Oscillations Sentence Examples
There were, moreover, other and broader oscillations which raised or lowered extensive areas withbut much crumpling of the strata, and to these are due some of the most important breaks in the geological series.
Hence devices for detecting the oscillations in the antenna are merely very sensitive forms of ammeter and voltmeter.
It was also recognized that what is required at the transmitting end is the establishment of powerful electric oscillations in the sending antenna, which create and radiate their energy in the form of electric waves having their magnetic force component parallel to the earth's surface and their electric component perpendicular to it.
This condenser is charged electrically and then suddenly discharged and violent electrical oscillations are set up in it, that is to say, electricity rushes to and fro between the antenna and the earth.
When this is the case, if discharges are made across the spark gap oscillations are excited in the closed circuit, and these induce other syntonic oscillations in the antenna circuit.Advertisement
In the case of the inductive mode of exciting the oscillations an important quantity is the coefficient of coupling of the two oscillation circuits.
It can be shown that if two circuits, both having capacity (C) and inductance (L), are coupled together inductively, then, when oscillations are set up in one circuit, oscillations of two periods are excited in the other differing in frequency from each other and from the natural frequency of the circuit.
In this case a closed condenser circuit is formed with a battery of Leyden jars, an inductance coil and a spark gap, and oscillations are excited in it by discharges created across the spark gap by an induction coil or transformer.
The oscillations are controlled either by a key inserted in the primary circuit of the exciting induction coil or transformer, or by a key cutting in and out of the primary condensers or throwing inductance in and out of the closed oscillation circuit.
In one of these ways the oscillations can be created or stopped at pleasure in the radiating antenna, and hence groups of electric waves thrown off at will.Advertisement
In order to produce electric oscillations in the system, the first or alternating current transformer must charge the condenser connected to its secondary terminals, but must not produce a permanent electric arc between the balls.
When electric oscillations are set up in an open or closed electric circuit having capacity and inductance, and left to themselves, they die away in amplitude, either because they dissipate their energy as heat in overcoming the resistance of the circuit, or because they radiate it by imparting wave motion to the surrounding ether.
In both cases the amplitude of the oscillations decreases more or less rapidly.
Such a sequence of decreasing electric oscillations and corresponding set of waves is called a damped train.
In the case of the plain or directly excited antenna the oscillations are highly damped, and each train probably only consists at most of half a dozen oscillations.Advertisement
Accordingly this energy is rapidly dissipated and but few oscillations can take place.
The next class of wave or oscillation detector is the magnetic detector depending upon the power of electric oscillations to affect the magnetic state of iron.
Rutherford examined it very carefully, and produced a magnetic detector for electric waves depending upon the power of electric oscillations in a coil to demagnetize a saturated bundle of steel wires placed in it.
In its course it passes through a glass tube wound over with two coils of wire; one of these is an oscillation coil through which the oscillations to be detected pass, and the other is in connexion with a telephone.
When the oscillations pass through the coil they annul the hysteresis and cause a change of magnetism within the coil connected to the telephone.Advertisement
Hence according as the trains of oscillations are long or short so is the sound heard in the telephone, and these sounds can be arranged on the Morse code into alphabetic audible signals.
A third class of electric wave detector depends upon the power of electric oscillations to annul the electrolytic polarization of electrodes of small surface immersed in an electrolyte.
If, however, one electrode of this cell is connected to the earth and the other to a receiving antenna and electric waves allowed to fall on the antenna, the oscillations passing through the electrolytic cell will remove the polarization and L temporarily decrease the resistance of the cell.
A fourth class of electric wave detector comprises the thermal detectors which operate in virtue of the fact that electric oscillations create heat in a fine wire through which they pass.
If a loop of very fine platinum wire, prepared by the Wollaston process, is included in an exhausted glass bulb like an incandescent lamp, then when electric oscillations are sent through it its resistance is increased.Advertisement
This increase may be made evident by making the loop of wire one arm of a Wheatstone's bridge and so arranging the circuits that the oscillations pass through the fine wire.
He passed the oscillations to be detected through a fine wire or strip of gold leaf, and over this, but just not touching, suspended a loop of bismuth-antimony wire by a quartz fibre.
The thermal G G detectors are especially useful for the purpose of quantitative measurements, because they indicate the true effective or square root of mean square value of the current or train of oscillations passing through the hot wire.
Fleming discovered that if the filament is made incandescent by the current from an insulated battery there is a unilateral conductivity of the rarefied gas between the hot filament and the metal plate, such that if the negative terminal of the filament is connected outside the lamp through a coil in which electric oscillations are created with the platinum plate, only one half of the oscillations are permitted to pass, viz., those which carry negative electricity from the hot filament to the cooled plate through the vacuous space.
The mercury vapour then possesses a unilateral conductivity, and can be used to filter off all those oscillations in a train which pass in one direction and make them readable on an ordinary galvanometer.
When electric oscillations are set up in these two classes of electric radiators, the first class send out a highly damped wave train and the second a feeble damped wave train provided that they have sufficient capacity or energy storage and low resistance.
When oscillations are excited in this last circuit they communicate them to the antenna provided this last circuit is tuned or syntonized to the closed circuit, and the radiating antenna has thus a large store of energy to draw upon and can therefore radiate prolonged trains of electric waves.
Slaby paid considerable attention to the study of the phenomena connected with the production of the oscillations in the antenna.
The oscillations set up in the vertical antenna excited sympathetic ones in the lateral circuit provided this was of the proper length; and the coherer was acted upon by the maximum potential variations possible.
If these two were broadside on to the direction of the sending station oscillations in the same phase would be produced in them both, but if they were in line with it then the oscillations would be in opposite phases.
It was then proposed to arrange a detector so that it was affected by the algebraic sum of the two oscillations, and by swivelling round the double receiving antennae to locate the direction of the sending station by finding out when the detector gave the best signal.
He showed that if an antenna were constructed with a short part of its length vertical and the greater part horizontal, the lower end of the vertical part being earthed, and if oscillations were created in it, electric waves were sent out most powerfully in the plane of the antenna and in the direction opposite to that in which the free end pointed.
Marconi also showed that if such a bent receiving antenna was used the greatest oscillations were created in it when its insulated end pointed directly away from the sending station.
In his method three vertical antennae are employed, placed at equidistant distances, and oscillations are created in the three with a certain relative difference of phase.
Thus, for instance, when using an induction coil or transformer to charge a condenser, it is not generally convenient to make more than 50 discharges per second, but each of these may create a train of oscillations consisting of, say, 20 to 50 waves.
It very soon, therefore, became clear to inventors that a very great advantage would be gained if some means could be discovered of creating high frequency oscillations which were not intermittent but continuous.
The condenser method of making oscillations is analogous to the production of air vibrations by twanging a harp string at short intervals.
Duddell discovered in 1900 that if a continuous current carbon arc had its carbon electrodes connected by a condenser in series with an inductance, then under certain conditions oscillations were excited in this condenser circuit which appeared to be continuous.
In this way he was able to produce an apparatus which created continuous trains of oscillations suitable for the purposes of wireless telegraphy.
The so-called musical arc of Duddell has been the subject of considerable investigation, and physicists are not entirely in accordance as to the true explanation of the mode of production of the oscillations.
In all cases of wave motion the wave-length is connected with the velocity of propagation of the radiation by the relation v=nX, where n is the frequency of the oscillations and X is the wave-length.
This helix is presented or held near to the antenna, and the length of it shortened until oscillations of the greatest intensity are produced in the helix as indicated by the use of an indicator of fluorescent paper.
The scale on the cymometer then shows directly the wave-length and frequency of the oscillations.'
Alcohol has undergone various oscillations, according to the legislation governing distilleries.
Those who work with living forms of which it is possible to obtain a large number of specimens, and those who make revisions of the provisional species of palaeontologists, are slowly coming to some such conception as that a species is the abstract central point around which a group of variations oscillate, and that the peripheral oscillations of one species may even overlap those of an allied species.
Russia remained constantly above the sea; but there were several oscillations.
These violent oscillations not only weakened the fabric of the Republic, but brought about a situation in which Bonaparte easily paralysed both the executive and the legislative powers so ill co-ordinated by the constitution of the year 1795.
Its level is subject to slight oscillations, and after a heavy five weeks' rain in 1869 it rose 7 ft., an immense territory at the mouth of the Selenga being submerged.
Therefore, according to Kekule, the double linkages are in a state of continual oscillation, and if his dynamical notion of valency, or a similar hypothesis, be correct, then the difference between the 1.2 and 1.6 di-derivatives rests on the insufficiency of his formula, which represents the configuration during one set of oscillations only.
These bands are due to molecular oscillations; Hartley suggests the carbon atoms to be rotating and forming alternately single and double linkages, the formation of three double links giving three bands, and of three single links another three; Baly and Collie, on the other hand, suggest the making and breaking of links between adjacent atoms, pointing out that there are seven combinations of one, two and three pairs of carbon atoms in the benzene molecule.
There seem to be periodical oscillations in the extension of the glaciers and the inland ice similar to those that have been observed on the glaciers of the Alps and elsewhere.
It has, indeed, been subject to oscillations, but the movements have been regional in character and have not been accompanied by the formation of any mountain chain or any belt of intense folding.
The English supply increased, with some oscillations, to between six and seven thousand tons annually in the period 1840-1860, when it suddenly rose to about io,000 tons, and this figure was fairly well sustained until about 1890, when a period of depression set in; the yield for 1900 was 4336 tons, and for 1905 about 4200 tons.
These oscillations of opinion arP frequent, if not universal, and it is only after more than one or two swings that the pendulum remains at the perpendicular.
It is proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may be generated within the body itself - "autogenetic poisoning."
As a verb, the word means to stifle or check; hence damped vibrations or oscillations are those which have been reduced or stopped, instead of being allowed to die out naturally; the "dampers" of the piano are small pieces of feltcovered wood which fall upon the strings and stop their vibrations as the keys are allowed to rise; and the "damper" of a chimney or flue, by restricting the draught, lessens the rate of combustion.
The difficulty is further diminished when it is proved, as it can be proved, 2 that the modes of energy represented in the atomic spectrum acquire energy so slowly that the atom might undergo collisions with other atoms for centuries before being set into oscillations which would possess an appreciable amount of energy.
There are evidences of small oscillations of levels, but no proofs of great elevation or depression.
At times he seemed likely to succeed, but amid the violent oscillations.
It is evident that, in such case, the string, while vibrating as a whole between its fixed extremities, is at the same time executing subsidiary oscillations about its middle point, its points B FIG.
Some suspension bridges have broken down in consequence of the oscillations produced by bodies of men marching in step. In 1850 a suspension bridge cable was carried on a separate saddle on rollers on each pier.
If the difference of the number of oscillations made by the two pendulums in a given time is small compared to the number made by either of them separately, then it is easy to show that the power given to the circuit is measured by the gain or loss of one clock over the other in a given time, and can therefore be indicated on a counting mechanism or registering dials.
Although Bessel was the first to systematically treat of these functions, it is to be noted that in 1732 Daniel Bernoulli obtained the function of zero order as a solution to the problem of the oscillations of a chain suspended at one end.
Thus the ether within the dispersive medium is loaded with molecules which are forced to perform oscillations of the same period as that of the transmitted wave.
The coastal plain, however, is the result, not of a single recent uplift, but of movements dating back to Tertiary time and continued with many oscillations to the present; nor is its surface smooth and unbroken, for erosion began upon the inner part of the plain long before the outer border was revealed.
The photographs taken by Royds show the separate oscillations of each spark discharge even when the circuit only contained the unavoidable capacity of the leads.
It was found that during the successive electrical oscillations the metallic lines can be observed to stretch farther and farther away from the poles, thus giving a measure of the gradual diffusion of the metal.
The fact that the gases with which we are most familiar are not rendered luminous by being heated in a tube to a temperature well above a white heat has often been a stumbling block and raised the not unreasonable doubt whether approximately homogeneous oscillations could ever be obtained by a mere thermal process.
The "arcs of Lowitz" (L) are probably due to small oscillations of the vertical prisms.
In the Eastern Alps the central ridge seems to have been in existence at least ag as early as Triassic times, but it has since been subject p to several oscillations.
Indeed in recent times the level appears to have undergone several oscillations.
From the researches of Philippov it appears that during the period 1851-1888 the level reached a maximum on three separate occasions, namely in 1868-186 9, 1882 and 1885, while in 1853 and 1873 it stood at a minimum; the range of these oscillations did not, however, exceed 3 ft.
In addition to these periodical fluctuations, there are also seasonal oscillations, the level being lowest in January and highest in the summer.
Emigralion.-There have been great oscillations in the actual emigration by sea.
Up to 1896 the sulphur industry was in a state of crisis due to the competition of pyrites, to the subdivision of the mines, to antiquated methods, and to a series of other causes which occasioned violent oscillations in and a continual reduction of prices.
An air-damping apparatus is attached in order to annul the natural oscillations of the pendulum.
A reeling gait, oscillations of the body which impart a zigzag direction to the walk, difficulty in standing, owing to unsteadiness of limb, are common in cerebellar disease.
Coral formations on heights in the interior would indicate oscillations of the land in several periods, but a detailed geology of the island is wanting.
The small oscillations of a simple pendulum in a vertical plane also come under equation (5).
The constant -r is called the modulus of decay of the oscillations; if it is large compared with 2irfa the effect of friction on the period is of the second order of small quantities and may in general be ignored.
As a final example we may note the arrangement, often employed in physical measurements, where a body performs small oscillations about a vertical axis through its mass-centre G, under the influence of a couple whose moment varies as the angle of rotation from the equilibrium position.
The theory of disturbed precessional motion there outlined does not give a convenient view of the oscillations of the axis about the vertical position.
In discussing the small oscillations of a system about a configuration of stable equilibrium it is convenient so to choose the generalized co-ordinates qi, q2,..
This solution has been discussed to some extent in 12, in connection with the forced oscillations of a pendulum.
It must suffice here to consider the small oscillations of a chain hanging vertically from a fixed extremity.
Such an arrangement constitutes in effect a condenser, and when the two plates respectively are connected to the secondary terminals of an induction coil in operation, the plates are rapidly and alternately charged, and discharged across the spark gap with electrical oscillations (see Electrokinetics).
Rutherford invented a magnetic detector depending on the power of electric oscillations to demagnetize iron or steel.
He studied the phenomena of electrical oscillations from 1869 to 1871, and in the latter year he announced that the velocity of the propagation of electromagnetic induction was about 314,000 metres per second.
Commencing by twenty-two separate shocks at brief intervals, the oscillations continued from the 8th of October to the 22nd of November.
He found that a magnetic needle, made to oscillate over nonferruginous surfaces, such as water, glass, copper, &c., falls more rapidly in the extent of its oscillations according as it is more or less approached to the surface.
They therefore shorten themselves, and after a series of oscillations in which they become alternately elongated and flattened, settle down into the form of spherical drops.
While, therefore, there is apparently no correspondence between the area of the wing and the animal to be raised, there is, except in the case of sailing insects, birds and bats, an unvarying relation as to the weight and number of oscillations; so that the problem of flight would seem to resolve itself into one of weight, power, velocity and small surfaces, versus buoyancy, debility, diminished speed and extensive surfaces - weight in either case being a sine qua non.
A considerable part of the republic is covered by the equatorial belt of calms, whose oscillations divide the year into a wet and dry season.
On this point Plato's view seems to have gone through several oscillations.
In consequence of the swell, the ship is continually pitching in a somewhat irregular way, the oscillations up and down being sometimes great and sometimes small.
In 1581, while watching a lamp set swinging in the cathedral of Pisa, he observed that, whatever the range of its oscillations, they were invariably executed in equal times.
We seem to find indications of long-period climatic oscillations in Tertiary times, but none of the sudden invasion of an Arctic flora, like that which occurred during more recent times.
The signal is either inverter or not inverted to obtain the necessary total phase shift around the loop to sustain oscillations.
The most important are those associated with tidal oscillations along continental margins.
Currenly has the best limit on electron neutrino to muon neutrino oscillations.
The damped oscillations will be studied in greater detail in section 8.2.
Electromagnetic waves consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields which induce oscillations of the dipole.
When the mass is pulled downwards to an extension of x, the mass undergoes vertical oscillations, which obey SHM.
Prof. J.E. Ffowcs Williams Prof. A.P. Dowling Acoustic waves often play a major rÃ´le in the self-excited oscillations of fluid flows.
Forcing is applied to the system through vertical sinusoidal oscillations at the suspension point.
In any case, no torsional oscillations were noticeable during rowing trials.
The numerical method then must be able to handle discontinuities without introducing non-physical, spurious oscillations.
Explain how both of these problems could be resolved by possible neutrino oscillations.
For a normal field, the commensurability oscillations are weak and out of phase for transport in the different cleavage directions.
Several mechanisms have been put forward for gamma oscillations.
Fran Tracy has just finished her Ph.D. funded by the BBSRC to investigate the role of calcium oscillations in salt stress.
At M 4, the system is a damped oscillator, at M 4, the oscillations continue into infinity.
It has sometimes been claimed that Edison's proposed elevated plates anticipated the subsequent invention by Marconi of the aerial wire or antenna, but it is particularly to be noticed that Edison employed no spark gap or means for creating electrical high frequency oscillations in these wires.
It was seen that the effect of the impact of the incident electric waves upon the vertical receiving wire was to create in it electrical oscillations, or in other words, high frequency alternating electric currents, such that whilst the potential variations were a maximum at the top or insulated end of the antenna the current at that point was zero and at the base the potential variation was zero and the current amplitude a maximum.
If the two circuits are in tune so that the numerical product of capacity and inductance of each circuit is the same or C L, = C L +CL and if k is the coefficient of coupling then the natural frequency of each circuit is n = I /2w / (CL), and when coupled two oscillations are set up in the secondary circuit having frequencies n and n2 such that n = n0/ (i - k) and n = nh,/ (I +k).
Castelli, a petty officer in the Italian navy, found that, if a small drop of mercury was contained in a glass tube between a plug of iron and carbon, with certain adjustments, the arrangement was non-conductive to the current from a single cell but became conductive when electric oscillations passed through it.'
On the other hand, the coherer or loose contact detectors are chiefly affected by the initial value of the electromotive force acting on the junction during the train of oscillations, and the magnetic detectors by the initial value of the current and also to a considerable extent by the number of oscillations during the train.
Hence the coherer type of detectors are called potential detectors whilst the thermal are called integral current detectors, the current detectors depending entirely or to some extent upon the damping of the train of oscillations, that is to say, upon the number of oscillations forming a train.
In addition to the above gaseous rectifiers of oscillations it has been found that several crystals, such as carborundum (carbide of silicon), hessite, anastase and many others possess a unilateral conductivity and enable us to rectify trains of oscillations into continuous currents which can affect a telephone.
On the other hand, if a closed oscillation circuit is constructed having capacity and considerable inductance, then oscillations can be set up in it by very small periodic electromotive forces provided these have a frequency exactly agreeing with that of the condenser circuit.
The success so far achieved in isolating electric wave telegraphic stations has been based upon the principles of electric resonance and the fact that electric oscillations can be set up in a circuit having capacity and considerable inductance by feeble electromotive impulses, provided they are of exactly the natural frequency of the said circuit.
Up to that time an induction coil known as a ro-inch coil had sufficed for spark production, but it was evident that much more power would be required to send electric waves across the Atlantic. Transformers were therefore employed taking alternating electric current from an alternator driven by an oil or steam engine, and these high tension transformers were used to charge condensers and set up powerful oscillations in a multiple antenna.
Wien's method of impact excitation by employing a form of spark gap which quenches the primary discharge instantly and excites the free oscillations in the antenna by impact or shock.
If therefore we can measure the frequency of the oscillations in an antenna we are able to tell the wave-length emitted.
Dissolution, and finally reaches the statement of the Law of Evolution as" an integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion, during which the matter passes from a an indefinite incoherent homogeneity to a definite coherent heterogeneity, and during which the retained motion undergoes a parallel transformation."This process of evolution is due to" the instability of the homogeneous,"the" multiplication of effects "and their" segregation,"continuing until it ceases in complete" equilibration."Sooner or later, however, the reverse process of Dissolution, with its absorption of motion and disintegration of matter, which indeed has always been going on to some extent, must prevail, and these oscillations of the cosmic process will continue without end.
Aquickvariation, or a periodic variation of the magnitude of the force or torque transmitted through the springs, tends to set up oscillations, and this tendency increases FIG.
The impact will accordingly result in all the molecules being set into motion, and by the time that the masses have ceased impinging on one another the molecules of which they are composed will be performing oscillations about their positions of equilibrium.
It has been denied by some that pure thermal motion can ever give rise to line spectra, but that either chemical action or impact of electrons is necessary to excite the regular oscillations which give rise to line spectra.
The regular variations in pressure of the air indicated by the barometer and the annual and diurnal oscillations are as well marked in the Himalaya as elsewhere, but the amount of vapour held in suspension diminishes so rapidly with the altitude that not more than one-sixth (sometimes only one-tenth) of that observed at the foot of the mountains is found at the greatest heights.
Around the European coastline it is the semidiurnal oscillations the predominate.
The second stage smoothes these oscillations by performing a least squares cubic spline fit to the data.
The commensurability oscillations behave exactly as predicted in a recent theory of two-dimensional surface superlattices.
They can be either pendular, in which the oscillations are equal in all directions and or jerk, in which the movements may be faster in one direction than another.
If oscillopsia is a co-existing symptom, then drugs can be given to reduce the ocular oscillations.
The flutter valve is a hand-held mucus clearance device designed to combine positive expiratory pressure (PEP) with high frequency airway oscillations.