In 1415 it was recovered by the Turks under Mahommed I., and since that period has belonged to the Ottoman empire.
The Panislamic propaganda was encouraged; the privileges of foreigners in the Ottoman Empire - of ten an obstacle to government - were curtailed; the new railway to the Holy Places was pressed on, and emissaries were sent to distant countries preaching Islam and the caliph's supremacy.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
With regard also to the Ottoman empire his policy cannot be said to have been strictly conservative.
As another means of opposing Western influence in south-eastern Europe, Prince Lobanov inclined to the policy of protecting rather than weakening the Ottoman empire.
of the Berlin Treaty as a basis of reforms to be introduced in other parts of the Ottoman empire.
At last (July 13, 1909) the powers announced to the Porte, in answer to a formal remonstrance, their decision to withdraw their remaining troops from Crete by July 26 and to station four war-ships off the island to protect the Moslems and to safeguard " the supreme rights " of the Ottoman Empire.
Two years later came a most formidable outbreak; the sultan was denounced as false to Islam, and the Bosnian nobles gathered at Banjaluka, determined to march on Constantinople, and reconquer the Ottoman empire for the true faith.
The Turkish or Ottoman Empire comprises Turkey in Europe, Turkey in Asia, and the vilayets of Tripoli and Barca, or Bengazi, in North Africa; and in addition to those provinces under immediate Turkish rule, it embraces also certain tributary states and certain others under foreign administration.
The Ottoman Empire is renowned for its productiveness, but enterprise and skill in utilizing its capabilities are still greatly lacking.
Among other important productions of the Ottoman Empire are sesame, coleseed, castor oil, flax, hemp, aniseed, mohair, saffron, olive oil, gums, scammony and liquorice.
assistance given in settling Mussulmans immigrating from provinces detached from the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Empire possesses a very complete system of local self-government within certain limits.
that Osman declared his independence, and accordingly the Turkish historian dates the foundation of the Ottoman Empire from this event.
Meanwhile in Asia also the Ottoman Empire had been consolidated and extended; but from 1501 onwards the ambitious designs of the youthful Shah Ismail in Persia grew more and more threatening to its security; and though Bayezid, intent on peace, winked at his violations of Ottoman territory and exchanged friendly embassies with him, a breach was sooner or later inevitable.
at the age of twenty-eight, was not calculated to arrest the progress of decay within the Ottoman Empire.
The war that followed marks an epoch in the decay of the Ottoman Empire and in the expansion of Russia.
In view of the multiple dangers to which the Ottoman Empire was exposed, both from without and °e from within, and of the serious consequences to the world's peace which would result from its break-up, there was a strong feeling among the powers in favour of such a guarantee, and even the emperor Alexander was willing to agree to it in principle.
The Ottoman Empire thus remained outside the European concert; Russia maintained her claim to a special right of isolated intervention in its affairs; and the renewal of war between Russia and Turkey was only postponed by the preoccupation of Alexander with his dream of the " Confederation of Europe."
Meanwhile, within the Ottoman Empire there was every sign of a rapidly approaching disintegration.
The severe crisis through which the Ottoman Empire had passed accentuated the need for strengthening it by a drastic reform of its system.
Lord Aberdeen made no secret of his dislike for the Turks, and openly expressed his disbelief in the reality of their reforms; and in January 1853 the tsar, in conversation with Sir Hamilton Seymour, the British ambassador at St Petersburg, spoke of the Ottoman Empire as " the Sick Man," and renewed the proposals for a partition made in 1844.
A reform not unworthy of notice was effected by the law promulgated on the 18th of June 1867 whereby foreigners were for the first time allowed to hold landed property throughout the Ottoman Empire (save in the Hejaz) on condition of their being assimilated to Ottoman subjects, i.e.
The enforcement of these reforms, however, was postponed sine die owing to the revolution which transformed the Ottoman Empire into a constitutional state; and the powers, anticipating an improvement in the administration of Macedonia by the new government, withdrew their military officers in the summer of 1908.
A regenerated Ottoman Empire might in time be strong enough to demand the evacuation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, g and to maintain or extend the nominal suzerainty over Bulgaria which the sultan had exercised since 1878.
Had this act been ratified by the government at Athens, a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire could hardly have been avoided; but a royal rescript was issued by the king of the Hellenes on the 30th of September 1910, declaring vacant the three seats to which the Cretan representatives had been elected; the immediate danger was thus averted.
Only after his death did the Ottoman empire become a menace to Christendom.
These communications had been severed on the Ottoman Empire throwing its lot in with the Central Powers three months after the commencement of the struggle.
It was no longer the Porte that decided, but the Seraglio, and the sultan's private secretary had more ififluence on the policy of the Ottoman empire than the grand vizier.
Finally in 1390 Philadelphia, which had for some time been an independent Christian city, surrendered to Sultan Bayezid's mixed army of Ottoman Turks and Byzantine Christians, and the Seljuk power in the Hermus valley was merged in the Ottoman empire.
Albania, the traditional claim of France to protect Roman Catholics in the Ottoman Empire has been greatly impaired by the non-religious character of the Republic. Like Italy, she is now regarded by Eastern Catholics with distrust as an enemy of the Holy Father.
His justification was the new life which he breathed into the decaying bones of the Ottoman empire.
Long declining, long owing its continuance to the jealousies and conflicting policies of the great European Powers, the Ottoman Empire may be said to have ended, as the result of defeat in war, when its delegates signed the Treaty of Sevres on Aug.
Italy had long shown designs on Tripoli, the remaining African province of the Ottoman Empire.
18 1912 the four Balkan States were at war with the Ottoman Empire.
Within four weeks the Ottoman Empire had lost Macedonia and Albania except the fortress and district of Yanina whose garrison as yet lay outside the area of operations.
Bulgaria herself was helpless; the Powers would not assist her; her late allies - now her enemies - were not opposed to the Turkish aggression; and in the end Bulgaria executed a treaty restoring the province to the Ottoman Empire.
It is necessary now to glance at the growth of German influence in the Ottoman Empire as being closely connected with the Turkish downfall.
1914, Great Britain, Russia and France had all declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
Participation in the war involved the Ottoman Empire in hostilities on every front of her territory; it was the penalty of her action and her geographical situation.
In Mesopotamia from 1915 onward the Ottoman Empire had been faced by serious British military operations, here, too, with various changes of fortune.
The remaining history of the Ottoman Empire up to Dec. 1921 has chiefly to do with the deliberations of the Allied Conference in determining the conditions of peace.
Their daring grew with their numbers, and at last they came to be a constant annoyance to all their neighbours, both Christian and Mussulman, frequently involving Poland in dangerous and unprofitable wars with the Ottoman Empire.
In 1574 he commanded the great expedition against Tunis, which, in spite of the brave defence by the Spanish and Italian garrison, was added to the Ottoman empire.
The Balkan Wars, and Poincare's attitude towards the problem raised by them, greatly increased his prestige; he declared on Dec. 4 to the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Chamber that he was determined to secure respect for the economic and political interests of France, not only in the Balkan Peninsula, but in the Ottoman Empire generally, and especially in Syria.
The revolution in Turkey had entirely changed the face of the Eastern Question; the problem of Macedonian reform was swallowed up in that of the reform of the Ottoman empire generally, there was even a danger that a rejuvenated Turkey might in time lay claim to the provinces occupied by Austria-Hungary under the treaty of Berlin; in any case, the position of these provinces, governed autocratically from Vienna, between a constitutional Turkey and a constitutional Austria-Hungary, would have been highly anomalous.
This last obligation was, in virtue of the Capitulations, applicable to Egypt as part of the Ottoman empire.
In 1517 Egypt became part of the Ottoman empire and was governed by pashas sent from Constantinople, whose influence about 1707 gave way to that of ~fficials chosen from the Mamelukes who bore the title Sheik al-balad.
In his reign (1463) there began the struggle between the Egyptian and the Ottoman sultanates which finally led to the incorporation of Egypt in the Ottoman empire.
It was not only the very existence of the Ottoman empire that seemed to be at stake, but Egypt itself had become more than ever an object of attention, to British statesplen especially, and in the issue of the struggle were involved the interests of Great Britain in the two routes to India by the Isthmus of Suez and the valley of the Euphrates.
He offered to surrender the claim, successfully asserted when the sultan had been excluded from the Holy Alliance and the affairs of the Ottoman empire from the deliberations of Vienna, that the affairs of the East were the " domestic concerns of Russia," and to march into Turkey, as Austria had marched into Naples, " as the mandatory of Europe."
For the organization of the `ulema in the Ottoman Empire during the middle ages see E.
The modern subdivisions under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire are in no sense conterminous with those of antiquity, and hence do not afford a boundary by which Palestine can be separated exactly from the rest of Syria in the north, or from the Sinaitic and Arabian deserts in the south and east; nor are the records of ancient boundaries sufficiently full and definite to make possible the complete demarcation of the country.
To the European diplomatists of the first half of the 19th century the Ottoman empire was still the only East with which they were collectively brought into contact.
The Eastern Question, though its roots are set far back in history - in the ancient contest between the political and intellectual ideals of Greece and Asia, and in the perennial rivalry of the powers for the control of the great trade routes to the East - dates in its modern sense from the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji in 1774, which marked the definitive establishment of Russia as a Black Sea power and formed the basis of her special claims to interfere in the affairs of the Ottoman empire.
It was no longer a question of the partition of Turkey or of a Russian conquest of Constantinople, but of the deliberate degradation by Russia of the Ottoman empire into a weak state wholly dependent upon herself.
The international position of the Ottoman empire was strengthened by the able, if Machiavellian, statecraft of the sultan; while the danger of disruption from within was lessened by the more effective central control made possible by railways, telegraphs, and the other mechanical improvements borrowed from western civilization.
But the Ottoman empire remained, the mistress of vast undeveloped wealth.
As the result of the patient and masterly organization of the "young Turks," combined with the universal discontent with the rule of the sultan and the palace camarilla, the impossible seemed to be achieved, and the heterogeneous elements composing the Ottoman empire to be united in the desire to establish a unified state on the constitutional model of the West.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia related to the part of the Ottoman Empire that was in Europe.
The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire has been regulated by the Great Powers, or some of them, in the treaties of London, 1832, 1863, 1864, and of Constantinople, 1881, with reference to Greece; and by the treaties of Paris, 1856; London, 1871; Berlin, 1878;1878; London, 1883, with reference to Montenegro, Rumania, Servia, Bulgaria and the navigation of the Danube.
So far as the forces of the Ottoman Empire were concerned, From Lord Ponsonby, F.O., Turkey, May 22, 1833.
The emperor Nicholas was prepared to accept the views of Great Britain on the Turco-Egyptian question; to allow the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi to lapse; to act henceforth in the Ottoman Empire only in concert with the other powers, in return for an agreement closing the Dardanelles to the war-ships of all nations and to extend the same principle to the Bosporus.
Palmerston, on the other hand, believed that the Ottoman empire would never be secure until "the desert had been placed between" the pasha of Egypt and the sultan; and the view that the coalition should be directed against Mehemet Ali was shared by the other powers.
But through the intervention of the European Powers Mehemet Ali was obliged to come to terms, and the Ottoman empire was saved.
From this developed (as already under the Arsacids) that strict principle of legitimacy which is still vigorous in Firdousi It applies, however, to the whole royal house, precisely as in the Ottoman Empire of to-day.
Kum and Tauris or Tabriz (then the capital) were also visited by the Italian envoys following in the royal suite; and the incidental notice of these cities, added to Contarinis formal statement that the extensive country of U~suncassan is bounded by the Ottoman Empire and by Caramania, and that Siras (Shiraz) is comprehended in it, proves that at least Azerbaijan, Irak, and the main part of the provinces to the south, inclusive of Fars, were within the dominions of the reigning monarch.
The province of Bengazi, being still without telegraphs or roads, is one of the most backward in the Ottoman empire.
It was not till 1675 that, under the first capitulations signed with Turkey, English consuls were established in the Ottoman empire.
Meanwhile he considered that the integrity and independence of the Ottoman empire must be maintained so far as these other powers were concerned.
But from 1830 the defence of the Ottoman Empire became one of the cardinal objects of his policy.
Mawarina), a Christian people of the Ottoman Empire in communion with the Papal Church, but forming a distinct denomination.
He was responsible for the change of policy of Russia towards the Ottoman empire after 1829, viz.
Rumania was to remain part of the Ottoman empire within the limits fixed by the capitulations and the treaty of Paris.
Vacarescu described the history of the Ottoman empire from the beginning to 1791, interpolating doggerel verses.
In the Ottoman Empire the rulers appointed to the quasi-independent Christian communities subject to it have usually been designated " prince, " and the title has thus come to signify in connexion with the Eastern Question a sovereignty more or less subordinate.
the Turks of the Ottoman Empire.
- Constantinople is famous in history, first as the capital of the Roman empire in the East for more than eleven centuries (330-1453), and secondly as the capital of the Ottoman empire since 1453.
The great mosques express the spirit of the days when the Ottoman empire was still mighty and ambitious.
Only Turkish Croatia henceforth remained part of the Ottoman empire.
and Joseph II., who now wished to divide the Ottoman empire.
Of its later history we need only mention the Mongolian capture in 1260; its Egyptian recapture by the Mameluke Kotuz; the ferocious raid of Timur (Tamerlane) in 1399; and the conquest by the Turkish sultan Selim, whereby it became a city of the Ottoman empire (1516).
The mission of Russia in the West was, in accordance with the principles of the Holy Alliance as Nicholas interpreted them, to uphold the cause of legitimacy and autocracy against the Revolution; her mission in the East was, with or without the co-operation of " Europe," to advance the cause of Orthodox Christianity, of which she was the natural protector, at the expense of the decaying Ottoman empire.
To its maintenance he had sacrificed " his religious convictions" and " the traditions of Russian policy " in consenting to uphold the integrity of Turkey; a sacrifice perhaps the less hard to make since, as he added, the Ottoman empire no longer existed.
Another example of such impunity was the Armenian genocide of 1915 that was orchestrated by the Ottoman Empire.
In the late 19th century, the Ottoman Empire began using the red crescent to protect its medical staff during war.
The daughter of a Turkish provincial governor, she came to Hilla in the dying days of the Ottoman Empire.
guerrilla tactics to fight the Ottoman empire.
Who are the rightful heirs of Babylon or the Ottoman Empire?
It had become a frontier outpost of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Empire had swallowed a great deal of the Middle East and the Turkish overlords were not welcome in that region.
provincial governor, she came to Hilla in the dying days of the Ottoman Empire.
rightful heirs of Babylon or the Ottoman Empire?
seditious thoughts about the decadent rulers of the Ottoman Empire.
Italy, who had made the integrity of the Ottoman empire a cardinal point of her Eastern policy, felt this change of the Mediterranean status quo the more severely inasmuch as, in order not to strain her relations with France, she had turned a deaf ear to Austrian, Russian and German advice to prepare to occupy Tunisia in agreement with Great Britain.
It is understood that it was originated at the unofficial instigation of both the British and Ottoman governments, with the idea of forming a channel for the more generous investment of British capital in Turkey under the new regime, so that British financial interests might play a more important part in the Ottoman Empire than has been the case since the state bankruptcy of 1876.
In view of the multiple dangers to which the Ottoman Empire was exposed, both from without and Ã‚°e from within, and of the serious consequences to the world's peace which would result from its break-up, there was a strong feeling among the powers in favour of such a guarantee, and even the emperor Alexander was willing to agree to it in principle.
With the consent of the tsar, it was proposed to submit the questions at issue to the decision of Great Britain, France and Austria; and the Porte was informed that, in the event of its accepting this arrangement, the powers would at once proceed to guarantee the integrity of the Ottoman Empire.
Cobden, who had travelled in Turkey, and had studied the condition of that country with great care for many years, discredited the outcry about maintaining the independence and integrity of the Ottoman empire which was the battle-cry of the day.
This, however, was Wellington's policy; and, having permitted Russia to go to war alone in 1828, nothing remained for him but to treat Greece as a pawn in Russia's hands, and to cut down the territory of the Greek kingdom to the narrowest possible limits, as if the restoration to the sultan of an inaccessible mountain-tract, inhabited by the bitterest of his enemies, could permanently add to the strength of the Ottoman empire.
After World War I, as the Ottoman Empire collapsed, several new countries emerged.
But MK was already harboring seditious thoughts about the decadent rulers of the Ottoman Empire.
The first European to see tulips visited the Ottoman Empire in the 1550s and soon made the flowers a luxury item in the gardens of Europe.
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