Original Sentence Examples
Meet the original wicked stepmother.
But she is quite original, strange, new, and unknown.
It was either an original or an excellent copy, signed by Andy Gordon.
We still have the original drawing of Martha's directions.
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The Original Beings are locked up.
Randy Byrne was joyously married with mother Cynthia in proud attendance, attired in her Radisson original dress.
The echo is, to some extent, an original sound, and therein is the magic and charm of it.
The Original Beings will handle her.
Nanotechnology will give us metals that don't bend, or bend and yet remember their original shape.Advertisement
The number of beings capable of killing one was less than five, and the last thing they needed was an Original Being showing up to complicate matters.
The article should be kept as it was in the original encyclopedia.
It was founded upon original sources, in order to consult which the author resided for a considerable time in Paris.
Anne's sister, Mary Boleyn, had been Henry VIII.'s mistress; this by canon law was a bar to his marriage with Anne - a bar which had been removed by papal dispensation in 1527, but now the papal power to dispense in such cases had been repudiated, and the original objection revived.
Brahma (n.) is the designation generally applied to the Supreme Soul (paramatman), or impersonal, all-embracing divine essence, the original source and ultimate goal of all that exists; Brahma (m.), on the other hand, is only one of the three hypostases of that divinity whose creative activity he represents, as distinguished from its preservative and destructive aspects, ever apparent in life and nature, and represented by the gods Vishnu and Siva respectively.Advertisement
In its original form the text of Magna Carta was not divided into chapters, but in later times a division of this kind was adopted.
The British Museum also contains the original parchment of the Articles of the Baron.
This, however, was not the original text, which was neglected until the time of Blackstone, who printed the various issues of the charter in his book The Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest (1759).
The commission reported favourably, selecting as a site Blair's original Port Cornwallis, but pointing out and avoiding the vicinity of a salt swamp which seemed to have been pernicious to the old colony.
In Cunina parasitica, however, the ovum develops into an actinula, which buds actinulae as before, but only the daughter-actinulae develop into medusae, while the original, parent-actinula dies off; here, therefore, larval budding has led to a true alternation of generations.Advertisement
The actinula, when free, may multiply by larval budding, but in all cases both the original actinula and all its descendants become converted into medusae, so that there is no alter nation of generations.
In such cases the original parent-actinula does not itself become a medusa, but remains arrested in development and ultimately dies off, so that a true alternation of generations is brought about.
Since then it has been discovered in other botanic gardens in various parts of Europe, its two most recent appearances being at Lyons (1901) and Munich (1905), occurring always in tanks in which the Victoria regia is cultivated, a fact which indicates that tropical South America is its original habitat.
Thus from the original planula three appendages are, as it were, budded off, while the planula itself mostly gives rise to coenosarc, just as in some hydroids the planula is converted chiefly into hydrorhiza.
Out of this " principal thing " or " original nature " all material and spiritual existence issues, and into it will return.Advertisement
Its first emanation as plastic nature contains the original soul or deity out of which all individual souls issue.
For the rest, his theory is chiefly important as emphasizing the vital character of the original substance.
This idea of the air as the original principle and source of life and intelligence is much more clearly expressed by a later writer, Diogenes of Apollonia.
Their fundamental conception is that of Democritus; they seek to account for the formation of the cosmos, with its order and regularity, by setting out with the idea of an original (vertical) motion of the atoms, which somehow or other results in movements towards and from one another.
He sought (L'Homme-machine) to connect man in his original condition with the lower animals, and emphasized (L'Homme-plante) the essential unity of plan of all living things.
Each monad is an original independent being, and is determined to take this particular point in the universe, this place in the scale of beings.
Even in these the original jurisdiction of the pope was taken away.
He traces the original home of the bulk of existing alpine plants to northern Asia.
References to original papers indicate further sources of information.
But he also produced original work in mathematical and experimental physics.
All that can be done is to form a continuous account in accord with the ancient histories, and with the original formation of the ground, so far as this has been identified by modern exploration.
It is true he sets out with a transcendent Deity, and follows Plato in viewing the creation of the cosmos as a process of descent from the more to the less perfect according to the distance from the original self-moving agency.
Strato appears to reject Aristotle's idea of an original source of movement and life extraneous to the world in favour of an immanent principle.
All things are said to be developed out of an original being, which is at once material (fire) and spiritual (the Deity), and in turn they will dissolve back into this primordial source.
Individual things are supposed to arise out of the original being, as animals and plants out of seeds.
The original substance of the world is the materia primo-prima, which is the immediate creation of the Deity.
All these processes are regarded as a series of manifestations of a vital principle in higher and higher forms. Oken, again, who carries Schelling's ideas into the region of biological science, seeks to reconstruct the gradual evolution of the material world out of original matter, which is the first immediate appearance of God, or the absolute.
He says Lamarck's original animal is something metaphysical, not physical, namely, the will to live.
In fact, while holding firmly by the former, Bonnet more or less modified the latter in his later writings, and, at length, he admits that a " germ " need not be an actual miniature of the organism, hut that it may be merely an " original preformation " capable of producing the latter.4 But, thus defined, the germ is neither more nor less than the "particula genitalis" of Aristotle, or the "primordium vegetale" or " ovum " of Harvey; and the " evolution " of such a germ would not be distinguishable from " epigenesis."
In its original form, the doctrine of " arrest of development," as advocated by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Serres, was no doubt an over-statement of the case.
The original road was no doubt only gravelled (glarea strata); in 298 B.C. a footpath was laid saxo quadrato from the Porta Capena, by which it left Rome, to the temple of Mars, about 1 m.
The original road, too, adopted in imperial times a more devious but easier route by Aeclanum instead of by Trevicum.
At first this was " original " and mainly (although not exclusively) over bishops (of the province or larger district).
A synod was held at Rome, attended by bishops from various regions, which reversed the original judgment of the synod of Tyre which had condemned Athanasius.
If a provincial synod be divided as to the guilt of a bishop, the metropolitan is to convene bishops from the neighbouring provinces to decide the cause jointly with the bishops of the original province.
If that prelate think the cause should be heard again, he is to appoint judges; if otherwise, the original judgment is to be confirmed.
The full name he then bore was Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus, Aelius coming from Hadrian's family, and Aurelius being the original name of Antoninus Pius.
With the accession of the Danish king Canute, the original raison d'être of the tax ceased to exist, but it continued to be levied, though for a different purpose, assuming now the character of an occasional war-tax.
In the 19th century the word chymist became altered to chemist, although the original spelling is still continued to a small extent.
This society was instituted in 1841, the original founders being chemists and druggists in the metropolis and provincial towns.
The original prescription is kept by the pharmacist for either three or ten years, according to the country, and a certified copy given to the patient, written on white paper if for internal use, or on coloured paper (usually orange yellow) if for external use.
Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries.
His first original paper (1799) was on the compounds of arsenic and antimony with oxygen and sulphur, and of his other separate investigations one of the most important was that on the compound ethers, begun in 1807.
Marx, puts forward the theory that Cicero and the Auctor have not produced original works, but have merely given the substance of two r xvai (both emanating from the Rhodian school); that neither used the 'r xvat directly, but reproduced the revised version of the rhetoricians whose school they attended, the introductions alone being their own work; that the lectures on which the Ciceronian treatise was based were delivered before the lectures attended by the Auctor.
The belief was taught in the homogeneity of all living things, in the doctrine of original sin, in the transmigration of souls, in the view that the soul is entombed in the body (v13µa ojia), and that it may gradually attain perfection during connexion with a series of bodies.
In the bulky forms colorless branches frequently grow out from some of the cortical cells, and, pushing among the already-formed threads in a longitudinal direction, serve to strengthen the thallus by weaving its original threads together.
It is possible to suppose that this condition is derived from the astelic condition already referred to, but the evidence on the whole leads to the conclusion that it has ansen byan increase in the number of the bundles within the stele, the individuality of the bundle asserting itself after its escape from the original bundle-ring of the primitive cylinder.
In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.
They are frequently associated with irregularities in the activity of the original cambium.
Sometimes the original cambial ring is broken into several arcs, each of which is completed into an independent circle, so that several independent secondary vascular cylinders are formed.
The activity of the new cambium is often associated with the stoppage of the original one.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
The stretching of the cell wall by the hydrostatic pressure is fixed by a secretion of new particles and their deposition upon the original wall, which as it becomes slightly thicker is capable of still greater extension, much in the same way as a thick band of indiarubber is capable of undergoing greater stretching than a thin one.
Rosenberg (1909) adduces evidence fox the existence of chromosomes or prochromosomes in resting nuclei in a large number of plants, but most observers consider that the chromosomes during the resting stage become completely resolved into a nuclear network in which no trace of the original chromosomes can be seen.
If this is correct it is easy to see that the changes which take place may be initiated by the original delicate protoplasmic strands which pass through the cellwall.
The word metamorphosis cannot, in fact, be used any longer in its original sense, for the change which it implied does not normally occur in ontogeny, and in phylogeny the idea is more accurately expressed by the term differentiation.
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
Meanwhile the new facts were the subject of original study by philosophers and by practical men without reference to classical traditions.
Although for a time it was lost sight of on the continent, Sir Isaac Newton thought so highly of this book that he prepared an annotated edition which was published in Cambridge in 1672, with the addition of the plates which had been planned by Varenius, but not produced by the original publishers.
Although the term has since been limited by some writers to one particular part of the subject, it seems best to maintain the original and literal meaning.
After being almost entirely wrecked by Norman raiders it was rebuilt, on the original lines, in 983, by the emperor Otto III.
These were removed by Napoleon to Paris, but restored to their original positions after the peace of 1815.
That chapter of comparative anatomy (together with other anatomical details, for which see the separate articles) is now dealt with in the article Skull; here only the most avine features are alluded to, and since some of Parker's original illustrations have been retained, the description has been shortened considerably.
Sometimes the pad is reduced to a ventral semi-ring or meniscus; it retains its largest almost original shape and size in the second vertebra, the axis or epistropheus, where it forms a separately ossifying piece which connects, and coossifies with, the odontoid process (the centrum of the atlas) and the centrum of the second vertebra.
Consequently only a few of the original extensor muscles have been preserved, but these are much modified into very independent organs, notably the extensor metacarpi radialis longus, the ext.
From near the entrance of the optic nerve, through the original choroidal fissure, arises the much-folded pecten, deeply pigmented and very vascular, far into the vitreous humour.
The keel is pushed back to the distal third of the sternum, whilst the original anterior margin of the keel is correspondingly elongated,and the furcula fused with the rostral portion.
The close affinity of North America with the Palaearctic avifauna becomes at once apparent if we exclude those groups of birds which we have good reason to believe have their original home in the Neotropical region, notably numerous Tyrannidae, humming-birds and the turkey-buzzards.
But this very development of Mosaism implies the existence of an original nucleus or substratum, although the recovery of its precise extent is very difficult.
Instantly the movement was diverted from its original object, and the peasants and their leaders began a war of extermination against the landlords.
When zoological records failed, Egypto-Hellenic ingenuity was never at a loss for a fanciful invention distilled from the text itself, but which to succeeding copyists appeared as part of the teaching of the original Physiologus.
His first efforts in verse-making were inspired by the meetings of the Easy Club (founded in 1712), of which he was an original member; and in 1715 he became the Club Laureate.
The boundaries of the original third Augustan region had by that time become somewhat altered, Metapontum belonging to Calabria, and Salernum and the territory of the Picentini to the third region instead of the first (Campania).
He followed up this action by strongly urging the Labour party to rally in Dec. 1916 to Mr. Lloyd George, and by accepting himself the position of an original member of the War Cabinet of four without portfolio.
The original stock of $3,000,000, of which the state was to subscribe $2,000,000, was increased in 1855 to $4,000,000, the state subscribing the added million.
As for the " Declaration," the original records of the transactions of Mecklenburg county were destroyed by fire in 1800, but it is claimed that a copy of the " Declaration " was made from memory in the same year, and when, in 1819, a controversy had arisen as to where the movement for independence originated, this copy was published, first in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette and then in many other newspapers.
The territory now comprising the state of Tennessee belonged to Carolina under the charters of 1663 and 1665, and fell to North Carolina when the original province was divided.
The Syriac verb is remarkable for having entirely lost the original passive forms, such as in Arabic can be formed in every conjugation and in Hebrew are represented by the Pual and Hophal.
The original form of the mitre was that of the early papal tiara (regnum), i.e.
I'd like to help clean up some articles, but I don't have a scan of the original article and find it difficult to know what mangled word is supposed to be.
The object of these movements will be appreciated when it is remembered that, if the pollen-masses retained the original direction they had in the anther in which they were formed, they would, when transported by the insect to another flower, merely come in contact with the anther of that flower, where of course they would be of no use; but, owing to the divergences and flexions above alluded to, the pollen-masses come to be so placed that, when transplanted to another flower of the same species, they come in contact with the stigma and so effect the fertilization of that flower.
The depression westward of the Caspian and Aral basins, and the original connexion of these seas, have also come under the close investigation of Russian scientists, with the result that the theory of an ancient connexion between the Oxus and the Caspian has been displaced by the more recent hypothesis of an extension of the Caspian Sea eastwards into Trans-Caspian territory within the postPleiocene age.
The current of air flowing in from over the sea is gradually diverted towards the area of least pressure, and at the same time is dissipated and loses much of its original force.
They have been for the most part dispossessed of their country by Turkish immigration and conquests, but they still retain their original intellectual superiority over the Turkish and other mixed tribes by which they are surrounded.
Some connexion between Babylonia and China is generally admitted, and all Indian alphabets seem traceable to a Semitic original borrowed in the course of commerce from the Persian Gulf.
On the other hand it is noticeable that the Japanese have little which is original in the way of religion, literature or philosophy.
The Aryans appear to have been settled to the north of the Hindu Kush, and to have migrated south-eastwards about 150o B.C. Their original home has been a subject of much discussion, but the view now prevalent is that they arose in southern Russia or Asia Minor, whence a section spread eastwards and divided into two closely related branches - the Hindus and Iranians.
Almost all Asiatic countries have a literature, but it is often not indigenous and consists of foreign works, chiefly religious, read either in translations or the original.
The chief original literatures are Chinese, Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic and Persian.
The first contains many original elements.
Captivite de la famille royale au Temple (2 vols., 1852, and many subsequent editions), containing copies Of original documents, and essential to the study of the question, although its sentimental pictures of the boy martyr can no longer be accepted.
Near the "Elephant and Castle" is the Metropolitan Tabernacle, the original building of which, burnt down in 1898, became famous under the Baptist preacher, Charles Spurgeon.
It has been conjectured, therefore, that David's original home lay in the south.
It cannot be doubted that the three types of David, represented by the books of Samuel, of Chronicles, and the superscriptions of the Psalms, are irreconcilable, and that they represent successive developments of the original traditions.
The relativism or phenomenalism which Hamilton afterwards adopted from Kant and sought to engraft upon Scottish philosophy is wholly absent from the original Scottish doctrine.
But since Hamilton's time the most typical Scottish thinkers have repudiated his relativistic doctrine, and returned to the original tradition of the school.
He was the original of Mortimer Collins's Canon Tremaine in Sweet and Twenty.
His original memoirs on this subject may be found in the Ann.
This was followed by the outbreak of the dispute between France and Turkey over the guardianship of the holy places at Jerusalem, which, after the original cause of quarrel had been forgotten, developed into the Crimean war.
To the west lie the fine square, with public gardens, still called, from its original character, Lincoln's Inn Fields.
In any case they have been shown in three genera to develop by the growth and splitting into a series of original paired pronephridia.
Lancelot, however, is not an original member of the cycle, and the development of his story is still a source of considerable perplexity to the critic.
The trend of modern critical opinion is towards accepting Map as the author of a Lancelot romance, which formed the basis for later developments, and there is a growing tendency to identify this hypothetical original Lancelot with the source of the German Lanzelet.
To the student of the original texts Lancelot is an infinitely less interesting hero than Gawain, Perceval or Tristan, each of whom possesses a well-marked personality, and is the centre of what we may call individual adventures.
English readers, who know the story only through the medium of Malory's noble prose and Tennyson's melodious verse, carry away an impression entirely foreign to that produced by a study of the original literature.
The original sources are very scanty, besides the cylinder containing his proclamation to the Babylonians we possess only a great many dated private documents from Babylon.
The word "monarchy" has, however, outlived this original meaning, and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled over by hereditary sovereigns, as distinct from republics with elected presidents; or for the "monarchical principle," as opposed to the republican, involved in this distinction.
Kano was one of the original seven Hausa states.
Whatever may be said of the original creation of the Constitution, whether by the states or by the people, its development under the influences of a growing nationalism was a strong support to Webster's argument, and no other speech so strengthened Union sentiment throughout the North; its keynote was "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable."
The original works of Rufinus are - (I) De Adulteratione Librorum Origenis - an appendix to his translation of the Apology of Pamphilus, and intended to show that many of the features in Origen's teaching which were then held to be objectionable arise from interpolations and falsifications of the genuine text; (2) De Benedictionibus XII Patriarcharum Libri II - an exposition of Gen.
Anu is so prominently associated with the city of Erech in southern Babylonia that there are good reasons for believing this place to have been the original seat of the Anu cult.
The doctrine once established remained an inherent part of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion and led to the more or less complete disassociation of the three gods constituting the triad from their original local limitations.
The second Lady Carbery was the original of the "Lady" in Milton's Comus.
He was original in the dramatic setting provided for his satires.
The original members were thus ennobled; and henceforth it was the rule that only Germans of noble birth could join the Order.
Again, with the accession of large territories, the Order became a governing aristocracy; the original care for the sick, and even the later crusading zeal of the period of conquest, gave way, when conquests were gained and administration was needed, to the problem, half military, half political, of governing a frontier state.
Nor was the Order, during the 14th century, at all unfaithful to its original calling.
Not only in Paris, but in many cities throughout the world, institutes on the model of the original one have been set up and are doing beneficent work, all arising from the genius and labour of one man.
It formed a part of the original home of the Incas and once sustained a large population.
Ashley in his translation (Economic Classics, New York, 1898), but the original MS. has never been found.
The greater portions of his original materials have been preserved, and are included in the Lansdowne manuscripts in the British Museum.
His works can scarcely be entitled original compositions, his labour having consisted chiefly in the arrangement of his materials, but on this very account they are of considerable value as convenient books of reference, easier of access and almost as trustworthy as the original documents.
In the West, in the 6th and 7th centuries, besides the original functions of their office, archdeacons had certain well-defined rights of visitation and supervision, being responsible for the good order of the lower clergy, the upkeep of ecclesiastical buildings and the safe-guarding of the church furniture - functions which involved a considerable disciplinary power.
In a niche is a Houdon bust of Lafayette, a replica of the original presented to the city of Paris by the state of Virginia.
Libby Prison, which stood on the northern bank of a canal, near the river, in the eastern part of the city, was taken down in 1888-89, and its materials removed to Chicago, where it was reconstructed, in as nearly as possible its original form, and became the Libby Prison War Museum.'
But in his mode of forming ridges his practice seems to have been original; his implements, especially his drill, display much ingenuity; and his claim to the title of founder of the present horse-hoeing husbandry of Great Britain seems indisputable.
In 1800 the original Farmers' Magazine came into existence under the editorship of Robert Brown of Markle, the author of the well-known treatise on Rural Affairs.
The original object - the supply of the cattle markets of Smithfield and other places with the cheapest and best meat - is still kept strictly in view.
His father's History of India was published in 1818; immediately thereafter, about the age of twelve, John began a thorough study of the scholastic logic, at the same time reading Aristotle's logical treatises in the original.
Though Mill appears here purely as the disciple of Ricardo, striving after more precise statement, and reaching forward to further consequences, we can well understand in reading these essays how about the time when he first sketched them he began to be conscious of power as an original and independent thinker.
A correct sense of proportion and the faculty of seizing upon the dominant factors in an historical problem are the result partly of the possession of certain natural gifts in which many individuals and some nations are conspicuously wanting, partly of general knowledge of the working of the economic and political institutions of the period we are studying, partly of what takes the place of practical experience in relation to modern problems, namely, detailed acquaintance with different kinds of original sources and the historical imagination by which we can realize the life and the ideals of past generations.
It is not unlike the procedure of the canonists and casuists of the middle ages with regard to the doctrine of usury, by which the doctrine was to all appearances preserved intact while in reality it was stripped of all its original meaning by innumerable distinctions " over-curious and precise."
But no one individual can do original work over the whole field.
It they are to be tested, an indefinitely large number of special studies must be made, for which the original materials must be collected and examined.
That is, original investigation of special problems has to be carried out on a more gigantic scale than any economist of the historical school ever dreamt of or the world requires, with the certain knowledge that at the end of it all the general theory will not correspond with the facts of life.
So that no great amount of original work is required for a reliable account of those general features of the modern system which should form the introduction to economics.
Shield Nicholson's Principles of Political Economy (3 vols.) not only gives a survey of economic principles since Mill's time, but contains much suggestive and original work.
He was not inspiring as a leader of religion; and no dogma, no original theory of church government, no prayer-book, not even a tract or a hymn is associated with his name.
These facts afford strong support to the hypothesis that the weight of the shell is the original cause of the torsion of the dorsal visceral mass in Gastropods.
A further degree of modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the original opening.
At the same time he endeavoured to acquire a knowledge of Hebrew, in order to be able to read the Old Testament in the original.
Origen's textual studies on the Old Testament were undertaken partly in order to improve the manuscript tradition, and partly for apologetic reasons, to clear up the relation between the LXX and the original Hebrew text.
In the Greek original only a very small portion has been preserved; in Latin translations, however, a good deal.
It has been completely preserved in the original.
As a philosophical idealist, however, he transmutes the whole contents of the faith of the church into ideas which bear the mark of Neo-Platonism, and were accordingly recognized by the later Neo-Platonists as Hellenic. 4 In Origen, however, 1 There are, however, extensive fragments of the original in existence.
Indeed this is the fundamental idea of Origen - "the original and indestructible unity of God and all spiritual essences."
Although the theology of Origen exerted a considerable influence as a whole in the two following centuries, it certainly lost nothing by the circumstance that several important propositions were capable of being torn from their original setting and placed in new connexions.
The fort lies within the tract of 252 acres ceded, for coast defence purposes, to the Federal government by the state of Virginia in 1821, the survey for the original fortifications having been made in 1818, and the building begun in 1819.
The genesis of Mandaeis.m and the older gnosis from the old and elaborate BabylonioChaldaean religion is clearly seen also in the fact that the names of the old pantheon (as for example those of the planetary divinities) are retained, but their holders degraded to the position of demons - a conclusion confirmed by the fact that the Mandaeans, like the allied Ophites, Peratae and Manichaeans, certainly have their original seat in Mesopotamia and Babylonia.
Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.
In the mica-schists of this group biotite or muscovite may be the principal mineral and often both are present in varying proportions; the mica has developed from the argillaceous matter of the original rock; in addition there is always quartz and sometimes felspar (albite or oligoclase).
The antennal segment apparently entirely disappears, with the exception of a pair of appendages it bears; these become the antennae; it is possible that the original segment, or some part of it, may even become a portion of the actual antennae.
Two divergent views have been held as to the nature of the original hexapod stock.
Many students of the group, following Brauer, have regarded the Apterygota as representing the original wingless progenitors of the Pterygota, and the many primitive characters shown by the former group lend support to this view.
Hence his work, written in French, contains a far greater amount of original matter; and his personal observations made in many countries, from England to Egypt, enabled him to avoid most of the puerilities which disfigure other works of his own or of a preceding age.
Of this an abridged edition by the name of Ornithologisches Taschenbuch appeared in 1802 and 1803, with a supplement in 1 812; while between 1805 and 1809 a fuller edition of the original was issued.
Some of the figures were drawn from stuffed specimens, and accordingly perpetuate all the imperfections of the original; others represent species with the appearance of which the artist was not 4 In this year there were two issues of this book; one, nominally a second edition, only differs from the first in having a new titlepage.
It does not seem to have been the author's original intention to publish any letterpress to this enormous work, but to let the plates tell their own story, though finally, with the assistance, as is now known, of William Macgillivray, a text, on the whole more than respectable, was produced in five large Ma egil- octavos under the title of Ornithological Biography, of liyr ay.
The original project was apparently to give a figure and ()Udall.
The last seven of its fourteen volumes include the Class A y es, and the first part of them appeared in 1809, but, the original author dying in 1815, when only two volumes of birds were published, the remainder was brought to an end in 1826 by his successor, who afterwards became well known as an entomologist.
In 1831 Rennie brought out a modified edition of it (reissued in 1833), and Newman another in 1866 (reissued in 1883); but those who wish to know the author's views had better consult the original.
Again we must recur to that indefatigable and most original investigator Nitzsch, who, having never intermitted his study of the particular subject of his first contribution to Nitzsch.
The Ray Society had the good fortune to obtain the ten original copper-plates, all but one drawn by the author himself, wherewith the work was illustrated.
By some unaccountable accident, the date of the original communication to the Academy of Berlin is wrongly printed.
Men's minds began to figure to themselves the original type of some well-marked genus or family of birds.
This paper is indeed little more than an English translation of one published by the author in the annual volume (Arsskrift) of the Scientific Society of Upsala for 1860, and belonging to the pre-Darwinian epoch should perhaps have been more properly treated before, but that at the time of its original appearance it failed to attract attention.
The first of them, Accipitres, comprehending all the birds-of-prey, were separated into 4 " cohorts " in his original work, but these were reduced in his appendix to two - Nyctharpages or owls with 4 families divided into 2 series, and Hemeroharpages containing all the rest, and comprising io families (the last of which is the seriema, Dicholophus) divided into 2 groups as Rapaces and Saprophagi - the latter including the vultures.
If the name is rightly interpreted as meaning "aliens," they would seem to have driven out the original inhabitants.
The last of these is an independent attempt to render the original name, which was probably There were originally 77, but 5 have perished.
Their original name was Hoa or Hoa-tun; subsequently they styled themselves Ye-tha-i-li-to after the name of their royal family, or more briefly Ye-tha.
The earlier ethnographers, like Strabo, put forward three theories as to the original home of the race.
Only one of the original mosaics now exists, the one over the doorway at the north-western, or St Alipio, angle.
The original part of the magnificent mosaic pavement probably dates from the middle of the 12th century, if we may judge from the pavement at Murano, exactly similar in style, material and workmanship, which bears the date 1140.
The cardinal therefore obtained a bull from Pope Paul II., permitting him to recall his original donation, and in a letter dated from the baths of Viterbo, May 13th, 1468, he made over his library to the republic. The principal treasures of the collection, including splendid Byzantine book-covers, the priceless codices of Homer, the Grimani Breviary, an early Dante, &c., are exhibited under cases in the Sala Bessarione in the Zecca or mint where the library has been installed.
Pieces already detached were restored to their original positions, and those blackened by damp and dust were carefully cleaned.
Titian's "Presentazione al Tempio," painted for the Scuola della Carita, which is now the seat of the gallery, has been placed in its original position.
There is little doubt that the original lagoon population depended for its administration, as far as it had any, upon the larger cities of the mainland.
The power as conferred at that time, however, is broader than usual, for it extends not only to items in appropriation bills, but to separate sections in other measures, and, in addition to the customary provision for passing a bill over the governor's veto by a two-thirds vote of each house it is required that the votes for repassage in each house must not be less than those given on the original passage.
Thus, though the word " Catholic " was late in finding its way into the formal symbols of the church, it is clear that it had long been in use in the original sense defined above.
With the end of the Persian Wars, the original object of ostracism was removed, but it continued in use for forty years and was revived in 417 B.C. It now became a mere party weapon and the farcical result of its use in 417 in the case of Hyperbolus led to its abolition either at once, or, as Lugebil seeks to prove, in the archonship of Euclides (403 B.C.).
His Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole (London, 1798), Memoirs of Horatio, Lord Walpole (London, 1802), Memoirs of John, duke of Marlborough (London, 1818-1819), Private and Original Correspondence of Charles Talbot, duke of Shrewsbury (London, 1821), Memoirs of the Administrations of Henry Pelham (London, 182 9), are very valuable for the history of the 18th century.
He now prepared to march to the conquest of Turkestan, the original seat of his ancestors.
The beautiful Public Garden and the finest residential quarter of the city - the Back Bay, so called from that inner harbour from whose waters it was reclaimed (1856-1886) - stand on what was once the narrowest, but to-day is the widest and fairest portion of the original site.
At the edge of the Common, which is now well within the city, the British troops in 1775 took their boats on the eve of the battle of Lexington; and the post-office, now in the very heart of the business section of the city, stands on the original shore-line.
The original territory still preserves to a large degree its irregularity of surface, but its hills have been much degraded or wholly razed.
The North End, the original city and afterwards the fashionable quarter, is now given over to the Jews and foreign colonies.
Faneuil Hall (the original hall of the name was given to the city by Peter Faneuil, a Huguenot merchant, in 1742) is associated, like the Old South, with the patriotic oratory of revolutionary days and is called " the cradle of American liberty."
The original King's chapel (1688, present building 1749-1754) was the first Episcopal church of Boston, which bitterly resented the action of the royal governor in 1687 in using the Old South for the services of the Church of England.
Architecturally, everything is subordinated to a conformity with the style of the original portion; and its gilded dome is a conspicuous landmark.
It has one of the finest collections of casts in existence, a number of original pieces of Greek statuary, the second-best collection in the world of Aretine ware, the finest collection of Japanese pottery, and probably the largest and finest of Japanese paintings in existence.
His original bent was towards foreign mission.
Like some other alphabetic symbols it was not borrowed by Greek in its original form.
According to the system of phonetic changes generally known as "Grimm's law," an original b appears in English as p, an original bh as b.
At common law, it was said that covenants " ran with the land " but not with the reversion, the assignee of the reversion not having the rights of the original lessor.
A covenant not to assign without the lessor's assent runs with the land and applies to a re-assignment to the original lessee.
There is no privity of contract between an underlessee and the superior landlord, but the latter can enforce against the former restrictive covenants of which he had notice; it is the duty of the underlessee to inform himself as to the covenants of the original lease, and, if he enters and takes possession, he will be considered to have had full notice of, and will be bound by, these covenants.
He also published (1767) a treatise on the History and Present State of Electricity, which embodies some original work, and (1772) a History of Discoveries relating to Vision, Light and Colours, which is a mere compilation.
The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.
The editio princeps of the original appeared at Augsburg (1471); that of Haverkamp (Leiden, 1738 and 1767) has now been superseded by C. Zangemeister, who has edited the Hist.
They agreed that the Scriptures should be their guide in civil affairs, and that only approved church members should be admitted to the body politic; twelve men were appointed to choose seven men ("seven pillars") who should found the church and admit to its original membership such planters as they thought properly qualified.
By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.
They are adapted to special conditions which are lacking in their new surroundings, but a few will probably do fairly well the first year, and the seeds from these probably rather better the next, and so on, so that in a few years' time a strain may be available which is equal or even superior to the original one introduced.
Standing in the public green, in the centre of the city, is the original statue (by Launt Thompson) of the "Massachusetts Color Bearer," which has been reproduced on the battlefield of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
It is considered probable that the date of the original edition was the beginning of the 3rd century, while that which we possess is to be assigned to the time of Diocletian.
The impulse communicated by Schleiermacher was confirmed by Planck, and he seems now to have realized that the original investigation of Christian history was to form the great work of his life.
The original significance of the name remains in dispute, but the first of the family to whom it was applied was Hugh, who was elected king of the Franks in 987.
The rest of the original Manchurian system (1088 miles) remains under Russian control.
The original Manchurian railway was constructed under an agreement made in 1896 between the Chinese government and the Russo Chinese bank, an institution founded in 1895 to develop Manchurian .
In his Sylva sylvarum (1627), Francis Bacon states that " the original concretion of bitumen is a mixture of a fiery and watery substance," and observes that flame " attracts " the naphtha of Babylon " afar off."
But it is also probable that these apocryphal versions are based on a genuine original.
Thousands at once took the cross; the first was Bishop Adhemar of Puy, whom Urban named his legate and made leader of the First Crusade (for the holy war, according to Urban's original conception, must needs be led by a clerk).
War had indeed disturbed the original agreement of Gisors between Philip Augustus and Henry II., but a new agreement was made between Henry's successor, Richard I., and the French king at Nonancourt (December 1189), by which the two monarchs were to meet at Vezelay next year, and then follow the sea route to the Holy Land together.
For, however Ghibelline might be the original intention, the result was not commensurate with the subtlety of the design, and the power of the pope was rather increased than diminished by the event of the Crusade.
The original leader of the Crusade was John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem (who had succeeded Amalric II., marrying Maria, the daughter of Amalric's wife Isabella by her former husband, Conrad of Montferrat); but after the end of 1218 the cardinal legate Pelagius, fortified by papal letters, claimed the command.
The book falls into two parts, the first (books i.-xv.) derivative, the second (books xvi.-xxiii.) original.
Hagenmeyer inclines to believe in an original author, distinct from Albert the copyist; and he thinks that this original author (whether or no he was present during the Crusade) used the Gesta and also Fulcher, though he had probably also "eigene Notizen and Aufzeichnungen."
There seems no doubt that it is a piece of plagiary, and that its writer, Richard, "canon of the Holy Trinity" in London, stands to the Carmen as Tudebod to the Gesta, or Albert of Aix to his supposed original.
The name Syria is not found in the Hebrew original of the Scriptures; but it was used by the Septuagint to translate Aram.
The original deed of the marriage-contract is extant.
It adds a decisively aggressive character to an organ the original significance of which, as we have seen, was tactile.
As a geometer he is classed by Eudemus, the greatest ancient authority, among those who "have enriched the science with original theorems, and given it a really sound arrangement."
None of the numerous publications which we owe to Buchon can be described as thoroughly scholarly; but they have been of great service to history, and those concerning the East have in especial the value of original research.
The original object of the institution of the courts or court seems to have been to prevent or punish piracy and other crimes upon the narrow seas and to deal with questions of prize; tion.
The original circuit at Tunstall no sooner felt its feet than it favoured consolidation rather than extension.
But it is more probable that we have it in the form in which it grew up - a series of observations by the original author with interspersed editorial remarks; and it is better to preserve the existing form as giving a record of the process of growth.
Remains of the bridge of the Via Aemilia over the Rhenus have also been found - consisting of parts of the parapets on each side, in brick-faced concrete which belong to a restoration, the original construction (probably by Augustus in 2 B.C.) having been in blocks of Veronese red marble - and also of a massive protecting wall slightly above it, of late date, in the construction of which a large number of Roman tombstones were used.
The use by the Malays of artificially constructed terms to denote these things may certainly be taken to strengthen the opinion that the Malays arrived in the lands they now inhabit at a comparatively late period in their history, and at a time when they had developed considerably from the original state of primitive man.
The facts, however, are in exact contradiction to this; and accordingly the theory now most generally held by those who have studied the question is that the Malays form a distinct race, and had their original home in the south.
Skeat's Malay Magic (London, 1900) is a compilation of all the writings on the subject of Malay superstitions by the best authorities and contains considerable original matter.
Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.
The university library is very rich, and contains the original MSS.
Another Syriac MS., in the library of Cambridge University, contains a translation of a work by Zosimus which is so far unknown in the original Greek.
So far as they are Latin versions of Arabico-Greek treatises, they must have been much remodelled in the course of translation; but there is reason to suppose that many of them, even when pretending to be translations, are really original compositions.
The treatises attributed to Geber, in fact, appear to be original works composed not earlier than the 13th century and fathered on Jaber in order to enhance their authority.
The great difficulty which has been felt by investigators in determining the character and attributes of the god Baal mainly arises from the original.
His original treatises (the best of which are his Greek and Latin grammars), as well as those which he edited, have, however, long since fallen into disuse.
Peppe's original article is in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1898, pp. 573 sqq.
The original name of the Academy may have been Hecademia, from Hecademus, an early proprietor (but see Academy, Greek).
It was not, however, till 1886 that traces of the original circular Greek orchestra were pointed out by DOrpfeld.
Assisted no doubt by their judicial control, the Eupatridae also tended to become sole owners of the land, reducing the original freeholders or tenants to the position of serfs.
The original parts of the book are principally to be found in the meditations, which are clearly Ignatian in conception as well as method.
The original triforium is transformed into a clerestory, the original clerestory being lost.
Theobalds Park was built in the 18th century, but the original mansion was acquired by William Cecil, Lord Burghley, in 1561; being taken in 1607 by James I.
The original convent was destroyed by the Northmen, but was re-established by Duke William Longsword as a house of canons regular, which shortly afterwards was converted into a Benedictine monastery.
The original site of the city is supposed to have been at Sarnath, 31 m.
The house is considered to be the original of "Castlewood" in Thackeray's Esmond; the novelist was acquainted with the place through his friendship with the Rev. William Brookfield and his wife, the daughter of Sir Charles Elton of Clevedon Court.
According to Madvig, the original tribuni aerarii were not officials at all, but private individuals of considerable means, quite distinct from the curatores tribuum, who undertook certain financial work connected with their own tribes.
It was based, therefore, on the great mosque at Kairawan, and although more or less rebuilt, it still preserves its original plan.
Under the original settlement concluded by the treaties of 1853 and 1860 the revenues of the province were assigned primarily for the maintenance of the Hyderabad contingent, such surplus as accrued from year to year being made over to the nizam, while the province itself was administered in trust by the government of India through the resident at Hyderabad.
The objections of the antiphlogistonists, such as the fact that calces weigh more than the original metals instead of less as the theory suggests, were answered by postulating that phlogiston was a principle of levity, or even completely ignored as an accident, the change of qualities being regarded as the only matter of importance.
Berzelius, who, fired with enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds.2 He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand simple and compound substances.
He emphasized that the practical training should include (1) the qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, (2) the preparation of substances according to established methods, (3) original research - a course which has been generally adopted.
One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.
Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations; and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' views, promulgated his Nucleus Theory, which assumed the existence of " original nuclei or radicals " (radicaux or noyaux fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived nuclei " (radicaux or noyaux derives) formed from the original nuclei by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other elements, and having properties closely related to the primary nuclei.
Still, till the last Berzelius remained faithful to his original theory; experiment, which he had hitherto held to be the only sure method of research, he discarded, and in its place he substituted pure speculation, which greatly injured the radical theory.
This formula, notwithstanding many attempts at both disproving and modifying it, has well stood the test of time; the subject has been the basis of constant discussion, many variations have been proposed, but the original conception of Kekule remains quite as convenient as any of the newer forms, especially when considering the syntheses and decompositions of the benzene complex.
By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and compounds result which stand in much about the same relation to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene.
It is remarkable that sulphur can replace two methine or CH groups with the production of compounds greatly resembling the original one.
Obviously, isomeric ring-systems are possible, since the carbon atoms in the original rings are not all of equal value.
If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the original substance,we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates.
The weakest passages in Der fliegende Hollander are not so helpless as the original recitatives of Venus in the first act; or Tannhauser's song, which was too far involved in the whole scheme to be ousted by the mature " New Venusberg music " with which Wagner fifteen years later got rid both of the end of the overture and what he called his " Palais-Royal " Venus.
The vast myth of the Ring is related in full several times in each of the three main dramas, with ruthless disregard for the otherwise magnificent dramatic effect of the whole; hosts of original dramatic and ethical ideas, with which Wagner's brain was even more fertile than his voluminous prose works would indicate, assert themselves at all points, only to be thwarted by repeated attempts to allegorize the philosophy of Schopenhauer; all efforts to read a consistent scheme, ethical or philosophical, into the result are doomed to failure; but all this matters little, so long as we have Wagner's unfailing later resources in those higher dramatic verities which present to us emotions and actions, human and divine, as things essentially complex and conflicting, inevitable as natural laws, incalculable as natural phenomena.
Since then the race has been drifting steadily southward and eastward, a vast, aggregate of small independent clans united by no common government, but all obeying a common impulse to move outwards from their original seats along the line of least resistance.
The original drawings for this map had to be done with exceptional neatness, the draughtsman spending twelve months on that which he would have completed in four months had it been intended to engrave the map on copper; yet an average chart, measuring 530 by 630 mm., which would have taken two years and nine months for drawing and engraving, was completed in less than fifteen months - fifty days of which were spent in " retouching " the copper plate.
The original is now in the imperial library of Vienna.'
The outlines of several medieval maps resemble each other to such an extent that there can be no doubt that they are derived from the same original source.
This is the oldest original of a map in existence, for it dates back to the 6th century.
In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
The titles of these atlases survive, though the authors of the original editions are long dead, and the maps have been repeatedly superseded by others bringing the information up to the date of publication.
Coote's Remarkable Maps of the X Vth, X Vlth and X VIIth Centuries reproduced in their Original Size (Amsterdam, 1894-1897), and Bibliotheca lindesiana (London, 1898) with facsimiles of the Harleian and other Dieppese maps of the 16th century.
The original surveys, carefully revised, have been published since 1870 as a Topographical Atlas of Switzerland - the so-called Siegfried Atlas, in 552 sheets.
It has developed a definite instinct to save human beings from drowning, this probably being an evolution of the retrieving instinct of the original spaniels.
Bloodhounds quest slowly and carefully, and when they lose the scent cast backwards until they recover the original trail and make a fresh attempt to follow it.
The original breed is said to have been used as a pointer in the country from which it takes its name, but has been much modified by the fancier's art, and almost certainly the original strain has been crossed with bull-terriers.
They drew a considerable following away with them and set up a rival organization, but before long a number returned to their original leader.
On the under-side, there are found attached fragments of limestone and quartz, showing that the shingle bed once extended up to it, and that it then formed the original floor.
When we contrast the expectations of the original writer and the actual events that followed, it would seem that the chief value of his work would consist in the light that it throws on this obscure and temporary revolution in the Messianic expectations of Judaism towards the close of the 2nd century.
Apart from Grabe, till within the last fifteen years no notable scholar has advocated a Hebrew original.
To Kohler and Gaster belongs the honour of re-opening the question of the Hebrew original of the Testaments.
His original home was supposed to have been Arcadia, where he married Chryse, who brought him as dowry the Palladium or image of Pallas, presented to her by the goddess herself.
By the original Roman law the master was clothed with absolute dominion over the slave, extending to the power of life and death, which is not surprising when we consider the nature of the patria.
He could not marry out of the domain; if he took for wife a colona of another proprietor, she was restored to her original locality, and the offspring of the union were divided between the estates.
To the original members were afterwards added several remarkable persons, amongst whom were Josiah Wedgwood, Bennet Langton (Dr Johnson's friend), and, later, Zachary Macaulay, Henry Brougham and James Stephen.
But Bonaparte abolished that trade during the Hundred Days, though he also failed to win back the people of San Domingo, or, as it was now called by its original name, Haiti, to obedience.
In the case of the latter it cannot honestly be said that Bede has improved on his original.
In one Asura, whose Aryan original was Varuna, he concentrated the whole of the divine character, and conferred upon it the epithet of "the wise" (mazdao) .
During his residence in Berwick, Henry commenced his History of Great Britain, written on a new plan; but, owing to the difficulty of consulting the original authorities, he did not make much progress with the work until his removal to Edinburgh in 1768.
Of the original Pictish inhabitants remains exist in the form of stone circles (three in Unst and two in Fetlar) and brochs (of which 75 examples survive).
In 1847 Morse was compelled to defend his invention in the courts, and successfully vindicated his claim to be called the original inventor of the electromagnetic recording telegraph.
The original herbarium of Linnaeus is in the possession of the Linnaean Society of London.
The value of a herbarium is much enhanced by the possession of "types," that is, the original specimens on the study of which a species was founded.
The original term, catacumbae, however, had no connexion with sepulture, but was simply the name of a particular locality in the environs of Rome.
The original designation of these places of sepulture is crypta or coemeterium.
Subsequent popes manifested equal ardour, with the same damaging results, in the repair and adornment of the catacombs, and many of the paintings covering their walls, which have been assigned to the period of their original construction, are really the work of these later times.
The works of Raoul Rochette display a comprehensive knowledge of the whole subject, extensive reading, and a thorough acquaintance with early Christian art so far as it could be gathered from books, but he was not an original investigator.
The original entrance to the cemetery leads directly into a spacious corridor with no loculi, but recesses for sarcophagi, and decorations of the classical style of the 2nd century.
The loculi were intact and the epitaphs still in their places, so that " they form a kind of museum, in which the development, the formulae, and the symbolic figures of Christian epigraphy, from its origin to the end of the 3rd or 4th century, can be notified and contemplated, not in artificial specimens as in the Lateran, but in the genuine and living reality of their original condition."
A noteworthy relic of the Roman occupation, however, appears in its original place.
The measure soon met with strong opposition in the northern states, and Personal Liberty Laws were passed to hamper officials in the execution of the law; Indiana in 1824 and Connecticut in 1828 providing jury trial for fugitives who appealed from an original decision against them.
The province and city of Puerto Principe are officially known as Camaguey, their original Indian name, which has practically supplanted the Spanish name in local usage.
In the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial evidences in the island of former volcanic activity.
Baracoa (the landing point), Bayamo, Santiago de Cuba, Puerto Principe, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad and the original Havana were all founded by 1515.
She was a young lady of twenty, decidedly unconventional and original in character, but the daughter of a Bavarian diplomatist then resident at Geneva, who would have nothing to do with Lassalle.
This class will include the original relation itself.
If he had had all his own originality without the itch of appearing original, he would have made his fascination irresistible.
The Spanish town, according to Velasco, was founded in 1538 by Captain Pedro Angules on the site of an Indian village called Chuquisaca, or Chuquichaca (golden bridge), and was called Charcas and Ciudad de la Plata by the Spaniards, though the natives clung to the original Indian name.
The expenditure was arrived at in the manner previously described - and when the general budget came to be made up the severest pruning was found necessary, the original demands of the various ministries and departments having resulted in a deficit of upwards of £T 9, 000,000.
At the close of the Crimean War a British bank was opened in 1856 at Constantinople under the name of the Ottoman Bank, with a capital of £500,000 fully paid up. In 1863 this was merged in an Anglo-French bank, under a concession from the Turkish government, as a state bank under the name of the Imperial Ottoman Bank, with a capital of £2,700,000, increased in 1865 to £4,050,000 and in 1875 to £10,000,000, one-half of which is paid up. The original concession to the year 1893 was in 1875 extended to 1913, and in 1895 to 1925.
The effect of the original system was that a vakuf property became the inalienable property of the state, and the original proprietor a mere tenant.
The original discoverer of a mine is entitled to a certain indemnity for " right of discovery " to be paid by the concessionaire of that mine, should the discoverer be unable to work it.
The Bulgarians, Bosnians and Servians had at different periods invaded and conquered the territories inhabited by them; the Albanians, original natives of their land, were governed by princes of their own.
Poland, the original cause of the war, was not even mentioned in the treaty, having been partitioned in 1772.
His ghazels, which are written with great elegance and finish, contain many graceful and original ideas, and the words he makes use of are always chosen with a view to harmony and cadence.