Orthoptera sentence example
Amongst Orthoptera we find many noxious insects, notably the locusts, which travel in vast cloud-like armies, clearing the whole country before them of all vegetable life.
In generalized biting insects, such as cockroaches and locusts (Orthoptera), the parts of a typical maxilla can be easily recognized in the labium.
This has been found to be the case in insects so widely different as Orthoptera and Aculeate Hymenoptera.
In Orthoptera, Heymons has demonstrated the existence of eleven pairs, the terminal pair becoming, however, soon united with the tenth.
The earwigs, cockroaches and locusts, which Linnaeus included among the Coleoptera, were early grouped into a distinct order, the Orthoptera.Advertisement
The latter has established, for all the Palaeozoic insects, an order Palaeodictyoptera, there being a closer similarity between the fore-wings and the hind-wings than is to be seen in most living orders of Hexapoda, while affinities are shown to several of these orders - notably the Orthoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Hemiptera.
As shown by the number and variety of species, the Orthoptera are the most dominant order of this group. Eminently terrestrial in habit, the differentiation of their fore-wings and hindwings can be traced from Carboniferous, isopteroid ancestors through intermediate Mesozoic forms. The Plecoptera resemble the Ephemeroptera and Odonata in the aquatic habits of their larvae, and by the occasional presence of tufted thoracic gills in the imago exhibit an aquatic character unknown in any other winged insects.
The Odonata are in many imaginal and larval characters highly specialized; yet they probably arose with the Ephemeroptera as a divergent offshoot of the same primitive isopteroid stock which developed more directly into the living Isoptera, Plecoptera, Dermaptera and Orthoptera.
There are 8 families of Coleoptera, 6 of Orthoptera, 23 of Hymenoptera, 14 of Lepidoptera and 7 of Diptera.
Erichson (1839) and united with the Orthoptera, with which order some entomologists still associate them under the name of " Pseudoneuroptera."Advertisement
More recently the subdivision of the Linnean Neuroptera has been carried still further by the separation of the caddis-flies and scorpion-flies as distinct orders (Trichoptera and Mecaptera respectively), and by the withdrawal of the " Pseudo-neuroptera " from the Orthoptera - with whose typical families they have little in common - and their division into a number of small orders.
And no student can doubt that the stone-flies are akin to Orthoptera and the caddis-flies to the Lepidoptera, while dragon-flies and May-flies stand in an isolated position with regard to all other insects.
The stone-flies further resemble the Orthoptera in their numerous Malpighian excretory tubes, which vary in number from twenty to sixty.
There are only six or eight Malpighian tubes - contrasting with the large number of these excretory organs found in the Orthoptera and Plecoptera.
Kirby (1815) founded an order Dermaptera for the earwigs, which had formed part of de Geer's Dermaptera, accepting Olivier's term Orthoptera for the rest of the assemblage, and as modern research has shown that the earwigs undoubtedly deserve original separation from the cockroaches, grasshoppers, crickets, &c., this terminology will probably become established.Advertisement
Erichson and other writers added to the Orthoptera a number of families which Linne had included in his order Neuroptera.
In the present article a short account of the characters of the Dermaptera and Orthoptera is given, while for details the reader is referred to special articles on the more interesting families or groups.
The bulk of de Geer's " Dermaptera " form the order Orthoptera of modern systematists, which includes some Io,000 described species.
More important characters of the Orthoptera than the nature of the wings - characters in which they differ from After Marlatt, Ent.
There is general agreement as to the division of the Orthoptera into three sub-orders or tribes.Advertisement
In this tribe are included Orthoptera with a large prothorax, whose eggs are enclosed in a common purse or capsule formed by the hardening of a maternal secretion.
The Orthoptera are an exceedingly interesting order of insects as regards their past history.
The Orthoptera have been largely used for anatomical and embryological researches, the more important of which are mentioned under Hexapoda (q.v.).
In insects of the order Orthoptera, departure from the normal in form and colour, carrying with it similarity to other living things, usually takes the line of protective resemblance to parts of plants.
Among the insects we find the Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera represented; cockroaches were particu.Advertisement
Insect life is somewhat less remarkable; but besides a distinctive genus of Orthoptera (Jaquetia Hospodar), there are several kinds of weevils (Curculionidae) said to be peculiar to Rumania.
For a general account of the structure, development and relationships of insects, see Arthropoda and Hexapoda, while details of the form, habits and classification of insects will be found in articles on the various orders or groups of orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, Dipteria,Hemiptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera,Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Thysanoptera), and in special articles on the more familiar divisions (ANT, BEE, Dragon-Fly, Earwig, &c.).
One or two land shells, a few spiders, several Coleoptera, a small lepidopter and a few other insects are recorded, but no Orthoptera or Hymenoptera.