Two other points in connexion with mammalian osteology may be noticed.
Although the present article does not discuss mammalian osteology in general (for which see Vertebrata), it is interesting to notice in this connexion that the primitive condition of the mammalian tympanum apparently consisted merely of a small and incomplete bony ring, with, at most, an imperfect ventral wall to the tympanic cavity, and that a close approximation to this original condition still persists in the monotremes, especially Ornithorhynchus.
Both may well be named "'Faunists," and of the latter there were not a few who having turned their attention more or less to ornithology should here be 6 So little regard did he pay to the osteology of birds that, according to de Blainville (Jour.
Considering the enormous stride in advance made by L'Herminier, it is very disappointing for the historian to have to record that the next inquirer into the osteology of birds achieved a Berthold.
On the whole Brandt's labours were of no small service in asserting the principle that consideration must be paid to osteology; for his position was such as to gain more attention to his views than some of his less favourably placed brethren had succeeded in doing.
For instance, Sundevall in 1873 (Tentamen, p. 86) placed Glareola among the Caprimulgidae, a position which osteology shows cannot be maintained for a moment.
Wortman, "On the Osteology of Agriochoerus," Bull.
Thomson, "Osteology of Veddahs," in Journ.
" Osteology of Gallinaceous Birds," T.Z.S., v., 1863; " Rhinochetus," ibid.
Parker ("On the Cranial Osteology, Classification and Phylogeny of the Dinornithidae," Tr.
That each of these sections, except the Cacatuinae, is artificial any regard to osteology would show.
Scott, "The Osteology of the Maori and the Moriori," Trans.
The genera Rhinopomastus and Irrisor are generally placed in the Family Upupidae, but Dr Murie, after an exhaustive examination of their osteology, regards them as forming a group of equal value.
Of birds, and he seems to have been the first to institute a direct comparison of their skeleton with that of man; but in this respect he only anticipated by a few years the more precise researches of Volcher Coiter, a Frisian, who in 1573 and 1575 published at Nuremberg two treatises, in one of which the internal structure of birds in general is very creditably described, while in the other the osteology and myology of certain forms is given in considerable detail, and illustrated by carefully drawn figures.
Parker broke, as most will allow, entirely fresh ground by communicating to the Zoological Society a memoir " On the Osteology of Balaeniceps," subsequently published in that Society's Transactions (iv.
The treatise of Kessler on the osteology of birds' feet, published in the Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists for 1841, next.
The recognition of these, minute and fragmentary as many were, and the referring them to their proper place, rendered necessary an attentive study of the comparative osteology and myology of birds in general, that of the " long bones," whose sole characters were often a few muscular ridges or depressions, being especially obligatory.