Outgrowths sentence example
In Dacryomyces only two outgrowths and two spores are produced.
In some hydroids the founder-polyp, developed from a planula after fixation, throws out numerous outgrowths from the base to form the hydrorhiza; these outgrowths may be radially arranged so as to form by contact or coalescence a flat plate.
It would be necessary to regard this structure as a secondary extension of the endoderm in the tentacle-web, on Allman's theory, or between the outgrowths of the hydrorhiza, on Mechnikov's hypothesis.
Eight very broad radial canals; ex-umbrella often provided with lateral outgrowths; tentacles differing in size, but in a single row.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.Advertisement
Such are the cork-warts on elms, maples, &c., and the class of outgrowths known as Intumescences.
Turning now to outgrowths of a woody nature, the well-known burrs or knaurs, so common on elms and other trees are cases in point.
There are many Varieties of burrs, though all woody outgrowths of old trees are not to be confounded with them, e.g.
Other common modifications arise from the union of certain parts of the perianth to each other, and from the varied and often very remarkable outgrowths from the lip. These modifications are associated with the structure and habits of insects and their visits to the flowers.
The nephridia, in fact, on this view, are ectodermic ingrowths, the coelomoducts coelomic outgrowths.Advertisement
In other Polychaetes one or more pairs of similar outgrowths are glandular.
The Oligochaeta contrast with the Polychaeta in the general presence of outgrowths of the septa in the genital segments, which are either close to, or actually involve, the gonads, and into which may also open the funnels of the gonad ducts.
The sucker-bearing processes of Pneumonoderma are outgrowths of the proboscis.
As in some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia) are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal surface of the body.
The possession of a variable number of excretory tubes (Malpighian tubes), which are developed as outgrowths of the hind-gut and pour their excretion into the intestine,is also a distinctive character of the Hexapoda.Advertisement
In addition to the wings there are smaller dorsal outgrowths of the thorax in many insects.
A remarkable fossil from the Scottish Coal-measures (Lithomantis) had apparently small wing-like structures on the prothorax, and in allied genera small veined outgrowths - like tracheal gills - occurred on the abdominal segments.
Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
The origin of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths, comparable to the wingrudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early stages of their evolution.
No other intermediate stages have as yet been noticed between this arrangement and that of the Heteronemertini, in which a separate posterior brain-lobe receives a similar ciliated canal, and in which the oesophageal outgrowths have made their appearance and are coalesced with the nerve-tissue in the organ of the adult animal.Advertisement
These posterior brain-lobes, which in all Heteronemertines are in direct continuity of tissue with the upper pair of principal lobes, cease to have this intimate connexion in the Metanemertini; and, although still constituted of (I) a ciliated duct, opening out externally, (2) nervous tissue surrounding it, and (3) histological elements distinctly different from the nervous, and most probably directly derived from the oesophageal outgrowths, they are nevertheless here no longer constantly situated behind the upper brain-lobes and directly connected with them, but are found sometimes behind, sometimes beside and sometimes before the brain-lobes.
Thus in borage it is rotate, tubular in comfrey, funnel-shaped in hounds-tongue, and salvershaped in alkanet (Anchusa); the throat is often closed by scale-like outgrowths from the corolla, forming the so-called corona.
In the case of the peach this peculiarity is in some way connected with the presence of small glandular outgrowths on the stalk, or at the base of the leaf.
In one family, the Ptychoderidae, the medullary tube of the collar is connected at intermediate points with the epidermis by means of a variable number of unpaired outgrowths from its dorsal wall, generally containing an axial lumen derived from and in continuity with the central canal.
These bodies had been erroneously supposed by Newport (12) and other observers to be glandular outgrowths of the alimentary canal.Advertisement
The scorpion's entosternite gives rise to outgrowths, besides the great posterior flaps, pf, which form the diaphragm, unrepresented in Limulus.
The only point in which the gut of Limulus resembles that of Scorpio rather than that of any of the Crustacea, is in possessing more than a single pair of ducts or lateral outgrowths connected with ramified gastric glands or gastric caeca.
It bears adhesive organs that are either suckers or hooks, and may develop into the most varied outgrowths in order to give increased firmness of attachment to its host.
Scolex with four outgrowths forming organs of adhesion and probably also of locomotion.
A pair of large glandular outgrowths, the so-called " liver " or great digestive gland, exists as in other Molluscs.
The young are nourished by a substance formed by the cells which cover the spongy inter-lamellar outgrowths.
Hagen observed that some genera possess wing-like outgrowths on the prothorax, comparable to those seen in certain insects of the Carboniferous Period.
The renal organs are tubular outgrowths of the pericardial parts of the coelom; the reproductive cells are derived from cells lining the generative portion.
They arise as outgrowths of the sides of the body within the cavity formed by the development of the mantle.
The peripheral paren chyma gives rise to protonephridia, that is to coiled tubes commencing in pyriform cells containing a flame-like bundle of cilia and provided with branched outgrowths, and communicating with the exterior by long convoluted canals which open at the surface of the body.
The green (or blue-green) cells were termed gonidia by Wallroth, who looked upon them as asexual reproductive cells, but when it was later realized that they were not reproductive elements they were considered as mere outgrowths of the hyphae of the thallus which had developed chlorophyll.
The surface of the thallus often exhibits outgrowths in the form of warts, hairs, &c. The medullary layer, which usually forms the main part of the thallus, is distinguished from the cortical layer by its looser consistence and the presence in it of numerous, large, air-containing spaces.
In the formation of sporangia two cells fuse together by means of outgrowths, in a manner very similar to that of Spirogyra; sometimes, however, the wall between two cells merely breaks down.
The form of the fruit body, the difference and the nature of special outgrowths upon it - the appendages - are characteristic of the various genera.
This very large group of plants is characterized by the possession of a special type of conidiophore - the basidium, which gives its name to the group. The basidium is a unicellular or multicellular structure from which four basidiospores arise as outgrowths; it starts asa binucleate structure, but soon, like the ascus, becomes uninucleate by the fusion of the two nuclei.
Leaves are produced as lateral outgrowths of the stem in definite succession below the apex.
Special outgrowths, arils, of the seed-coat are of frequent occurrence.
Another explanation is based on the late appearance of the petals in the floral development and their origin from the backs of the primordia of the stamens; it is then assumed that three alternating whorls only are present, namely, sepals, stamens bearing petal-like dorsal outgrowths, and carpels.
Their presence is due to lateral outgrowths of crystals shooting from the side of a growing stalactite, or to deflections caused by currents of air, or to the existence of a diminutive fungus peculiar to the locality and designated from its habitat Mucor stalactitis.
The sixteen tentacles of the scyphistoma disappear, and in the place of the four perradial and four interradial tentacles, the eight tentaculocysts of the adult are formed as outgrowths of the subumbral margin, independently of the tentacles of the scyphistoma (Friedemann).
In the Cirripedia, however, they are vascular processes from the inner surface of the mantle or shell-fold, and in some Ostracoda they are outgrowths from the sides of the body.
The mid-gut is essentially the digestive and absorptive region of the alimentary canal, and its surface is, in most cases, increased by pouch-like or tubular outgrowths which not only serve as glands for the secretion of the digestive juices, but may also become filled by the more fluid portion of the partially digested food and facilitate its absorption.
These outgrowths vary much in their arrangement in the different groups.
This coronet forms the most conspicuous and beautiful part of the flower of many species, and consists of outgrowths from the tube formed subsequently to the other parts, and having little morphological significance, but being physiologically useful in favouring the cross-fertilization of the flower by means of insects.
Other outgrowths of similar character, but less conspicuous, occur lower down the tube, and their variations afford useful means of discriminating between the species.
A feature of interest in connexion with the phylogeny of cycads is the presence of long hairs clothing the scale-leaves, and forming a cap on the summit of the stem-apex or attached to the bases of petioles; on some fossil cycadean plants these outgrowths have the form of scales, and are identical in structure with the ramenta (paleae) of the majority of ferns.
Eichler, one of the chief supporters of the simpler view, does not recognize in the inverse orientation of the vascular bundles an argument in support of the axillary-bud theory, but points out that the seminiferous scale, being an outgrowth from the surface of the carpellary scale, would, like outgrowths from an ordinary leaf, naturally have its bundles inversely orientated.
The most simple form of budding is found in the genus Cornularia, in which the mother zooid gives off from its base one or more simple radiciform outgrowths.
This gives off new outgrowths, and these, branching and anastomosing with one another, may form a network, adhering to stones, corals, or other objects, from which FIG.
In Clavularia and its allies each outgrowth contains several solenia, and the outgrowths may take the form of flat expansions, composed of a number of solenial tubes felted together to form a lamellar surface of attachment.
Such outgrowths are called stolons, and a stolon may be simple, i.e.
The crinoid type was differentiated by the extension of the food-grooves and associated organs along radial outgrowths from the theca itself.
Pelmatozoa in which epithecal extensions of the food-grooves, ambulacrals, superficial oral nervous system, blood-vascular and water-vascular systems, coelom and genital system are continued exothecally upon jointed outgrowths of the abactinal thecal plates (brachia), carrying with them extensions of the abactinal nerve-system.
The leaves, at the base of which are two large stipulelike outgrowths, have a thick leaf-stalk, and are simple or simply pinnate in Danaea, pinnate in Archangiopteris, bito tri-pinnate in Marattia and Angiopteris, and digitately lobed in Kaulfussia.
The leaf-base shows indications of stipular outgrowths.
Lankester (5) has shown (and his views have been accepted by Professors Korschelt and Heider in their treatise on Embryology) that the limb of the lowest Crustacea, such as Apus, consists of a corm or axis which may be jointed, and gives rise to outgrowths, either leaf-like or filiform, on its inner and outer margins (endites and exites).
The reduction of the outgrowth-bearing " corm " of the parapodium of either a Chaetopod or an Arthropod to a simple cylindrical stump, devoid of outgrowths, is brought about when mechanical conditions favour such a shape.
The Malpighian tubes of Hexapods are outgrowths of the proctodaeum, but those of Scorpion and the Amphipod Crustacea are part of the metenteron or endodermal gut, though originating near its junction with the proctodaeum.
In the most primitive stock all the post-oral appendages had gnathobasic outgrowths.
In some cases, as on young shoots of the cork-elm, the development is irregular and wing-like outgrowths of cork are formed.
These curious appendages (Aphlebiae), at first regarded as parasitic growths, have been compared with the feathery outgrowths which occur on the rachis in the Cyatheaceous genus Hemitelia, and with the 'anomalous pinnules found in certain species of Gleichenia, at the points of bifurcation of the frond.
The surrounding bone reacts by growing thicker, forming bony outgrowths which can cause inflammation in the surrounding tissues.
Filling the central cavity is a yellowish aromatic pulp, surrounding numerous hard black seeds attached to small peg-like outgrowths on the fruit wall.
In addition, affected plants may develop leaf-like outgrowths from the veins on the undersides of leaves.
Respiratory cell outgrowths from nasal polyps can be considered a suitable model to study gene transfer protocols in vitro.
The injury which initiates them may be very slight in the first placea mere abrasion, puncture or Fungus infectionbut the minute wound or other disturbance, instead of healing over normally, is frequently maintained as a perennial source of irritation, and the regenerative tissues grow on month after month or year after year, resulting in extraordinary outgrowths often of large size and remarkable shape.
There is a class of gall-like or pustular outgrowths for which no external cause has as yet been determined, and which are therefore often ascribed to internal causes of disease.
It was in the year 1886 that Hellriegel and Wilfarth first published in Germany the results of investigations in which they demonstrated that, through the agency of micro-organisms dwelling in nodular outgrowths on the roots of ordinary leguminous plants, the latter are enabled to assimilate the free nitrogen of the air.
Two lateral outgrowths of the foremost portion of the oesophagus, afterwards becoming constricted off, as well as two ingrowths from the epiblast, contribute towards its formation, at least as far as both Metaand Heteronemertines are concerned.
The great development of all branches of mathematics in the two centuries following Descartes has led to the term algebra being used to cover a great variety of subjects, many of which are really only ramifications of arithmetic, dealt with by algebraical methods, while others, such as the theory of numbers and the general theory of series, are outgrowths of the application of algebra to arithmetic, which involve such special ideas that they must properly be regarded as distinct subjects.
People with acromegaly have more skin tags, or outgrowths of tissue, than normal.