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orinoco

orinoco

orinoco Sentence Examples

  • In 1669 he published his Physica subterranea, and the same year was engaged with the count of Hanau in a scheme for settling a large territory between the Orinoco and the Amazon.

  • of the Orinoco and Apure, with the Yuruari territory on the E., the Caroni river forming the boundary, and the Amazonas territory and Brazil on the S.

  • The capital is Ciudad Bolivar, formerly called Angostura, which is situated on the right bank of the Orinoco about 240 m.

  • Vessels of light draught easily ascend the Orinoco to this point, and a considerable trade is carried on, the exports being cocoa, sugar, cotton, hides, jerked beef and various forest products.

  • Orinoco >>

  • state of Venezuela, between the Caribbean Sea and the Orinoco river, bounded E.

  • Humboldt found it among the native tribes of the Orinoco valley, where it is called pirijao.

  • The ita palm, Mauritia, flexuosa (a fanleaf palm) provides an edible fruit, medullary meal, drink, fibre, roofing and timber, but is less used on the Amazon than it is on the lower Orinoco.

  • He descried the land near Cape St Augustine, and sailed along the coast as The Portu- far as the river Amazon, whence he proceeded to the geese in mouth of the Orinoco.

  • and N.; (2) the Orinoco basin with the llanos on its northern border and great forested areas in the S.

  • The sierra contains the water-parting between the basin of the Orinoco and those of the small rivers on the north-west.

  • Hence it may be considered to terminate where the Rio Cojedes, which drains the elevated valley in which Barquisimeto stands, after rising on its western slopes flows eastwards into the basin of the Orinoco.

  • It consists of two portions - a vast, hilly or mountainous area, densely wooded, in the south-east and south, and level plains in the north-west between the Orinoco and the Apure and the mountains.

  • The latter is known as the llanos of the Orinoco, a region described by Humboldt as a vast " sea of grass," with islands of wood scattered here and there.

  • From the Galera, the southernmost range of hills north of the Orinoco basin, the traveller saw a vast plain thickly grown with low trees.

  • Along the Brazilian frontier and about the sources of the Orinoco tributaries on the eastern slops of the Andes there are extensive forests, sometimes broken with grassy campos.

  • When the Orinoco is reached its lower basin is contracted between the Guiana highlands and the northern sierras, and its tributaries begin to come in more nearly at right angles, showing that the margins of the actual valley are nearer and higher.

  • the surface again rises into mountain ranges, which include the Parima and Pacaraima sierras on and adjacent to the Brazilian frontier, with a number of short spurs reaching northward toward the Orinoco, such as the Mapichi, Maraguaca, Maigualida, Matos, Rincote and Usupamo.

  • All this region belongs to the drainage basin of the Orinoco, and rivers of large volume flow down between these spurs.

  • Some of the culminating points in these ranges are the Cerros Yaparana (7175 ft.) and Duida (8120 ft.) in the Parima sierras near the upper Orinoco, the Sierra de Maraguaca (8228 ft.), and the celebrated flat-topped Mt Roraima (8530 ft.) in the Pacaraima sierras on the boundary line with Brazil and British Guiana.

  • Near the Orinoco the general elevation drops to about 1500 ft.

  • Probably not less than four-fifths of the territory of Venezuela belong to the drainage basin of the Orinoco (q.v.).

  • The Orinoco is supposed to have 436 tributaries, of which, among the largest, the Caroni-Paragua, Aro, Caura, Cuchivero, Suapure, Sipapo and Ventuari have their sources in the Guiana highlands; the Suata, Manapere and Guaritico in the northern sierras; and the Apure, Uricana, Arauca, Capanaparo, Meta, Vichada and Guaviare (the last three being Colombian rivers) in the llanos and Andes.

  • - Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.

  • This mass also forms the bed of the Orinoco from its junction with the Apure nearly to its mouth, and it probably extends northwards for some distance beneath the more recent deposits of the plain.

  • The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.

  • Among the pachyderms the tapir is found in the forests of the Orinoco.

  • On the coast and in the Orinoco there may be found the manatee and the dolphin.

  • The bell-bird (Chasmorhynchus carunculatus) is common in the forests of the Orinoco.

  • The coastal zone and lower slopes of all the mountains, including the lower Orinoco region and the Maracaibo basin, are clothed with a typical tropical vegetation.

  • One of the most remarkable palms of the Orinoco region is the " moriche " (Mauritia flexuosa).

  • A regular service is maintained on Lake Maracaibo, one on Lake Valencia, and another on the Orinoco, Apure and Portuguesa rivers, starting from Ciudad Bolivar.

  • The coast of Venezuela has an aggregate length of 1876 m., and there are 32 ports, large and small, not including those of Lakes Maracaibo and Tacarigua and the Orinoco.

  • The Orinoco trade is carried on almost wholly through Port of Spain, Trinidad, where merchandise and produce is transferred between light draught river boats and foreign ocean-going steamers.

  • The climatic conditions are not so favourable as in Argentina, but these are counterbalanced to some extent by the great river system of the Orinoco, whose large navigable tributaries cross the plains from end to end, and whose smaller streams from the surrounding highlands provide superior opportunities for water storage and irrigation.

  • The rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries of the Guiana highlands.

  • of the principal mouth of the Orinoco and near the borders of British Guiana, where the famous El Callao mines are.

  • from the " Boca Grande " of the Orinoco.

  • - The coast of Venezuela was the first part of the American mainland sighted by Columbus, who, during his third voyage in 1498, entered the Gulf of Paria and sailed along the coast of the' delta of the Orinoco.

  • States for a revision of what is known as the Olcott Award in connexion with the Orinoco Steamship Company was in 1905 met by a refusal to reopen the case.

  • P. Triana, Down the Orinoco in a Canoe (London, 1902); N.

  • Being now recognized as commander-in-chief,Bolivar proceeded in his career of victory, and before the close of the year had fixed his headquarters at Angostura on the Orinoco.

  • Between September 1493 and the time of his last voyage (May 1502 to November 1504), Columbus explored the West Indies, reached the mainland of South America at the mouth of the Orinoco and sailed along the coast of Central America from Cape Honduras to Nombre de Dios (near Colon).

  • Brazil; Caribian, around Caribbean Sea; Catamarenyan, Chaco; Changuinan, Panama; Charruan, Parana R.; Chibchan, Colombia .; Churbyan, Orinoco R.; Coconucan, Colombia; Cunan, Panama; Guaycuruan, Paraguay R.; Jivaroan, Ecuador; Kechuan, Peru; Laman, N.E.

  • The custom is also common in the estuaries of the Orinoco and Amazon.

  • ORINOCO, a river in the north of South America, falling north-east into the Atlantic between 60° 20' and 62° 30' W.

  • Lying south and east of the main stream is a vast, densely forested region called Venezuelan Guiana, diversified by ranges of low mountains, irregular broken ridges and granitic masses, which define the courses of many unexplored tributaries of the Orinoco.

  • In 1498, Columbus, when exploring the Gulf of Pal-la, which receives a large part of the outflow of the Orinoco, noted the freshness of its waters, but made no examination of their origin.

  • The caravels of Ojeda which, in 1499, followed almost the same track as that of Columbus, probably passed in sight of one or more of the mouths of the Orinoco.

  • At the date of the discovery, the Orinoco, like the Amazon, bore different names, according to those of the tribes occupying its margins.

  • The Caribs, holding a certain section of the river, named it the Ibirinoco, corrupted by the Spaniards into Orinoco.

  • _ The principal affluent of the Orinoco from the Guiana district is the Ventuari, the head-waters of which are also unknown.

  • It is an important stream, which, running south-west, joins the Orinoco about 90 m.

  • Two other large tributaries of the Orinoco flow north from the interior of this mysterious Guiana region, the Caura and the Caroni.

  • From the Uribante-Sarare junction to the Orinoco the length of the Apure is 645 m., of which Codazzi makes the doubtful claim that 564 are navigable, for there are some troublesome rapids 114 m.

  • A few large streams enter the lower Apure from the south, but they are frequently entangled in lateral canals, due to the slight elevation of the plains above sea-level, the waters of the Apure, especially during flood time, having opened a great number of canos before reaching the Orinoco.

  • The "Oriental" Andes of Colombia give birth to another great affluent of the Orinoco, the Arauca, which soon reaches the plain and parallels the Apure on the south.

  • farther south, joins the Orinoco.

  • The Guaviare is the next great western tributary of the Orinoco.

  • Between the Guaviare and the Meta the Orinoco is obstructed by the famous Maipures cataract, where, in several channels, it breaks.

  • The Boca Grande outlet is the deepest, and is the main navigable entrance to the Orinoco at all seasons, the muddy bar usually maintaining a depth of 16 ft.

  • The Spanish conquistador and his descendants have not been a blessing to the basin of the Orinoco.

  • The entire river trade centres upon Ciudad Bolivar, on the right bank of the Orinoco, 373 m.

  • It is a stoppingpoint for the incipient steamer traffic of the valley, which is principally confined to the Apure and lower Orinoco.

  • Lastly there are two species of true crocodiles in America, C. intermedius of the Orinoco, allied to the former, and C. americanus or acutus of the West Indies, Mexico, Central America to Venezuela and Ecuador; its characteristic feature is a median ridge or swelling on the snout, which is rather slender.

  • Thence the line runs south and south-east along the Orinoco, Atabapo and Guainia to the Pedra de Cucuhy, which serves as a boundary mark for three republics.

  • Nearly one half its area lies south-east of the Andes and consists of extensive llanos and forested plains, traversed by several of the western tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco.

  • The rivers of Colombia may be divided, for convenience of description, into three general classes according to the destination of their waters, the Pacific, Caribbean and Atlantic - the last R reaching their destination through the Amazon and Orinoco.

  • Of the rivers of the great eastern plains, whose waters pass through the Orinoco and Amazon to the Atlantic, little can be said beyond the barest geographical description.

  • The largest of these rivers flow across the plains in an easterly direction, those of the Orinoco system inclining northward, and those of the Amazon system southward.

  • Farther north, on the open llanos of the Orinoco tributaries, the year is divided into equal parts, an alternating wet and dry season, the sun temperatures being high followed by cool nights, and the temperatures of the rainy season being even higher.

  • These plains include the extensive llanos of the Orinoco tributaries where coarse, hardy grasses and occasional clumps of palms are almost the only vegetation to be seen.

  • Its main affluent is the Uaupes, which disputes with the headwaters of the Guaviari branch of the Orinoco the drainage of the eastern slope of the " oriental " Andes of Colombia.

  • In 1744 the Jesuit Father Roman, while ascending the Orinoco river, met some Portuguese slavetraders from the settlements on the Rio Negro.

  • He accompanied them on their return, by way of the Casiquiare canal, and afterwards retraced his route to the Orinoco.

  • The canal connects the upper Orinoco, 9 m.

  • It will thus be seen that the volume of water it captures from the Orinoco is small in comparison to what it accumulates in its course.

  • To the west of the Casiquiare there is a much shorter and more facile connexion between the Orinoco and Amazon basins, called the isthmus of Pimichin, which is reached by ascending the Terni branch of the Atabapo affluent of the Orinoco.

  • From his pilothouse perch river travel began on our cruise mysterious orinoco river.

  • pilothouse perch river travel began on our cruise mysterious orinoco river.

  • In 1669 he published his Physica subterranea, and the same year was engaged with the count of Hanau in a scheme for settling a large territory between the Orinoco and the Amazon.

  • of the Orinoco and Apure, with the Yuruari territory on the E., the Caroni river forming the boundary, and the Amazonas territory and Brazil on the S.

  • The capital is Ciudad Bolivar, formerly called Angostura, which is situated on the right bank of the Orinoco about 240 m.

  • Vessels of light draught easily ascend the Orinoco to this point, and a considerable trade is carried on, the exports being cocoa, sugar, cotton, hides, jerked beef and various forest products.

  • The " long slopes " of the continents on both sides are directed towards the Atlantic, which accordingly receives the waters of a large proportion of the great rivers of the world, including the St Lawrence, the Mississippi, the Orinoco, the Amazon, the rivers of the La Plata, the Congo, the Niger, the Loire, the Rhine, the Elbe and the great rivers of the Mediterranean and the Baltic. Sir J.

  • state of Venezuela, between the Caribbean Sea and the Orinoco river, bounded E.

  • The boundary with Venezuela, which was defined by a treaty of 1859, runs south-eastward from Cucuhy across a level country intersected by rivers and channels tributary to both the Negro and Orinoco, to the Serra Cupuy watershed which separates the rivers of the Amazon and Orinoco valleys.

  • Of the two highland regions of Brazil, that of the northern slope of the Amazon basin belongs physically to the isolated mountain system extending eastward from the Negro and Orinoco to the Atlantic, the water-parting of which forms the boundary line between the Guianas and Brazil.

  • Humboldt found it among the native tribes of the Orinoco valley, where it is called pirijao.

  • The ita palm, Mauritia, flexuosa (a fanleaf palm) provides an edible fruit, medullary meal, drink, fibre, roofing and timber, but is less used on the Amazon than it is on the lower Orinoco.

  • He descried the land near Cape St Augustine, and sailed along the coast as The Portu- far as the river Amazon, whence he proceeded to the geese in mouth of the Orinoco.

  • and N.; (2) the Orinoco basin with the llanos on its northern border and great forested areas in the S.

  • The sierra contains the water-parting between the basin of the Orinoco and those of the small rivers on the north-west.

  • Hence it may be considered to terminate where the Rio Cojedes, which drains the elevated valley in which Barquisimeto stands, after rising on its western slopes flows eastwards into the basin of the Orinoco.

  • It consists of two portions - a vast, hilly or mountainous area, densely wooded, in the south-east and south, and level plains in the north-west between the Orinoco and the Apure and the mountains.

  • The latter is known as the llanos of the Orinoco, a region described by Humboldt as a vast " sea of grass," with islands of wood scattered here and there.

  • From the Galera, the southernmost range of hills north of the Orinoco basin, the traveller saw a vast plain thickly grown with low trees.

  • Along the Brazilian frontier and about the sources of the Orinoco tributaries on the eastern slops of the Andes there are extensive forests, sometimes broken with grassy campos.

  • When the Orinoco is reached its lower basin is contracted between the Guiana highlands and the northern sierras, and its tributaries begin to come in more nearly at right angles, showing that the margins of the actual valley are nearer and higher.

  • the surface again rises into mountain ranges, which include the Parima and Pacaraima sierras on and adjacent to the Brazilian frontier, with a number of short spurs reaching northward toward the Orinoco, such as the Mapichi, Maraguaca, Maigualida, Matos, Rincote and Usupamo.

  • All this region belongs to the drainage basin of the Orinoco, and rivers of large volume flow down between these spurs.

  • Some of the culminating points in these ranges are the Cerros Yaparana (7175 ft.) and Duida (8120 ft.) in the Parima sierras near the upper Orinoco, the Sierra de Maraguaca (8228 ft.), and the celebrated flat-topped Mt Roraima (8530 ft.) in the Pacaraima sierras on the boundary line with Brazil and British Guiana.

  • Near the Orinoco the general elevation drops to about 1500 ft.

  • Probably not less than four-fifths of the territory of Venezuela belong to the drainage basin of the Orinoco (q.v.).

  • The Orinoco is supposed to have 436 tributaries, of which, among the largest, the Caroni-Paragua, Aro, Caura, Cuchivero, Suapure, Sipapo and Ventuari have their sources in the Guiana highlands; the Suata, Manapere and Guaritico in the northern sierras; and the Apure, Uricana, Arauca, Capanaparo, Meta, Vichada and Guaviare (the last three being Colombian rivers) in the llanos and Andes.

  • - Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.

  • This mass also forms the bed of the Orinoco from its junction with the Apure nearly to its mouth, and it probably extends northwards for some distance beneath the more recent deposits of the plain.

  • The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.

  • Among the pachyderms the tapir is found in the forests of the Orinoco.

  • On the coast and in the Orinoco there may be found the manatee and the dolphin.

  • The bell-bird (Chasmorhynchus carunculatus) is common in the forests of the Orinoco.

  • The coastal zone and lower slopes of all the mountains, including the lower Orinoco region and the Maracaibo basin, are clothed with a typical tropical vegetation.

  • One of the most remarkable palms of the Orinoco region is the " moriche " (Mauritia flexuosa).

  • A regular service is maintained on Lake Maracaibo, one on Lake Valencia, and another on the Orinoco, Apure and Portuguesa rivers, starting from Ciudad Bolivar.

  • The coast of Venezuela has an aggregate length of 1876 m., and there are 32 ports, large and small, not including those of Lakes Maracaibo and Tacarigua and the Orinoco.

  • The Orinoco trade is carried on almost wholly through Port of Spain, Trinidad, where merchandise and produce is transferred between light draught river boats and foreign ocean-going steamers.

  • The climatic conditions are not so favourable as in Argentina, but these are counterbalanced to some extent by the great river system of the Orinoco, whose large navigable tributaries cross the plains from end to end, and whose smaller streams from the surrounding highlands provide superior opportunities for water storage and irrigation.

  • The rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries of the Guiana highlands.

  • of the principal mouth of the Orinoco and near the borders of British Guiana, where the famous El Callao mines are.

  • from the " Boca Grande " of the Orinoco.

  • Asphalt is taken from several deposits - from Maracaibo, Cumana and Pedernales in the Orinoco delta.

  • - The coast of Venezuela was the first part of the American mainland sighted by Columbus, who, during his third voyage in 1498, entered the Gulf of Paria and sailed along the coast of the' delta of the Orinoco.

  • States for a revision of what is known as the Olcott Award in connexion with the Orinoco Steamship Company was in 1905 met by a refusal to reopen the case.

  • P. Triana, Down the Orinoco in a Canoe (London, 1902); N.

  • Being now recognized as commander-in-chief,Bolivar proceeded in his career of victory, and before the close of the year had fixed his headquarters at Angostura on the Orinoco.

  • It lies partly within the drainage basin of the Orinoco and partly within that of the Rio Negro, an affluent of the Amazon.

  • The territory is covered with dense forests and is filled with intricate watercourses, one of which, the Casiquiare, forms an open communication between the Orinoco and the Rio Negro and is navigable for large canoes.

  • The chief points of correspondence between these two great land masses, besides the southward tapering, are as follows: - (i) The areas of ancient fundamental rocks of the north-east (Laurentian highlands of North America, uplands of Guiana in South America), which have remained without significant deformation, although suffering various oscillations of level, since ancient geological times; (2) the highlands of the southeast (Appalachians and Brazilian highlands) with a north-east south-west crystalline axis near the ocean, followed by a belt of deformed and metamorphosed early Palaeozoic strata, and adjoined farther inland by a dissected plateau of nearly horizontal later Palaeozoic formations - all greatly denuded since the ancient deformation of the mountain axis, and seeming to owe their present altitude to broad uplifts of comparatively modern geological date; (3) the complex of younger mountains along the western side of the continents (Western highlands, or Cordilleras, of North America; Andean Cordilleras of South America) of geologically modern deformation and upheaval, with enclosed basins and abundant volcanic action, but each a system in itself, disconnected and not standing in alignment; (4) confluent lower lands between the highlands, giving river drainage to the north (Mackenzie, Orinoco), east (St Lawrence, Amazon), and south (Mississippi, La Plata).

  • Between September 1493 and the time of his last voyage (May 1502 to November 1504), Columbus explored the West Indies, reached the mainland of South America at the mouth of the Orinoco and sailed along the coast of Central America from Cape Honduras to Nombre de Dios (near Colon).

  • Brazil; Caribian, around Caribbean Sea; Catamarenyan, Chaco; Changuinan, Panama; Charruan, Parana R.; Chibchan, Colombia .; Churbyan, Orinoco R.; Coconucan, Colombia; Cunan, Panama; Guaycuruan, Paraguay R.; Jivaroan, Ecuador; Kechuan, Peru; Laman, N.E.

  • The custom is also common in the estuaries of the Orinoco and Amazon.

  • ORINOCO, a river in the north of South America, falling north-east into the Atlantic between 60° 20' and 62° 30' W.

  • Lying south and east of the main stream is a vast, densely forested region called Venezuelan Guiana, diversified by ranges of low mountains, irregular broken ridges and granitic masses, which define the courses of many unexplored tributaries of the Orinoco.

  • In 1498, Columbus, when exploring the Gulf of Pal-la, which receives a large part of the outflow of the Orinoco, noted the freshness of its waters, but made no examination of their origin.

  • The caravels of Ojeda which, in 1499, followed almost the same track as that of Columbus, probably passed in sight of one or more of the mouths of the Orinoco.

  • From Ordaz up to recent times the Orinoco has been the scene of many voyages of discovery, including those in quest of El Dorado, and some scientific surveys have been made, especially among its upper waters, by Jose Solano and Diaz de la Fuente of the Spanish boundary line commission of Yturriaga and Solano (1757-1763), Humboldt (1800) and Michelena y Rojas (1855-1857).

  • At the date of the discovery, the Orinoco, like the Amazon, bore different names, according to those of the tribes occupying its margins.

  • The Caribs, holding a certain section of the river, named it the Ibirinoco, corrupted by the Spaniards into Orinoco.

  • _ The principal affluent of the Orinoco from the Guiana district is the Ventuari, the head-waters of which are also unknown.

  • It is an important stream, which, running south-west, joins the Orinoco about 90 m.

  • Two other large tributaries of the Orinoco flow north from the interior of this mysterious Guiana region, the Caura and the Caroni.

  • South of the Guaviare, as far as the divortium aquarum, between it and the Rio Negro branch of the Amazon, the country is dry and only partially swept by moisture-laden winds, so that few streams of moment are found in its southern drainage area; but north of it, as far as 6° 30' N., the north-east trade winds, which have escaped condensation in the hot lower valley of the Orinoco, beat against the cold eastern slopes of the lofty Colombian Andes, and ceaselessly pour down such vast volumes of water that the almost countless streams which flow across the plains of Colombia and western Venezuela are taxed beyond their capacity to carry it to the Orinoco, and for several months of the year they flood tens of thousands of square miles of the districts they traverse.

  • From the Uribante-Sarare junction to the Orinoco the length of the Apure is 645 m., of which Codazzi makes the doubtful claim that 564 are navigable, for there are some troublesome rapids 114 m.

  • A few large streams enter the lower Apure from the south, but they are frequently entangled in lateral canals, due to the slight elevation of the plains above sea-level, the waters of the Apure, especially during flood time, having opened a great number of canos before reaching the Orinoco.

  • The "Oriental" Andes of Colombia give birth to another great affluent of the Orinoco, the Arauca, which soon reaches the plain and parallels the Apure on the south.

  • farther south, joins the Orinoco.

  • The Guaviare is the next great western tributary of the Orinoco.

  • Between the Guaviare and the Meta the Orinoco is obstructed by the famous Maipures cataract, where, in several channels, it breaks.

  • The Orinoco finds its way to the ocean through a delta of about 700 sq.

  • The Boca Grande outlet is the deepest, and is the main navigable entrance to the Orinoco at all seasons, the muddy bar usually maintaining a depth of 16 ft.

  • The Spanish conquistador and his descendants have not been a blessing to the basin of the Orinoco.

  • The entire river trade centres upon Ciudad Bolivar, on the right bank of the Orinoco, 373 m.

  • It is a stoppingpoint for the incipient steamer traffic of the valley, which is principally confined to the Apure and lower Orinoco.

  • Lastly there are two species of true crocodiles in America, C. intermedius of the Orinoco, allied to the former, and C. americanus or acutus of the West Indies, Mexico, Central America to Venezuela and Ecuador; its characteristic feature is a median ridge or swelling on the snout, which is rather slender.

  • lat., thence in an irregular southerly direction across the Cordillera de Merida to the source of the Sarare, whence it runs eastward along that river, the Arauca, and the Meta to the Orinoco.

  • Thence the line runs south and south-east along the Orinoco, Atabapo and Guainia to the Pedra de Cucuhy, which serves as a boundary mark for three republics.

  • Nearly one half its area lies south-east of the Andes and consists of extensive llanos and forested plains, traversed by several of the western tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco.

  • The rivers of Colombia may be divided, for convenience of description, into three general classes according to the destination of their waters, the Pacific, Caribbean and Atlantic - the last R reaching their destination through the Amazon and Orinoco.

  • Of the rivers of the great eastern plains, whose waters pass through the Orinoco and Amazon to the Atlantic, little can be said beyond the barest geographical description.

  • The largest of these rivers flow across the plains in an easterly direction, those of the Orinoco system inclining northward, and those of the Amazon system southward.

  • south of Bogota, and flows with a slight southward curve across the llanos to the Orinoco, into which it discharges at San Fernando de Atabapo in lat.

  • The Meta rises on the opposite side of the Cordillera from Bogota, and flows with a sluggish current east-north-east across the llanos to the Orinoco, into which it discharges below the Atures rapids, in lat.

  • Farther north, on the open llanos of the Orinoco tributaries, the year is divided into equal parts, an alternating wet and dry season, the sun temperatures being high followed by cool nights, and the temperatures of the rainy season being even higher.

  • These plains include the extensive llanos of the Orinoco tributaries where coarse, hardy grasses and occasional clumps of palms are almost the only vegetation to be seen.

  • The Negro, the great northern tributary of the Amazon, has its sources along the watershed between the Orinoco and the Amazon basins, and also connects with the Orinoco by way of the Casiquiare canal.

  • Its main affluent is the Uaupes, which disputes with the headwaters of the Guaviari branch of the Orinoco the drainage of the eastern slope of the " oriental " Andes of Colombia.

  • In 1744 the Jesuit Father Roman, while ascending the Orinoco river, met some Portuguese slavetraders from the settlements on the Rio Negro.

  • He accompanied them on their return, by way of the Casiquiare canal, and afterwards retraced his route to the Orinoco.

  • The canal connects the upper Orinoco, 9 m.

  • Its width, at its bifurcation with the Orinoco, is approximately 300 ft., with a current towards the Negro of three-quarters of a mile an hour; but as it gains in volume from the very numerous tributary streams, large and small, which it receives en route, its velocity increases, and in the wet season reaches 5 and even 8 m.

  • It will thus be seen that the volume of water it captures from the Orinoco is small in comparison to what it accumulates in its course.

  • It is thus seen that this marvellous freak of nature is not, as is generally supposed, a sluggish canal on a flat tableland, but a great, rapid river which, if its upper waters had not found contact with the Orinoco, perhaps by cutting back, would belong entirely to the Negro branch of the Amazon.

  • To the west of the Casiquiare there is a much shorter and more facile connexion between the Orinoco and Amazon basins, called the isthmus of Pimichin, which is reached by ascending the Terni branch of the Atabapo affluent of the Orinoco.

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