Otto sentence example

otto
  • Louis' son, Otto the Illustrious (1206-1253), undertook the government of the Palatinate in 1228, and became duke of Bavaria in 1231.
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  • Our nailing Otto Rudman on your tip impressed the hell out of him.
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  • Otto goes to every bar around that has trivia night and drinks for free.
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  • A plumber named Otto Gruber out in Archbald listed it.
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  • Louis appears to have been previously promised this succession, and to strengthen his claim married his son, Otto, to Agnes, the sister of Henry, the count palatine, who died without heirs in 1214.
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  • In 939 Louis became involved in a struggle with the emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, the nobles of which district had sworn an oath of fidelity to the king of France.
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  • You stopped Otto's next victim from being abducted.
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  • This office existed in the German kingdom of Otto the Great, and about this time it appears to have become an appanage of the archbishopric of Mainz.
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  • Otto was descended from Luitpold, duke of Bavaria and margrave of Carinthia, who was killed in 907 fighting the Hungarians.
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  • In 938 it was given by the German king, Otto I., the Great, to Arnulf's brother, Bertold I., with greatly reduced privileges.
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  • Arnulf's younger son, Arnulf II., continued the struggle against Otto I., and sometime before his death in 954 was made count palatine in Bavaria.
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  • When Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was placed under the imperial ban in 1180, Otto's services were rewarded by the investiture of the dukedom of Bavaria at Altenburg.
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  • Otto died at Pfullendorf in 1183, and was succeeded in the duchy by his son, Louis I.
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  • At first Louis supported Otto IV.
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  • Some - for instance, Otto, the mayor of the palace of Austrasia towards 640 - were devoted to the Crown.
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  • It is rough in form and the author shows no power of discriminating between important and unimportant events; yet the chronicle is an excellent authority for the history of Saxony during the reigns of the emperors Otto III.
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  • When Louis married Gerberga, sister of Otto, and widow of Giselbert, duke of Lorraine, there seemed to be a The emperor Louis I.
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  • Menaced, however, by Louis' brother-in-law, Otto the Great, and excommunicated by the council of Ingelheim (948), the powerful vassal was forced to make submission and to restore Laon to his sovereign.
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  • Finally in 924 Lorraine passed in the reign of Henry the Fowler under German (East Frankish) overlordship. Henry's son, Otto the Great, owing to the disordered state of the country, placed it in 953 in the hands of his able brother, Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, for pacification.
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  • In 934 it was passed by the German king Henry I., after which it was extended by King Harold Bluetooth (940-986), but was again stormed by the emperor Otto II.
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  • For general information and references to the literature of the subject, see Otto ZOckler, Askese and Monchtum (1897), ii.
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  • The truth is that no period in Italian history was less really glorious than that which came to a close in 961 by Berengar II.s cession of his rights to Otto the Great.
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  • Anarchy and misery are indeed the main features of that long space of time which elapsed between the death of Charles the Great and the descent of Otto.
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  • She escaped to the castle of Canossa, where the great count of Tuscany espoused her cause, and appealed in her behalf to Otto the Saxon.
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  • In the extremity of his fortunes he had recourse himself to Otto, making a formal cession of the Italian kingdom, in his own name and that of his son Adalbert, to the Saxon as his overlord.
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  • Berengar gained nothing by his act of obedience to Otto.
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  • Otto entered Lombardy Saxon in 961, deposed Berengar, assumed the crown in San and FranAmbrogio at Milan, and in 962 was proclaimed conlan emperor by John XII.
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  • The first thing we have to notice in this revolution which placed Otto the Great upon the imperial throne is that the Italian.
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  • Otto encouraged this revolution by placing the enclosures of the chief burghs beyond the jurisdiction of the counts.
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  • The recent scandals of the papacy induced Otto to deprive the Romans of their right to elect popes.
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  • But when he died in 973, his son Otto 11.
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  • Otto III.s untimely death in 1002 introduced new discords.
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  • Their command of fleets gave them incontestable advantages, as when, for instance, Otto II.
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  • The policy thus initiated upon the precedent laid down by Otto the Great was a remedy for pressing evils.
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  • When Otto Ritschl interprets values hedonistically - recoiling from Hegel's idealism the whole way to empiricism - he brings again to our minds the doubt whether hedonist ethics can serve as a foundation for any religious belief.
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  • With his mercenaries behind him he met with some small successes in his fight for Normandy, but on the 27th of July he and his ally, the emperor Otto IV., met with a crushing defeat at Bouvines at the hands of Philip Augustus, and even the king himself was compelled to recognise that his hopes of recovering Normandy were at an end.
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  • A strong opposition was quickly aroused, and when Theophano and Adelaide, widow of the emperor Otto the Great, appeared in Germany, Henry was compelled to hand over the young king to his mother.
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  • Otto's mental gifts were considerable, and were so carefully cultivated by Bernward, afterwards bishop of Hildesheim, and by Gerbert of Aurillac, archbishop of Reims, that he was called "the wonder of the world."
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  • Having accompanied his troops in expeditions against the Bohemians and the Wends, Otto was declared of age in 995.
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  • Before he reached Rome, Pope John XV., who had invited him to Italy, had died, whereupon he raised his own cousin Bruno, son of Otto duke of Carinthia, to the papal chair as Pope Gregory V., and by this pontiff Otto was crowned emperor on the 21st of May 996.
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  • Leaving his aunt, Matilda, abbess of Quedlinburg, as regent of Germany, Otto, in February 99 8, led Gregory back to Rome, took the castle of St Angelo by storm and put Crescentius to death.
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  • A visit to southern Italy, where many of the princes did homage to the emperor, was cut short by the death of the pope, to whose chair Otto then appointed his former tutor Gerbert, who took the name of Sylvester II.
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  • In the palace which he built on the Aventine, Otto sought to surround himself with the splendour and ceremonial of the older emperors of Rome, and dreamed of making Rome once more the centre of a universal empire.
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  • Returning to Rome, trouble soon arose between Otto and the citizens, and for three days the emperor was besieged in his palace.
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  • Troops were collected, but whilst conducting a campaign against the Romans, Otto died at Paterno near Viterbo on the 23rd of January 1002, and was buried in the cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle.
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  • This was captured in 949 by the emperor Otto I.
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  • To the west lie the small groups of coral islets - Mopiha (Lord Howe), Ura (Scilly) and Bellingshausen (discovered by Otto von Kotzebue, 1824).
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  • The mines were visited some years ago by Dr Fritz Noetling, and the mineral has been described by Dr Otto Helm.
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  • After being almost entirely wrecked by Norman raiders it was rebuilt, on the original lines, in 983, by the emperor Otto III.
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  • Underneath the dome, according to tradition, was the tomb of Charlemagne, which, on being opened by Otto III.
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  • The Gothic choir, forming the more modern portion of the cathedral, was added during the latter half of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, and contains the tomb of the emperor Otto III.
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  • Falling into disgrace with Berengar on his return, he attached himself to the emperor Otto I., whom in 961 he accompanied into Italy, and by whom in 962 he was made bishop of Cremona.
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  • He was frequently employed in missions to the pope, and in 968 to Constantinople to demand for the younger Otto (afterwards Otto II.) the hand of Theophano, daughter of the emperor Nicephorus Phocas.
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  • Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
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  • Valdemar's position was still further strengthened when Frederick II., the successful rival of Otto IV., was, in 1215, crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle.
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  • An attempt by Otto in 1215 to recover Northalbingia was easily frustrated by Valdemar, who henceforth devoted himself to the extension of the Danish empire over the eastern Baltic shores.
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  • Subsequent explorers were Captain Edwards of the "Pandora" in 1791, and Otto von Kotzebue in 1824.
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  • The New Palace (1698-1704) was formerly occupied by the prince-bishops, and from 1864 to 1867 by the deposed King Otto of Greece.
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  • Goslar is believed to have been founded by Henry the Fowler about 920, and when in the time of Otto the Great the mineral treasures in the neighbourhood were discovered it increased rapidly in prosperity.
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  • In the same district bamboos, ramie-fibre and attar (otto) of roses are cultivated.
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  • In 1553 he became physician to the count of Henneberg, Saxe-Meiningen, and in 1558 held the same post with the elector-palatine, Otto Heinrich, being at the same time professor of medicine at Heidelberg.
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  • His guiding principle in treating both of the history and of the present condition of the church was - that Christianity has room for the various tendencies of human nature, and aims at permeating and glorifying them all; that according to the divine plan these various tendencies are to occur successively and simultaneously and to counterbalance each other, so that the freedom and variety of the development of the spiritual life ought not to be forced into a single dogmatic form" (Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 280).
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  • In the 10th century the duchy of Burgundy fell into the hands of Hugh the Great, father of Hugh Capet, on whose death in 956 it passed to his son Otto, and, in 965, to his son Henry.
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  • At St Paul's the legatine constitutions of Otto were published in a synod of 1237, those of Ottobon in 1268: these were the most important national councils held after the independence of York had been established.
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  • His Christliche Dogmatik (3 vols., 1849-1852, new edition, 1870) "contains many fruitful and suggestive thoughts, which, however, are hidden under such a mass of bold figures and strange fancies, and suffer so much from want of clearness of presentation, that they did not produce any lasting effect" (Otto Pfleiderer).
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  • The importance of ascertaining the proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto Tachenius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis.
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  • Like other parts of Germany during the 9th century Hesse felt the absence of a strong central power, and, before the time of the emperor Otto the Great, several counts, among whom were Giso and Werner, had made themselves practically independent; but after the accession of Otto in 936 the land quietly accepted the yoke of the medieval emperors.
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  • It is said to have been founded by the emperor Otto the Great, but the present building was begun in the 13th century and was completed about 1450.
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  • This was ultimately expanded, after the fall of the Wellington ministry, into the Treaty of London of the 7th of May 1832, by which Greece was made an independent kingdom under the Bavarian prince Otto.
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  • In 1885 he published, after long indecision, his volume of poems, A Child's Garden of Verses, an inferior story, The Body Snatcher, and that admirable romance, Prince Otto, in which the peculiar quality of Stevenson's style was displayed at its highest.
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  • An interesting example is the discussion, by Otto Pettersson, of the effects of long-range fluctuations in the tidegenerating force: this memoir was published about 1914, but has only recently become available to English readers.
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  • Trautenau was founded by German colonists invited to settle there by King Otto Kar II.
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  • Denkwiirdigkeiten des Ministers Otto Frhr.
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  • In 1843 he was appointed professor of philology at Kiel and director of the archaeological museum founded by himself in co-operation with Otto Jahn.
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  • Conrad, called the Great, extended the boundaries of Meissen before abdicating in 1156 in favour of his son Otto, known as the Rich.
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  • Otto appointed his younger son Dietrich as his successor and was attacked and taken prisoner by his elder son Albert; but, after obtaining his release by order of the emperor Frederick I., he had only just renewed the war when he died in 1190.
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  • Otto was succeeded by his son Albert, called the Proud, who was engaged in warfare with his brother Dietrich until his death in 1195.
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  • In 1695 the boy Holberg was taken into the house of his uncle, Peder Lem, who sent him to the Latin school, and prepared him for the profession of a soldier; but soon after this he was adopted by his cousin Otto Munthe, and went to him up in the mountains.
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  • In company with his two patrons Gerbert visited Rome, where the pope, hearing of his proficiency in music and astronomy, induced him to remain in Italy, and introduced him to the emperor Otto I.
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  • According to this writer Gerbert's fame began to spread over Gaul, Germany and Italy, till it roused the envy of Otric of Saxony, in whom we may recognize Octricus of Magdeburg, the favourite scholar of Otto I., and, in earlier days, the instructor of St Adalbert, the apostle of the Bohemians.
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  • Otric, suspecting that Gerbert erred in his classification of the sciences, sent one of his own pupils to Reims to take notes of his lectures, and, finding his suspicions correct, accused him of his error before Otto II.
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  • Notwithstanding this, the influence of the empress Theophana, mother of Otto III., secured the appointment for Arnulf, a bastard son of Lothair.
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  • We may surmise that Gerbert left France towards the end of 995, as he was present at Otto III.'s coronation at Rome on the 2rst of May 996.
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  • Somewhat later he became Otto's instructor in arithmetic, and had been appointed archbishop of Ravenna before May 998.
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  • All Gerbert's dreams for the advancement of church and empire were cut short by the death of Otto III., on the 4th of February 1002; and this event was followed a year later by the death of the pope himself, which took place on the r 2th of May 1003.
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  • More extraordinary still was his knowledge of music - an accomplishment which seems to have been his earliest recommendation to Otto I.
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  • After the latter's death in 1197 he assisted his own brother Otto, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., in his attempts to gain the German throne.
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  • Otto refused to reward Henry for this support, so in 1204 he assisted his rival, the German king Philip., but returned to Otto's side after Philip's murder in 1208.
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  • The Palatinate was ruled by Louis of Bavaria on behalf of his son until 1228, when it passed to Otto who ruled until his death in 12J3.
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  • Otto's possessions were soon afterwards divided, and his elder son Louis II.
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  • In 1400 Rupert was elected German king, and when he died in 1410 his possessions were divided among his four sons: the eldest, Louis III., received the Rhenish Palatinate proper; the second son, John, obtained the upper Palatinate; while the outlying districts of Zweibriicken and Simmern passed to Stephen, and that of Mosbach to Otto.
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  • It was Frederick, count palatine of Simmern, who succeeded to the Palatinate on Otto Henry's death, becoming the elector Frederick III.
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  • Bottger of Frankfort and Otto and Knop, all of whom added to our knowledge of the subject, the last-named introducing the use of sulphuric along with nitric acid in the nitration process.
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  • Leopold, who probably received the mark as a reward for his fidelity to the emperor Otto II.
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  • One of Leopold's sons was Otto, bishop of Freising.
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  • Charles's first wife was Blanche, daughter of Otto IV., count of Burgundy, and of Matilda (Mahaut), countess of Artois, to whom he was married in 1307.
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  • The invention of the mechanical air-pump is generally attributed to Otto von Guericke, consul of Magdeburg, who exhibited his instrument in 1654; it was first described in 1657 by Gaspar Schott, professor of mathematics at Wurttemberg, in his NI echanica hydraulico-pneumatica, and afterwards (in 1672) by Guericke in his Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacus spatia.
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  • In 1699 he began to publish his largest work, described by Tolstoy (The Kingdom of God is within You, chap. iii.) as "remarkable, although little known," Unparteiische Kirchenand Ketzerhistorie, in which he has been thought by some to show more impartiality towards heresy than towards the Church (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 277).
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  • His sister Eadgifu married Charles the Simple, Eadhild became the wife of Hugh the Great, duke of France, Eadgyth was married to the emperor Otto the Great, and her sister Elfgifu to a petty German prince.
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  • In 995 he was sent by Otto III.
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  • The arrival of Otto at Rome in the spring of 998 put a sudden end to the teacherous compact.
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  • Aschersleben was probably founded in the 11th century by Count Esico of Ballenstedt, the ancestor of the house of Anhalt, whose grandson, Otto, called himself count of Ascania and Aschersleben, deriving the former part of the title from his castle in the neighbourhood of the town.
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  • Although a large part of the people disliked the idea of a conflict with the church, an alliance with Florence's old enemy Bernabo Visconti was made, war declared, and a balia of 8, the Otto della guerra (afterwards called the "Eight Saints" on account of their good management) was created to carry on the campaign.
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  • Savonarola also proposed a court of appeal for criminal and political crimes tried by the Otto di guardia e balia; this too was agreed to, but the right of appeal was to be, not to a court as Savonarola suggested, but to the Greater Council, a fact which led to grave abuses, as judicial appeals became subject to party passions.
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  • However this may be, Henry named Otto his successor, and after his death in July 936 Otto was chosen German king and crowned by Hildebert, archbishop of Mainz.
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  • Otto soon showed his intention of breaking with the policy of his father, who had been content with a nominal superiority over the duchies; in 937 he punished Eberhard, duke of Franconia, for an alleged infringement of the royal authority; and in 938 deposed Eberhard, who had recently become duke of Bavaria.
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  • Trouble soon arose in Saxony, probably owing to Otto's refusal to give certain lands to his half-brother, Thankmar, who, although the king's senior, had been passed over in the succession as illegitimate.
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  • Thankmar, aided by an influential Saxon noble named Wichmann, and by Eberhard of Franconia, seized the fortress of Eresburg and took Otto's brother Henry prisoner; but soon afterwards he was defeated by the king and killed whilst taking sanctuary.
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  • Otto gained a victory near Xanten, which was followed by the surrender of the fortresses held by his brother's adherents in Saxony, but the rebels, joined by Eberhard of Franconia and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz continued the struggle, and Giselbert of Lorraine transferred his allegiance to Louis IV., king of France.
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  • Otto's precarious position was saved by a victory near Andernach when Eberhard was killed, and Giselbert drowned in the subsequent flight.
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  • Otto therefore crossed the Rhine and deprived his brother of authority.
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  • The deaths of Giselbert of Lorraine and of Eberhard of Franconia, quickly followed by those of two other dukes, enabled Otto to unite the stem-duchies more closely with the royal house.
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  • In 944 Lorraine was given to Conrad, surnamed the Red, who in 947 married the king's daughter Liutgard; Franconia was retained by Otto in his own hands; Henry married a daughter of Arnulf, duke of Bavaria, and received that duchy in 947; and Swabia came in 949 to the king's son Ludolf, who had married Ida, a daughter of the late duke, Hermann.
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  • Afterwards, when Louis became a prisoner in the hands of his powerful vassal Hugh the Great, duke of France, Otto attacked the duke, who, like the king, was his brother-in-law, captured Reims, and negotiated a peace between the two princes; and in subsequent struggles between them his authority was several times invoked.
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  • In 945 Berengar I., margrave of Ivrea, left the court of Otto and returned to Italy, where he soon obtained a mastery over the country.
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  • In response to an appeal from Adelaide, Otto crossed the Alps in 951.
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  • But when Otto returned to Germany in 952 he was followed by Berengar, who did homage for Italy at Augsburg.
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  • The chief advisers of Otto at this time were his wife and his brother Henry.
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  • When Adelaide bore a son, and a report gained currency that Otto intended to make this child his heir, Ludolf rose in revolt and was joined by Conrad of Lorraine and Frederick of Mainz.
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  • Otto fell into the power of the rebels at Mainz and was compelled to agree to demands made by them, which, however, he promptly revoked on his return to Saxony.
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  • Otto failed to take Mainz and Augsburg; but an attempt on the part of Conrad and Ludolf to gain support from the Magyars, who had seized the opportunity to invade Bavaria, alienated many of their supporters.
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  • Otto's brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, was successful in restoring the royal authority in Lorraine, so that when Conrad and Frederick soon afterwards submitted to Otto, the struggle was confined to Bavaria.
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  • Otto marched against them, and in a battle fought on the Lechfeld on the 10th of August 955 the king's troops gained a brilliant victory which completely freed Germany from these invaders; while in the same year Otto also defeated the Sla y s who had been ravaging the Saxon frontier.
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  • Lands and privileges were granted to prelates, additional bishoprics were founded, and some years later Magdeburg was made the seat of an archbishop. In 960 Otto was invited to come to Italy by Pope John XII., who was hard pressed by Berengar, and he began to make preparations for the journey.
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  • As Ludolf had died in 957 and Otto, his only son by Adelaide, had been chosen king at Worms, the government was entrusted to Bruno of Cologne, and Archbishop William of Mainz, a natural son of the king.
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  • But as he did not long observe his oath he was deposed at a synod held in St Peter's, after Otto had compelled the Romans to swear they would elect no pope without the imperial consent; and a nominee of the emperor, who took the name of Leo VIII., was chosen in his stead.
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  • A pestilence drove Otto to Germany in 965, and finding the Romans again in arms on his return in 966, he allowed his soldiers to sack the city, and severely punished the leaders of the rebellion.
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  • Otto had untiring perseverance and relentless energy.
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  • The Roman empire of the German nation was indeed less universal and less theocratic under Otto, its restorer, than under Charlemagne, but what it lacked in splendour it gained in stability.
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  • Otto was of tall and commanding presence, and although subject to violent bursts of passion, was liberal to his friends and just to his enemies.
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  • Dummler, Jahrbacher des deutschen Reichs unter Otto I.
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  • While professor of morals at Leipzig, Otto Mencke planned the Acta eruditorum, with a view to make known, by means of analyses, extracts and reviews, the new works produced throughout Europe.
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  • See also Bismarck, Reflections and Reminiscences; Rennell Rodd, Frederick, Crown Prince and Emperor (1888); Gustav Freytag, Der Kronprinz and die deutsche Kaiserkrone (1889; English translation, 1890); Otto Richter, Kaiser Friedrich III.
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  • It has broad streets and low houses, but is architecturally unattractive, like most of the creations of the time of King Otto.
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  • Until the 19th century Assen was a small place built round the convent in which Otto II.
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  • Recognizing a supernatural element in the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of reason in the interpretation of its dogmas (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, pp. 89 ff.).
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  • In the year 1000 his tomb was opened by the emperor Otto III., but the account that Otto found the body upright upon a throne with a golden crown on the head and holding a golden sceptre in the hands, is generally regarded as legendary.
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  • Otto the Great to a considerable extent succeeded; Louis XIV.
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  • The first mention of Prester John occurs in the chronicle of Otto, bishop of Freisingen.
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  • In this event - the defeat of Sanjar, whose brother's son, Mas'ud, reigned over western Persia - occurring four years before the story of the Eastern conqueror was told at Rome to Bishop Otto, we seem to have the destruction of the Samiardi fratres or Sanjar brothers, which was the germ of the story of Prester John.
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  • Brown and by Wilfred Powell, and in 1882 Dr Otto Finsch, whose name is well known in connexion with scientific work in New Guinea, made valuable explorations in the neighbourhood of Port Moresby and the Loluki river.
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  • Moreover, in the wars of king Lothaire against the Normans and against the emperor Otto II.
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  • The position and influence of Lothair in Saxony, already considerable, was increased when in 1 ioo he married Richenza, daughter of Henry, count of Nordheim, who became an heiress on her father's death in 1101, and inherited other estates when her brother Otto died childless in 1116.
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  • Lothair was a strong and capable ruler, who has been described as the "imitator and heir of the first Otto."
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  • The main authorities for the life and reign of Lothair are: "Vita Norberti archiepiscopi Magdeburgensis"; Otto von Freising, "Chronicon Annalista Saxo" and "Narratio de electione Lotharii" all in the Monumenta Germaniae historica.
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  • Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.
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  • In 1345 it became a fief of the landgraves of Thuringia, to whom it escheated in 1385 with the extinction of the line of Otto III.
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  • Its chief buildings are the Johannisburg, built (1605-1614) by Archbishop Schweikard of Cronberg, which contains a library with a number of incunabula, a collection of engravings and paintings; .the Stiftskirche, or cathedral, founded in 980 by Otto of Bavaria, but dating in the main from the early 12th and the 13th centuries, in which are preserved various monuments by the Vischers, and a sarcophagus, with the relics of St Margaret (1540); the Capuchin hospital; a theatre, which was formerly the house of the Teutonic order; and several mansions of the German nobility.
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  • At the battle of Caporetto, Badoglio commanded the same corps, the left wing of which was broken by Otto von Below's attack from the Tolmino bridgehead.
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  • Liudolf's second son, Otto the Illustrious, was recognized as duke of Saxony by King Conrad I., and on the death of Burkhard, margrave of Thuringia in 908, obtained authority over that country also.
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  • Henry's son, Otto the Great, was crowned emperor in 962, and his descendants held this dignity until the death of the emperor Otto III.
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  • Otto retained Saxony in his own hands for a time, though in 938 he had some difficulty in suppressing a revolt led by his half-brother Thankmar.
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  • In 960 Otto gave to a trusted relative Hermann, afterwards called Billung, certain duties and privileges on the eastern frontier, and from time to time appointed him as his representative in Saxony.
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  • In 1070 Otto of Nordheim, duke of Bavaria, who held large estates in this country, being accused of a plot to murder Henry, was placed under the ban, his possessions were declared forfeited and his estates plundered.
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  • Otto, in alliance with Magnus, won considerable support in Saxony, but after some fighting both submitted and were imprisoned; and Magnus was still in confinement when on his father's death in 1072 he became titular duke of Saxony.
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  • When the insurgents under Duke Otto were joined by the Thuringians, Henry was compelled in 1074 to release Magnus and to make a number of concessions as the price of the peace of Gerstungen; which, however, was short-lived, as the peasants employed in pursuance of its terms in demolishing the forts, desecrated the churches and violated the ducal tombs.
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  • Henry, having obtained help from the princes of the Rhineland, attacked and defeated the Saxons at Hohenburg near Langensalza, rebuilt the forts, and pardoned Otto, whom he appointed administrator of the country.
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  • The Bergstadt was fortified by Otto III.
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  • In 849 King Louis the German recognized Thakulf as duke (dux Sorabici limitis), and some of his successors bore the title of margrave until the death of Burkhard in 908, when the country was seized by Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony.
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  • Thuringia was retained by Otto's son and successor, Henry I.
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  • It appears to have been united with Meissen for some time, and this was certainly the case from 1046 to 1067, when both countries were ruled by William and Otto, counts of Weimar.
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  • He was succeeded by his brother Hermann I., during whose reign Thuringia suffered greatly from the ravages of the adherents of Philip, duke of Swabia, and also from those of his rival Otto of Brunswick.
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  • Otto Brunfels, a physician of Bern, has been looked upon as the restorer of the science in Europe.
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  • Of the many historians of the middle ages, besides the authors of biographies, chronicles, cloister annals, &c., may be mentioned Haymo, Anastasius, Adam of Bremen, Ordericus Vitalis, Honorius of Autun, Otto of Freising, Vincent of Beauvais and Antoninus of Florence.
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  • It has afforded material for several dramas, and Adolf Bottger, Friedrich Hebbel and Otto Ludwig have each written one entitled Agnes Bernauer.
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  • Even before Otto left Rome the pope had, however, repented of his recognition of a power which threatened altogether to overshadow his authority, and had begun to conspire against the new emperor.
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  • His intrigues were discovered by Otto, who, after he had defeated and taken prisoner Berengar, returned to Rome and summoned a council which deposed John, who was in hiding in the mountains of Campania, and elected Leo VIII.
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  • An attempt at an insurrection was made by the inhabitants of Rome even before Otto left the city, and on his departure John returned at the head of a formidable company of friends and retainers, and caused Leo to seek safety in immediate flight.
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  • Boleslaus was also the first Polish prince to bear the royal title, which seems to have been conferred upon him by Otto III.
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  • Boleslaus III., moreover, with the aid of St Otto, bishop of Bamberg, succeeded in converting the heathen Pomeranians (1124-1128), and making head against paganism generally.
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  • Although defeated near Frankfort in August 1246 by the anti-king, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, he obtained help from the towns and from his father-in-law Otto II., duke of Bavaria, and drove Henry Raspe to Thuringia.
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  • In the 10th century learning flourished at Aachen under Bruno, brother of Otto I.
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  • The matter was decided by one of the Swedish couriers, Baron Karl Otto Morner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte.
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  • He was followed by Otto von Kotzebue (1816) and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (1819-1821).
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  • In 1197, however, German jealousy of Denmark's ambitions, especially when Canute led a fleet against the pirates of Esthonia, induced Otto, margrave of Brandenburg, to invade Pomerania, while in the following year Otto, in conjunction with Duke Adolf of Holstein, wasted the dominions of the Danophil Abodrites.
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  • Two of Otto Wilhelm Struve's sons have also been prominent in the world of science.
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  • He was educated at the famous cathedral school at Magdeburg, and at the age of twenty was attached to the clerical household of the emperor Otto III.
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  • Otto died shortly after his election, when Boniface VII., on the strength of the popular feeling against the new pope, returned from Constantinople and placed John in prison, where he died either by starvation or poison.
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  • But this is as artificial as Otto's attempt to classify the contents of the epistle under the three notes of the Iry 13 a in i.
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  • No part of Central America contains a greater diversity of tribes, and in 1883 Otto Stoll estimated the number of spoken languages as eighteen, although east of the meridian of Lake Amatitlan the native speech has almost entirely disappeared and been replaced by Spanish.
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  • The fragments of the Historical Memoirs have been edited by P. Otto (Leipziger Studien XI, 1891); see also Mailer's Fragmenta historicorum graecorum, iii.
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  • In 1152 Frederick received the duchy of Swabia from his cousin the German king Frederick I., and on his death in 1167 it passed successively to Frederick's three sons Frederick, Conrad and Philip. The second Hohenstaufen emperor was Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI., after whose death a struggle for the throne took place between Henry's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
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  • Gorz first appears distinctly in history about the close of the 10th century, as part of a district bestowed by the emperor Otto III.
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  • He was chosen with great ceremony and installed pope under the protection of the emperor, Otto the Great.
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  • His purpose was, as Otto Pfleiderer says, "to connect the metaphysical ideas, which had been arrived at by means of philosophical dialectic, directly with the persons and events of the Gospel narratives, thus raising these above the region of ordinary experience into that of the supernatural, and regarding the most absurd assertions as philosophically justified.
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  • Meanwhile Otto I., the German king, whose English wife Edgitha had died in 946, had formed the design of marrying her and claiming the Italian kingdom in her right, as a step towards the revival of the empire of Charlemagne.
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  • To her are ascribed the influences which led in 953 to the revolt of Ludolf, Otto's son by his first marriage, the crushing of which in the following year established Adelaide's power.
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  • After Otto I.'s death (May 7, 973), Adelaide exercised for some years a controlling influence over her son, the new emperor, Otto II.
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  • In 983, shortly before his death, she was appointed his viceroy in Italy; and was successful, in concert with the empress Theophano, widow of Otto II., and Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, in defending the right of her infant grandson, Otto III., to the German crown against the pretensions of Henry the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria.
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  • She now assumed the regency, in concert with Bishop Willigis and a council of princes of the Empire, and held it until in 995 Otto was declared of age.
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  • Like her daughter-in-law Theophano and other exalted ladies of this period, Adelaide possessed considerable literary attainments (literatissima erat), and her knowledge of Latin was of use to Otto I., who only learned the language late in life and remained to the end a poor scholar.
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  • After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably owing to Otto's refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Henry II., the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria.
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  • In 976 Otto deposed Duke Henry, restored order for the second time in Lorraine, and made another expedition into Bohemia in 977, when King Boleslaus II.
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  • Having crushed an attempt made by Henry to regain Bavaria, Otto was suddenly attacked by Lothair, king of France, who held Aix in his possession for a few days; but when the emperor retaliated by invading France he met with little resistance.
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  • He was next required to punish inroads of the Saracens on the Italian mainland, and in September 981 he marched into Apulia, where he met at first with considerable success; but an alliance between the Arabs and the Eastern Empire, whose hostility had been provoked by the invasion of Apulia, resulted in a severe defeat on Otto's troops near Stilo in July 982.
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  • Proceeding to Rome, Otto secured the election of Peter of Pavia as Pope John XIV.
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  • He left a son, afterwards the emperor Otto III., and three daughters.
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  • Otto, who is sometimes called the "Red," was a man of small stature, by nature brave and impulsive, and by training an accomplished knight.
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  • See Die Urkunden des Kaisers Otto II., edited by Th.
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  • But in the meantime (1305) Wenceslaus transferred his rights to Duke Otto of Bavaria, who in his turn was taken prisoner by the Hungarian rebels.
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  • Europe was being split up under the influence of feudalism; Christendom was assailed by the barbarians, Norsemen, Saracens and Huns; at Rome the papacy was passing into the power of the local aristocracy, with whom after Otto I.
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  • In the case of a difference of opinion between Eugenius and the Sacred College, Otto relates that the cardinals addressed to the pope this astounding protest: " Thou must know that it is by us thou hast been raised to the supreme dignity.
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  • For ten years a Germany weakened and divided by the rivalry of Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick left his hands free to act in Italy, and his pontificate marks a period of comparative quiet in the ardent Empire* conflict between pope and emperor which continued throughout the middle ages.
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  • Not until 1210, when Otto of Brunswick turned against the pope to whom he owed his crown, was Innocent compelled to open hostilities; and the struggle ended in a victory for the Curia.
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  • This revolution could already be foreseen with tolerable certainty, when Urban embroiled himself even with his political friends - the queen of Naples and her husband, Duke Otto of Brunswick.
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  • Hostilities broke o t at once, and Otto, who drew his main support from his hered'tary possessions in the Rhineland and Saxony, seized Aix-la-Cha s elle, and was crowned there on the 12th of July 1198.
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  • In 1200 an attack made by Philip on Brunswic was beaten off, the city of Worms was taken, and subsequently the aid of Ottakar I., king of Bohemia, was won for Otto.
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  • But after a period of reverses, Otto was wounded during a fight in July 1206 and compelled to take refuge in Cologne.
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  • Many of the supporters of hilip now made overtures to Otto, and an attempt to set up Henry I.
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  • A general reconciliation followed, which was assisted ley the betrothal of Otto to Philip's eldest daughter Beatrix, but as she was only ten years old, the marriage was deferred until the 22nd of July 1212.
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  • The breach with Innocent soon widened, and in violation of the treaty made with the pope Otto attempted to recover for the Empire all the property which Innocent had annexed to the Church, and rewarded his supporters with large estates in the disputed territories.
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  • A number of princes assembled at Nuremberg declared Otto deposed, and invited Frederick to fill the vacant throne.
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  • Returning to Germany in March 1212, Otto made some headway against his enemies until the arrival of Frederick towards the close of the year.
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  • The Order of the Redeemer was founded as such in 1833 by King Otto, being a conversion of a decoration of honour instituted in 1829 by the National Assembly at Argos.
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  • To the right of the entrance is the tomb of Archbishop Heribert, the champion of Milanese liberty, while beside him rests Archbishop Otto Visconti, the founder of that family as a reigning house.
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  • Otto Visconti, archbishop of Milan (1262), the victor of Desio, became lord of Milan, and founded the house of Visconti, who ruled the city - except from 1302 to 13 10 - till 1447, giving twelve lords to Milan.
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  • The former, in the 15th century, won the Val Leventina (down which the St Gotthard train now thunders) as well as Bellinzona and the Val Blenio (though the Ossola Valley was held for a time only), while the latter added to the Val Bregaglia (which had been given to the bishop of Coire in 960 by the emperor Otto I.) the valleys of Mesocco and of Poschiavo.
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  • Under the Carolingian monarchs it was the site of a palace, and Otto I.
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  • Such a regency began on the 10th of June 1886, at first for King Louis II., and after the 14th of the same month for King Otto I., in the person of the prince regent Luitpold.
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  • A similar conflict took place between Arnulf's son and successor Eberhard and Otto the Great; but Eberhard was less successful than his father, for in 938 he was driven from Bavaria, which was given by Otto with reduced privileges to the late duke's uncle, Bertold; and a count palatine in the person of Eberhard's brother Arnulf was appointed to watch the royal interests.
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  • When Bertold died in 947 Otto conferred the duchy upon his own brother Henry, who had married Judith, a daughter of Duke Arnulf.
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  • In 955 Henry was succeeded by his young son Henry, surnamed the Quarrelsome, who in 974 was implicated in a conspiracy against King Otto II.
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  • The reason for this rising was that the king had granted the duchy of Swabia to Henry's enemy, Otto, a grandson of the emperor Otto the Great, and had given the new Bavarian East Mark, afterwards known as Austria, to Leopold I., count of Babenberg.
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  • The revolt was, however, soon suppressed; but Henry, who on his escape from prison renewed his plots, was formally deposed in 976 when Bavaria was given to Otto, duke of Swabia.
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  • In 1061 the empress Agnes, mother of and regent for the German king Henry IV., entrusted the duchy to Otto of Nordheim, who was deposed by the king in 1070, when the duchy was granted to Count Welf, a member of an influential Bavarian family.
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  • When Otto of Wittelsbach was invested with Bavaria at Altenburg in September 1180 the duchy was bounded by the Bohmerwald, the Inn, the Alps and the Lech; and the power of the duke was practically confined to his extensiverivate domains around Wittelsbach Kelheim wittels- bachbaths.
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  • Otto only enjoyed his new dignity for three years, and was succeeded in 1183 by his son Louis I., who took a leading part in German affairs during the earlier years of the reign of the emperor Frederick II., and was assassinated at Kelheim in September 1231.
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  • His son Otto II., called the Illustrious, was the next duke, and his loyalty to the Hohenstaufen caused him to be placed under the papal ban, and Bavaria to be laid under an interdict.
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  • Like his father, Otto increased the area of his lands by purchases; and he had considerably strengthened his hold upon the duchy before he died in November 1253.
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  • The first of these divisions was made in 1255 between Louis II and Henry I, the sons of Duke Otto II, who for two years after their father's death had ruled Bavaria jointly; and by it Louis obtained the western part of the duchy, afterwards called Upper Bavaria, and Henry secured eastern or Lower Bavaria.
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  • When he died in February 1290 Lower Bavaria was ruled by his three sons, Otto III., Louis III.
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  • Rupert died in 1504, and the following year an arrangement was made at the diet of Cologne by which the emperor and Philip's grandson, Otto Henry, obtained certain outlying districts, while Albert by securing the bulk of George's possessions united Bavaria under his rule.
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  • His brother, Otto I., being also insane, the regency was confirmed to Prince Luitpold.
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  • A primitive form of frictional electrical machine was constructed about 1663 by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686).
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  • The study of polymorphism has been especially pursued by Otto Lehmann, who proved that it is an almost general property; the variety of forms which a given substance may show is often great, ammonium nitrate, for instance, showing at least four of them before melting.
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  • Besides these may be mentioned the church of St Pantaleon, a 13th-century structure, with a monument to Theophano, wife of the emperor Otto II.; St Cunibert, in the Byzantine-Moorish style, completed in 1248; St Maria im Capitol, the oldest church in Cologne, dedicated in 1049 by Pope Leo IX., noted for its crypt, organ and paintings; St Cecilia, St Ursula, containing the bones of that saint and, according to legend, of the 1 r,000 English virgins massacred near Cologne while on a pilgrimage to Rome; St Severin, the church of the Apostles, and that of St Andrew (1220 and 1414), which contains the remains of Albertus Magnus in a gilded shrine.
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  • Of his successors o'ne of the most illustrious was Bruno, brother of the emperor Otto I., archbishop from 953 to 965, who was the first of the archbishops to exercise temporal jurisdiction, and was also "archduke" of Lorraine.
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  • After the death of Philip and the recognition of Otto he was among the princes who invited Frederick of Hohenstaufen, afterwards the emperor Frederick II., to come to Germany and assume the crown.
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  • After the death of his first wife in 1195 Hermann married Sophia, daughter of Otto I., duke of Bavaria.
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  • As a Biblical critic he is sometimes classed with the destructive school, but, as Otto Pfleiderer says (Development of Theology, p. 102), he "occupied as free a position as the Rationalists with regard to the literal authority of the creeds of the church, but that he sought to give their due value to the religious feelings, which the Rationalists had not done, and, with a more unfettered mind towards history, to maintain the connexion of the present life of the church with the past."
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  • In Saxony, for example, we hear of Duke Otto the Illustrious, who also ruled over Thuringia; and during the early years of the 10th century dukes appear id Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine.
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  • Accordingly the nobles assembled at Forchheim, and by the advice of Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, Conrad of Franconia was chosen German king.
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  • Reversing his fathers policy, Otto resolved that the dukes should act in the strictest sense as his vassals, or lose their dignities.
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  • Otto again triumphed, and derived immense advantages from his success.
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  • The duchy of Swabia was also brought intc Ottos family by the marriage of his son Ludolf with Dukc Hermanns daughter, and by these means Otto made himself master of the kingdom.
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  • Otto, having profound faith in the power of the church to reconcile conquered peoples to his rule, provided for the benefit of the Danes the bishoprics of Schleswig, Ripen and Aarhus; and among those which he established for the Slays were the important bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg.
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  • She appealed to Otto; other reasons called him in the same direction, and in 951 he crossed the Alps and descended into Lombardy.
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  • Otto, who did not suspect how deep were the designs of the conspirators, paid a visit to Mairiz, where he was seized and was compelled to take certain solemn pledges which, after his escape, he repudiated.
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  • Whether or not this be the true explanation, the power of Otto was shaken to its foundations.
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  • Entreated by Pope John XII., who needed a helper agains Berengar, Otto went a second time to Italy, in 961; and on this occasion he received from the pope at Rome the imperial crown.
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  • So solemn were the associations of the imperial title that, after acquiring it, Otto probably looked for more intimate obedience from his subjects.
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  • France was made up of a number of loosely connected lands, each with its own lord, when Germany, under Otto, was to a large extent moved by a single will, well organized and strong.
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  • By the policy of his later years Otto did much to prepare the way for the process of disintegration which he rendered inevitable by restoring the Empire.
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  • Otto gave up the practice of retaining the duchies either in his own hands or in those of relatives.
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  • To combat the power of the princes, Otto, especially after he became emperor and looked upon himself as the protector of the church, immensely increased the importance of the prelates.
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  • Its duke, Henry, the brother of Otto I., had died in 955 and had been succeeded by a young son, Henry, whose turbulent career subsequently induced the Bavarian historian Aventinus to describe him as rixosus, or the Quarrelsome.
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  • In 973 Burchard II., duke of Swabia, died, and the new emperor refused to give this duchy to Henry, further irritating this duke by bestowing it upon his enemy, Otto, a grandson of the emperor Otto I.
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  • Bavaria was taken from him and given to Otto of Swabia, but it was deprived of some of its importance.
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  • Having arrived at this settlement Otto marched against the Bohemians, but while he was away from Germany war was begun against him by Henry, the new duke of Carinthia, who, forgetting the benefits he had just received, rose to avenge the wrongs of his friend, the deposed duke Henry of Bavaria.
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  • In his anxiety to obtain possession of southern Italy, Otto I.
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  • As quickly as possible Otto placed himself at the head of a great army and marched to Paris, but he was compelled to retreat without taking the city, and in 980 peace was made.
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  • The Saxons were able to cope with the Danes and the German boundary was pushed forward in the south-east; but the Slays fought with such courage and success that during the reigns of the emperors Otto II.
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  • Otto was then taken to Germany, and after his fathers death he was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on Christmas Day 983.
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  • Meanwhile Germany was suffering severely from internal disorders and from the inroads of her rude neighbors; and when in the year Iooo Otto visited his northerfl kingdom there were hopes that he would smite these enemies with the vigour of his predecessors.
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  • But these hopes were disappointed; on the contrary, Otto seems to have released Boleslaus, duke of the Poles, from his vigue allegiance to the German kings, and he founded an archbishopric at Gnesen, thus freeing the Polish sees from the authority of the archbishop of Magdeburg.
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  • With regard to the German duchies Conrad followed the policy of Otto the Great.
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  • In Germany itself Henry acquired, during the first ten years of his rule, an authority which had been unknown since the days of Otto the Great.
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  • In 1073 the universal discontent found expression in a great assembly at Wormesleben, in which the leading part was taken by Otto of Nordheim, by Werner, archbishop of Magdcburg, and by Burkhard II., bishop of Halberstadt.
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  • The Saxons again rose in arms and Otto of Nordheim succeeded in uniting the North and South German supporters of the pope.
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  • The nation now plucked bitter fruit from the seed planted by Otto the Great in assuming the imperial crown and by a long line of kings and emperors in lavishing worldly power upon tile church.
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  • During this reign under the lead of Otto, bishop of Bamberg (c. 1063-1139), Pomerania began to come under the influence of Germany and of Christianity.
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  • Since the death of Otto the Great the Slavonic lands to the east of the Elbe had been very imperfectly held in subjection by the Germans.
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  • Bavaria was granted to Otto of Wittelsbach, but it lost some of its importance because Styria was taken from it and made into a separate duchy.
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  • Henry the Lions son, Otto of Brunswick, who was also chosen German king.
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  • Otto, whose chief supporter outside Germany was his uncle Richard I.
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  • But unfortunately for Germany the papal chair at this time was occupied by Innocent III., a pope who emulated Hildebrand in ambition and in statesmanship. At first vacillating, but by no means indifferent, Innocent was spurred to action when a number of princes met at Spires in May 1200, declared Philip to be the lawful king, and denied the right of the pope to interfere, lie was also annoyed by Philips attitude with regard to a vacancy in the archbishopric of Cologne, and in March 1201 he declared definitely for Otto.
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  • Deserted by Ottakar and even by Adolph of Cologne and his own brother Henry, count palatine of the Rhine, Otto was forced to take refuge in Brunswick, his last line of defence, and was only saved by Philips murder, which occurred at Bamberg in June 1208.
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  • Otto was now again chosen German king, and to aid and mark the general reconciliation he was betrothed to the murdered kings daughter Beatrix.
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  • Having secured his coronation at Rome in October 1209, Otto repudiated the many pledges he had made to Innocent and began to act in defiance of the papal wishes.
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  • While Otto was warring in Italy a number of influential princes met at Nuremberg, at the instigation of Innocent and of his ally Philip Augustus of France, and invited Frederick to come to Germany.
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  • Otto then left Italy hurriedly, but he was quickly followed by his young rival, who in the warfare which had already broken out proved himself a formidable opponent.
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  • Having made peace with Henry, count palatine of the Rhine and brother of Otto IV., and settled a dispute about the lands of the extinct family of Zahringen in the south-west Germany of the country, Frederick left Germany in August in Freder1220; engaged in his bitter contest with the Papacy icks and the Lombard cities, in ruling Sicily, and, after absence.
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  • Before this date King Henry had begun to take a personal part in the government and was already involved in a quarrel with Otto II., duke of Bavaria.
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  • During the confusion of the civil war carried on by Otto IV.
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  • Persecutions for heresy had begun, the feeling between the two great religious parties being further embittered by some revelations made by Otto von Pack to Philip of Hesse.
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  • Fortunately, however, he was singularly open to conviction, and Otto von Bismarck, though not yet in office, was already in his confidence.
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  • Hohenlohe now declared himself incapable of carrying on the government, and King William entrusted it to Otto von Bismarck.
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  • But perhaps the ablest and the most serviceable of these early writers is Otto of Freising, a member of the Babenberg family.
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  • Otto was also related to the great house of Hohenstaufen, a relationship which gave him access to sources of information usually withheld from the ordinary monastic annalist, and his work is very valuable for the earlier part of the career of Frederick I.
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  • The chronicle of Otto of Freising, which appeared in 1515, and the Vita of Einhard, which appeared six years later, are only two among the many printed at this time.
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  • It is this fact which gives it a unique interest and importance in the history of Europe, and which unites the ideas of the Germans to-day with those of Charlemagne and Otto the Great.
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  • A new era dawned after Otto the Great was elected German king in 936, and it is Otto rather than Charlemagne who must be regarded as the real founder of Austria.
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  • In 976 his son, the emperor Otto II., entrusted the government of this mark, soon to be known as Austria, to Leopold, a member of the family of Babenberg, and its administration was conducted with vigour and success.
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  • In 1210 the emperor Otto IV., who had overrun the continental dominions, threatened the island.
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  • In 1212, just when Frederick was reaching an age to be of use in his own kingdom, he was called away to dispute the crown of Germany and Rome with Otto.
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  • Otto Bodrugan in 1320 granted the burgesses the privilege of electing their own portreeve and controlling the trade of the town.
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  • The plan of campaign seems to have been designed by King John, who was the soul of the alliance; his general idea was to draw the French king to the southward against himself, while the emperor Otto IV., the princes of the Netherlands and the main army of the allies should at the right moment march upon Paris from the north.
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  • Here too the imperial forces suffered defeat, Otto himself being saved only by the devotion of a handful of Saxon knights.
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  • In front of the town-hall stands an equestrian statue of Otto the Great, erected about 1290.
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  • Magdeburg, which was in existence as a small trading settlement at the beginning of the 9th century, owes its early prosperity chiefly to the emperor Otto the Great, who established a convent here about 937.
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  • Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), the inventor of the air-pump, was burgomaster of Magdeburg.
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  • He had been somewhat inconsistent in his relations with his predecessor Leo, but his election was confirmed by the emperor Otto, and his submissive attitude towards the imperial power was so distasteful to the Romans that they expelled him from the city.
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  • On account of the threatening procedure of Otto, they permitted him shortly afterwards to return, upon which, with the sanction of Otto, he took savage vengeance on those who had formerly opposed him.
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  • Shortly after holding a council along with the emperor at Ravenna in 967, he gave the imperial crown to Otto II.
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  • But the most celebrated devotional expedition before the Crusades was that of the four bishops - Sigfrid of Mainz, Gunther of Bamberg, William of Utrecht, and Otto of Regensburg.
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  • Subsequently it was held by John Crescentius, and many leading men who received it from Otto III.
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  • Later the overlordship was claimed by the archbishops of Mainz, on the strength of charters granted by the emperor Otto I., and their authority in Erfurt was maintained by a burgrave and an advocatus, the office of the latter becoming in the 12th century hereditary in the family of the counts of Gleichen.
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  • Otto II., the Lame (1229-1271), fortified several towns and bestowed privileges upon them for the purpose of encouraging trade.
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  • And after his second son Otto had become king of Greece in 1832, Greek affairs became from time to time the central point of his foreign policy.
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  • Wolf Goethe (Weimar, 1889) is a sympathetic appreciation by Otto Mejer, formerly president of the Lutheran consistory in Hanover.
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  • See Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopeidie; Otto Pfleiderer, The Development of Theology in Germany since Kant, pp. 89 ff.
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  • Given in 1002 to Otto, duke of Franconia, it was inherited by the cadet line of Spires, the head of which, the emperor Henry III., gave it to the see of Spires in 1095.
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  • Pope Gregory V., whose favour Robert vainly sought to win by allowing Arnulf, the imprisoned archbishop, to return to his see of Reims and forcing Gerbert to flee to the court of the emperor Otto III., excommunicated the king, and a council at Rome imposed a seven years' penance upon him.
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  • The other claimant, however, Otto William, count of upper Burgundy, or Franche Comte, offered so stubborn a resistance that it was not until 1015 that the king secured the duchy, which he gave as an apanage to his son Henry.
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  • Fraunhofer's chef-d'oeuvre, the great Dorpat refractor, made for Otto Struve about 1820, had a mounting of this type, and was the first equatorial of any importance to be provided with clockwork.
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  • We have the authority of Otto Struve for stating that in practice they are all that can be desired.
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  • Two years later he was elected king of the Romans at the diet of Nuremberg in opposition to Otto IV., and in 1220 he was crowned emperor in Rome by pope Honorius III., but continued to reside in Sicily.
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  • Pilsen first appears in history in 976, as the scene of a battle in the war between Prince Boleslaus and the emperor Otto II., and it became a town in 1272.
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  • As Otto Pfleiderer (Development of Theology, p. 285) observes, "the choice not less than the treatment of these subjects is indicative of the large breadth of view and the insight of the historian into the comparative history of religion."
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  • The chief authority for Conrad's life and reign is Otto of Freising, "Chronicon," in the Monumenta Germaniae historica.
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  • It became a town and fortress under Otto I., his successor, and speedily attained considerable wealth and importance, for a good share of which it was indebted to the pilgrimages which were made to the "arm of St Peter," preserved in one of the churches.
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  • In Germany, Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., allied himself with Richard, while Philip was supported by Otto's rival, Philip of Swabia.
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  • John renounced his suzerainty over Brittany and the guardianship of his nephew, Arthur; he engaged not to aid the count of Flanders or Otto IV.
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  • A league including his rebel vassals, Renaud of Dammartin, count of Boulogne, and Ferdinand, count of Flanders, with the emperor Otto IV.
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  • Renaud and Ferdinand were taken prisoner, and Otto IV.
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  • Kopke he wrote Kaiser Otto der Grosse (Leipzig, 1876).
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  • The assertions of Otto von Pack that a league had been formed against the elector and his friends induced John to ally himself again with Philip of Hesse in March 1528, but he restrained Philip from making an immediate attack upon their opponents.
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  • The Russian Government in 1914 sent the " Eclipse " under Otto Sverdrup to search for Brusilov and Rusanov.
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  • At Pavia was celebrated in 951 the marriage of Otto I.
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  • Here he studied under Moritz Haupt and Otto Jahn until 1851, spent six months in Berlin (chiefly to attend Buckh's lectures), and completed his university studies at Leipzig (1852).
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  • Otto I., his son, drives the Magyars from southern Germany and establishes the East Mark (Austria) to guard the upper Danube.
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