If the rare infection malignant otitis externa is suspected, computed tomography scan (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans will be performed to determine how widely the infection has spread within bone and tissue.
Antihistamines and decongestants have also been used to treat otitis media, but they have not been proven effective unless the child also has hay fever or some other allergic inflammation that contributes to the ear problem.
Fevers are caused in most cases by viral or bacterial infections, such as otitis media (ear infection), upper respiratory infection, pharyngitis (throat infection), pneumonia, chickenpox, and urinary tract infection.
In the second type, called otitis media with effusion (fluid), or OME, fluid and mucus remain trapped within the ear after the infection is over, making it more difficult for the ear to fight off new infections.
Streptococci, meningococci, and Haemophilus influenzae, organisms that cause diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and sepsis, all make capsules.
Because multiple upper respiratory infections may increase the risk for acute otitis media, reducing the exposure to large groups of children, particularly in daycare centers, may reduce the incidence.
As early as three months of age, however, the SCID child begins to suffer from mouth infections (thrush), chronic diarrhea, otitis media, and pulmonary infections, including pneumocystis pneumonia.
Other bacteria that can cause otitis externa include Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and bacteria of the family called Streptococci.
Children develop otitis media because the eustachian tubes that connect the middle ear with the back of the mouth and equalize air pressure and drain fluid are small and easily obstructed.
Although all age groups are affected by otitis externa, children, adolescents, and young adults whose ears are exposed to persistent, excessive moisture develop the infection most often.