The resultant force is therefore in the direction of the steepest pressure-gradient, and this is normal to the surface of equal pressure; for equilibrium to exist in a fluid the lines of force must therefore be capable of being cut orthogonally by a system of surfaces, which will be surfaces of equal pressure.
Every circle through the limiting points cuts all circles of the system orthogonally; 5.
If we project both polyhedra orthogonally on a plane perpendicular to the axis of the paraboloid, we obtain two figures which are reciprocal, except that corresponding lines are orthogonal instead of parallel.
Projecting orthogonally on a plane perpendicular to the central axis we obtain two reciprocal figures.
An important property of confocal systems is that only two confocals can be drawn through a specified point, one being an ellipse, the other a hyperbola, and they intersect orthogonally.
To define the moment of a force about an axis HK, we project the force orthogonally on a plane perpendicular to HK and take the moment of the projection about the intersection of ilK with the plane (see 4).
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