(that of the Orkney Islands and northern Labrador).
He had annihilated the petty kings of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance of Christianity throughout the kingdom, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the king of Sweden and married his daughter in his despite, and had conducted a successful raid on Denmark.
JAMES HEPBURN BOTHWELL, 4TH Earl Of, duke of Orkney and Shetland (c. 1536-1578), husband of Mary, queen of Scots, son of Patrick, 3rd earl of Bothwell, and of Agnes, daughter of Henry, Lord Sinclair, was born about 1536.
On the 12th Bothwell was created duke of Orkney and Shetland and the marriage took place on the 15th according to the Protestant usage, the Roman Catholic rite being performed, according to some accounts, afterwards in addition.'
Subsequently Bothwell left Dunbar for the north, visited Orkney and Shetland, and in July placed himself at the head of a band of pirates, and after eluding all attempts to capture him, arrived at Karm Sound in Norway.
Of Kirkwall, in Orkney, and 340 m.
Skene's view is that it chronicles the struggle in 900 between Sigurd, earl of Orkney, and Maelbrigd, Maormor of Moray.
(Norse Sudr-eyjar, Sudreys, or southern isles, in distinction from Nordr-eyjar, the northern isles of Orkney and Shetland) and the Isle of Man.
Nearly all the parishes in Argyll, Inverness, Ross, Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness and Orkney and Shetland answer to this description.
The white and black varieties of this species were cultivated in England and Scotland from remote times, and are still grown as a crop in Orkney and Shetland.
It consists of an archipelago of islands and islets, over loo in number, situated to the north-east of Orkney, between 59 50 and 60° 52' N.
There has been no agricultural advance corresponding to that which has taken place in Orkney, mainly owing to the poverty and insufficiency of the soil.
The ruins of the castle built in 1600 by Patrick Stewart, earl of Orkney, stand at the east end of the bay and are in good preservation.
On the west side of the Bard is the Orkney Man's Cave - a great cavern with fine stalactites and a remarkable echo.
Farther north, at the head of a small bay, lies Haroldswick, where Harold Haarfager is believed to have landed in 872, when he annexed the Orkney and Shetland Islands to Norway.
Shetland unites with Orkney to return a member to parliament.
It forms a sheriffdom with Orkney and Caithness, and there is a resident sheriff-substitute at Lerwick, the county town.
Henceforward the history of Shetland is scarcely separable from that of Orkney (q.v.).
George Low (1747-1795), the naturalist and historian of Orkney, who made a tour through Shetland in 1774, described a Runic monument which he saw in the churchyard of Crosskirk, in Northmavine parish (Mainland), and several fragments of Norse swords, shield bosses and brooches have been dug up from time to time.
See George Low, Tour through the Islands of Orkney and Shetland in 1774 (published in 1879); A.
STROMNESS, a police burgh and seaport, in the island of Pomona, county of Orkney, Scotland.
KIRKWALL (Norse, Kirkjuvagr, " church bay"), a royal, municipal and police burgh, seaport and capital of the Orkney Islands, county of Orkney, Scotland.
1614), 1st and 2nd earls of Orkney, and others, the Scottish xv.
1400), earl and prince of Orkney and 1st earl of Caithness, its last vestiges having been demolished in 1865 to provide better access to the harbour; and the earthwork to the east of the town thrown up by the Cromwellians has been converted into a battery of the Orkney Artillery Volunteers.
To the east of the remains of the bishop's palace are the ruins of the earl's palace, a structure in the Scottish Baronial style, built about 1600 for Patrick Stewart, 2nd earl of Orkney, and on his forfeiture given to the bishops for a residence.
Tankerness House is a characteristic example of the mansion of an Orkney laird of the olden time.
In September 1883 Tennyson and Gladstone set out on a voyage round the north of Scotland, to Orkney, and across the ocean to Norway and Denmark.
Walganus, Walwanus; Dutch, Walwein, Welsh, Gwalchmci), son of King Loth of Orkney, and nephew to Arthur on his mother's side, the most famous hero of Arthurian romance.
On the 20th of August 1589, in spite of Queen Elizabeth's opposition, she was married by proxy to King James, without dower, the alliance, however, settling definitely the Scottish claims to the Orkney and Shetland Islands.
Been reported nearer the coasts of Europe than off the Orkney Islands, and there only once, in 1836.
He was an ardent partisan of the Douglases, and on their overthrow retired to Orkney and later to Shetland.
Mention is made of incursions of the vikings as early as 793, but the principal immigration took place towards the end of the 9th century in the early part of the reign of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, and consisted of persons driven to the Hebrides, as well as to Orkney and Shetland, to escape from his tyrannous rule.
Soon afterwards they began to make incursions against their mother-country, and on this account Harald fitted out an expedition against them, and placed Orkney, Shetland, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man under Norwegian government.
Magnus, son of Haakon, concluded in 1266 a peace with the Scots, renouncing all claim to the Hebrides and other islands except Orkney and Shetland, and Alexander III.
ORKNEY ISLANDS, a group of islands, forming a county, off the north coast of Scotland.
Orkney unites with Shetland to send one member to parliament, and Kirkwall, the county town and the only royal burgh, is one of the Wick district groups of parliamentary burghs.
Orkney forms a sheriffdom with Shetland and Caithness, and a resident sheriff-substitute sits at Kirkwall.
In 1471 James bestowed the castle and lands of Ravenscraig in Fife on William, earl of Orkney, in exchange for all his rights to the earldom of Orkney, which, by act of parliament passed on the 20th of February of the same year, was annexed to the Scottish crown.
In 1564 Lord Robert Stewart, natural son of James V., who had visited Kirkwall twenty-four years before, was made sheriff of the Orkneys and Shetlands, and received possession of the estates of the udallers; in 1581 he was created earl of Orkney by James IV., the charter being ratified ten years later to his son Patrick, but in 1615 the earldom was again annexed to the crown.
When the islands were given as security for the princess's dowry, there seems reason to believe that it was intended to redeem the pledge, because it was then stipulated that the Norse system of government and the law of St Olaf should continue to be observed in Orkney and Shetland.
Vigfusson, translated by Sir George Dasent (1887-1894), and the edition of Dr Joseph Anderson (1873); James Wallace, Account of the Islands of Orkney (1700; new ed., 1884); George Low, Tour through the Islands of Orkney and Shetland in 1774 (1879); G.
Barry, History of Orkney (1805, 1867); Daniel Gorrie, Summers and Winters in the Orkneys (1868); D.
Fergusson, The Brochs and Rude Stone Monuments of the Orkney Islands (1877); J.
Craven, History of the Episcopal Church in Orkney (1883); J.
Tudor, Orkney and Shetland (1883).
HOY (Norse Haey, " high island"), the second largest island of the Orkneys, county of Orkney, Scotland.
About the same time, and largely owing to the exertions of Olaf, Iceland, Greenland and the Orkney and Shetland islands were also evangelized.
Lest her captivity should have been held to invalidate the late legal proceedings in her name, proclamation was made of forgiveness accorded by the queen to her captor in consideration of his past and future services, and her intention was announced to reward them by further promotion; and on the same day (May 12), he was duly created duke of Orkney and Shetland.
WILLIAM BALFOUR BAIKIE (1824-1864), Scottish explorer, naturalist and philologist, eldest son of Captain John Baikie, R.N., was born at Kirkwall, Orkney, on the 21st of August 1824.
He was also the author of various works concerning Orkney and Shetland.
During 1663 he was made duke of Orkney, duke of Monmouth and knight of the Garter, and received honorary degrees at both universities; and on his marriage he and his wife were created duke and duchess of Buccleuch, and he took the surname of Scott.
SCOTLAND, the name given in modern times to that portion of Great Britain which lies north of the English boundary; it also comprises the Outer and Inner Hebrides and other islands off the west coast, and the Orkney and Shetland islands off the north coast.
However, the highest cliffs are found among the Shetland and Orkney Islands.
The sea-wall of Foula, in Shetland, and the western front of Hoy, in Orkney, rise like walls to heights of 1100 or 1200 ft.
Thus the Old Man of Hoy in Orkney is a huge column of yellow sandstone between 400 and 500 ft.
The Lower, with its abundant intercalated lavas and tuffs, extends continuously as a broad belt along the northern margin of the Central Plain, reappears in detached tracts along the southern border, is found again on the south side of the Uplands in Berwickshire and the Cheviot Hills, occupies a tract of Lorne (Oban and the vicinity) in Argyllshire, and on the north side of the Highlands underlies most of the low ground on both sides of the Moray Firth, stretches across Caithness and through nearly the whole of the Orkney Islands, and is prolonged into Shetland.
The Lower Old Red Sandstone is rich in remains of plants and fishes, notably in the flagstones of Caithness, Orkney and Forfarshire.
In the northern, north-western and southern divisions the population declined during the decade, the fifteen counties thus affected being, in the order of decrease, beginning with the shire in which it was smallest, Inverness, Banff, Argyll, Kirkcudbright, Shetland, Sutherland, Dumfries, Ross and Cromarty, Clackmannan, Berwick, Orkney, Roxburgh, Caithness, Wigtown and Selkirk.
Under the Congested Districts (Scotland) Act of 18 97, £35, 0 0 0 a year was devoted within certain districts of Argyll, Inverness, Ross and Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness, Orkney and Shetland, to assisting migration, improving the breeds of live stock, building piers and boatslips, making roads and bridges, developing home industries, &c.
The Scottish seaboard is divided for administrative purposes into twenty-seven fishery districts, namely, on the east coast, Eyemouth, Leith, Anstruther, Montrose, Stonehaven, Aberdeen, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Banff, Buckie, Findhorn, Cromarty, Helmsdale, Lybster, Wick (15); on the north, Orkney, Shetland (2); on the west, Stornoway, Barra, Loch Broom, Loch Carron and Skye, Fort William, Campbeltown, Inverary, Rothesay, Greenock, Ballantrae (10).
With the exception of the counties of Orkney, Shetland, Caithness, Sutherland and Inverness, granite is quarried in every shire in Scotland, but the industry predominates in Aberdeenshire, and is of considerable importance in Kirkcudbrightshire; limestone is quarried in half of the counties, but especially in Midlothian and Fife; large quantities of paving-stones are exported from Caithness and Forfarshire, and there are extensive slate quarries at Ballachulish and other places in Argyllshire, which furnishes three-fourths of the total supply.
For parliamentary purposes some counties have been united, as Clackmannan and Kinross, Elgin and Nairn, Orkney and Shetland, and Peebles and Selkirk, and others divided, as Aberdeen, Ayr, Lanark, Perth and Renfrew, while others retain in certain respects their old subdivision, Lanarkshire for assessment purposes being still partitioned into the upper, middle and lower wards.
In July 1469 James, then about eighteen, married Margaret, daughter of King Christian of Norway, who pledged the Orkney and Shetland Isles for her dowry, which remains unpaid.