The next class of wave or oscillation detector is the magnetic detector depending upon the power of electric oscillations to affect the magnetic state of iron.
In the case of the inductive mode of exciting the oscillations an important quantity is the coefficient of coupling of the two oscillation circuits.
Instead of inserting the sensitive tube between the receiving antenna and the earth, he inserted the primary coil of a peculiar form of oscillation transformer and connected the terminals of the tube to the secondary circuit of the transformer.
11575 of 1897), but it is not every form of oscillation transformer which is suitable for this purpose.
These two circuits are so adjusted that the closed oscillation circuit, consisting of the condenser, primary coil 1 See German Patent of F.
For the simplest case of polarized waves travelling parallel to the axis of x, with the magnetic oscillation y along z and the electric oscillation Q along y, all the quantities are functions of x and t alone; the total current is along y and given with respect to our moving axes by __ (d_ d Q+vy d K-1 Q, dt dx) 47rc 2 + dt (4?rc 2) ' also the circuital relations here reduce to _ dydQ _dy _ dx 47rv ' _ dt ' d 2 Q dv dx 2 -417t giving, on substitution for v, d 2 Q d 2 Q d2Q (c2-v2)(7372 = K dt 2 2u dxdt ' For a simple wave-train, Q varies as sin m(x-Vt), leading on substitution to the velocity of propagation V relative to the moving material, by means of the equation KV 2 + 2 uV = c 2 v2; this gives, to the first order of v/c, V = c/K i - v/K, which is in accordance with Fresnel's law.
The lower ends of these wires are connected through the secondary coil of an oscillation transformer to an earth plate, or to a large conductor placed on or near the earth called a " balancing capacity."
The dotted boundary curves have the equation 0 =omx, and show the rate of diminution of the amplitude of the temperature oscillation with depth in the metal.
4 is o 60 in., at which depth the amplitude of the variation is reduced to less than one five-hundredth part (e 2 7r) of that at the surface, so that for all practical purposes the oscillation may be neglected beyond one wave-length At half a wave-length the amplitude is only 3 rd of that at the surface.
The steam pressure in the heater may be periodically varied by the gauge in such a manner as to produce an approximately simple harmonic oscillation of temperature at the hot end, while the cool end is kept at a steady temperature.
During a gale a slight oscillation is noticeable on the bridge itself and from the shore.
As in the rest of the Mediterranean, tides are scarcely observable; but at several points on the west and south coasts a curious oscillation in the level of the waters, known to the natives as the marrobbio (or marobia), is sometimes noticed, and is said to be always preceded by certain atmospheric signs.
libra, a balance), a slow oscillation, as of a balance; in astronomy especially the seeming oscillation of the moon around her axis, by which portions of her surface near the edge of the disk are alternately brought into sight and swung out of sight.
It is the oscillation which Mill manifests between the conception of his formula as it is actually applicable to concrete problems in practice, and the conception of it as an expression of a theoretical limit to practical procedure.
jars or of Leyden panes immersed in oil or some form of air condenser, and the inductance coil or primary circuit of the oscillation transformer consists of a few turns of highly insulated wire wound on a frame and immersed in oil.
The secondary circuit of this last is either connected between an aerial A and the earth E, or it may be again in turn connected to a second pair of spark balls and these again to a second condenser oscillation transformer and the aerial A.
When used as a receiver for wireless telegraphy Marconi inserted the oscillation coil of this detector in between the earth and a receiving antenna, and this produced one of the most sensitive receivers yet made for wireless telegraphy.
- A, antenna; P S, jigger or oscillation transformer; C, condenser; 0, Fleming oscillation valve; B, working battery; T, telephone; R, rheostat; E, earth-plate.
The receiving arrangement consists of an antenna which is connected to earth through the primary coil of an oscillation transformer and a variable inductance.
This receiver therefore, like the transmitter, consists of an open and a closed electric oscillation circuit inductively connected together; also the two circuits of the receiver must be syntonized or tuned both to each other and to those of the transmitter.'
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
At the receiving station the differences in these systems depend chiefly upon variations in the actual form of the oscillation detector used, whether it be a loose contact or a thermal, electrolytic or magnetic detector.
In 1747 he applied his new calculus to the problem of vibrating chords, the solution of which, as well as the theory of the oscillation of the air and the propagation of sound, had been given but incompletely by the geometricians who preceded him.
Therefore, according to Kekule, the double linkages are in a state of continual oscillation, and if his dynamical notion of valency, or a similar hypothesis, be correct, then the difference between the 1.2 and 1.6 di-derivatives rests on the insufficiency of his formula, which represents the configuration during one set of oscillations only.
This configuration is, according to Sachse, more stable than any other form; no oscillation is possible, the molecule being only able to move as a whole.
His solution of the celebrated problem of the "centre of oscillation" formed in itself an important event in the history of mechanics.
The determination of the true relation between the length of a pendulum and the time of its oscillation; the invention of the theory of evolutes; the discovery, hence ensuing, that the cycloid is its own evolute, and is strictly isochronous; the ingenious although practically inoperative idea of correcting the "circular error" of the pendulum by applying cycloidal cheeks to clocks - were all contained in this remarkable treatise.
The change of frequency of oscillation of radiating molecules placed in a magnetic field, which was discovered by P. Zeeman, and the observed polarization of the components, are all beautifully explained by the theory of H.
(6) A strictly periodic oscillation of this kind occurs in the working of a steam engine, in which the walls of the cylinder are exposed to regular fluctuations of temperature with the admission and release of steam.
For his demonstration in 1851 of the diurnal motion of the earth by the rotation of the plane of oscillation of a freely suspended, long and heavy pendulum exhibited by him at the Pantheon in Paris, and again in the following year by means of his invention the gyroscope, he received the Copley medal of the Royal Society in 1855, and in the same year he was made physical assistant in the imperial observatory at Paris.
In almost all climes the tortoise and the frog are among the precursors and heralds of this season, and birds fly with song and glancing plumage, and plants spring and bloom, and winds blow, to correct this slight oscillation of the poles and preserve the equilibrium of nature.
In its course it passes through a glass tube wound over with two coils of wire; one of these is an oscillation coil through which the oscillations to be detected pass, and the other is in connexion with a telephone.
D and spark gap, has the same natural time period of oscillation as the open circuit consisting of the antenna, secondary coil and adjustable inductance.
The oscillations are controlled either by a key inserted in the primary circuit of the exciting induction coil or transformer, or by a key cutting in and out of the primary condensers or throwing inductance in and out of the closed oscillation circuit.
The transformer T has its secondary or high-pressure terminals connected to spark balls S1, which are also connected by a circuit consisting of a large glass plate condenser C, and the primary circuit of an air-core transformer called an oscillation transformer.
Fleming invented in 1904 a detector called an oscillation valve or glow lamp detector made as follows: 1 A small carbon filament incandescent lamp has a platinum plate or cylinder placed in it surrounding or close to the filament.
His transmitter consists of a nearly closed oscillating circuit comprising a condenser or battery of Leyden jars, a spark gap, and the primary coil of an oscillation transformer consisting of one turn of thick wire wound on a wooden frame.
The centric hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary (3) (4) (5) representation with double and single linkages generally represents the syntheses, decompositions, &c.; exceptions, however, are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the double linkage.
C. C. Baly regards colour as due to " isorropesis " or an oscillation between the residual affinities of adjacent atoms composing the molecule.
This oscillation may be represented in the case of acridine and fluorescein as This theory brings the property of fluorescence into relation with that of colour; the forms which cause fluorescence being the coloured modifications: ortho-quinonoid in the case of acridine, paraquinonoid in the case of fluorescein.
This tautomerism may be of a twofold nature :-(I) it may involve the mere oscillation of linkages, as in acridine; or (2) it may involve the oscillation of atoms, as in fluorescein.
trepidare, to tremble), a term meaning, in general, fear or trembling, but used technically in astronomy for an imagined slow oscillation of the ecliptic, having a period of 7000 years, introduced by the Arabian astronomers to explain a supposed variation in the precession of the equinoxes.
It was in this same year that he received the singular diplomatic mission to Frederick which nobody seems to have taken seriously, and after his return the oscillation between Brussels, Cirey and Paris was resumed.
Having studied mathematics under John Machin and John Keill, he obtained in 5708 a remarkable solution of the problem of the " centre of oscillation," which, however, remaining unpublished until May 5754 (Phil.
In the last resort, therefore, Spencer fails to deduce philosophically not only the necessity of progress, but also its compatibility with the evolution-dissolution oscillation, and even the general possibility of conceiving the world as a process.
In addition to this it is necessary to have an extra system of fixed guides at the surface and at the bottom, where it is necessary to keep the cage steady during the operations of loading and landing, there being a much greater amount of oscillation during the passage of the cage than with fixed guides.
The general theory of this kind of brake is as follows: - Let F be the whole frictional resistance, r the common radius of the rubbing surfaces, W the force which holds the brake from turning and whose line of action is at a perpendicular distance R from the axis of the shaft, N the revolutions of the shaft per minute, co its angular velocity in radians per second; then, assuming that the adjustments are made so that the engine runs steadily at a uniform speed, and that the brake is held still, clear of the stops and without oscillation, by W, the torque T exerted by the engine is equal to the frictional torque Fr acting at the brake surfaces, and this is measured by the statical moment of the weight W about the axis of revolution; that is T =Fr=WR...
(22) Let us assume that the body makes vibrations in the new period 27rp, and let us put x = B sin pt; substituting in (22) we have p 2 B +n 2 B +P/M =0, whence P r B - M p2 _ n2 and the " forced " oscillation due to -P sin pt is x = P
For the scientific problems connected with oscillation see Mechanics and Oscillograph.
He also demonstrated that mutations have this special or distinctive character, that they repeat in the same direction without oscillation or retrogression.
They determined to reinvestigate the motion of y Draconis; the telescope, constructed by George Graham (1675-1751), a celebrated instrument-maker, was affixed to a vertical chimneystack, in such manner as to permit a small oscillation of the eyepiece, the amount of which, i.e.
The oscillation of the earth's axis may arise in two distinct ways; distinguished as " nutation of the axis " and " variation of latitude.
" Nutation, the only form of oscillation imagined by Bradley, postulates that while the earth's C A FIG.
Defining oscillation as is usual in spectroscopic measurement by wave-length, the visible spectrum is found to extend from about 7700 to 3900 A.
A homogeneous oscillation is one which for all time is described by a circular function such as sin(nt+ a), t being the time and n and a constants.
The spectra experimented on by Paschen were band spectra, but as these split up into fine lines the possibility of homogeneous radiation in pure thermal oscillation may be considered as established.
This represents a forced oscillation whose period 27r/o1, coincides with that of the disturbing force; and the phase agrees with that of the force, or is opposed to it, according as c1i2u; i.e.
marion (as in the case of the pendulum), this solution can only be accepted as a representation of the initial stages of the forced oscillation.
This may be described as a simple harmonic oscillation whose amplitude diminishes asymptotically to zero according to the law ehlr.
To find the forced oscillation due to a periodic force we have tl+k+ux-f cos(rjt+e).
Thus, assuming that the period of a small oscillation of a given pendulum at a given place is a definite quantity, we see that it must vary as ~ (l/g).
The above problem is identical with that of the oscillation of a particle in a smooth spherical bowl, in the neighborhood of the lowest point, If the bowl has any other shape, the axes Ox, Oy may, ..--7 be taken tangential to the lines tof curvature ~ / at the lowest point 0; the equations of small A motion then are dix xdiy (II) c where P1, P2, are the principal radii of curvature at 0.
sin 4, we find for the period (r) of a complete oscillation r= 4f ~4=~V- f1/8~r~ ~1 _Ii~in1~
The following table gives the period, for various amplitudes a, in terms of that of oscillation in an infinitely small arc about a vertical axis half-way between the points of attachment of the upper string.
This occurs only when the period (21r/w) of revolution of the arm lies between the two periods (2ii-/p, 27r/q) of oscillation when the arm is fixed.
If we produce OG to P, making OP =1, the point P is called the centre of oscillation; the bob of a simple pendulum of length OP suspended from 0 will keep step with the motion of P, if properly started.
This shows that if the body were swung from a parallel axis through P the new centre of oscillation would be at 0.
For different parallel axes, the period of a small oscillation varies as ~i, or ~f (GO+OP); this is least, subject to the condition (4), when GO=GP=,c. The reciprocal relation between the centres of suspension and oscillation is the basis of Katers method of determining g experimentally.
If it could be arranged that the period of a small oscillation should be exactly the same about either edge, the two knifeedges would in general occupy the positions of conjugate centres of suspension and oscillation; and the distances between them would be the length 1 of the equivalent simple pendulum.
To find the small oscillation about a state of steady precession in which the axis makes a constant angle a with the vertical, we write O=a+X, and neglect terms of the second order in x.
The oscillation of M then resembles that of a particle at a distance a from one end of a string of length a+b fixed at the ends and subject to a tension mg.
The needle, a piece of paddle-shaped paper thinly coated with silver foil, is suspended by a quartz fibre, its extreme lightness making it possible to use a very feeble controlling force without rendering the period of oscillation unduly great.
There is thus in the case of each planet an oscillation of the mean longitude which increases it and then diminishes it to its original value at the end of the period of 883 years.
This apparent oscillation is called libration, and its amount on each side of the mean is commonly between 6° and 7°.
The oscillation of the centre of power between Meath and Tir Eogain, according as the ardri belonged to the southern or northern Hy Neill, produced corresponding perturbations in the balance of parties among the minor kings.
For the seven years of our record there is a very obvious oscillation in the temperature anomaly.
amplitude of the primary oscillation has fallen to zero.
At higher oscillation amplitudes, the test probe actually bounces on the surface to permit the investigation of impact phenomena.
damped harmonic oscillation.
Here, we consider the potentially deleterious effect of this oscillation on the qubit rotation.
During the damped primary oscillation energy passes back and forth between the primary capacitor and the primary inductor.
In contrast to other optical methods of the detection of Shear force interactions the fiber interferometer enables to measure the tip amplitude oscillation.
I have investigated the modulation by the quasi-biennial oscillation of the tropical winds of the isentropic mixing in the tropics and subtropics.
oscillation frequency of 30 Hz.
oscillation experiment CHORUS, at CERN.
oscillation angle for all frames in each segment.
In the case of normal mode vibration derived from a relaxation oscillation, we need low-frequency tuning of the attached oscillator.
radian of oscillation " .
relaxation oscillation, we need low-frequency tuning of the attached oscillator.
Further, the signal may be a slowly varying low frequency anharmonic oscillation, or a high frequency sinusoid.
Now 25 years is a short time in climate terms, only two complete cycles of the eleven year sunspot oscillation.
systematics studies in the Near and Far Detectors as part of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation analysis.
The complex wavelet will evidence a constant power across the time duration of the oscillation.
When at the limits of its swing, the pendulum is for an instant at rest, and all the energy of the oscillation is static or potential.
When passing through its position of equilibrium, since gravity can do no more work upon it without changing its fixed point of support, all the energy of oscillation is kinetic. At intermediate positions the energy is partly kinetic and partly potential.
Fleming devised an arrangement in which a multiple transformation takes place, two oscillation circuits being interlinked inductively, and the last one acting inductively on the open or antenna circuit.
Stone similarly devised a multiple inductive oscillation circuit with the object of forcing on the antenna circuit a single oscillation of definite frequency.'
In the early experiments Marconi connected the sensitive tube in between the receiving antenna and the earth plate, but, as already mentioned, in subsequent forms of apparatus he introduced the primary coil of a peculiar form of oscillation transformer into the antenna circuit and connected the ends of the sensitive tube to the terminals of the secondary circuit of this " jigger " (fig.
On the other hand, if a closed oscillation circuit is constructed having capacity and considerable inductance, then oscillations can be set up in it by very small periodic electromotive forces provided these have a frequency exactly agreeing with that of the condenser circuit.
An ill-balanced load also exaggerates " plunging," and if the period of oscillation of the load happens to agree with the changes of contour or other inequalities of the track vibrations of a dangerous character, giving rise to so-called " sinuous " motion, may occur.
The conditions favourable to the production of coal seem therefore to have been-forest growth in swampy ground about the mouths of rivers, and rapid oscillation of level, the coal produced during subsidence being covered up by the sediment brought down by the river forming beds of sand or clay, which, on re-elevation, formed the soil for fresh growths, the alternation being occasionally broken by the deposit of purely marine beds.
As the oscilla swung in the wind, oscillare came to mean to swing, hence in English "oscillation," the act of swinging backwards and forwards, periodic motion to and fro, hence any variation or fluctuation, actual or figurative.
He reverted to his early idea of a nutation of the earth's axis, and was rewarded by the discovery that the earth did possess such an oscillation (see Astronomy).
This apparent oscillation is called libration, and its amount on each side of the mean is commonly between 6Ã‚° and 7Ã‚°.
A definition of Q is " Energy stored in the cavity divided by energy dissipated per radian of oscillation ".
Electron neutrino identification and background systematics studies in the Near and Far Detectors as part of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation analysis.
The initial decorrelation in the recorded datasets was found to be determined by the telescope oscillation.
"Motion sickness: effect of the frequency of lateral oscillation."
Nystagmus is a condition in which there is involuntary and rhythmic movement or oscillation of the eye.
The frequency of the oscillation or movement and the amplitude of the oscillation also vary.
An accentuated oscillation when looking up is seen in upbeat nystagmus.
Such an oscillation valve was first used by Fleming as a receiver for wireless telegraph purposes in 1904 as follows: - In between the receiving antenna and the earth is placed the primary coil of an oscillation transformer; the secondary circuit of this transformer contains a galvanometer in series with it, and the two together are joined between the external negative terminal of the carbon filament of the above-described lamp and the insulated platinum plate.
An analogous oscillation prevails in the pyrazol nucleus, for L.
In a free oscillation we have Qi, Qi,.
It is essential to the steady motion of every rapidly rotating piece in a machine that its axis of rotation should not merely traverse its centre of gravity, but should be a permanent axis; for otherwise the centrifugal couples will increass friction, produce oscillation of the shaft and tend to make it leave its bearings.
In these researches he skilfully took advantage of the well-known property of reciprocity between the centres of suspension and oscillation of an oscillating body, so as to determine experimentally the precise position of the centre of oscillation; the distance between these centres was then the length of the ideal simple pendulum having the same time of oscillation.
Measurements at the Ripon Falls show that 18,000,000,000, or some 13% of this amount, is taken off by the Nile, and when allowance has been made for the annual rise and fall of the lake-level it is apparent that by far the greater part of the water which enters the nyanza is lost by evaporation; in fact, that the amount drawn off by the river plays a comparatively small part in the annual oscillation of the water surface.
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