436 oz.
The estimated total production for each decade of the 19th century in metric tons is here shown: 1801-1810 -1811-1820 1821-1830 -1831-1840 1841-1850 -1851-1860 1861-1870 -1871-1880 1881-1890 -1891-1900 The following table gives the output of various countries and the world's production for the years 1895, 1900, 1905, 907 As the stock on hand rarely exceeds three months' demand, and is often little more than a month's supply, it is evident that consumption has kept close pace with production.
The value of the output of these is nearly thrice those of Malmo or Gothenburg, the next most important manufacturing towns, and the industries of Stockholm exceed those of every ldn (administrative division) except MalmOhus.
There are iron and lignite mines, but the output is small.
About 73% represents the value of the coal output.
The production of coal in Great Britain, though marked by, fluctuation, has, on the whole, largely increased, and in 1901 the output was 42% greater than that of 1881.
The annual output of iron ore in the United Kingdom has on the whole decreased since 1882.
It is now less than one-half of the output of about 1877, and the value has decreased more than proportionately.
The annual output of tin ore, which in 1878 amounted to 1 5, 0 45 tons, valued at £530,737, fell to 12,898 tons in 1881, though the value in that year rose to £697,444.
During the years1882-1892the average output was over 14,000 tons, and its average value about £770,000, but in 1893 a decline began in the output (not however accompanied closely by a decline in the value), slightly relieved about 1905.
output of ore amounted to 52,556 tons, in 1891 to 9158 tons, in 18 93 to 557 6 tons, in 1905 to 7153 tons, valued at £32,696 and yielding 716 tons of metal by smelting.
In 1881 the output reached 35,527 tons, valued at £110,043; in 1891 the output was only Zinc. 22,216 tons, but its value was £113,445.
In 1897 the quantity was 19,278 tons, and the value £69,134; but in 1898 the price had risen so that the output of 23,552 tons was worth £117,784.
In 1900 the output of 24,675 tons was worth £97,606; and in 1905 that of 23,909 tons was worth £139,806.
The iron-mining industry is of high importance, the output of iron ore forming by far the largest item in the total output of ores and minerals.
Thus in 1902 the total output was nearly 32 million tons, of which 2,850,000 tons were iron ore.
The output of iron ore has greatly increased; in1870-1880it averaged annually little more than one-quarter of the amount in 1902.
A little gold and silver are extracted at Falun, and the silver mines at Sala in Vestmanlands Lan have been worked at least since the 16th century, but here again the output has decreased.
If the total value of the output of the manufacturing industries in Sweden be taken as 100, the following are the most important of those industries, according to the approximate percentage of each to the whole: iron industries 18.3, and mechanical works 4; saw-milling 12.5 and wood-pulp works 2.5; cloth-factories and spinning-mills 8; flour-mills 6.4; sugar-refining and beet-sugar works 6; spirit distilling and manufacture 4.7, and brewing 2.6; dairy products 4.4; papermaking 1.6; leaving a remainder of 29% for other industries.
The total annual value of the output is about £72,000,000.
Gold is found in nearly all the provinces from Antofagasta to Concepcion, and in Llanquihue, Chiloe and Magallanes territory, but the output is not large.
Low prices afterwards caused a large shrinkage in the output, but she is still classed among the principal producers.
The states which lead in the quantity of oysters taken are Maryland, Virginia, New York, New Jersey and Connecticut; the annual value of the output in each of these is over $ I, 000,000.
The output of cultivated oysters in 1899 was about 9,800,000 bushels, worth $8,700,000.
The oyster output of the Dominion has never exceeded 200,000 bushels in a single year, and in 1898 was 134,140 bushels, valued at $217,024.
Fully 40,000 men, women and children are employed, and the output in 1896 was 1,536,417,968 oysters, worth 1 7,537,77 8 francs.
As the rentf and royalties, excepting those on the turquoise mines, amount to about one-fifth of the net proceeds, it may be estimated that th value of the annual output does not exceed 50,000, while thi intrinsic value of the ores, particularly those of lead, iron, cohali and nickel, which have not yet been touched can be estimated al millions.
When turbines, as often happens in land practice, are directly coupled to electrical generators, their horse-power can be deduced from the electrical output.
The mine, which is work d on the open system and has a depth of 450 ft., yields stones of very fine quality, but the annual output does not exceed in value 500,000.
The average yearly output from 1901 to 1905 was worth less than £300,000.
Here, and in other cities, tanning, distilling, various metallurgical industries, and manufactures of soap, flour, tobacco, &c., are carried on; the entire output is sold in Portugal or its colonies.
The Royal Academy of Sciences founded in 1780 by the 2nd duke of Lafoes, uncle of Queen Maria I., still exists, though its Royal output and influence are small.
Yet the annual output of fry from each of these hatcheries rarely exceeds zoo millions, i.e.
But again the maximum output of fry from any one of these establishments has not exceeded 40 millions in any single year.
As a single female plaice produces about 200,000 eggs per annum, this output does not exceed the natural produce of a few hundred fish.
It is the largest distilling centre in the state and one of the largest in the country, the value of the output of this industry in 1905 being more than half the total value of the city's factory product for the year.
San Francisco in 1900 held twelfth place among the cities of the Union in value of output; in 1905 it ranked thirteenth.
The most prominent and profitable of these is that of rubber-collecting, which was begun in Bolivia between 1880 and 1890, and which reached a registered annual output of nearly 35 oo metric tons just before Bolivia's best rubber forests were transferred to Brazil in 1903.
The Copper Queen at Bisbee from 1880-1902 produced 378,047,210 lb of crude copper, which was practically the total output of the territory till after 1900, when other valuable mines were opened; the Globe, Morenci and Jerome districts are secondary to Bisbee.
In 1907 the legislature passed an elaborate act providing for the taxation of mines, its principal clause being that the basis of valuation for taxation in each year be one-fourth of the output of the mines in question for the next preceding year.
It has extensive breweries and vies in the amount of the output of this production with Munich.
Idaho was the first of the states in its output of lead from 1896, when it first passed Colorado in rank, to 1906, excepting the year 1899, when Colorado again was first; the value of the lead mined in 1906 was $ 1 4,535, 82 3, and of that mined in 1907 (state report), $12,470,375.
High grade copper ores have been produced in the Seven Devils and Washington districts of Washington county; there are deposits, little developed up to 1906, in Lemhi county (which was almost inaccessible by railway) and in Bannock county; the copper mined in 1905 was valued at $1,134,846, and in 1907, according to state reports, at $2,241,177, of which about two-thirds was the output of the Cceur d'Alene district in Shoshone county.
Zinc occurs in the Ceeur d'Alene district, at Hailey, Blaine county and elsewhere; according to the state reports, the state's output in 1906 was valued at $91,426 and in 1907 at $534,087.
Bingham and Fremont counties, with an output in 1906 of 5365 tons, valued at $18,538 as compared with 20 and 10 tons respectively in 1899 and 1900.
The mining of coal began in Jackson county in 1835 and there was a slow increase in the output until 1882 (135,339 short tons); then there was a tendency to decrease until 1897, from which time the product increased from 223,592 short tons to 2,035,858 short tons in 1907.
For a number of years prior to 1893 Michigan was the leading salt-producing state, and, though her output was subsequently (except in 1901) exceeded by that of New York, it continued to increase up to 1905, when it was 9,492,173 barrels; in 1907, the product was 10,786,630 barrels.
Operations on the deposit near Grand Rapids were begun in 1841, and although that near Alabaster was opened in 1862, it was not until 1902 that it became of much importance; in that year the output of the state was 208,563 short tons; in 1907 317,261 short tons were mined.
south-west of the city, has been obtained since 1900 most of the tungsten mined in the United States; the output in 1907 was valued at about $520,000.
The Sheffield cutlery manufacturers, however, refused to buy it, on the ground that it was too hard, and for a long time Huntsman exported his whole output to France.
The mines of Spain, neglected late in the 15th century on the advent of supplies from America, came into note in 1827; the output has since greatly increased, amounting to 3,774,989 oz.
The output was about 1,800,00o oz.
In New Jersey the mining of clays is more important than in any other state, the amount mined and sold in 1902 being a third of the entire output of the United States, and the amount in 1907 (44 0, 1 3 8 tons) being more than one-fifth of all clay mined and sold in the United States; and in 1907 in the value of clay products ($16,005,460; brick and tile, $9,019, 834, and pottery, $6,985,626) New Jersey was outranked only by Ohio and Pennsylvania.
Some roofing slate is produced in Sussex county; in 1907 the output was valued at $8000.
The mining of natural fertilizers - white and greensand marls - is a long established industry; the output in 1907 was 14,091 tons, valued at $8429.
The product of the iron mines has fluctuated greatly in quantity, being nearly 1,000,000 tons of ore in 1892, 257,235 tons in 1897, and 549,760 tons in 1907, when the output was valued at $1,815,586, and was about nine-tenths magnetite and one-tenth brown ore.
In the production of zinc New Jersey once took a prominent part; in 1907 the only producer was The New Jersey Zinc Company's mine at Franklin Furnace, Sussex county, with an output of 13,573 short tons, valued at $1,601,614.
The textile industries taken together are the most important of the manufacturing industries, having a greater output (in 1900, $81,910,850; in 1905, $96,060,407), employing more labourers and capital, and paying more wages than any other group. Among the various textiles silk takes the first place, the value of the factory product in 1900 being $39,966,662, and in 1905, $42,862,907.
In 1900 the value of the silk output was 48.8% of the total value of the textiles, and silk manufacturing was more important than any other industry (textile or not); in 1905, however, owing to the great progress in other industries, silk had dropped to fourth place, but still contributed 44.6% of the value of the textiles.
The city of Trenton is one of the two great centres of the American pottery industry, and in 1905 it manufactured more than one-half of the state's output of pottery, terra cotta and fire-clay products.
Glass is also an important product of New Jersey; the output being valued at $5,093,822 in 1900 and at $6,450,195 in 1905.
In 1900 the output was valued at $38,365,131; in 1905, at $ 62, 795,7 1 3, an increase of 63.7%; and in 1905 21.6% of the product of the United States came from New Jersey.
The output of alluvial gold is now increased by the employment of dredges.
His output is perhaps the greatest of any isolated worker in the whole history of historiography.
A series of periodicals keeps watch over this enormous output.
Coal surpasses all the other minerals to such an extent that, taking the year 1903 as a type, when the total value of the mineral output was very nearly £70,000,000, that of coal is found to approach £61,000,000.
Salt, obtained principally from brine but also as rock-salt, is an important object of industry in Cheshire, the output from that county and Staffordshire exceeding a million tons annually.
The total output (in 1901, 100,000,000 lb; in 1906, about 72,000,000 lb), which since 1900 has been more than half the total salmon product of the United States, is more than ten times the product of all other fish.
The output of eggs increased from 9,3 6 9,534 dozen in 1889 to 13,304,150 dozen in 1899.
In 1905 Maine held first rank among the states of the Union as a producer of granite, the value of the output being $2,713,795.
The total value of the manufactures of the state increased from $95,689,500 in 1890 to $127,361,485 in 1900; and in 1905 the value of factory-made products alone was $144,020,197, or 2 7.5% greater than their value in 1900.1 Measured by the value of the output, paper and wood pulp rose from fifth among the state's manufactures in 1890 to third in 1900 and to first in 1905; from $3,281,051 in 1890 to $13,223,275 in 1900, an increase of 303% within the decade, and to $22,951,124 in 1905, a further increase of 73.6% in this period.
In the value of its manufactures as compared with those of the other states of the Union, in wooden ships and boats, Maine in 1900 and in 1905 was outranked by New York only; in canned and preserved fish by Washington only (the value of fish canned and preserved in Maine in 1900 was 21.7% of the total for the United States, and in 1905 19.2%); in the output of woollen mills by Massachusetts and Pennsylvania only; in the output of paper mills by New York and Massachusetts only.
The annual output of gold is worth not less than £500,000.
Far larger in value than either gold or silver, and larger than both together, was the output of copper in Utah in 1907 ($12,851,377) and in 1908 ($11,463,383).
Up to 1905 the output of silver in the state was greater than that of copper.
Most of the metal was produced in the Bingham, or West Mountain district, Salt Lake county, where there were four mines in 1908 with an output of more than 1,000,000 ib; the Tintic district in Juab county; the Frisco district in Beaver county; and the Lucin district I The 1907 and 1908 statistics are from the Mineral Resources of the United States, published by the United States Geological Survey.
In 1908 more than two-thirds of the total output was from the low-grade porphyry ores mined at Newhouse, Beaver county, and at Bingham, Salt Lake county.
The production of copper in 1883 was 341,885 lb; in 1890, 1,006,636 lb; in 1895, 2,184,708 lb; in 1900, 18, 354,7 26 ib; in 1904, 4 6, 4 1 7, 2 34 ib; in 1907, 64,256,884 ib; and in 1908, 81,843,812 lb.2 Third in value (less than copper or silver) in 1908, but usually equalling silver in value, was the state's output of lead.
The maximum production, 125,342,836 lb, was in 1906; in 1908 the output was 88,777,498 lb (valued at $3,728,655).
The decrease in output and value is largely due to the lower price of lead in the market and the higher smelting rate.
In 1906 the output was 6,474,615 lb, valued at $394,952; in 1908 it was 1, 4 60, 554 ib, valued at $68,646, and almost the entire output was from Summit county.
The only important region of coal mining in the state up to 1910 was in Carson county, where more than nine-tenths of the total output of the state was mined in 1907 and in 1908.
The shales of Utah, Sanpete, Juab and San Juan counties may furnish a valuable supply of petroleum if transportation facilities are improved; and there are rich supplies of asphalt-19,033 tons (valued at $100,324) was the output for 1908.
The town is among the first twelve manufacturing centres of Sweden in value of output, the principal industries being tanning and sugar manufacture and refining from beetroot.
In the extent of his knowledge, in keenness of observation, in variety of style, in his literary output, he has been compared to Voltaire; but it is perhaps as the forerunner of the great Renaissance Platonists that he will be chiefly remembered.
The total output, coming chiefly from the departments of Bacau, Buzeu, Dimbovitza and Prahova, was 250,000 metric tons in 1900, 615,000 in 1905, and 1,300,000 in 1909.
Whatever the causes may have been, the fact remains, that now there is a great dearth of talent and great poverty in output.
Since 1880 the output of the state has been falling, and the total production up to 1902 did not exceed 9,000,000 tons of ore; in 1906 the output was 80,910 tons.
Macon, Lafayette and Adair are the leading counties in output; Lexington and Bevier are the leading mining centres.
The total output from 1840 to 1902 was about 78,500,000 short tons; the annual output first passed 1,000,00o tons in 1876, and 2,000,000 tons in 1882; and from 1901 to 1905 the yearly output, steadily increasing, averaged 4,196,688 tons, of a value at the mines of $6,266,154; the output in 1908 was 3,317,315 tons, with a spot value of $5,444,907.
The total output for the state in 1908 was 114,459 tons, valued at $12,134,556; of this 116,J31 tons came from the central and southeast field, and of the remainder 15,240 tons from the Webb CityProsperity camp. Zinc was originally a hindering by-product of lead mining in the south-west, and was thrown away; but it long ago became the chief product in value in this field.
Mining in southwestern Missouri began about 1851, but zinc was of no importance in the output until 1872.
The output from 1894 to 1905 averaged 219,874 tons of ore yearly; in 1908 it was 107,404 tons.
Silver is found in connexion with lead and zinc mining; in 1908 the total output was 49, 1 3 1 oz., valued at $26,039.
Of the total output in 1900, three-fourths were made up by the output of St Louis ($233,629,733; of which $193,732,788 was from establishments under the "factory system"), Kansas City ($36,527,392; $23,588,653 being "factory product"), St Joseph ($31,690,736, including the product of some establishments outside the city limits; $11,361,939 being "factory product" within the city limits), and Springfield ($4,126,871; $3,433, 80 0 being "factory product"); for the same four cities in 1905 the proportion of the state's total product ($439,54 8, 957) manufactured under the "factory system" is smaller, and less than three-fourths was made up by the following seven cities: St Louis ($267,307,038), Kansas City ($35,573,049), St Joseph ($ 11, 573,7 2 0), Springfield ($5,293,315), Hannibal($ 4,44 2, 0 99), Jefferson City ($3,926,632), and Joplin ($3,006,203).
Although Missouri is not a great tobacco state, St Louis is one of the greatest centres of the country in the output of tobacco products.
The department of Santander, however, is the largest producer, and much of its output in the past has been placed upon the market as "Maracaibo," the outlet for this region being through the Venezuelan port of that name.
Humboldt and Chevalier estimated the total output down to 1845 at £1,200,000, which Professor Soetbeer subsequently increased to £169,422,750.
In the vicinity of the city there are salt wells, and Saginaw county is the most productive coalfield in the state - in 1907 its output was 1,047, 9 2 7 tons, more than half the total for the state.
The vines number about 80,000,000, and the annual output of wine is about 6,000,000 gallons, besides 1,50o,000 gallons of brandy.
The output for 1904 was 5,30 9, 000 lb.
In 1904 the output of the mills was valued at over £2,200,000, more than 7,000,000 bushels of wheat being ground.
The colonial output increased from 23,000 tons in 1891 to 188,000 tons in 1904.
The value of the total output of the state was $2,113,356 in 1894, but only $865,076 in 1908.
Silver is obtained almost wholly in the form of alloy with gold, and in 1908 the value of the output was only $23,109.
The quantity of the output was 86,259 short tons in 1908.
Copper ores are known to be quite widely distributed in the mountain districts, but there has been little work on any except some in Josephine and Grant counties; in 1908 the state's output amounted to 291,377 lb of copper.
The introduction of trawling revived this to some extent, and despite the distance of the city from the iron fields there is a fair yearly output of iron vessels.
The output in 1905 ($5,981,541) of the city's establishments for the canning and preserving of fruits and vegetables was 7.7% of that of the whole United States; in 1900 it had been 15% of the country's total.
Baltimore is also a well-known centre for the manufacture of clothing, in which in 1905 ($22,684,656) it ranked fourth among the cities of the United States; for cigar and cigarette-making (1905, $4,360,366); for the manufacture of foundry and machine shop products (1905, $6,572,925), of tinware (1905, $5,705,980), of„shirts (1905, $5,710,783), of cotton-duck (the output of sailduck being about three-fourths of the total for the United States), bricks (about 150,000,000 annually), and fertilizers; it also manufactures furniture,malt liquors,and confectionery, and many other commodities in smaller amounts.
The output for 1906-1908 was valued at £40,000.
The output for1908-1909was valued at £36,000.
Bellaire is the shipping centre of the Belmont county coalfield which in 1907 produced 1 9.3% of the total output of coal for the state.
The value of the output fell from $7,254,539 in 1900 to $1,750,715 in 1906, when the state's product was only 4.2% of that of the entire country.
The annual output increased from 33,375 barrels in 1889 to 11,339,124 barrels in 1904, the latter amount being valued at $12,235,674 and being 12.09% of the value of the product of the entire country.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.