It is an important station on the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway, with a junction for Aligarh.
Waiting only for the decisive victory of Buxar over the allied forces of Bengal and Oudh, he resigned his seat and sailed for England in November 1764.
His pecuniary bargains with Shuja-ud-Dowlah, the nawab wazir of Oudh, stand on a different basis.
With the emperor in their camp, the Mahrattas were threatening the province of Oudh, and causing a large British force to be cantoned along the frontier for its defence.
Warren Hastings, as a deliberate measure of policy, withheld the tribute due to the emperor, and resold Allahabad and Kora to the wazir of Oudh.
After not a little hesitation, Hastings consented to allow the Company's troops to be used to further the ambitious designs of his Oudh ally, in consideration of a sum of money which relieved the ever-pressing wants of the Bengal treasury.
The wazir of Oudh had fallen into arrears in the payment due for the maintenance of the Company's garrison posted in his dominions, and his administration was in great disorder.
In his case the ancestral hoards were under the control of his mother, the begum of Oudh, into whose hands they had been allowed to pass at the time when Hastings was powerless in council.
Clive selected it, on account of its commanding position, as the cantonment for the brigade of troops lent him by the nawab of Oudh.
In India the nawab of Oudh was long known as the nawab wazir, the title of minister to the Mogul emperor having become hereditary in the family.
Though not powerful physically as compared with the northern races of the Punjab and Oudh, they have much activity and an unsurpassed endurance.
It is the junction between the Oudh & Rohilkhand and East Indian railways, the Ganges being crossed by a steel girder bridge of seven spans, each 350 ft.
On the dismemberment of the Delhi empire, it was seized by Safdar Jang, the nawab wazir of Oudh, by whose grandson it was ceded to the East India Company by the treaty of 1775.
The main line of the East Indian railway runs through the southern portion of the district, with a branch to Benares city; the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway through the northern portion, starting from the city; and a branch of the Bengal & North-Western railway also terminates at Benares.
Sprenger's Oudh Cat., p. 489; Sir Gore Ouseley, Notices of Persian Poets, p. 112 seq.; H.
While rebellion was raging in Oudh he issued a proclamation declaring the lands of the province forfeited; and this step gave rise to much angry controversy.
ASAF-' 'UD-DOWLAH, nawab wazir of Oudh from 1775 to 1797, was the son of Shuja-ud-Dowlah, his mother and grandmother being the begums of Oudh, whose spoliation formed one of the chief counts in the charges against Warren Hastings.
See Sprenger's Catalogue of the Libraries of the King of Oudh (1854); H.
The nearest railway via Naini Tal is the extension of the Oudh and Rohilkhand line from near Bareilly to Kathgodam.
A railway to Dehra from Hardwar, on the Oudh and Rohilkhand line (32 m.), was completed in 1900.
A treaty with the nawab of Oudh was signed here by Warren Hastings on behalf of the East India Company in September 1781.
A line of the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway from Moradabad to Saharanpur runs through the district.
In 1772 the nawab of Oudh made a treaty with the Rohillas, covenanting to expel the Mahrattas in return for a money payment.
ALLAHABAD, a city of British India, the capital of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, giving its name to a district and a division.
Allahabad was taken by the British in 1765 from the wazir of Oudh, and assigned as a residence to Shah Alam, the titular emperor of Delhi.
Upon that prince throwing himself into the hands of the Mahrattas, the place was resumed by the British in 1771 and again transferred to the nawab of Oudh, by whom it was finally ceded together with the district to the British in 1801, in commutation of the subsidy which the wazir had agreed to pay for British protection.
In shape it is an irregular oblong, and it is very difficult to define its boundaries, as at one extremity it wanders into Oudh, while on the south the villages of the state of Rewa and those of this district are hopelessly intermingled.
Ever since 1870 consideration has been given to projects for irrigating the fertile province of Oudh by means of a great canal to be drawn from the river Sarda.
The Sakiyas were still a republic. They had republics for their neighbours on the east and south, but on the western boundary was the kingdom of Kosala, the modern Oudh, which they acknowledged as a suzerain power.
AJODHYA, an ancient city of India, the prehistoric capital of Oudh, in the Fyzabad district of the United Provinces.
Next follow the five lieutenantgovernorships of Bengal, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the Punjab, Burma, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, for each of which a council may be appointed, beginning with Bengal.
have chief courts, and Oudh, the Central Provinces, Upper Burma, Sind and the North-West Frontier Province have judicial commissioners, all established by local legislation.
Kosala, the modern kingdom of Oudh, appears to have been the premier state of India in 600 B.C. Later the supremacy was reft from it by the kingdom of Magadha, the modern Behar (q.v.).
In 1570 he obtained possession of Oudh and Gwalior, In 1572 he marched in person into Gujarat, defeated r the last of the independent sultans of Ahmedabad, and formed the province into a Mogul viceroyalty or subah.
the Deccan, of Oudh, and of Bengal raised themselves to practical independence.
The other was Saadat Ali Khan, a Persian, and therefore a Shiah, who was appointed subandar or nawab of Oudh about 1720.
On the west the shahzada or imperial prince, known afterwards as the emperor Shah Alam, with a mixed army of Afghans and Mahrattas, and supported by the nawab wazir of Oudh, was advancing his own claims to the province of Bengal.
There he proceeded to organize an army, drilled and equipped after European models, and to carry on intrigues with the nawab wazir of Oudh.
His trained regiments were defeated in two pitched battles by Major Adams, at Gheria and at Udha-nala, and he himself took refuge with the nawab wazir of Oudh, who refused to deliver him up. This led to a prolongation of the war.
Shah Alam, who had now succeeded his father as emperor, and Shuja-udDaula, the nawab wazir of Oudh, united their forces, and threatened Patna, which the British had recovered.
In 1764 Major Munro won the decisive battle of Buxar, which laid Oudh at the feet of the conquerors, and brought the Mogul emperor as a suppliant to the British camp.
Oudh was given back to the nawab wazir, on condition of his paying half a million sterling towards the expenses of the war.
In his domestic policy he was greatly hampered by the opposition of Sir Philip Francis; but, so far as regards external relations with Oudh, with the Mahrattas, and with Hyder Ali, he was generally able to compel assent to his own measures.
These both ended in large acquisitions of territory, while Nagpur, Oudh and several minor states also came under British rule.
The annexation of the province of Oudh was justifiable on the ground of morals, though not on that of policy.
Ever since the nawab wazir, Shuja-ud-Dowlah, received back his forfeited territories from the hands of Lord Clive in 1765, the very existence of Oudh as an independent state had depended only upon the protection of British bayonets.
In 1856, the last year of his rule, he issued orders to General (afterwards Sir James) Outram, then resident at the court of Lucknow, to assume the direct administration of Oudh, on the ground that " the British government would be guilty in the sight of God and man, if it were any longer to aid in sustaining by its countenance an administration fraught with suffering to millions."
Oudh was thus annexed without a blow; but it may be doubted whether the one measure of Lord Dalhousie upon which he looked back himself with the clearest conscience was not the very one that most alarmed native public opinion.
Nearly all men of high caste, and many of them recruited from Oudh, they dreaded tendencies which they deemed to be denationalizing, and they knew at first hand what annexation meant.
This is of two kinds: the turban and the cap. The former is chiefly worn in northern India, the latter in Oudh and the United Provinces.
UNITED PROVINCES OF AGRA AND OUDH (formerly known as the North-Western Provinces and Oudh), a province of British India, lying between 23° 52' and 31° 18' N., and between 77° 3' and 84° 39' E.
A large semi-circular tract, comprising the valleys of the Gogra and the Gumti, has long been separated from the remainder of the great plain as the kingdom of Oudh; and though since 1877 it has been under the administrative charge of a lieutenantgovernor, it retains certain features of its former status as a chief-commissionership. The province includes the whole upper portion of the wide Gangetic basin, from the Himalayas and the Punjab plain to the Vindhyan plateau, and the lowlying ricefields of Behar.
North of the Ganges, and enclosed between that river and the Himalayas and Oudh, lies the triangular plain of Rohilkhand.
The triangular tract between the Ganges and the Gogra and the boundary of Oudh is the most fertile corner of the Gangetic plain, and contains the densest population.
Oudh forms the central portion of the great Gangetic plain, sloping downwards from the Nepal Himalayas in the north-east to the Ganges on the south-west.
Four great rivers traverse or skirt the plain of Oudh in converging courses - the Ganges, the Gumti, the Gogra and the Rapti.
The soil of Oudh consists of a rich alluvial deposit, the detritus of the Himalayan system washed down into the Ganges valley.
Oudh possesses no valuable minerals.
In Oudh, after the convulsion of the Mutiny, all rights in land were confiscated at a stroke, and the new system adopted was in the nature of a treaty between the state and the talukdars, or great landlords.
The estates of talukdars extend over more than half the total area of Oudh.
No " occupancy " rights based on continuous cultivation are recognized in Oudh, but similar rights, here known as " sub-proprietary," were granted to all those who had possessed them within thirty years before annexation.
On the other hand, there are no tenants-at-right in Oudh.
North of the river the Oudh & Rohilkhand system connects with Bengal and with the Punjab.
It now consists of 48 members, of whom 28 are nominated, and the remainder are elected by local bodies, landholders, Mahommedans, &c. In Agra the chartered high court sitting at Allahabad, and in Oudh the court of the judicial commissioner, sitting at Lucknow, have final jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, subject to appeal to the privy council.
In 1765, after the battle of Buxar, when the nawab of Oudh had been decisively defeated and Shah Alam, the Mogul emperor, was a suppliant in the British camp, Lord Clive was content to claim no acquisition of territory.
The whole of Oudh was restored to the Nawab, and Shah Alam received as an imperial apanage the province of Allahabad and Kora in the lower Doab, with a British garrison in the fort of Allahabad.
Warren Hastings augmented the territory of Oudh by lending the nawab a British army to conquer Rohilkhand, and by making over to him Allahabad and Kora on the ground that Shah Alam had placed himself in the power of the Mahrattas.
At the same time he received from Oudh the sovereignty over the province of Benares.
In 1801 he obtained from the nawab of Oudh the cession of Rohilkhand, the lower Doab, and the Gorakhpur division, thus enclosing Oudh on all sides except the north.
Meanwhile Oudh remained under its nawab, who was permitted to assume the title of king in 1819.
All protests against gross misgovernment during many years having proved useless, Oudh was annexed in 1856 and constituted a separate chief commissionership. Then followed the Mutiny, when all signs of British rule were for a time swept away throughout the greater part of the two provinces.
The lieutenantgovernor died when shut up in the fort at Agra, and Oudh was only reconquered after several campaigns lasting for eighteen months.
In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the NorthWestern Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retains some marks of its former independence.
In the Punjab from 179 deaths in 1897 the mortality reached a maximum of 334,897 in 1905, in Agra and Oudh they rose from 72 in 1897 to 383,802 in 1905, and in Madras Presidency from 1658 in 1899 to 20,125 in 1904.
The main line of the East Indian railway and the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway cross the district.
A modern offshoot of Vallabha's creed, formed with the avowed object of purging it of its objectionable features, was started, in the early years of the 19th century, by Sahajananda, a Brahman of the Oudh country, who subsequently assumed the name of Svami Narayana.
The principal buildings are two mosques built in the 17th century; a modern fort overlooking the cantonments; the railway station, which is an important junction on the Oudh and Rohilkhand line; the palace of the nawab of Rampur, and the government college.
The Rohillas, after fifty years' precarious independence, were subjugated in 1774 by the confederacy of British troops with the nawab of Oudh's army, which formed so serious a charge against Warren Hastings.
Their territory was in that year annexed to Oudh.
In 1801 the nawab of Oudh ceded it to the Company in commutation of the subsidy money.
Several lines of the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway pass through the district.
In 1856 it came, with the rest of Oudh, under British rule.
Both the bordering rivers are navigable; and the district is traversed by two lines of the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway, with branches.
CHAPRA, or Chupra, a town of British India, the administrative headquarters of Saran district in Bengal, near the left bank of the river Gogra, just above its confluence with the Ganges; with a railway station on the Bengal & North-Western line towards Oudh.
The city is served by five different railways, the East Indian, the Oudh & Rohilkhand, the Rajputana-Malwa & Bombay-Baroda, the Southern Punjab, and the North-Western, and occupies a central position, being 940 m.
The chief centres of production are Bihar in Bengal, and the district of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh lying along the Gangetic valley, and north of it, of which the produce is known as Bengal opium.
Having been driven into the mountains by the Mahrattas, they had appealed for aid to Shuja-ud-Dowlah, wazir of Oudh, and ally of the British.
Hastings justified his action on the ground that the Rohillas were a danger to the British as uncovering the flank of Oudh; and while he would never involve the company in an unjust war, neither did he desire an unprofitable one.
Chief among these was Dalhousie's policy of annexation, which brought under British dominion such small states as Satara, Nagpur and Jhansi, and finally the kingdom of Oudh.
The annexation of Oudh, which was the chief recruiting ground of the Bengal army, probably caused wider disaffection in the ranks of that army than any other act or omission of the government.
Meantime new accounts of refusals to use even the old cartridges came from distant parts of Hindostan, from Umballa under the very eyes of Anson, the commander-in-chief, and from Lucknow, the capital of the newly annexed kingdom of Oudh.
That important military station, lying acre on the Ganges on the confines of Oudh, was under the command of Sir Hugh Wheeler, an old but still efficient and experienced officer.
Meanwhile Lucknow, the capital of Oudh, was the scene of a historic defence.
On the 1st of May the 7th Oudh infantry refused to bite the cartridge, but on the 3rd they were disarmed by other regiments.
Thus in the course of ten days English authority in Oudh practically vanished.
At this point General Havelock was joined by Sir James Outram, who;would have superseded him in the command had not Outram himself, with unequalled generosity, proposed to accompany Havelock only in his civil capacity as chief commissioner of Oudh and to serve under him as a volunteer.
Upon the fall of Delhi the troops before that city were freed for the operations in Oudh, and on the 24th of September a column of 2790 men under Colonel Greathed left Delhi.
General Franks' column advanced to Lucknow from the eastern frontier of Oudh, defeating the enemy in four actions.
Upon the fall of Lucknow Lord Canning's Oudh proclamation was issued, confiscating almost the entire lands of the province, and ensuring only their lives to those rebels who should submit at once.
It was afterwards acknowledged that the Oudh proclamation, interpreted as Canning meant it should be, was a wise piece of statesmanship. After the fall of Lucknow Canning insisted that Sir Colin Campbell should take immediate action against the rebels in Oudh and Rohilkhand, and a number of petty and harassing operations were carried out by detached columns; but Campbell moved too slowly to bring his guerrilla opponents to book, and the rebellion was really brought to a conclusion by Sir Hugh Rose's brilliant campaign in Central India.
In 1831 the North-Western Provinces were created, which are now included with Oudh in the United Provinces; and the whole of northern India is now divided into the four lieutenantgovernorships of the Punjab, the United Provinces, Bengal, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, and the North-West Frontier Province under a commissioner.
The boundaries of the 8th division include those of the former Oudh, Allahabad, Assam and Presidency districts; and the troops now quartered in Bengal only consist of the Presidency brigade with its headquarters at Fort William.
10 See The Seven Seas, a dictionary and grammar of the Persian language, by Ghazi ud-din Haidar, king of Oudh, in seven parts (Lucknow, 3822) (only the title of the book is in English).
annexation of Sind by Lord Ellenborough, the conquest of the Punjab after two desperate military campaigns under Lord Dalhousie, the conquest of Pegu, and the annexation of Oudh.
Isolated mutinies in Bengal were succeeded by much more serious events at Cawnpore in Oudh, and at Meerut in the North-West Provinces.
In Oudh the native regiments placed themselves under a Mahratta chief, Nana Sahib, by whose orders the British in Cawnpore, including the women and children, were foully murdered.
In Africa; the advance of the red line which marks the bounds of British dominion was even more rapid; while in India the Punjab, Sind, Oudh and Burma were some of the acquisitions added to the British empire while the queen was on the throne.
It contains the most popular place of pilgrimage in Oudh, the tomb of Masaud, a champion of Islam, slain in battle by the confederate Rajputs in 1033, which is resorted to by Mahommedans and Hindus alike.
There is also a Mussulman monastery, and the ruined palace of a nawab of Oudh.
It was garrisoned by a detachment of the 9 th Oudh Infantry and a few police troopers.
The Rohillas were a race of Afghan origin, who had established themselves for some generations in a fertile tract west of Oudh, between the Himalayas and the Ganges, which still bears the name of Rohilkhand.
The Gurkhas, a brave and warlike little nation, failing to extend their conquests in the direction of China, had begun to encroach on territories held or protected by the East India Company; especially they had seized the districts of Batwal and Seoraj, in the northern part of Oudh, and when called upon to relinquish these, they deliberately elected (April 1814) to go to war rather than do so.
His treatment of Oudh may here be passed over as not being material to the general history of India, while the personal aspects of his rule are discussed in a separate article (see Hastings, Warren).
UNITED PROVINCES OF AGRA AND OUDH (formerly known as the North-Western Provinces and Oudh), a province of British India, lying between 23Ã‚° 52' and 31Ã‚° 18' N., and between 77Ã‚° 3' and 84Ã‚° 39' E.
The Oudh business was managed with less risk.
south-west of Lucknow, and formed from early times a frontier outpost of the people of Oudh and Bengal against their northern neighbours.
Now it is chiefly known as the junction of four railways, the East Indian, Oudh & Rohilkand, Rajputana and Indian Midland, and as a great emporium for harness, shoes and other leather-work.
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