History of Ornithology to End of 28th Century.
The local works on English birds are too numerous to be mentioned; almost every county has had its ornithology recorded.
The ornithology of New South Wales and Queensland is more varied and interesting than that of the other provinces.
4 Taking his labours as a whole, there cannot be a doubt that he enormously enlarged the purview of naturalists, and, even if limited to birds, that, on the completion of his work upon them in 1783, ornithology stood in a very different position from that which it had before occupied.
A considerable number of valuable papers on the ornithology of the country by Sir W.
The earliest known use of the word Ornithology seems to be in the third edition of Blount's Glossographia (1670), where it is noted as being " the title of a late Book."
Ornithology in the 19th Century.
" 1 We prefer giving them here in Swainson's version, because he seems to have set them forth more clearly and concisely than Macleay ever did, and, moreover, Swainson's application of them to ornithology - a branch of science that lay outside of Macleay's proper studies - appears to be more suitable to the present occasion.
This was William Sharpe Macleay, a man of education and real genius, who in 1819 and 1821 brought out a work under the title of Horae Entomoiogicae, which was soon after hailed by Vigors as containing a new revelation, and applied by him to ornithology in some vigoes.
4 Coming to the Iberian peninsula,we must, i n default of separate works depart from our rule of not mentioning contributions to journals, for of the former there are only Colonel Irby's Ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar (8vo, 1875) and Mr A.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
Several other works bearing upon ornithology in general, but of less importance than most of those just named, belong to this period.
Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology, originally published beween 1808 and 1814, has gone through many editions including those issued in Great Britain, by Jameson (4 vols.
At the same place appeared in 1767 Leem's work, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae, to which Gunnerus contributed some good notes on the ornithology of northern Norway, and at Copenhagen and Leipzig was published in 1780 the Fauna Groenlandica of Otho Fabricius.
Confining our attention here to ornithology, Cuvier's arrangement of the class Aver is now seen to be not very much better than any which it superseded.
Frisch began the long series of works on the birds of Germany with which the literature of ornithology is enriched, by his Vorstellung der Vogel Teutschlands, which was only completed in 1763, and, its coloured plates proving very attractive, was again issued at Berlin in 1817.
Observations on birds form the principal though by no means the whole theme of this book, which may be safely said to have done more to promote a love of ornithology in England than any other work that has been written, nay more than all the other works (except one next to be mentioned) put together.
Heysham added to Hutchins's Cumberland a list of birds of that county, whilst in the same year began Thomas Lord's valueless Entire New System of Ornithology, the text of which was written or corrected by Dr Dupree, and in 1794 Donovan began a History of British Birds which was only finished in 1819 - the earlier portion being reissued about the same time.
Of the thirty-six plates illustrating this volume, a small folio, twenty are devoted to Ornithology, and contain figures, which, it must be allowed, are not very successful, of several species rare at the time.
The works of Audubon, and the Fauna Boreali-Americana of Richardson and Swainson have already been noticed, but they need naming here, as also do Nuttall's Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of Canada (2 vols., Boston, 1832-1834; 2nd ed., 1840); and the Birds of Long Island (8 vo, New York, 1844) by J.
The new doctrine, loudly proclaiming the discovery of a " Natural" System, led away many from the steady practice which should have followed the teaching of Cuvier (though he in ornithology had not been able to act up to the principles he had lain down) and from the extended study of Comparative Anatomy.
The ornithology of Norway has been treated in a great many papers by Herr Collett, some of which may be said to have been separately published as Norges Fugle (8vo, 1868; with a supplement, 1871), and The Ornithology of Northern Norway (8vo, 1872)-this last in English.
4 A useful compendium of Greek and Turkish ornithology by Drs Kruper and Hartlaub is contained in Mommsen's Griechische Jahrzeiten for 1875 (Heft III.).
Next in order come the very inferior British Ornithology of Graves (3 vols.
The good effects of " Faunal " works such as those named in the foregoing rapid survey none can doubt, but important as they are, they do not of themselves constitute ornithology as a science; and an inquiry, no less wide and far more recondite, still remains.
Of a very different kind is the next we have to notice, the Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium of Illiger, published at Berlin in 1811, which must in its day have been a valuable little manual, and on many points it may now be consulted to advantage - the characters of the genera being admirably given, and good explanatory lists of the technical terms of ornithology furnished.
ornithology, as might be expected from such a man as he was, placed the Pterylographie at the summit of those publications the appearance of which he had to record for the years 1839 and 5840, stating that for " Systematik" it was of the greatest importance.'
TAPACULO, the name 1 given in Chile to a bird of singular appearance - the Pteroptochus albicollis of ornithology, and applied in an extended sense to its allied forms, which constitute a small family, Pteroptochidae, belonging to the Clainatores division of Passeres, peculiar to South America.
The ornithology of northern Asia is even more closely allied to that of Europe than the mammal fauna.
Here there is only space to name Bontius, Clusius, Hernandez (or Fernandez), Marcgrave, Nieremberg and Piso, 6 whose several works describing the natural products of both the Indies - whether the result of their own observation or compilation - together with those of Olina and Worm, produced a marked effect, since they led up to what may be deemed the foundation of scientific ornithology.'
On reviewing the progress of ornithology since the end of the 18th century, the first thing that will strike us is the fact that general works, though still undertaken, have become proportionally fewer, while special works, whether relating to the ornithic portion of the fauna of any particular country, or limited to certain groups of birds - works to which the name of " Monograph " has become wholly restricted - have become far more numerous.
The ornithology of Britain naturally demands greater attention.
Noble's List of European Birds (1898) is a useful compilation, and Dresser's magnificent Eggs of the Birds of Europe is another great contribution by that author to European ornithology.
Looking on Miller's labours as we now can, we see that such errors as he committed are chiefly due to his want of special knowledge of ornithology, combined with the absence in several instances of sufficient materials for investigation.
taken altogether, ornithology was declared by Sundevall, undoubtedly a man who had a right to speak with authority, to have made greater progress than had been achieved since the days of Cuvier.
Blanchard's investigations, if completed, would obviously have taken extraordinarily high rank among the highest contributions to ornithology.
3 Here there is no need to enter into details of the history of evolution; but there was possibly no branch of zoology in which so many of the best informed and consequently the most advanced of its workers sooner accepted the principles of evolution than ornithology, and of course the effect upon its study was very marked.
But, relieved as it may be by reflections of this kind - dreams some may perhaps still call them - the study of ornithology has unquestionably become harder and more serious; and a corresponding change in the style of investigation, followed in the works that remain to be considered, will be immediately perceptible.
But this is not the only way in which the author has rendered service to the advanced student of ornithology.
bearing on our knowledge of ornithology will be most conveniently treated here.
C. Marsh, by finding the imperfect fossilized tibia of a bird in the middle cretaceous shale of Kansas, Marsh, began a series of wonderful discoveries of great im portance to ornithology.
In the article " Ornithology" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia, A.
Wallace, Malay Archipelago (London, 1869, and later editions, notably for zoological distribution) and Island Life (London, 1880, notably for ornithology).
The account of its habits by Alexander Wilson is known to every student of ornithology, and Wilson's followers have had little to do but supplement his history with unimportant details.
From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).
The ornithology is more interesting, on account at once of the birds native to the islands, and the stragglers from the African coast, which are chiefly brought over in winter, when the wind has blown for some time from the east.
The ornithology of India, though it is not considered so rich in specimens of gorgeous and variegated plumage as that of other tropical regions, contains many splendid and Birds.
This name in seamen's ornithology applies to several other kinds of birds, and, though perhaps first given to those of this group, is nowadays most commonly used for the species of Tropic-Bird, the projecting middle feathers of the tail in each kind being intent, "Dunghunters."
His early familiarity with country life gave him a taste for natural history, especially botany and ornithology.
He was the author of the appendices on botany (in part) and ornithology in Potter's History and Antiquities of Charnwood Forest (1842); Mr Macaulay's Character of the Clergy.
He was the author of several works on ornithology, and presented his collections of bird skins and eggs to the British Museum.
He displayed an early predilection for zoology and ornithology, and in later life became a skilled and enthusiastic collector, particularly of African plants and birds.
The Teal is the Anas crecca of Linnaeus, Nettion crecca of modern ornithology, and the smallest of the European Anatidae, as well as one of the most abundant and highly esteemed for the table.
It has thus become the Chionis alba of ornithology.
Both words have passed into modern ornithology, the latter as the generic name of the STILT; and some writers have blended the two in the strange and impossible compound Haemantopus.
(For further historical detail, see Ornithology).
In the following year appeared the Onomasticon Zooicon of Walter Charleton, which contains some information on ornithology.
He seems to have regarded the work just named as a necessary precursor to his own labours in ornithology.
G..Gmelin, Giildenstalt, Lepechin and others - in the exploration of the recently extended Russian empire supplied not only much material to the Commentarii and Acta of the Academy of St Petersburg, but more that is to be found in their narratives - all of it being of the highest interest to students of Palaearctic or Nearctic ornithology.
These views he shared more or less with Vigors and Swainson, and to them attention will be immediately especially invited, while consideration of the scheme gradually developed from 1831 onward by Charles Lucien Bonaparte, and still not without its influence, is deferred until we come to treat of the rise and progress of what we may term the reformed school of ornithology.
reprinted 1877) is a comprehensive work on the ornithology of the peninsula.
Apart from its intrinsic merits as a learned and valuable addition to classification, this work is interesting in the history of ornithology because of the wholesale changes of nomenclature it introduced as the result of much diligence and zeal in the application of the strict rule of priority to the names of birds.
In addition to an enormous body of new information chiefly on the shoulder girdle, the alar muscles and the nerve plexuses of birds, this work contained a critical and descriptive summary of practically the whole pre-existing literature on the structure of birds, and it is hardly necessary for the student of ornithology to refer to earlier literature at first hand.
At the age of twenty-two Lucien: he began the publication of an American Ornithology 8.
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
Great as were the services of Buffon to ornithology in one direction, those of a wholly different kind rendered by John m.
Hitherto mention has chiefly been made of works on general ornithology, but it will be understood that these were largely aided by the enterprise of travellers, and as there were many of them who published their narratives in separate forms their contributions have to be considered.
The only information at this period on the ornithology of South America is contained in the two works on Chile by Molina, published at Bologna in 1776 and 1782.
Both may well be named "'Faunists," and of the latter there were not a few who having turned their attention more or less to ornithology should here be 6 So little regard did he pay to the osteology of birds that, according to de Blainville (Jour.
9 The results of Forsk5.l's travels in the Levant, published after his death by Niebuhr, require mention, but the ornithology they contain is but scant.
The existence of these two works explains the widely-spread taste for ornithology in England, which is to foreigners so puzzling, and the zeal - not always according to knowledge, but occasionally reaching to serious study - with which that taste is pursued.
In 1828 James Wilson (author of the article Ornithology in the 7th and Wilson 8th editions of the present work) began, under the title of Illustrations of Zoology, the publication of a series of his own drawings (which he did not, however, himself engrave) with corresponding letterpress.
A similar bibliography of Russian ornithology by Alexander Brandt was printed at St Petersburg in 1877 or 1878.
The attempt of Merrem must be regarded as the virtual starting-point of the latest efforts in Systematic Ornithology, and in that view its proposals deserve to be stated at length.
Aristotle was the first serious author on ornithology with whose writings we are acquainted, but even he had, as he tells us, predecessors; and, looking to that portion of his works on animals which has come down to us, one Early s.
In the same year and from the same press was issued a Dialogus de Avibus by Gybertus Longolius, and in 1570 Caius brought out in London his treatise De rariorum animalium atque stirpium historic. In this last work, small though it be, ornithology has a good share; and all three may still be consulted with interest and advantage by its votaries.
Ray's interest in ornithology continued, and in 1694 he completed a Synopsis Methodica Avium, which, through the fault of the booksellers to whom it was entrusted, was not published till 1713, when Derham gave it to the world.'
Besides the works above named and those of other recognized authorities on the ornithology of South America such as Azara, Prince Max of Wied, Professor Burmeister and others, more or less valuable information on the subject is to be found in Darwin's Voyage, Dr Bdcking's "Monographie des Nandu" in (Wiegmann's) Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte (1863, i.
The ornithology of northern Africa presents a close resemblance to that of southern Europe, scarcely a species being found which does not also occur in the other countries bordering the Mediterranean.
But I confess that I am now inclined to think that there is a finer way of studying ornithology than this.
ornithology student who was studying in the area.
However, we welcome papers from any part of the world that are of general interest to field ornithology.
Bird experts at Cornell University's Lab of Ornithology also said the protest seemed overblown.
wetland bird stocks in the area on behalf of the British Trust for Ornithology.
Soc. (London (President's Address), October 1898), pp. 14-29 (with bibliography from 1875 to 1898 on gigantic landtortoises); Rothschild and Hartert, "Review of the Ornithology of the Galapagos Islands," Novitates zoologicae, vi.
For the history of the classification of birds see the article Ornithology, where also the more important ornithological works are mentioned.
ORNITHOLOGY, 1 properly the methodical study and consequent knowledge of birds with all that relates to them; but the difficulty of assigning a limit to the commencement of such study and knowledge gives the word a very vague meaning, and practically procures its application to much that does not enter the domain of science.
This elastic application renders it impossible in the following sketch of the history of ornithology to draw any sharp distinction between works that are emphatically ornithological and_those to which that title can only be attached by courtesy; for, since birds have always attracted far greater attention than any other group of animals with which in number or in importance they can be compared, there has grown up concerning them a literature of corresponding magnitude and of the widest range, extending from the recondite and laborious investigations of the morphologist and anatomist to the casual observations of the sportsman or the schoolboy.
Eleazar Albin between 1738 and 1740 produced a Natural History of Birds in three volumes of more modest dimensions; but he seems to have been ignorant of ornithology, and his coloured plates are greatly inferior to Catesby's.
' Several birds from Jamaica were figured in Sloane's Voyage, &c. (1705-1725), and a good many exotic species in the Thesaurus, &c., of Seba (1734-1765), but from their faulty execution these plates had little effect upon Ornithology.
Naumann humbly began at COthen a treatise on the birds of the principality of Anhalt, which on its completion in 1804 was found to have swollen into an ornithology of northern Germany and the neighbouring countries.
The other work to the importance of which on ornithology in England allusion has been made is Bewick's History of British Birds.
Another change has come over the condition of ornithology, as of kindred sciences, induced by the multiplication of learned societies which issue publications as well as of periodicals of greater or less scientific pretension.
Most of them are but luxuries, and there is some degree of truth in the remark of Andreas Wagner in his Report on the Progress of Zoology for 1843, drawn up for the Ray Society (p. 60), that they " are not adapted for the extension and promotion of science, but must inevitably, on account of their unnecessary costliness, constantly tend to reduce the number of naturalists who are able to avail themselves of them, and they thus enrich ornithology only to its ultimate injury."
In 1825 Jardine and Selby began a series of Illustrations of Ornithology, the several parts of which appeared at long and irregular intervals, so that it was not until 1839 that three volumes Jardine containing one hundred and fifty plates were completed.
In 1866 the succession was again taken up by the Exotic Ornithology of Messrs Sclater and Salvin, containing one Sclater hundred plates, representing one hundred and four and species, all from Central or South America, which are Salvia.
But, confining ourselves to what is here our special business, it is to be remarked that perhaps the heaviest blow dealt at these strange doctrines was that delivered by Rennie, who, in an edition of Montagu's Ornithological Dictionary (pp. xxxiii.-1v.), published in 1831 and again issued in 1833, attacked the Quinary System, and especially its application to ornithology by Vigors and Swainson, in a way that might perhaps have demolished it, had not the author mingled with his undoubtedly sound reason much that is foreign to any question with which a naturalist, as such, ought to deal - though that herein he was only following the example of one of his opponents, who had constantly treated the subject in like manner, is to be allowed.
though attempts were now and then made by its adherents to revive it; and, even ten years or more later, Kaup, one of the few foreign ornithologists who had embraced Quinary principles, was by mistaken kindness allowed to publish Monographs of the Birds-of-Prey (Jardine's Contributions to Ornithology, 18 49, pp. 68 -75, 96-121; 1850, pp. 51-80; 1851, pp. 119-130; 1852, pp. 103-122; and Trans.
In 1866 Mr Diggles commenced a similar publication, The Ornithology of Australia, but the coloured plates, though fairly drawn, are not comparable to those of his predecessor.
[An admirable " List of Faunal Publications relating to North American Ornithology " up to 1878 has been given by Elliott Coues as an appendix to his Birds of the Colorado Valley (pp. 567-784).
Saunders, the latter of whom there records (1871, p. 55) the few works on ornithology by Spanish authors, and in the Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France (i.
Then we have Selby's Illustrations of British Ornithology, two folio volumes of coloured plates engraved by himself, between 1821 and 1833, with letterpress also in two volumes (8vo, 1825-1833), a second edition of the first volume being also issued (1833), for the author, having yielded to the pressure of the " Quinarian " doctrines then in vogue, thought it necessary to adjust his classification accordingly, and it must be admitted that for information the 6 Copies are said to exist bearing the date 1814.
pp. 445-474), being that, it is true, of an estimable zoologist, but of one who had no special knowledge of ornithology.
It is unnecessary to continue the 2 In this historical sketch of the progress of ornithology it has not been thought necessary to mention other oological works, since they have not a taxonomic bearing, and the chief of them have been already named (see Birds).
The above abstract shows the general drift of this very remarkable contribution to ornithology, and it has to be added that for by far the greater number of his minor groups Huxley relied solely on the form of the palatal structure, the importance of which Dr Cornay had before urged, though to so little purpose.
Thus instead of contenting himself with terms that had met with pretty general approval, such as class, subclass, order, suborder, family, subfamily, and so on, he introduced into his final scheme other designations, " agmen," " cohors," " phalanx," and the like, which to the ordinary student of ornithology convey an indefinite meaning, if any meaning at all.
Garrod was the more skilled and ingenious anatomist, Forbes had a greater acquaintance with the ornithology of museums and collectors.
Ayes (see Bird and Ornithology).
acumen, point), sharpened or pointed, a word used principally in botany and ornithology, to denote the narrowing or lance-shaping of a leaf or of a bird's feather into a point, generally at the tip, though sometimes (with regard to a leaf) at the base.
Willughby's Ornithology (p. 12 9), "there is no bird secures her young ones better from the Monkeys, which are very noisom to the young of most Birds.
Donald also monitors wetland bird stocks in the area on behalf of the British Trust for Ornithology.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.