Louis' son, Otto the Illustrious (1206-1253), undertook the government of the Palatinate in 1228, and became duke of Bavaria in 1231.
Our nailing Otto Rudman on your tip impressed the hell out of him.
"Ask Otto," a uniformed cop said without looking up from his screen.
Otto goes to every bar around that has trivia night and drinks for free.
A plumber named Otto Gruber out in Archbald listed it.
count of upper Burgundy to cede some districts to him in 1281, forced the citizens of Berne to pay the tribute which they had previously refused, and in 1289 marched against Philip's successor, Otto IV., and compelled him to do homage.
Louis appears to have been previously promised this succession, and to strengthen his claim married his son, Otto, to Agnes, the sister of Henry, the count palatine, who died without heirs in 1214.
went to Italy in 1251, Otto remained as his representative in Germany, until his death on the 29th of November 12 53.
OTTO PFLEIDERER (1839-1908), German Protestant theologian, was born at Stetten near Cannstadt in Wurttemberg on the 1st of September 1839.
'ATTAR [or [[Otto] Of Roses]] (Pers.
THIETMAR (DIETMAR or Dithmar) of Merseburg (975 1018), German chronicler, was a son of Siegfried, count of Walbeck, and was related to the family of the emperor Otto the Great.
In 939 Louis became involved in a struggle with the emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, the nobles of which district had sworn an oath of fidelity to the king of France.
of Holland, Philip of Flanders, Otto I.
"Unfortunately, there are a lot more slugs like Otto what's-his-name as well," I said.
You stopped Otto's next victim from being abducted.
This office existed in the German kingdom of Otto the Great, and about this time it appears to have become an appanage of the archbishopric of Mainz.
Otto was descended from Luitpold, duke of Bavaria and margrave of Carinthia, who was killed in 907 fighting the Hungarians.
In 938 it was given by the German king, Otto I., the Great, to Arnulf's brother, Bertold I., with greatly reduced privileges.
Arnulf's younger son, Arnulf II., continued the struggle against Otto I., and sometime before his death in 954 was made count palatine in Bavaria.
recognized Count Otto V.
When Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was placed under the imperial ban in 1180, Otto's services were rewarded by the investiture of the dukedom of Bavaria at Altenburg.
Since the time of Otto I.
Otto died at Pfullendorf in 1183, and was succeeded in the duchy by his son, Louis I.
(1174-1231), but the dignity of count palatine in Bavaria passed to his brother Otto, whose son Otto, succeeding in 1189, murdered the German king Philip at Bamberg on the 21st of June 1208.
At first Louis supported Otto IV.
Some - for instance, Otto, the mayor of the palace of Austrasia towards 640 - were devoted to the Crown.
Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology in Germany since Kant (1890).
It is rough in form and the author shows no power of discriminating between important and unimportant events; yet the chronicle is an excellent authority for the history of Saxony during the reigns of the emperors Otto III.
When Louis married Gerberga, sister of Otto, and widow of Giselbert, duke of Lorraine, there seemed to be a The emperor Louis I.
Menaced, however, by Louis' brother-in-law, Otto the Great, and excommunicated by the council of Ingelheim (948), the powerful vassal was forced to make submission and to restore Laon to his sovereign.
Finally in 924 Lorraine passed in the reign of Henry the Fowler under German (East Frankish) overlordship. Henry's son, Otto the Great, owing to the disordered state of the country, placed it in 953 in the hands of his able brother, Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, for pacification.
In 934 it was passed by the German king Henry I., after which it was extended by King Harold Bluetooth (940-986), but was again stormed by the emperor Otto II.
For general information and references to the literature of the subject, see Otto ZOckler, Askese and Monchtum (1897), ii.
The truth is that no period in Italian history was less really glorious than that which came to a close in 961 by Berengar II.s cession of his rights to Otto the Great.
Anarchy and misery are indeed the main features of that long space of time which elapsed between the death of Charles the Great and the descent of Otto.
She escaped to the castle of Canossa, where the great count of Tuscany espoused her cause, and appealed in her behalf to Otto the Saxon.
In the extremity of his fortunes he had recourse himself to Otto, making a formal cession of the Italian kingdom, in his own name and that of his son Adalbert, to the Saxon as his overlord.
Berengar gained nothing by his act of obedience to Otto.
Otto entered Lombardy Saxon in 961, deposed Berengar, assumed the crown in San and FranAmbrogio at Milan, and in 962 was proclaimed conlan emperor by John XII.
The first thing we have to notice in this revolution which placed Otto the Great upon the imperial throne is that the Italian.
Otto encouraged this revolution by placing the enclosures of the chief burghs beyond the jurisdiction of the counts.
The recent scandals of the papacy induced Otto to deprive the Romans of their right to elect popes.
But when he died in 973, his son Otto 11.
(married to Theophano of the imperial Byzantine house) and his grandson, Otto III., who descended into Italy in 996, found that the affairs of Rome and of the southern provinces were more than even their imperial powers could cope with.
Otto III.s untimely death in 1002 introduced new discords.
Their command of fleets gave them incontestable advantages, as when, for instance, Otto II.
The policy thus initiated upon the precedent laid down by Otto the Great was a remedy for pressing evils.
The pretensions of Otto the Great and Henry III.
was left without a rival for the imperial throne ifl 1218 by the-death of Otto IV., and on the 22nd of November 1220, Honorius III., Innocents successor, crowned him in Rome.
When Robert of Anjou died in 1343, he was succeeded by his grand-daughter Joan, the childless wife of four successive husbands, Andrew of Hungary, Louis of Taranto, Th ~James of Aragon and Otto of Brunswick.
When Otto Ritschl interprets values hedonistically - recoiling from Hegel's idealism the whole way to empiricism - he brings again to our minds the doubt whether hedonist ethics can serve as a foundation for any religious belief.
With his mercenaries behind him he met with some small successes in his fight for Normandy, but on the 27th of July he and his ally, the emperor Otto IV., met with a crushing defeat at Bouvines at the hands of Philip Augustus, and even the king himself was compelled to recognise that his hopes of recovering Normandy were at an end.
The German kings Otto IV.
(980-1002), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Otto II.
A strong opposition was quickly aroused, and when Theophano and Adelaide, widow of the emperor Otto the Great, appeared in Germany, Henry was compelled to hand over the young king to his mother.
Otto's mental gifts were considerable, and were so carefully cultivated by Bernward, afterwards bishop of Hildesheim, and by Gerbert of Aurillac, archbishop of Reims, that he was called "the wonder of the world."
Having accompanied his troops in expeditions against the Bohemians and the Wends, Otto was declared of age in 995.
Before he reached Rome, Pope John XV., who had invited him to Italy, had died, whereupon he raised his own cousin Bruno, son of Otto duke of Carinthia, to the papal chair as Pope Gregory V., and by this pontiff Otto was crowned emperor on the 21st of May 996.
Leaving his aunt, Matilda, abbess of Quedlinburg, as regent of Germany, Otto, in February 99 8, led Gregory back to Rome, took the castle of St Angelo by storm and put Crescentius to death.
A visit to southern Italy, where many of the princes did homage to the emperor, was cut short by the death of the pope, to whose chair Otto then appointed his former tutor Gerbert, who took the name of Sylvester II.
In the palace which he built on the Aventine, Otto sought to surround himself with the splendour and ceremonial of the older emperors of Rome, and dreamed of making Rome once more the centre of a universal empire.
Returning to Rome, trouble soon arose between Otto and the citizens, and for three days the emperor was besieged in his palace.
Troops were collected, but whilst conducting a campaign against the Romans, Otto died at Paterno near Viterbo on the 23rd of January 1002, and was buried in the cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle.
'ser Otto III.
(Berlin, 1837-1840); P. Kehr, Die Urkunden Otto ' II.
Otto IV >>
This was captured in 949 by the emperor Otto I.
To the west lie the small groups of coral islets - Mopiha (Lord Howe), Ura (Scilly) and Bellingshausen (discovered by Otto von Kotzebue, 1824).
The mines were visited some years ago by Dr Fritz Noetling, and the mineral has been described by Dr Otto Helm.
For Burmese amber, papers by Fritz Noetling and Otto Helm in Records of Geol.
After being almost entirely wrecked by Norman raiders it was rebuilt, on the original lines, in 983, by the emperor Otto III.
Underneath the dome, according to tradition, was the tomb of Charlemagne, which, on being opened by Otto III.
The Gothic choir, forming the more modern portion of the cathedral, was added during the latter half of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, and contains the tomb of the emperor Otto III.
Muller, Gesammelte Schriften (Otto Becker, Leipzig, 1872), and Arch.
Falling into disgrace with Berengar on his return, he attached himself to the emperor Otto I., whom in 961 he accompanied into Italy, and by whom in 962 he was made bishop of Cremona.
He was frequently employed in missions to the pope, and in 968 to Constantinople to demand for the younger Otto (afterwards Otto II.) the hand of Theophano, daughter of the emperor Nicephorus Phocas.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
Valdemar's position was still further strengthened when Frederick II., the successful rival of Otto IV., was, in 1215, crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle.
An attempt by Otto in 1215 to recover Northalbingia was easily frustrated by Valdemar, who henceforth devoted himself to the extension of the Danish empire over the eastern Baltic shores.
Subsequent explorers were Captain Edwards of the "Pandora" in 1791, and Otto von Kotzebue in 1824.
The New Palace (1698-1704) was formerly occupied by the prince-bishops, and from 1864 to 1867 by the deposed King Otto of Greece.
and St Otto, bishop of Bamberg.
Goslar is believed to have been founded by Henry the Fowler about 920, and when in the time of Otto the Great the mineral treasures in the neighbourhood were discovered it increased rapidly in prosperity.
There are two German translations, one by Otto Schulz (1822) and the other by G.
In the same district bamboos, ramie-fibre and attar (otto) of roses are cultivated.
- Dorsal and Ventral View of Pleurophyllidia lineata (Otto), one of the Eolidomorph Nudibranchs.
In 1553 he became physician to the count of Henneberg, Saxe-Meiningen, and in 1558 held the same post with the elector-palatine, Otto Heinrich, being at the same time professor of medicine at Heidelberg.
from 5th ed.), in which he carried scholasticism so far as "to revive the ancient Gnostic theory of the fall of man before all time, a theory which found no favour amongst his theological friends" (Otto Pfleiderer).
His guiding principle in treating both of the history and of the present condition of the church was - that Christianity has room for the various tendencies of human nature, and aims at permeating and glorifying them all; that according to the divine plan these various tendencies are to occur successively and simultaneously and to counterbalance each other, so that the freedom and variety of the development of the spiritual life ought not to be forced into a single dogmatic form" (Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 280).
In the 10th century the duchy of Burgundy fell into the hands of Hugh the Great, father of Hugh Capet, on whose death in 956 it passed to his son Otto, and, in 965, to his son Henry.
de la Boe Sylvius (1614-1672), though not by his pupil Otto Tachenius, and by J.
At St Paul's the legatine constitutions of Otto were published in a synod of 1237, those of Ottobon in 1268: these were the most important national councils held after the independence of York had been established.
His Christliche Dogmatik (3 vols., 1849-1852, new edition, 1870) "contains many fruitful and suggestive thoughts, which, however, are hidden under such a mass of bold figures and strange fancies, and suffer so much from want of clearness of presentation, that they did not produce any lasting effect" (Otto Pfleiderer).
de la BoÃ« Sylvius (1614-1672), who regarded medicine as applied chemistry, and Otto Tachenius, who elucidated the nature of salts.
These two works, and especially the latter, were the models followed by Thenard, Liebig, Strecker, Wohler and many others, including Thomas Graham, upon whose Elements of Chemistry was founded Otto's famous Lehrbuch der Chemie, to which H.
The importance of ascertaining the proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto Tachenius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis.
Otto, and J.
Like other parts of Germany during the 9th century Hesse felt the absence of a strong central power, and, before the time of the emperor Otto the Great, several counts, among whom were Giso and Werner, had made themselves practically independent; but after the accession of Otto in 936 the land quietly accepted the yoke of the medieval emperors.
At Alexandria the state cult of him seems to have been instituted by the second Ptolemy, when his body was laid in the Sema (Otto, Priester u.
51 sqq.; Otto, Priester u.
It is said to have been founded by the emperor Otto the Great, but the present building was begun in the 13th century and was completed about 1450.
This was ultimately expanded, after the fall of the Wellington ministry, into the Treaty of London of the 7th of May 1832, by which Greece was made an independent kingdom under the Bavarian prince Otto.
But at the end of three days the conclave resulted in the election of Cardinal Otto Colonna, who took the name of Martin V.
In 1885 he published, after long indecision, his volume of poems, A Child's Garden of Verses, an inferior story, The Body Snatcher, and that admirable romance, Prince Otto, in which the peculiar quality of Stevenson's style was displayed at its highest.
An interesting example is the discussion, by Otto Pettersson, of the effects of long-range fluctuations in the tidegenerating force: this memoir was published about 1914, but has only recently become available to English readers.
Trautenau was founded by German colonists invited to settle there by King Otto Kar II.
Denkwiirdigkeiten des Ministers Otto Frhr.
In 1843 he was appointed professor of philology at Kiel and director of the archaeological museum founded by himself in co-operation with Otto Jahn.
In 985 the emperor Otto III.
died in 1046 it was divided, and Meissen proper was given successively to William and Otto, counts of Weimar, and Egbert II., count of Brunswick.
Conrad, called the Great, extended the boundaries of Meissen before abdicating in 1156 in favour of his son Otto, known as the Rich.
Otto appointed his younger son Dietrich as his successor and was attacked and taken prisoner by his elder son Albert; but, after obtaining his release by order of the emperor Frederick I., he had only just renewed the war when he died in 1190.
Otto was succeeded by his son Albert, called the Proud, who was engaged in warfare with his brother Dietrich until his death in 1195.
In 1695 the boy Holberg was taken into the house of his uncle, Peder Lem, who sent him to the Latin school, and prepared him for the profession of a soldier; but soon after this he was adopted by his cousin Otto Munthe, and went to him up in the mountains.
The same year the emperor Otto I.
As important original monographs we note-Az drapoly a Fiumei obolben (Ebb and Flow in the Gulf of Fiume), by Emil Stahlberger (1874); Magyarorszdg pokfaundja (The Arachnida of Hungary), by Otto Hermann (1876-1878); Magyarorszdg vaskovei es vastermenyei (The Iron Ores and 1 The translator of Macaulay.
In company with his two patrons Gerbert visited Rome, where the pope, hearing of his proficiency in music and astronomy, induced him to remain in Italy, and introduced him to the emperor Otto I.
According to this writer Gerbert's fame began to spread over Gaul, Germany and Italy, till it roused the envy of Otric of Saxony, in whom we may recognize Octricus of Magdeburg, the favourite scholar of Otto I., and, in earlier days, the instructor of St Adalbert, the apostle of the Bohemians.
Otric, suspecting that Gerbert erred in his classification of the sciences, sent one of his own pupils to Reims to take notes of his lectures, and, finding his suspicions correct, accused him of his error before Otto II.
That it was Otto II., and not, as formerly supposed, Otto I., who gave him this benefice, seems evident from a diploma quoted by Mabillon (Annales, iv.
died in December 983, leaving the empire to his infant heir Otto III.
Notwithstanding this, the influence of the empress Theophana, mother of Otto III., secured the appointment for Arnulf, a bastard son of Lothair.
We may surmise that Gerbert left France towards the end of 995, as he was present at Otto III.'s coronation at Rome on the 2rst of May 996.
Somewhat later he became Otto's instructor in arithmetic, and had been appointed archbishop of Ravenna before May 998.
All Gerbert's dreams for the advancement of church and empire were cut short by the death of Otto III., on the 4th of February 1002; and this event was followed a year later by the death of the pope himself, which took place on the r 2th of May 1003.
More extraordinary still was his knowledge of music - an accomplishment which seems to have been his earliest recommendation to Otto I.
(d) Of his philosophical works we only have one, Libellus de rationali et ratione uti, written at the request of Otto III.
After the latter's death in 1197 he assisted his own brother Otto, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., in his attempts to gain the German throne.
Otto refused to reward Henry for this support, so in 1204 he assisted his rival, the German king Philip., but returned to Otto's side after Philip's murder in 1208.
to Otto, the infant son of Louis I., duke of Bavariaa, a member of the Wittelsbach family, who was betrothed to Agnes, sister of the late count, Henry.
The Palatinate was ruled by Louis of Bavaria on behalf of his son until 1228, when it passed to Otto who ruled until his death in 12J3.
Otto's possessions were soon afterwards divided, and his elder son Louis II.
In 1400 Rupert was elected German king, and when he died in 1410 his possessions were divided among his four sons: the eldest, Louis III., received the Rhenish Palatinate proper; the second son, John, obtained the upper Palatinate; while the outlying districts of Zweibriicken and Simmern passed to Stephen, and that of Mosbach to Otto.
Otto, the son of Otto (d.
1504), but, when in 1507 an end was put to this struggle, Rupert's son, Otto Henry, only received Neuburg and Sulzbach.
succeeded Philip, but both died without sons and Otto Henry became elector.
It was Frederick, count palatine of Simmern, who succeeded to the Palatinate on Otto Henry's death, becoming the elector Frederick III.
CONRADIN, Or Conrad The Younger (1252-1268), king of Jerusalem and Sicily, son of the German king Conrad IV., and Elizabeth, daughter of Otto II.
Bottger of Frankfort and Otto and Knop, all of whom added to our knowledge of the subject, the last-named introducing the use of sulphuric along with nitric acid in the nitration process.
Leopold, who probably received the mark as a reward for his fidelity to the emperor Otto II.
One of Leopold's sons was Otto, bishop of Freising.
Charles's first wife was Blanche, daughter of Otto IV., count of Burgundy, and of Matilda (Mahaut), countess of Artois, to whom he was married in 1307.
The invention of the mechanical air-pump is generally attributed to Otto von Guericke, consul of Magdeburg, who exhibited his instrument in 1654; it was first described in 1657 by Gaspar Schott, professor of mathematics at Wurttemberg, in his NI echanica hydraulico-pneumatica, and afterwards (in 1672) by Guericke in his Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacus spatia.
1329) with Otto IV., Artois passed to the house of Burgundy, in whose possession it remained till the marriage of Mary, the daughter of Charles the Bold, to the archduke Maximilian brought it to the house of Austria.
Ludwig Friedrich Otto Baumgarten - Crusius >>
In 1699 he began to publish his largest work, described by Tolstoy (The Kingdom of God is within You, chap. iii.) as "remarkable, although little known," Unparteiische Kirchenand Ketzerhistorie, in which he has been thought by some to show more impartiality towards heresy than towards the Church (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 277).
His sister Eadgifu married Charles the Simple, Eadhild became the wife of Hugh the Great, duke of France, Eadgyth was married to the emperor Otto the Great, and her sister Elfgifu to a petty German prince.
In 995 he was sent by Otto III.
The arrival of Otto at Rome in the spring of 998 put a sudden end to the teacherous compact.
Aschersleben was probably founded in the 11th century by Count Esico of Ballenstedt, the ancestor of the house of Anhalt, whose grandson, Otto, called himself count of Ascania and Aschersleben, deriving the former part of the title from his castle in the neighbourhood of the town.
On the death of Otto III.
Under the emperor Otto I.
Although a large part of the people disliked the idea of a conflict with the church, an alliance with Florence's old enemy Bernabo Visconti was made, war declared, and a balia of 8, the Otto della guerra (afterwards called the "Eight Saints" on account of their good management) was created to carry on the campaign.
Savonarola also proposed a court of appeal for criminal and political crimes tried by the Otto di guardia e balia; this too was agreed to, but the right of appeal was to be, not to a court as Savonarola suggested, but to the Greater Council, a fact which led to grave abuses, as judicial appeals became subject to party passions.
generally Otto Pfleiderer Development of Theology (1890); F.
However this may be, Henry named Otto his successor, and after his death in July 936 Otto was chosen German king and crowned by Hildebert, archbishop of Mainz.
Otto soon showed his intention of breaking with the policy of his father, who had been content with a nominal superiority over the duchies; in 937 he punished Eberhard, duke of Franconia, for an alleged infringement of the royal authority; and in 938 deposed Eberhard, who had recently become duke of Bavaria.
Trouble soon arose in Saxony, probably owing to Otto's refusal to give certain lands to his half-brother, Thankmar, who, although the king's senior, had been passed over in the succession as illegitimate.
Thankmar, aided by an influential Saxon noble named Wichmann, and by Eberhard of Franconia, seized the fortress of Eresburg and took Otto's brother Henry prisoner; but soon afterwards he was defeated by the king and killed whilst taking sanctuary.
Otto gained a victory near Xanten, which was followed by the surrender of the fortresses held by his brother's adherents in Saxony, but the rebels, joined by Eberhard of Franconia and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz continued the struggle, and Giselbert of Lorraine transferred his allegiance to Louis IV., king of France.
Otto's precarious position was saved by a victory near Andernach when Eberhard was killed, and Giselbert drowned in the subsequent flight.
Otto therefore crossed the Rhine and deprived his brother of authority.
The deaths of Giselbert of Lorraine and of Eberhard of Franconia, quickly followed by those of two other dukes, enabled Otto to unite the stem-duchies more closely with the royal house.
In 944 Lorraine was given to Conrad, surnamed the Red, who in 947 married the king's daughter Liutgard; Franconia was retained by Otto in his own hands; Henry married a daughter of Arnulf, duke of Bavaria, and received that duchy in 947; and Swabia came in 949 to the king's son Ludolf, who had married Ida, a daughter of the late duke, Hermann.
Strife between Otto and Louis IV.
Afterwards, when Louis became a prisoner in the hands of his powerful vassal Hugh the Great, duke of France, Otto attacked the duke, who, like the king, was his brother-in-law, captured Reims, and negotiated a peace between the two princes; and in subsequent struggles between them his authority was several times invoked.
In 945 Berengar I., margrave of Ivrea, left the court of Otto and returned to Italy, where he soon obtained a mastery over the country.
In response to an appeal from Adelaide, Otto crossed the Alps in 951.
But when Otto returned to Germany in 952 he was followed by Berengar, who did homage for Italy at Augsburg.
The chief advisers of Otto at this time were his wife and his brother Henry.
When Adelaide bore a son, and a report gained currency that Otto intended to make this child his heir, Ludolf rose in revolt and was joined by Conrad of Lorraine and Frederick of Mainz.
Otto fell into the power of the rebels at Mainz and was compelled to agree to demands made by them, which, however, he promptly revoked on his return to Saxony.
Otto failed to take Mainz and Augsburg; but an attempt on the part of Conrad and Ludolf to gain support from the Magyars, who had seized the opportunity to invade Bavaria, alienated many of their supporters.
Otto's brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, was successful in restoring the royal authority in Lorraine, so that when Conrad and Frederick soon afterwards submitted to Otto, the struggle was confined to Bavaria.
Otto marched against them, and in a battle fought on the Lechfeld on the 10th of August 955 the king's troops gained a brilliant victory which completely freed Germany from these invaders; while in the same year Otto also defeated the Sla y s who had been ravaging the Saxon frontier.
Lands and privileges were granted to prelates, additional bishoprics were founded, and some years later Magdeburg was made the seat of an archbishop. In 960 Otto was invited to come to Italy by Pope John XII., who was hard pressed by Berengar, and he began to make preparations for the journey.
As Ludolf had died in 957 and Otto, his only son by Adelaide, had been chosen king at Worms, the government was entrusted to Bruno of Cologne, and Archbishop William of Mainz, a natural son of the king.
But as he did not long observe his oath he was deposed at a synod held in St Peter's, after Otto had compelled the Romans to swear they would elect no pope without the imperial consent; and a nominee of the emperor, who took the name of Leo VIII., was chosen in his stead.
A pestilence drove Otto to Germany in 965, and finding the Romans again in arms on his return in 966, he allowed his soldiers to sack the city, and severely punished the leaders of the rebellion.
Otto had untiring perseverance and relentless energy.
The Roman empire of the German nation was indeed less universal and less theocratic under Otto, its restorer, than under Charlemagne, but what it lacked in splendour it gained in stability.
Otto was of tall and commanding presence, and although subject to violent bursts of passion, was liberal to his friends and just to his enemies.
Dummler, Jahrbacher des deutschen Reichs unter Otto I.
von Sickel, Das Privilegium Otto I.
Maurenbrecher, "Die Kaiserpolitik Otto I."
Otto II >>
While professor of morals at Leipzig, Otto Mencke planned the Acta eruditorum, with a view to make known, by means of analyses, extracts and reviews, the new works produced throughout Europe.
See also Bismarck, Reflections and Reminiscences; Rennell Rodd, Frederick, Crown Prince and Emperor (1888); Gustav Freytag, Der Kronprinz and die deutsche Kaiserkrone (1889; English translation, 1890); Otto Richter, Kaiser Friedrich III.
Cheyne, Founders of Old Testament Criticism (1893); and Otto Pfleiderer's book translated into English by J.
"SIR GEORGE OTTO TREVELYAN, 2ND Bart.
It has broad streets and low houses, but is architecturally unattractive, like most of the creations of the time of King Otto.
Until the 19th century Assen was a small place built round the convent in which Otto II.
Recognizing a supernatural element in the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of reason in the interpretation of its dogmas (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, pp. 89 ff.).
(c. 876-936), surnamed the "Fowler," German king, son of Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, grew to manhood amid the disorders which witnessed to the decay of the Carolingian empire, and in early life shared in various campaigns for the defence of Saxony.
the eldest of whom, Otto (afterwards the emperor Otto the Great), succeeded him, and two daughters.
In the year 1000 his tomb was opened by the emperor Otto III., but the account that Otto found the body upright upon a throne with a golden crown on the head and holding a golden sceptre in the hands, is generally regarded as legendary.
Otto the Great to a considerable extent succeeded; Louis XIV.
The first mention of Prester John occurs in the chronicle of Otto, bishop of Freisingen.
In this event - the defeat of Sanjar, whose brother's son, Mas'ud, reigned over western Persia - occurring four years before the story of the Eastern conqueror was told at Rome to Bishop Otto, we seem to have the destruction of the Samiardi fratres or Sanjar brothers, which was the germ of the story of Prester John.
Brown and by Wilfred Powell, and in 1882 Dr Otto Finsch, whose name is well known in connexion with scientific work in New Guinea, made valuable explorations in the neighbourhood of Port Moresby and the Loluki river.
Moreover, in the wars of king Lothaire against the Normans and against the emperor Otto II.
The position and influence of Lothair in Saxony, already considerable, was increased when in 1 ioo he married Richenza, daughter of Henry, count of Nordheim, who became an heiress on her father's death in 1101, and inherited other estates when her brother Otto died childless in 1116.
Lothair was a strong and capable ruler, who has been described as the "imitator and heir of the first Otto."
The main authorities for the life and reign of Lothair are: "Vita Norberti archiepiscopi Magdeburgensis"; Otto von Freising, "Chronicon Annalista Saxo" and "Narratio de electione Lotharii" all in the Monumenta Germaniae historica.
LEO VIII., pope from 963 to 965, a Roman by birth, held the lay office of protoscrinius when he was elected to the papal chair at the instance of Otto the Great by the Roman synod which deposed John XII.
as his successor; but Otto, returning and laying siege to the city, compelled their acceptance of Leo.
Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.
by Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Wieland, Immermann, Fritz Reuter, Morike, Otto Ludwig and others, was opened.
In 1247 Otto III.
In 1345 it became a fief of the landgraves of Thuringia, to whom it escheated in 1385 with the extinction of the line of Otto III.
Its chief buildings are the Johannisburg, built (1605-1614) by Archbishop Schweikard of Cronberg, which contains a library with a number of incunabula, a collection of engravings and paintings; .the Stiftskirche, or cathedral, founded in 980 by Otto of Bavaria, but dating in the main from the early 12th and the 13th centuries, in which are preserved various monuments by the Vischers, and a sarcophagus, with the relics of St Margaret (1540); the Capuchin hospital; a theatre, which was formerly the house of the Teutonic order; and several mansions of the German nobility.
At the battle of Caporetto, Badoglio commanded the same corps, the left wing of which was broken by Otto von Below's attack from the Tolmino bridgehead.
See also Otto Zockler, Askese and Monchtum, ii.
the recent criticism of the text and contents of the Rule, see Otto.
Liudolf's second son, Otto the Illustrious, was recognized as duke of Saxony by King Conrad I., and on the death of Burkhard, margrave of Thuringia in 908, obtained authority over that country also.
Henry's son, Otto the Great, was crowned emperor in 962, and his descendants held this dignity until the death of the emperor Otto III.
Otto retained Saxony in his own hands for a time, though in 938 he had some difficulty in suppressing a revolt led by his half-brother Thankmar.
In 960 Otto gave to a trusted relative Hermann, afterwards called Billung, certain duties and privileges on the eastern frontier, and from time to time appointed him as his representative in Saxony.
In 1070 Otto of Nordheim, duke of Bavaria, who held large estates in this country, being accused of a plot to murder Henry, was placed under the ban, his possessions were declared forfeited and his estates plundered.
Otto, in alliance with Magnus, won considerable support in Saxony, but after some fighting both submitted and were imprisoned; and Magnus was still in confinement when on his father's death in 1072 he became titular duke of Saxony.
When the insurgents under Duke Otto were joined by the Thuringians, Henry was compelled in 1074 to release Magnus and to make a number of concessions as the price of the peace of Gerstungen; which, however, was short-lived, as the peasants employed in pursuance of its terms in demolishing the forts, desecrated the churches and violated the ducal tombs.
Henry, having obtained help from the princes of the Rhineland, attacked and defeated the Saxons at Hohenburg near Langensalza, rebuilt the forts, and pardoned Otto, whom he appointed administrator of the country.
bestowed the duchy upon Lothair, count of Supplinburg, whose wife Richenza inherited the Saxon estates of her grandfather Otto of Nordheim, on the death of her brother Otto in 1116.
C. Bluntschli, Allgemeine Staatslehre (Munich, 1852); Otto Gierke, Das deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht (Berlin, 1863-1881); J.
One of his sons was Otto, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., and another was Henry (d.
The Bergstadt was fortified by Otto III.
"Fond of emphasizing his independence of Baur, he still, in all important points, followed in the footsteps of his master; his method, which he is wont to contrast as Literarkritik with Baur's Tendenzkritik, is nevertheless essentially the same as Baur's" (Otto Pfleiderer).
In 849 King Louis the German recognized Thakulf as duke (dux Sorabici limitis), and some of his successors bore the title of margrave until the death of Burkhard in 908, when the country was seized by Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony.
Thuringia was retained by Otto's son and successor, Henry I.
It appears to have been united with Meissen for some time, and this was certainly the case from 1046 to 1067, when both countries were ruled by William and Otto, counts of Weimar.
He was succeeded by his brother Hermann I., during whose reign Thuringia suffered greatly from the ravages of the adherents of Philip, duke of Swabia, and also from those of his rival Otto of Brunswick.
Otto Brunfels, a physician of Bern, has been looked upon as the restorer of the science in Europe.
of Ste Gudule is said to have been endowed by the emperor Otto I.
113; 703), "that we have shaken off bishops and popes, that we may come under the yoke of such madmen as Otto and Farel ?"
Of the many historians of the middle ages, besides the authors of biographies, chronicles, cloister annals, &c., may be mentioned Haymo, Anastasius, Adam of Bremen, Ordericus Vitalis, Honorius of Autun, Otto of Freising, Vincent of Beauvais and Antoninus of Florence.
The union in 962 by Otto I.
the emperor Otto IV.
It has afforded material for several dramas, and Adolf Bottger, Friedrich Hebbel and Otto Ludwig have each written one entitled Agnes Bernauer.
of Italy, he called to his aid Otto the Great of Germany, to whom he granted the imperial crown in 962.
Even before Otto left Rome the pope had, however, repented of his recognition of a power which threatened altogether to overshadow his authority, and had begun to conspire against the new emperor.
His intrigues were discovered by Otto, who, after he had defeated and taken prisoner Berengar, returned to Rome and summoned a council which deposed John, who was in hiding in the mountains of Campania, and elected Leo VIII.
An attempt at an insurrection was made by the inhabitants of Rome even before Otto left the city, and on his departure John returned at the head of a formidable company of friends and retainers, and caused Leo to seek safety in immediate flight.
Otto determined to make an effort in support of Leo, but before he reached the city John had died, in what manner is uncertain, and Benedict V.
Boleslaus was also the first Polish prince to bear the royal title, which seems to have been conferred upon him by Otto III.
Boleslaus III., moreover, with the aid of St Otto, bishop of Bamberg, succeeded in converting the heathen Pomeranians (1124-1128), and making head against paganism generally.
Although defeated near Frankfort in August 1246 by the anti-king, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, he obtained help from the towns and from his father-in-law Otto II., duke of Bavaria, and drove Henry Raspe to Thuringia.
1273), daughter of Otto of Bavaria, by whom he left a son, Conradin, whom he had never seen.
In the 10th century learning flourished at Aachen under Bruno, brother of Otto I.
The matter was decided by one of the Swedish couriers, Baron Karl Otto Morner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte.
He was followed by Otto von Kotzebue (1816) and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (1819-1821).
Otto Von Pack >>
In 1197, however, German jealousy of Denmark's ambitions, especially when Canute led a fleet against the pirates of Esthonia, induced Otto, margrave of Brandenburg, to invade Pomerania, while in the following year Otto, in conjunction with Duke Adolf of Holstein, wasted the dominions of the Danophil Abodrites.
(c. 1100-1170), margrave of Brandenburg, surnamed THE Bear, was the only son of Otto the Rich, count of Ballenstedt, and Eilika, daughter of Magnus Billung, duke of Saxony.
Otto Braun (1908), who also wrote Schellings geistige Wandlungen in den Jahren 1800-1810 (1906); Rosenkranz, Schelling (1843); L.
Two of Otto Wilhelm Struve's sons have also been prominent in the world of science.
He was educated at the famous cathedral school at Magdeburg, and at the age of twenty was attached to the clerical household of the emperor Otto III.
JOHN XIV., pope from 983 to 984, successor to Benedict VII., was born at Pavia, and before his elevation to the papal chair was imperial chancellor of Otto II.
Otto died shortly after his election, when Boniface VII., on the strength of the popular feeling against the new pope, returned from Constantinople and placed John in prison, where he died either by starvation or poison.
But this is as artificial as Otto's attempt to classify the contents of the epistle under the three notes of the Iry 13 a in i.
No part of Central America contains a greater diversity of tribes, and in 1883 Otto Stoll estimated the number of spoken languages as eighteen, although east of the meridian of Lake Amatitlan the native speech has almost entirely disappeared and been replaced by Spanish.
(Guatemala, 1897); Otto Stoll, Reisen and Schilderungen aus den Jahren 1878-1883 (Leipzig, 1886); J.
The fragments of the Historical Memoirs have been edited by P. Otto (Leipziger Studien XI, 1891); see also Mailer's Fragmenta historicorum graecorum, iii.
His appeal to Otto the.
2 Leo of Vercelli, the emperor Otto III.'s chancellor, protested that the Constitutum was a forgery, but without effect.
1290), to Otto V.
In 1152 Frederick received the duchy of Swabia from his cousin the German king Frederick I., and on his death in 1167 it passed successively to Frederick's three sons Frederick, Conrad and Philip. The second Hohenstaufen emperor was Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI., after whose death a struggle for the throne took place between Henry's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
Gorz first appears distinctly in history about the close of the 10th century, as part of a district bestowed by the emperor Otto III.
He was chosen with great ceremony and installed pope under the protection of the emperor, Otto the Great.
His purpose was, as Otto Pfleiderer says, "to connect the metaphysical ideas, which had been arrived at by means of philosophical dialectic, directly with the persons and events of the Gospel narratives, thus raising these above the region of ordinary experience into that of the supernatural, and regarding the most absurd assertions as philosophically justified.
Lichtenberger, History of German Theology (1889); Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology (1890).
of Brandenburg gained, in 1343, a victory over Otto the Mild of Brunswick.
Meanwhile Otto I., the German king, whose English wife Edgitha had died in 946, had formed the design of marrying her and claiming the Italian kingdom in her right, as a step towards the revival of the empire of Charlemagne.
To her are ascribed the influences which led in 953 to the revolt of Ludolf, Otto's son by his first marriage, the crushing of which in the following year established Adelaide's power.
immediately after her husband, and she accompanied Otto in 966 on his third expedition to Italy, where she remained with him for six years.
After Otto I.'s death (May 7, 973), Adelaide exercised for some years a controlling influence over her son, the new emperor, Otto II.
In 983, shortly before his death, she was appointed his viceroy in Italy; and was successful, in concert with the empress Theophano, widow of Otto II., and Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, in defending the right of her infant grandson, Otto III., to the German crown against the pretensions of Henry the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria.
She now assumed the regency, in concert with Bishop Willigis and a council of princes of the Empire, and held it until in 995 Otto was declared of age.
Like her daughter-in-law Theophano and other exalted ladies of this period, Adelaide possessed considerable literary attainments (literatissima erat), and her knowledge of Latin was of use to Otto I., who only learned the language late in life and remained to the end a poor scholar.
By the emperor Otto I.
she had four children: Otto II.
(955-983), Roman emperor, was the son of the emperor Otto the Great, by his second wife Adelaide.
After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably owing to Otto's refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Henry II., the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria.
In 976 Otto deposed Duke Henry, restored order for the second time in Lorraine, and made another expedition into Bohemia in 977, when King Boleslaus II.
Having crushed an attempt made by Henry to regain Bavaria, Otto was suddenly attacked by Lothair, king of France, who held Aix in his possession for a few days; but when the emperor retaliated by invading France he met with little resistance.
He was next required to punish inroads of the Saracens on the Italian mainland, and in September 981 he marched into Apulia, where he met at first with considerable success; but an alliance between the Arabs and the Eastern Empire, whose hostility had been provoked by the invasion of Apulia, resulted in a severe defeat on Otto's troops near Stilo in July 982.
Proceeding to Rome, Otto secured the election of Peter of Pavia as Pope John XIV.
He left a son, afterwards the emperor Otto III., and three daughters.
Otto, who is sometimes called the "Red," was a man of small stature, by nature brave and impulsive, and by training an accomplished knight.
See Die Urkunden des Kaisers Otto II., edited by Th.
von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit (Leipzig, 1881-1890); and Jahrbiicher des deutschen Reichs unter Kaiser Otto II.
Detmer, Otto II.
Otto III >>
But in the meantime (1305) Wenceslaus transferred his rights to Duke Otto of Bavaria, who in his turn was taken prisoner by the Hungarian rebels.
See Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology (1890); and F.
Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich >>
Europe was being split up under the influence of feudalism; Christendom was assailed by the barbarians, Norsemen, Saracens and Huns; at Rome the papacy was passing into the power of the local aristocracy, with whom after Otto I.
The same was the case with the Saxon emperors (Otto I., II.
In the case of a difference of opinion between Eugenius and the Sacred College, Otto relates that the cardinals addressed to the pope this astounding protest: " Thou must know that it is by us thou hast been raised to the supreme dignity.
For ten years a Germany weakened and divided by the rivalry of Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick left his hands free to act in Italy, and his pontificate marks a period of comparative quiet in the ardent Empire* conflict between pope and emperor which continued throughout the middle ages.
Not until 1210, when Otto of Brunswick turned against the pope to whom he owed his crown, was Innocent compelled to open hostilities; and the struggle ended in a victory for the Curia.
This revolution could already be foreseen with tolerable certainty, when Urban embroiled himself even with his political friends - the queen of Naples and her husband, Duke Otto of Brunswick.
Winkelmann, Philipp von Schwaben and Otto IV.
(1886-1893), and Otto Schiff deals with his pontificate in his Studien zur Geschichte Papst Nikolaus IV.
Ledderhose, Das Leben Spangenbergs (Heidelberg, 1846); Otto Frick, Beitrage zur Lebensgeschichte A.
OTTO VON GUERICKE (1602-1686), German experimental philosopher, was born at Magdeburg, in Prussian Saxony, on the 10th of November 1602.
Hoffmann, Otto von Guericke (Magdeburg, 1874).
In 1901, Otto v.
OTTO IV.(c. 1182-1218), Roman emperor, second son of H: ry the Lion, duke of Saxony, and Matilda, daughter of Henry II., king of England, was most probably born at Argenton in ce ral France.
' fter some delay their choice fell upon Otto, who was chosen.
Hostilities broke o t at once, and Otto, who drew his main support from his hered'tary possessions in the Rhineland and Saxony, seized Aix-la-Cha s elle, and was crowned there on the 12th of July 1198.
rlier course of the war was unfavourable to Otto, whose pos tion was weakened by the death of Richard of England inkpril 1199; but his cause began to improve when Pope Inn cent III.
In 1200 an attack made by Philip on Brunswic was beaten off, the city of Worms was taken, and subsequently the aid of Ottakar I., king of Bohemia, was won for Otto.
But after a period of reverses, Otto was wounded during a fight in July 1206 and compelled to take refuge in Cologne.
Many of the supporters of hilip now made overtures to Otto, and an attempt to set up Henry I.
duke of Brabant having failed, Otto submitted to a fresh election and was chosen German king at Frankfort on the 1=th of November 1208 in the presence of a large gathering of princes.
A general reconciliation followed, which was assisted ley the betrothal of Otto to Philip's eldest daughter Beatrix, but as she was only ten years old, the marriage was deferred until the 22nd of July 1212.
The breach with Innocent soon widened, and in violation of the treaty made with the pope Otto attempted to recover for the Empire all the property which Innocent had annexed to the Church, and rewarded his supporters with large estates in the disputed territories.
A number of princes assembled at Nuremberg declared Otto deposed, and invited Frederick to fill the vacant throne.
Returning to Germany in March 1212, Otto made some headway against his enemies until the arrival of Frederick towards the close of the year.
Abel, Kaiser Otto IV.
Langerfeldt, Kaiser Otto der Vierte (Hanover, 1872); R.
Otto Of Freising >>
Otto, Die geschichtlichen Verhaltnisse der Pastoralbriefe (1860); Bertrand, Essai critique sur l'authenticite des ep. pastorales (1888); G.
(1714); Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1907), i., § i i; Abbe Marin, Les Moines de Constantinople (1897); Karl Holl, Enthusiasmus and Bussgewalt beim griechischen Monchtum (1898); Otto Zockler, Askese and Monchtum, pp. 28 5-3 0 9 (1897).
The Order of the Redeemer was founded as such in 1833 by King Otto, being a conversion of a decoration of honour instituted in 1829 by the National Assembly at Argos.
11 But, though the baptism of Vladimir (c. 956-1015) was a heavy blow to Slavonic idolatry, mission work was carried on with but partial success; and it taxed all the energies of Adalbert, bishop of Bremen, of Vicilin, bishop of Oldenburg, of Bishop Otto of Bamberg the apostle of the Pomeranians, of Adalbert the martyr-apostle of Prussia, to spread the word in that country, in Lithuania, and in the territory of the Wends.
To the right of the entrance is the tomb of Archbishop Heribert, the champion of Milanese liberty, while beside him rests Archbishop Otto Visconti, the founder of that family as a reigning house.
Otto Visconti, archbishop of Milan (1262), the victor of Desio, became lord of Milan, and founded the house of Visconti, who ruled the city - except from 1302 to 13 10 - till 1447, giving twelve lords to Milan.
The former, in the 15th century, won the Val Leventina (down which the St Gotthard train now thunders) as well as Bellinzona and the Val Blenio (though the Ossola Valley was held for a time only), while the latter added to the Val Bregaglia (which had been given to the bishop of Coire in 960 by the emperor Otto I.) the valleys of Mesocco and of Poschiavo.
Under the Carolingian monarchs it was the site of a palace, and Otto I.
Such a regency began on the 10th of June 1886, at first for King Louis II., and after the 14th of the same month for King Otto I., in the person of the prince regent Luitpold.
A similar conflict took place between Arnulf's son and successor Eberhard and Otto the Great; but Eberhard was less successful than his father, for in 938 he was driven from Bavaria, which was given by Otto with reduced privileges to the late duke's uncle, Bertold; and a count palatine in the person of Eberhard's brother Arnulf was appointed to watch the royal interests.
When Bertold died in 947 Otto conferred the duchy upon his own brother Henry, who had married Judith, a daughter of Duke Arnulf.
In 955 Henry was succeeded by his young son Henry, surnamed the Quarrelsome, who in 974 was implicated in a conspiracy against King Otto II.
The reason for this rising was that the king had granted the duchy of Swabia to Henry's enemy, Otto, a grandson of the emperor Otto the Great, and had given the new Bavarian East Mark, afterwards known as Austria, to Leopold I., count of Babenberg.
The revolt was, however, soon suppressed; but Henry, who on his escape from prison renewed his plots, was formally deposed in 976 when Bavaria was given to Otto, duke of Swabia.
In 1061 the empress Agnes, mother of and regent for the German king Henry IV., entrusted the duchy to Otto of Nordheim, who was deposed by the king in 1070, when the duchy was granted to Count Welf, a member of an influential Bavarian family.
to Otto, a member of the old Bavarian taken advantage of, and the duchy embraced an area of considerable dimensions north of the Danube.
When Otto of Wittelsbach was invested with Bavaria at Altenburg in September 1180 the duchy was bounded by the Bohmerwald, the Inn, the Alps and the Lech; and the power of the duke was practically confined to his extensiverivate domains around Wittelsbach Kelheim wittels- bachbaths.
Otto only enjoyed his new dignity for three years, and was succeeded in 1183 by his son Louis I., who took a leading part in German affairs during the earlier years of the reign of the emperor Frederick II., and was assassinated at Kelheim in September 1231.
His son Otto II., called the Illustrious, was the next duke, and his loyalty to the Hohenstaufen caused him to be placed under the papal ban, and Bavaria to be laid under an interdict.
Like his father, Otto increased the area of his lands by purchases; and he had considerably strengthened his hold upon the duchy before he died in November 1253.
The first of these divisions was made in 1255 between Louis II and Henry I, the sons of Duke Otto II, who for two years after their father's death had ruled Bavaria jointly; and by it Louis obtained the western part of the duchy, afterwards called Upper Bavaria, and Henry secured eastern or Lower Bavaria.
When he died in February 1290 Lower Bavaria was ruled by his three sons, Otto III., Louis III.
and Otto IV., and Otto, who was king of Hungary from 1305 to family of Wittelsbach, and a descendant of the counts of Scheyern.
Rupert died in 1504, and the following year an arrangement was made at the diet of Cologne by which the emperor and Philip's grandson, Otto Henry, obtained certain outlying districts, while Albert by securing the bulk of George's possessions united Bavaria under his rule.
died, followed in 1334 by his cousin Otto; and as both died without sons the whole of Lower Bavaria then passed to Henry II.
His brother, Otto I., being also insane, the regency was confirmed to Prince Luitpold.
A primitive form of frictional electrical machine was constructed about 1663 by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686).
Otto, Pflanzenand Jcigerleben auf Sumatra (Berlin, 1903) B.
In 965 the emperor Otto I.
de Otto, Corpus Apol.
The study of polymorphism has been especially pursued by Otto Lehmann, who proved that it is an almost general property; the variety of forms which a given substance may show is often great, ammonium nitrate, for instance, showing at least four of them before melting.
By the time of Otto I.
Otto Zockler's Askese and Monchtum (1897), also.
Besides these may be mentioned the church of St Pantaleon, a 13th-century structure, with a monument to Theophano, wife of the emperor Otto II.; St Cunibert, in the Byzantine-Moorish style, completed in 1248; St Maria im Capitol, the oldest church in Cologne, dedicated in 1049 by Pope Leo IX., noted for its crypt, organ and paintings; St Cecilia, St Ursula, containing the bones of that saint and, according to legend, of the 1 r,000 English virgins massacred near Cologne while on a pilgrimage to Rome; St Severin, the church of the Apostles, and that of St Andrew (1220 and 1414), which contains the remains of Albertus Magnus in a gilded shrine.
Of his successors o'ne of the most illustrious was Bruno, brother of the emperor Otto I., archbishop from 953 to 965, who was the first of the archbishops to exercise temporal jurisdiction, and was also "archduke" of Lorraine.
died in 1198 Hermann's support was purchased by the late emperor's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, but as soon as Philip's cause appeared to be weakening he transferred his allegiance to Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
After the death of Philip and the recognition of Otto he was among the princes who invited Frederick of Hohenstaufen, afterwards the emperor Frederick II., to come to Germany and assume the crown.
After the death of his first wife in 1195 Hermann married Sophia, daughter of Otto I., duke of Bavaria.
As a Biblical critic he is sometimes classed with the destructive school, but, as Otto Pfleiderer says (Development of Theology, p. 102), he "occupied as free a position as the Rationalists with regard to the literal authority of the creeds of the church, but that he sought to give their due value to the religious feelings, which the Rationalists had not done, and, with a more unfettered mind towards history, to maintain the connexion of the present life of the church with the past."
Lichtenberger, History of German Theology in the Nineteenth Century (1889); Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology (1890), pp. 97 ff.; T.
and the emperor Otto IV., and was supported by the Hospitallers.
In Saxony, for example, we hear of Duke Otto the Illustrious, who also ruled over Thuringia; and during the early years of the 10th century dukes appear id Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine.
Accordingly the nobles assembled at Forchheim, and by the advice of Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, Conrad of Franconia was chosen German king.
Before his death Henry obtained the promise of the nobles at a national assembly, or diet, at Erfurt to recognize his son ~ fh Otto as his successor, and the promise was kept, Otto e being chosen German king in July 936.
Reversing his fathers policy, Otto resolved that the dukes should act in the strictest sense as his vassals, or lose their dignities.
Otto again triumphed, and derived immense advantages from his success.
The duchy of Swabia was also brought intc Ottos family by the marriage of his son Ludolf with Dukc Hermanns daughter, and by these means Otto made himself master of the kingdom.
In the midst of these internal troubles Otto was attackec by the French king, Louis IV., who sought to regain Lorraine Ottos However, the German king was soon able to turn hi~
Otto, having profound faith in the power of the church to reconcile conquered peoples to his rule, provided for the benefit of the Danes the bishoprics of Schleswig, Ripen and Aarhus; and among those which he established for the Slays were the important bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg.
Having secured peace in Germany and begun the real conquest of the border races, Otto was by far the greatest sovereign in Europe; and, had he refused to go beyond the limits within which he had hitherto acted, it is probable ~~t~ that he would have established a united monarchy.
She appealed to Otto; other reasons called him in the same direction, and in 951 he crossed the Alps and descended into Lombardy.
Otto, who did not suspect how deep were the designs of the conspirators, paid a visit to Mairiz, where he was seized and was compelled to take certain solemn pledges which, after his escape, he repudiated.
In Lorraine, of which duchy Otto made his brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, Tb 111 administrator, his cause was triumphant; but every- wa~r.e where else dark clouds gathered over his head.
Whether or not this be the true explanation, the power of Otto was shaken to its foundations.
Lorrairn was given to Bruno; but Conrad, its former duke, aithougi thus punished, was not disgraced, for Otto needed his service~ in the war with the Magyars.
Entreated by Pope John XII., who needed a helper agains Berengar, Otto went a second time to Italy, in 961; and on this occasion he received from the pope at Rome the imperial crown.
So solemn were the associations of the imperial title that, after acquiring it, Otto probably looked for more intimate obedience from his subjects.
France was made up of a number of loosely connected lands, each with its own lord, when Germany, under Otto, was to a large extent moved by a single will, well organized and strong.
By the policy of his later years Otto did much to prepare the way for the process of disintegration which he rendered inevitable by restoring the Empire.
the Fowler secured; and, as the experience of Otto himself showed, there would have been chances of much greater centralization.
Otto gave up the practice of retaining the duchies either in his own hands or in those of relatives.
To combat the power of the princes, Otto, especially after he became emperor and looked upon himself as the protector of the church, immensely increased the importance of the prelates.
Becoming sole ruler in May 973, his troubles began in Lorraine, Otto ~ but were more serious in Bavaria, which was now a very important duchy.
Its duke, Henry, the brother of Otto I., had died in 955 and had been succeeded by a young son, Henry, whose turbulent career subsequently induced the Bavarian historian Aventinus to describe him as rixosus, or the Quarrelsome.
In 973 Burchard II., duke of Swabia, died, and the new emperor refused to give this duchy to Henry, further irritating this duke by bestowing it upon his enemy, Otto, a grandson of the emperor Otto I.
Bavaria was taken from him and given to Otto of Swabia, but it was deprived of some of its importance.
Having arrived at this settlement Otto marched against the Bohemians, but while he was away from Germany war was begun against him by Henry, the new duke of Carinthia, who, forgetting the benefits he had just received, rose to avenge the wrongs of his friend, the deposed duke Henry of Bavaria.
In his anxiety to obtain possession of southern Italy, Otto I.
had secured as a wife for his son and successor Theophano, daughter of the East Roman emperor, Romanus Otto and II., the ruler of much of southern Italy.
Otto .~ France.
As quickly as possible Otto placed himself at the head of a great army and marched to Paris, but he was compelled to retreat without taking the city, and in 980 peace was made.
At last, after an expedition against the Poles, Otto was able to fulfil the wish of his heart; he went to Italy in 980 and never ~ returned to Germany.
The Saxons were able to cope with the Danes and the German boundary was pushed forward in the south-east; but the Slays fought with such courage and success that during the reigns of the emperors Otto II.
and Otto III.
much of the work effected by the margraves Hermann Billung and Gero was undone, and nearly two centuries passed before they were driven back to the position which they had perforce occupied under Otto the Great.
About six months before his death in Rome, in December 983, Otto held a diet at Verona which was attended by many ~t of the German princes, who recognized his infant son Otto as his successor.
Otto was then taken to Germany, and after his fathers death he was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on Christmas Day 983.
In 995 Otto HI.
He had been so carefully trained in all the learning of the time that he was called the wonder of the world, and a ~,~racter certain fascination still belongs to his imaginative and of OttO.
Meanwhile Germany was suffering severely from internal disorders and from the inroads of her rude neighbors; and when in the year Iooo Otto visited his northerfl kingdom there were hopes that he would smite these enemies with the vigour of his predecessors.
But these hopes were disappointed; on the contrary, Otto seems to have released Boleslaus, duke of the Poles, from his vigue allegiance to the German kings, and he founded an archbishopric at Gnesen, thus freeing the Polish sees from the authority of the archbishop of Magdeburg.
When Otto III.
With regard to the German duchies Conrad followed the policy of Otto the Great.
In Germany itself Henry acquired, during the first ten years of his rule, an authority which had been unknown since the days of Otto the Great.
assumed the duties of government soon after the fall of Adalbert and quickly made enemies of many of the chief princes, including Otto of Nordheim, the powerful duke of Bavaria, Rudolph, duke of Swabia, and rule.
In 1073 the universal discontent found expression in a great assembly at Wormesleben, in which the leading part was taken by Otto of Nordheim, by Werner, archbishop of Magdcburg, and by Burkhard II., bishop of Halberstadt.
The Saxons again rose in arms and Otto of Nordheim succeeded in uniting the North and South German supporters of the pope.
The nation now plucked bitter fruit from the seed planted by Otto the Great in assuming the imperial crown and by a long line of kings and emperors in lavishing worldly power upon tile church.
Hermann, however, was not very successful, and when Henry returned to Ger~many in 1084 he found that his most doughty opponent, Otto of Nordheim, was dead, and that the anti-king had few friends outside Saxony.
During this reign under the lead of Otto, bishop of Bamberg (c. 1063-1139), Pomerania began to come under the influence of Germany and of Christianity.
Since the death of Otto the Great the Slavonic lands to the east of the Elbe had been very imperfectly held in subjection by the Germans.
Bavaria was granted to Otto of Wittelsbach, but it lost some of its importance because Styria was taken from it and made into a separate duchy.
This attitude Swabla was possibly owing to the fact that Frederick was and Otto young and inexperienced; it was, however, more probably due to a revival of the fear that the ~erman princes would be entangled in Italian politics.
Henry the Lions son, Otto of Brunswick, who was also chosen German king.
Otto, whose chief supporter outside Germany was his uncle Richard I.
But unfortunately for Germany the papal chair at this time was occupied by Innocent III., a pope who emulated Hildebrand in ambition and in statesmanship. At first vacillating, but by no means indifferent, Innocent was spurred to action when a number of princes met at Spires in May 1200, declared Philip to be the lawful king, and denied the right of the pope to interfere, lie was also annoyed by Philips attitude with regard to a vacancy in the archbishopric of Cologne, and in March 1201 he declared definitely for Otto.
Deserted by Ottakar and even by Adolph of Cologne and his own brother Henry, count palatine of the Rhine, Otto was forced to take refuge in Brunswick, his last line of defence, and was only saved by Philips murder, which occurred at Bamberg in June 1208.
Otto was now again chosen German king, and to aid and mark the general reconciliation he was betrothed to the murdered kings daughter Beatrix.
Having secured his coronation at Rome in October 1209, Otto repudiated the many pledges he had made to Innocent and began to act in defiance of the papal wishes.
While Otto was warring in Italy a number of influential princes met at Nuremberg, at the instigation of Innocent and of his ally Philip Augustus of France, and invited Frederick to come to Germany.
Otto then left Italy hurriedly, but he was quickly followed by his young rival, who in the warfare which had already broken out proved himself a formidable opponent.
Having made peace with Henry, count palatine of the Rhine and brother of Otto IV., and settled a dispute about the lands of the extinct family of Zahringen in the south-west Germany of the country, Frederick left Germany in August in Freder1220; engaged in his bitter contest with the Papacy icks and the Lombard cities, in ruling Sicily, and, after absence.
Before this date King Henry had begun to take a personal part in the government and was already involved in a quarrel with Otto II., duke of Bavaria.
During the confusion of the civil war carried on by Otto IV.
Otto JJ~ lands.
Persecutions for heresy had begun, the feeling between the two great religious parties being further embittered by some revelations made by Otto von Pack to Philip of Hesse.