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The dust is chiefly of local origin, but partly comes from the Sahara.
of the origin of our domesticated breeds has not yet been determined.
The origin of the blotched as a special type is wholly unknown.
Its origin is connected with the establishment of the salt-marshes.
A portion of old Balvenie Castle, a ruin, is considered to be of Pictish origin, but most of it is in the Scots Baronial.
The customs and dress of the people, who speak a patois of romaic origin, are interesting.
It is evident that the normal blue is more or less diluted with extraneous white light, having its origin in reflections from the grosser particles of foreign matter with which the air is usually charged.
It owes its origin to its mineral waters, which have long been known to the inhabitants of Caucasia.
Vico raised the problem to a higher plane, by tracing the origin of law in the human mind and explaining the historical changes of the one by those of the other.
wide; and not far off on the east is a large private house with white tesselated pavements, probably pre-Roman in origin but slightly altered in the Roman period (R.
Auxiliary sources for the medieval romance-writers were: - the opuscule (4th century) known as Alexandri magni iter ad Paradisum, a fable of Eastern origin directed against ambition; the Itinerarium Alexandri (340), based partly on Julius Valerius and dedicated to Constans, son of the emperor Constantine; the letter of Alexander to Aristotle (Epist.
leader of the Fortschrittspartei, and the expression Kulturkampf had, it is believed, its origin in one of his electoral manifestoes.
The ordinary domesticated cats of Europe are, however, mainly of African origin, although they have largely crossed, especially in Germany (and probably also in Great Britain), with the wild cat.
SPANDRIL, or Spandrel (formerly splaundrel, a word of unknown origin), in architecture, the space between any arch or curved brace and the level label, beams, &c., over the same.
Most probably this story had its origin in a particular theory as to the meaning of the word mistletoe.
The reputation of the oracle, which was in origin medical, spread, and with it grew Alexander's skilled plans of organized deception.
The aristocratic origin of Rome, the struggle between the patricians and the plebeians, the laws of the XII.
Its constitutional origin was analogous to that of the star chamber and the court of requests.
There are also several Albanian settlements in European Turkey and Asia Minor, some founded by military colonists who received grants of land from successive sultans, others owing their origin to enforced migrations after insurrections in Albania.
The name has a curious origin, which explains also the particular meaning of the adjective "spruce," neatly dressed, smart in appearance, fine.
from Rome by the Via Ostiensis, a road of very ancient origin still followed by a modern road which preserves some traces of the old pavement and remains of several ancient bridges.
The origin of such unendowed curacies is traceable to the fact that benefices were sometimes granted to religious houses pleno jure, and with liberty for them to provide for the cure; and when such appropriations were transferred to lay persons, being unable to serve themselves, the impropriators were required to nominate a clerk in full orders to the.
Although of early origin, its appearance, like that of other great manufacturing towns of the vicinity, is wholly modern.
Colon dates its origin from the year 1850, when the island of Manzanillo was selected as the Atlantic terminus of the Panama railway.
In spite of the Roman origin suggested by its name, so few remains have been found here that it is doubtful whether Chesterfield was a Roman station.
Another alliterative poem in the northern dialect, of 15th-century origin, is based on the Historia de proeliis, and was edited by Skeat for the E.E.T.S.
This did not last long with him, however, for the second edition (1857) of his most important work, on the origin of the old Catholic Church (Die Entstehung der alt-kathol.
In the aeneolithic necropolis of Anghelu Ruju, near Alghero, of 63 skulls, 53 belong to the" Mediterranean " dolico-mesocephalic type and i o to a Eurasian brachycephalic type of Asiatic origin, which has been found in prehistoric tombs of other parts of Europe.
He belonged to a noble family of Scotch descent, tracing its origin to Walter Stutt, who in 1420 accompanied the earls of Buchan and Douglas to the court of France, and whose family afterwards rose to be counts of Tracy.
In the Discourse of Method Descartes had sketched the main points in his new views, with a mental autobiography which might explain their origin, and with some suggestions of as to their applications.
As to the origin of the normal blue, very discrepant views have been held.
Cats of the striped type are no doubt descended from the European and North African wild cats; but the origin of cats exhibiting the blotched pattern appears to be unknown.
According to the New English Dictionary, although the origin of the word "cat" is unknown, yet the name is found in various languages as far back as they can be traced.
Even the name Levite itself is of uncertain origin.
Bensley, "A Theory of the Origin and Evolution of the Australian Marsupialia," American Naturalist (1901); "On the Evolution of the Australian Marsupialia, &c.," Trans.
The creature that refused to bow down to the Dark One was not going to allow itself to become blood-dependent upon a mate of human origin.
She once thought the problem was him, because he was of human origin.
There is no evidence that these days were called shabattu, a word which is rendered by umu nuh libbi, " day of rest of the heart," and has been thought to be the origin of Sabbath.
This and the hydrotheca i give origin to the name Calyptoblastea.
20 Its place of origin is not yet known.
And the body, indeed, is subject to the powerful influence of death; but a shadow of vitality is still left alive, and this alone is of divine origin; while our limbs are in activity it sleeps; but, when we sleep, it discloses to the mind in many dreams the future judgment with regard to happiness and misery."
The origin of the fauna and flora of Australia has attracted considerable attention.
It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
The origin of the name Aegean is uncertain.
QUICK, a word which, by origin, and in early and many surviving uses, meant "living," "alive."
The junction in Southwark of the great roads from the south of England for the passage of the Thames sufficiently accounted for the early origin of Southwark.
As early as 1804, Humboldt expressed the opinion that petroleum was produced by distillation from deep-seated strata, and Karl Reichenbach in 1834, suggested that it was derived from the action of heat on the turpentine of pine-trees, whilst Brunet, in 1838, adumbrated a similar theory of origin on the ground of certain laboratory experiments.
Atlanta owes its origin to the development of pioneer railroads of Georgia.
Evidence is accumulating, though no completely satisfactory theory can yet be put forward, as to the northern origin of the dynastic Egyptians.
Equally interesting are the relation of the Syro-Hittite with the Minoan, and we seem to find in certain objects found in Egypt and Cyprus and dating probably from the 14th to the Toth centuries, proof of the existence of a mixed art of Syrian origin, probably in Cilicia (Alashiya) at that time.
Many of the names of places in the Alpujarras are of Moorish origin.
A demon of human origin.
The incorporation of the Cinque Ports had its origin in the necessity for some means of defence along the southern seaboard of England, and in the lack of any regular navy.
The Origin of Species appeared in 1859; and thenceforward the doctrine of evolution assumed a position and acquired an importance which it never before possessed.
In the Origin of Species, and in his other numerous and important contributions to the solution of the problem of biological evolution, Darwin confined himself to the discussion of the causes which have brought about the present condition of living matter, assuming such matter to have once come into existence.
Taking into account existing animals and plants alone, it became obvious that they fell into groups which were more or less sharply separated from one another; and, moreover, that even See the " Historical Sketch " prefixed to the last edition of the Origin of Species.
The priesthood of Dan certainly traced its origin to Moses (Judges xvii.
The origin of this theory goes back to the later Vedic hymns.
Of strictly American origin can here be cited only W.
Simon and Jude are still held, also five other fairs of uncertain origin.
Persia (which, it must not be forgotten, may have been an importation from Babylonia and not local art at all), seems to think a northern origin as probable as any other.
The New English Dictionary takes it to be of northern French origin.
Lowestoft (Lothu Wistoft, Lowistoft, Loistoft) owes its origin to its fisheries.
Though sacked by the Goths in the 5th century, and later by the Moors, it is still surrounded by massive walls of Roman origin.
(2) The acceleration of the element at the origin is - n 2 sin nt; so that the force which would have to be applied to the parts where the density is D' (instead of D), in order that the waves might pass on undisturbed, is, per unit of volume, (D' - D)n 2 sin nt.
The story of Talos, the Cretan man of brass, who heated himself red-hot and clasped strangers in his embrace as soon as they landed on the island, is probably of similar origin.
The position-angles of double stars are reckoned from north through east, the brighter star being taken as origin.
Guided by the swan he reached Antwerp, and married the lady on condition that she should not ask his origin.
The decennium extending from 1550 to 1560 was the good period of Ivan IV.'s reign, when he deliberately broke away from his disreputable past and surrounded himself with good men of lowly origin.
- After the death of Dushan and the break-up of the Servian empire, a new epoch began when Albania fell under the rule of chieftains more or less of native origin.
He was the father of Herod the Great, whose family thus was Idumaean in origin.
METHODISM, a term' denoting the religious organizations which trace their origin to the evangelistic teaching of John Wesley.
The legend with regard to the origin of the name Napier was given by Sir Alexander Napier, eldest son of John Napier, in 1625, in these words: "One of the ancient earls of Lennox in Scotland had issue three sons: the eldest, that succeeded him to the earldom of Lennox; the second, whose name was Donald; and the third, named Gilchrist.
Cepa, dating from about the beginning of the Christian era (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 71).
The origin of Presbyterianism is a question of historical interest.
By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
The Presbyterianism now visible in England is of Scottish origin and Scottish type, and beyond the fact of embracing a few congregations which date from, or before, the Act of Uniformity and the Five Mile Act, has little in common with the Presbyterianism which was for a brief period by law established.
"What kept these bodies apart was their separate historic origin and development, but especially the alienation caused by the ` Voluntary Controversy ' which had its roots in the difficult problems of civil law in its relation to religion, and the stumbling-block of the civil magistrate's authority in relation to the Christian conscience."
The Presbyterian Church of Wales, commonly known as the "Calvinistic Methodist," had its origin in the great evangelical revival of the 18th century.
Elsewhere the plants generally indicate a higher horizon and are considered to correspond with the Rhaetic of Europe_ Jurassic beds are known only in the Cordillera itself, and the Cretaceous beds, which occur in the west of the country, are of freshwater origin.
The origin and development of these conditions, in islands so distinctly oceanic as the Galapagos, have given its chief importance to this archipelago since it was visited by Darwin in the "Beagle."
The court of brotherhood was formerly called the brotheryeeld, brodall or brodhull; and the name guestling seems to owe its origin to the fact that the officials of the "members" were at first in the position of invited guests.
William founded and richly endowed the abbey at Arbroath, and many of the Scottish towns owe their origin to his charters.
The origin and evolution of the Australian marsupials have been discussed by Mr B.
On the other hand there is nothing absolutely decisive against their origin being southern.
- As the Sabbath was originally a religious feast, the question of the origin of the Sabbath resolves itself into an inquiry why and in what circle a festal cycle of seven days was first established.
This, however, does not necessarily imply that in its origin it was specifically Hebrew, but only that it had acquired distinguishing features of a marked kind.
What is certain is that the origin of the Sabbath must be sought within a circle that used the week as a division of time.
They did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological planet; and it is therefore precarious to assume that the Sabbath was in its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.4 The week, however, is found in various parts of the world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but suggested itself independently, and for natural reasons, to different races.
Fiske, The Destiny of Man, viewed in the Light of his Origin (1884); G.
Pharmacosiderite is a mineral of secondary origin, the crystals occurring attached to gozzany quartz in the upper part of veins of copper ore.
From a geological standpoint, the Great Australian Plain and the fertile valley of the Nile have had a similar origin.
No speculation of hypothesis has been propounded to account satisfactorily for the origin of the Australian flora.
1 - The Australian people are mainly of British origin, only 34% of the population of European descent being of non-British race.
No record, no folk tales, as in the case of the Maoris origin.
This Indo - Aryan origin for the Australian blackfellows is borne out by their physique.
The origin of his family has been traced back as far as the end of the 14th century.
To the placing in quarantine of the vessel which took him to Egypt is due the origin of his great conception of a canal across the isthmus of Suez.
In 1839 he was appointed consul at Rotterdam, and in the following year transferred to Malaga, the place of origin of his mother's family.
Beyond these were found the Frisians, a people of German origin, who gave their name to the territory between the Rhine and the Ems. Of the other tribes the best known are the Caninefates, Chauci, Usipetes, Sicambri, Eburones, Menapii, Morini and Aduatici.
In the absence, however, of any relics of a kind which might lead to the identification of the ancient miners, their nationality and origin are matters which must continue to be mere questions of speculation and conjecture.
Two more species of Hylactes are known, and 1 Of Spanish origin, it is intended as a reproof to the bird for the shameless way in which, by erecting its tail, it exposes its hinder parts.
Most of the naturalized French citizens are of Spanish or Italian origin.
The oak of Britain is still in demand for the construction of merchant shipping, though teak has become in some measure its substitute, and foreign oak of various quality and origin largely takes.
The vision at Valarshapat was invented later by the Armenians when they broke with the Greeks, in order to give to their church the semblance, if not of apostolic, at least of divine origin.
North of the fiftieth parallel the depths diminish towards the north-east, two long submarine ridges of volcanic origin extend north-eastwards to the southwest of Iceland and to the Faeroe Islands, and these, with their intervening valleys, end in a transverse ridge connecting Greenland, through Iceland and the Faeroe Islands, with Northwestern Scotland and the continental mass of Europe.
The question of the origin of the Atlantic basin, like that of the other great divisions of the hydrosphere, is still unsettled.
PHOCAS, East Roman emperor (602-610), was a Cappadocian of humble origin.
It contains many mountains volcanic in origin (Plomb du Cantal, Puy de Dome, Mont Dore), fertile valleys such as that of Limagne, vast pasturelands, and numerous medicinal springs.
(1195-1227), was granted the lordship of the town of Clermont, which subsequently became a countship. Such was the origin of the four great historic lordships of Auvergne.
24, Omri, king of Israel, bought Samaria from a certain Shemer (whose name is said to be the origin of that of the city), and transferred thither his capital from Tirzah.
The rest of this tract is for the most part a hilly, broken country, of moderate elevation, but Monte Amiata, near Radicofani, an isolated mass of volcanic origin, attains a height of 5650 ft.
South of this the country between the frontier of Tuscany and the Tiber is in great part of volcanic origin, forming hills with distinct crater-shaped basins, in several instances occupied by small lakes (the Lake of Bolsena, Lake of Vico and Lake of Bracciano).
While the rugged and mountainous district of Calabria, extending nearly due south for a distance of more than 150 m., thus derives its character and configuration almost wholly from the range of the Apennines, the long spur-like promontory which projects towards the east to Brindisi and Otranto is merely a continuation of the low tract of Apulia, with a dry calcareous soil of Tertiary origin.
The Monte Volture, which rises in the neighborhood of Melfi and Venosa to 4357 ft., is of volcanic origin, and in great measure detached from the adjoining mass of the Apennines.
Such is the Lago di Bolsena, near the city of the same name, which is an extensive sheet of water, as well as the much smaller Lago di Vico (the Ciminian lake of ancient writers) and the Lago di Bracciano, nearer Rome, while to the south of Rome the well known lakes of Albano and Nemi have a similar origin.
Of these Ischia and Procida, close to the northern headland of the Bay of Naples, are of volcanic origin, as is the case also with the more distant group of the Ponza Islands.
These watchwords are said to have arisen in Germany during the disputed succession of the empire between 1135 and 1152, when the Welfs of Bavaria opposed the Swabian princes of Waiblingen origin.
At a subsequent period the demand for instruction in the sacrificial science called into existence a still more practical set of manuals, the so-called Kalpa-sutras, or ceremonial rules, detailing, in succinct aphorisms, the approved course of sacrificial procedure, without reference to the supposed origin or import of the several rites.
Whilst the Soma-sacrifice has been thus developed by the Brahmanas in an extraordinary degree, its essential identity with the Avestan Haoma-cult shows that its origin goes back at all events to the Indo-Iranian period.
This custom, which owes its origin to Henry II., meant a loss of revenue to the lords, whose victory in this matter, however, was a step backwards.
24); thirdly, in position and origin, being usually implanted on the extreme edge of the umbrella, but in Narcomedusae they become secondarily shifted and are given off high up on the ex-umbrella (figs.
The stomach may be altogether lodged in the manubrium, from which the radial canals then take origin directly as in Geryonia (Trachomedusae); it may be with or without gastric pouches.
A " stolon " of unknown origin produces thirty-two buds, which become as many Polypodia; each has twenty-four tentacles and divides by fission repeated twice into four individuals, each with six tentacles.
Medusae with sense-organs represented by otocysts derived from modified tentacles (tentaculocysts), containing otoliths of endodermal origin, and innervated from the ex-umbral nerve-ring.
In view of the great resemblance between Microhydra and the polyp of Limnocodium, it might be expected that the medusae to which they give origin would also be similar.
Brooks, " The LifeHistory of the Hydromedusae: a discussion of the Origin of the Medusae, and of the significance of Metagenesis," Mem.
Attempts have been made to show that they were of German origin, but although they were doubtless subject to Germanic influences, they spoke a Celtic language.
It is content to explain the origin and course of development of the world, the solar or, at most, the sidereal system which falls under our own observation.
The problem of the origin of the world was the first to engage man's speculative activity.
This same way of looking at the origin of the material world is illustrated in the Egyptian notion of a cosmic egg out of which issues the god (Phta) who creates the world.
In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).
The origin of things, which is also their substance, is thus laid in the simplest and most homogeneous elements or principles.
Aristotle's brief suggestions respect ing the origin of society and governments in the Politics show a leaning to a naturalistic interpretation of human history as a development conditioned by growing necessities.
The speculations of the fathers respecting the origin and course of the world seek to combine Christian ideas of the Deity with doctrines of Greek philosophy.
The common idea of the origin of things is that of an absolute creation of matter and mind alike.
In the later and developed form of the Kabbala, the origin of the world is represented as a gradually descending emanation of the lower out of the higher.
The period of the revival of learning, which was also that of a renewed study of nature, is marked by a considerable amount of speculation respecting the origin of the universe.
- Another writer of this transition period deserves a passing reference here, namely, Jacob Boehme the mystic, who by his conception of a process of inner diremption as the essential character of all mind, and so of God, prepared the way for later German theories of the origin of the world as the self-differentiation and self-externalization of the absolute spirit.
Descartes's account of the mind and its passions is thoroughly materialistic, and to this extent he works in the direction of a materialistic explanation of the origin of mental life.
There is, however, one writer who sets forth so clearly the alternative suppositions respecting the origin of the world that he claims a brief notice.
Heinrich Steffens, in his Anthropologie, seeks to trace out the origin and history of man in connexion with a general theory of the development of the earth, and this again as related to the formation of the solar system.
As Ludwig Noire observes, Schopenhauer has no feeling for the problem of the origin of organic beings.
Notwithstanding the origin of organs, it still for a certain time, by reason of its want of an internal bony skeleton, remains worm and mollusk, and only later enters into the series of the Vertebrata, although traces of the vertebral column even in the earliest periods testify its claim to a place in that series."
The discovery of a single fossil creature in a geological stratum of a wrong period, the detection of a single anatomical or physiological fact irreconcilable with origin by descent with modification, would have been destructive of the theory and would have made the reputation of the observer.
There has been a renewed activity in the study of existing forms from the point of view of obtaining evidence as to the nature and origin of species.
The thirty years which followed the publication of the Origin of Species were characterized chiefly by anatomical and embryological work; since then there has been no diminution in anatomical and embryological enthusiasm, but many of the continually increasing body of investigators have turned again to bionomical work.
The following are a few of the more general works: Bateson, Materials for the Study of Variation; Bunge, Vitalismus and Mechanismus; Cope, Origin of the Fittest, Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, Darwin's Life and Letters; H.
Such authority in the minds of lay Roman lawyers who first used this word " jurisdiction " was essentially temporal in its origin and in its sphere.
The metropolitans had peculiars within the dioceses of their comprovincials wherever they had residences or manors, and some whose origin is uncertain, e.g.
This writer traces their origin to the 14th century; but the procedure does not seem to have become regularized or common till the reigns of Louis XII.
Van Espen says: " The whole right of appeal to the Roman pontiff omisso medio had undoubtedly its origin in this principle, that the Roman pontiff is ordinary of ordinaries, or, in other words, has immediate episcopal authority in all particular churches, and this principle had its own beginning from the False Decretals."
This was copied from the then existent practice in admiralty appeals and was the origin of the so-called court of delegates.
The origin and the exact nature of this religious movement are alike uncertain.
20), directly suggest a Jewish origin.
Yet the town is under no great industrial or other modernizing influence, and therefore stands in the position of an ancient shrine, drawing a pilgrimage of modern origin.
Although by some he was held to be a Greek, the tradition of his Thracian origin was most generally accepted.
They dealt with such subjects as the origin of the gods, the creation of the world, the ritual of purification and initiation, and oracular responses.
The internal tissue of the body of the solid higher Fungi, particularly the elongated stalks (stipes) of the fructifications of the Agarics, consists of hyphae running in a longitudinal direction, which no doubt serve for the conduction of organic food substances, just as do the trumpet-hyphae, similar in appearance, though not in origin, of the higher Brown Seaweeds.
Thus the histological differentiation of the sporogonium of the higher mosses is one of considerable complexity; but there is here even less reason to suppose that these tissues have any homology (phylogenetic community of origin) with the similar ones met with in the higher plants.
The cortex, as has been said, is in its origin the remains of th~ primitive assimilating tissue of the plant, after differentiatioi of the surface layer and the conducting system.
Besides the types forming this series, there are a number of others (Medulloseae and allied forms) which show numerous, often very complex, types of stelar structure, in some cases polystelic, whose origin and relationship with the simpler and better known types is frequently obscure.
In the very frequent cases where the bundles have considerable individuality, the fibrous pericyclic cap very clearly has a common origin from the same strand of tissue as the vascular elements themselves.
This is known as exogenous branch-formation In the root, on the other hand, the origin of branches is endogenous The cells of the pericycle, usually opposite a protoxylem strand divide tangentially and give rise to a new growing-point.
Adventitious roots, arising from stems, usuall) take origin in the pericycle, but sometimes from other parts of th Conjunctive.
Its most usual seat of origin in the stem is the external layer of the cortex immediately below the epidermis; in the root, the pericycle.
The extent of development of the phelloderm is dependent upon whether the phellogen has a superficial or a deep-seated origin.
The latter may develop stereom, and may also be the seat of origin of new formations of various kindse.g.
phellogen is replaced by successive new phellogenic layers of de~per and deeper origin, each forming its own layer of cork.
The new work largely centred round a discussion of the nature and origin of vessels, conspicuous features in young plant tissues which thus acquired an importance in the contemporary literature out of proportion to their real significance in the construction of the vascular plant.
The purposeful character of all these movements or changes of position indicates that they are of nervous origin.
This mattel- is bound up with the centres of origin and with the past migrations of species; and such questions are usually treated as a part of floristic plant geography.
Within it or its modifications all the vital phenomena of which living organisms are capable have their origin.
The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
The origin of the organography of the present day may be traced back to Aristotle, who described the parts of plants as organs, though very simple ones.
In this, as in all morphological inquiries, two lines of investigation have to be followed, the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic. Beginning with its phylogeny, it appears, so far as present knowledge goes, that the differentiation of the shoot of the sporophyte into stem and leaf first occurred in the Pteridophyta; and, in accordance with the views of Bower (Origin of a Land..
With regard to the causation of variation Darwin says (Origin of Species, ch.
Schimper, Plant-Geography (Clarendon Press, Oxford); Goebel, Organography (Clarendon Press, Oxford); Bower, The Origin of a Land-Flora (Macmillan); Beyerinck, Ueher Cecidien, (Bot.
Our regions will not be natural unless they mark out real discontinuities both of origin and affinity, and these we can only seek to explain by reference to past changes in the earths history.
Though Angiosperms become dominant in all known plant-bearing Upper Cretaceous deposits, their origin dates even earlier.
We must, however, agree with Starkie Gardner that it is only Miocene as regards its present position, which was originally farther north, and that its actual origin was much earlier.
Assuming that in its circumpolar origin the North Temperate flora was fairly homogeneous, it would meet in its centrifugal extension with a wide range of local conditions; these would favor the preservation of numerous species in some genera, their greater or less elimination in others.
It precludes the explanation of any common features in the dissevered porciuns of the tropical area of vegetation by lateral communirations, and throws back their origin to the remotest geological antiquity.
Nearly related to myrtles are Melastomaceae which, poorly represented in the Old World, have attained here so prodigious a development in genera and species, that Ball looks upon it as the seat of origin of the family.
Three-quarters of the native species are endemic; they seem, however, to be quite unable to resist the invasion of new-comers, and already 600 plants of foreign origin have succeeded in establishing themselves.
Darwin attributes this to the fact that the northern forms were the more powerful (Origin of Species, 5th ed., p.458).
The result of migration is that races of widely different origin and habit have had to adapt themselves to similar conditions.
If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.
In the attempt that has been made to map out the land surface of the earth, probable community of origin has been relied upon more than the possession of obvious characters.
The two conceptions which may now be said to animate the theory of geography are the genetic, which depends upon processes of origin, and the morphological, which depends on facts of form and distribution.
The history of the origin of the various forms belongs 1 H.
Oceanic islands are divided according to their geological character into volcanic islands and those of organic origin, including coral islands.
More elaborate subdivisionsaccording to structure, origin and position have been proposed.
From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.
The geographers who have hitherto given most attention to the forms of the land have been trained as geologists, and consequently there is a general tendency to make origin or structure the basis of classification rather than form alone.
The fundamental form-elements may be reduced to the six proposed by Professor Penck as the basis of his double system of classification by form and origin.'
These forms never occur scattered haphazard over a region, but always in an orderly subordination depending on their mode of origin.
Some geographers distinguish a mountain from a hill by origin; thus Professor Seeley says " a mountain implies elevation and a hill implies denudation, but the external forms of both are often identical."
The territorial divisions and subdivisions often survive the conditions which led to their origin; hence the study of political geography is allied to history as closely as the study of physical geography is allied to geology, and for the same reason.
The existence of a good natural harbour is often sufficient to give origin to a town and to fix one end of a line of land communication.
The narration of Herodotus is only a popular tradition which derives the origin of kingship from its judicial functions, considered as its principal and most beneficent aspect.
Phosphatic beds, supposed to have had a coprolitic origin, are found in the Lower Silurian rocks of Canada.
The institution owed its origin to federal land grants; it is maintained by the state, the United States, and by small fees paid by the students; tuition is free in all colleges except the college of law.
This pad varies much; it is morphologically the homologue of the pair of basiventral elements which by their lateral extension give origin to the corresponding ribs.
Dorsal vertebrae frequently have a ventral outgrowth of the centrum; these hypapophyses may be simple vertical blades, I-shaped, or paired knobs; they serve for the attachment of the thoracic origin of the longus collianticus muscle, reaching their greatest development in Sphenisci and Colymbidae.
The extent of the origin of this muscle from the sternum, on which it leaves converging, parallel or diverging impressions, is of some taxonomic value.
Mackay, " The Development of the Branchial Arterial Arches in Birds, with special reference to the Origin of the Subclavians and Carotids," Phil.
In all, there is a wonderful amount of specialization, though perhaps in a very straight line from generalized forms; but the affinity to Australian or Polynesian types is in many cases clearly traceable, and it cannot be supposed but that these last are of cognate origin with those of New Zealand.
Of families we find twenty-three, or maybe more, absolutely restricted thereto, besides at least eight which, being peculiar to the New World, extend their range into the Nearctic region, but are there so feebly developed that their origin may be safely ascribed to the southern portion of America.
origin; while, lastly, such strikingly characteristic Indo-African birds as hornbills are unaccountably absent.
The eldest of the cadet branches of the ducal house has its origin in William (c. 1510-1573), eldest son of the victor of Flodden by his second marriage.
Uwaja is probably the origin of the modern Khuzistan, though Mordtmann would derive the latter from j5 "a sugar-reed."
The story of the youth of Moses is, as is commonly the case with great heroes, of secondary origin; moreover, the circumstances of his birth as related in Exod.
The priesthoods of Shiloh and Dan could boast of an illustrious origin (I Sam.
It has an extraordinary power over the pain of acute gout; it lessens the severity and frequency of the attacks when given continuously between them, and it markedly controls such symptoms of gout as eczema, bronchitis and neuritis, whilst it is entirely inoperative against these conditions when they are not of gouty origin.
of Tannaitic origin) are given in their original form, and the discussion of them is usually also in Hebrew.
They are closely related in origin, style, diction and thought, and occupy so distinct a place in these respects that the Pauline authorship of them has been much questioned.
His son also died and became the national household deity of the Ahoms. The origin of mankind is connected with a flood legend.
The kings claimed independent divine origin.
by 28, and appears to be partly of volcanic origin and to consist partly of older rocks corresponding with those of Sumatra.
`Ana itself, a very ancient town, of Babylonian origin, once sacred probably to the goddess of the same name, lay originally on several islands in the stream, where ruins, principally of the Arabic and late Persian period, are visible.
or 162 ft.; this length is also named a pole or perch, the origin of the.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
This Norman form of Romanesque most likely had its origin in the Lombard buildings of northern Italy.
The town owed its origin and growth to its position on the shores of the Bristol Channel, and its good harbour developed an oversea trade with Bristol, South Wales and the Irish ports.
LOG(a word of uncertain etymological origin,possibly onomatopoeic; the New English Dictionary rejects the derivation from Norwegian lag, a fallen tree), a large piece of, generally unhewn, wood.
It was formerly believed that the sulphur had a volcanic origin, but it is now generally held that it has either been reduced from gypsum by organic agencies, or more probably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters.
Fine crystals occur at Conil near Cadiz; whilst in the province of Teruel in Aragon, sulphur in a compact form replaces fresh-water shells and plant-remains, suggesting its origin from sulphur-springs.
Zeisig and Zeising), long known in England as a cage-bird called by dealers the Aberdevine or Abadavine, names of unknown origin, the Fringilla spines of Linnaeus, and Carduelis spines of modern writers, belongs to the Passerine family Fringillidae.
They have differed widely in the origin of the noble class and in the amount of privilege implied in membership of it; but they all agree in the transmission of some privilege or other to all the descendants, or to all the male descendants, of the first noble.
A little research shows that the origin of these privileges was a very simple one.
The patricians, patres, housefathers, goodmen - so lowly is the origin of that proud name - were once the whole Roman people, the original inhabitants of the Roman hills.
The cause of the difference seems to be that, while the origin of the patriciate was exactly the same at Rome and at Athens, the origin of the commons was different.
In not a few of the Italian cities nobility had an origin and ran a course quite unlike the origin and the course which were its lot at Venice.
The other point of difference is that, whatever we take for the origin and the definition of nobility, in most countries it became something that could be given from outside, without the need of any consent on the part of the noble class itself.
In the modern states of western Europe the existing nobility seems to have for the most part had its origin in personal service to the prince.
In its origin it was a mere personal mark of distinction, in the primary sense of this word.
But in the more strictly crown, even if of quite humble origin, are "commanded" to court functions with their husbands.
For the origin and growth of the nobility in France, see A.
The population of Americo-Liberian origin in the coast regions is estimated at from 12,000 to 15,000.
Tennant's Origin and Propagation of Sin (1902) - sin a " bye-product " of a generally good evolution.
Wallace succeeded in displacing the naïf conception of special creation by belief in the origin of species out of other species through a process of natural law.
Near Bennachie (1619 ft.) are stone circles and monoliths supposed to be of Druidical origin.
Epiphanius too tells us that the teaching of Basilides had its beginning in the question as to the origin of evil (Haer.
The revival of the Moravian Brethren was German in origin.
Bede gives no information about its origin except that its earliest settlers were Angles.
Azurite occurs with malachite in the upper portions of deposits of copper ore, and owes its origin to the alteration of the sulphide or of native copper by water containing carbon dioxide and oxygen.
Partly owing to this, and partly to ancient feuds whose origin we cannot trace, the Athenian people was split up into three great factions known as the Plain (Pedieis) led by Lycurgus and Miltiades, both of noble families; the Shore (Parali) led by the Alcmaeonidae, represented at this time by Megacles, who was strong in his wealth and by his recent marriage with Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon; the Hill or Upland (Diacreis, Diacrii) led by Peisistratus, who no doubt owed his influence among these hillmen partly to the possession of large estates at Marathon.
The probable origin of the story is the part traditionally taken in the foundation of Syracuse by the Iamidae of Olympia, who identified the spring Arethusa with their own river Alpheus, and the nymph with Artemis Alpheiaia, who was worshipped at Ortygia.
The origin of the term " Russia " has been much disputed.
Taking their origin from a series of lacustrine basins scattered over the plateaus and differing slightly in elevation, the Russian rivers describe immense curves before reaching the sea, and flow with a very gentle gradient, while numerous large tributaries collect their waters from over vast areas.
with Turkish (the present Bashkirs); the Bulgars, whose origin still remains doubtful, on the middle Volga and Kama; and to the S.E.
the Turkish-Mongol races of the Pechenegs, Polovtsi, Uzes, &c., while in the S., along the Black Sea, was the empire of the Khazars, who had under their rule several Slav tribes, and perhaps also some of Finnish origin.
At present the races of Finnish origin are represented in Russia by the following: (a) the W.
(4) The Meshcheryaks, a tribe of Finnish origin who formerly inhabited the basin of the Oka, and, driven thence during the 15th century by the Russian colonists, immigrated into Ufa and Perm, where they now live among the Baskhirs, having adopted their religion and customs. (5) The Teptyars, also of Finnish origin, settled among the Tatars and Bashkirs in Samara and Vyatka.
Their origin is unknown, but they are officially mentioned as early as 1765.
Nestor, an old monkish chronicler Origin of Kiev, relates that in the middle of the 9th century of the the Slav and Finnish tribes inhabiting the forest region around Lake Ilmen, between Lake Ladoga and the upper waters of the Dnieper, paid tribute to military adventurers from the land of Ras, which is commonly supposed to have been a part of Sweden.
No one knew their origin or whence they came, or what religion they practised.
About the origin and character of these terrible invaders we are much better informed than the early Russian chroniclers.
All through his reign he preferred to employ as officials men of humble origin, and habitually treated the boyars and great nobles very unceremoniously.
This gave Catherine a certain right to the throne at her husband's death, and her claims were supported by Peter's most influential coadjutors, especially by Prince Menshikov, an ambitious man of humble origin who had been raised by his patron to the highest offices of state.
Her reign (1730-40) was a regime of methodical German despotism on the lines laid down by her uncle, Peter the Great, and as she was naturally indolent and much addicted to frivolous amusements, the administration was directed by her favourite Biren (q.v.) and other men of German origin.
P. Thomsen, The Relation between Ancient Russia and Scandinavia and the Origin of the Russian State (London, 1877); the series of works by K.
Kammin is of Wendish origin, and obtained municipal privileges in 1274.
Railways had their origin in the tramways (q.v.) or wagon-ways which at least as early as the middle of the 16th century were used in the mineral districts of England round Newcastle for the conveyance of coal from the pits to the river Tyne for shipment.
Most of the improvements in operation and in traffic management have had their origin in one of these two countries.
This is of American origin, and is there known as the " Mogul."
Every organism takes origin from a parent organism of the same kind.
The sacrifice is in its origin a communion; god and worshippers have a bond of kinship between them; but it is liable to be interrupted or its strength diminished.
Ceremonies of initiation are the means by which the alliance is established between the deity and the young man, when the latter enters upon the rights of manhood; and the supposed bond of kinship is thus regarded as an artificial union from the outset, so far as the individual is concerned, although Robertson Smith still maintains the theory of the fatherhood of the god, where it is a question of the origin of the totem-kin.
Marillier further argues that if, on the other hand, there was no bond between god and people but that of the common meal, it does not appear that the god is a totem god; there is no reason why the animal should have been a totem; and in any case this idea of sacrifice can hardly have been anything but a slow growth and consequently not the origin of the practice.
Marillier sacrifice was, at its origin, essentially a magical rite - the liberation by the effusion of a victim's blood of a magical force which was to bend the gods to the will of man; from this arose, under the influence of cult of the dead, the gift theory of sacrifice.
Whatever their origin, sacrifices tend to be interpreted as gifts to the god.
mola) is the origin of the word immolare, to sacrifice, slaughter; Eng.
Luther at one period (in his treatise De captivitate Babylonica) maintained, though not on historical grounds, that the offering of the oblations of the people was the real origin of the conception of the sacrifice of the mass; but he directed all the force of his vehement polemic against the idea that any other sacrifice could be efficacious besides the sacrifice of Christ.
The origin of Udine is uncertain; though it lay on the line of the Via Iulia Augusta, there is no proof of its existence in Roman times.
Their origin is attributed by some to the moraine formation of former glaciers.
The name Arsaces of Persia is also borne by some kings of Armenia, who were of Parthian origin.
It is impossible to discuss the other theories of the origin of this name.
Probably the custom was of African origin, and came from eastern Africa along with the Semitic race.
Several indications favour the view of the connexion in the age of Moses between the Yahweh-cult at Sinai and the moon-worship of Babylonian origin to which the name Sinai points (Sin being the Babylonian moon-god).
was astral in origin.
Charles thinks that in this passage the idea of resurrection is of purely Jewish and not of Mazdaan (or Zoroastrian) origin, but it is otherwise with Dan.
7) and Azazel were of Babylonian origin it is difficult to determine.
The earliest remains near the site go ' For a discussion of this question see Kathleen Schlesinger, The Instruments of the Orchestra, part ii., and especially chapters on the cithara in transition during the middle ages, and the question of the origin of the Utrecht Psalter, in which the evolution of the cithara is traced at some length.
Its origin is doubtful.
It was cultivated in England in the 17th century, and the name C. lusitanica was given by Philip Miller, the curator of the Chelsea Physick garden, in 1768, in reference to its supposed Portuguese origin.
Lawsoniana, the Port Orford cedar, a native of south Oregon and north California, where it attains a height of Too ft., was introduced into Scotland in 1854; it is much grown for ornamental purposes in Britain, a large number of varieties of garden origin being distinguished by differences in habit and by colour of foliage.
At the outbreak of the Second Punic War (219 B.C.) it was a large and commercially prosperous town of native - not Greek - origin.
Of these Nisyros alone is of volcanic origin; the others belong to the same limestone formation with the rocky headlands of the coast.
Rivoira, in the book cited below, shows that many of the characteristic architectural details can be traced back to a classical and in particular a Roman origin, and were not derived from the East, e.g.
The pulpit appears to be of Byzantine origin (Rivoira).
Astarabad owes its origin to Yazid ibn Mohallab, who occupied the province early in the 8th century for Suleiman, the seventh of the Omayyad caliphs (715-717), and was destroyed by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1384.
The group is of volcanic origin, and includes Palmarola (anc. Palmaria), Zannone (Sinonia), Ventotene (Pandateria, pop. in 1901, 1986) and San Stefano.
286-293, was a Menapian from Belgic Gaul, a man of humble origin, who in his early days had been a pilot.
More original, perhaps, is the argument in the immediately preceding work, The Destiny of Man, viewed in the Light of his Origin (1884), which is, in substance, that physical evolution is a demonstrated fact; that intellectual force is a later, higher and more potent thing than bodily strength; and that, finally, in most men and some "lower animals" there is developed a new idea of the advantageous, a moral and non-selfish line of thought and procedure, which in itself so transcends the physical that it cannot be identified with it or be measured by its standards, and may or must be enduring, or at its best immortal.
The origin of the word is somewhat obscure.
NEBULAR THEORY, a theory advanced to account for the origin of the solar system.
There are very remarkable features in the solar system which point unmistakably to some common origin of many of the different bodies which it contains.
There is quite a different method of considering the nebular origin of our system, which leads in a very striking manner to conclusions practically identical with those we have just sketched.
Newcomb: "At the present time we can only say that the nebular hypothesis is indicated by the general tendencies of the laws of nature, that it has not been proved to be inconsistent with any fact, that it is almost a necessary consequence of the only theory by which we can account for the origin and conservation of the sun's heat, but that it rests on the assumption that this conservation is to be explained by the laws of nature as we now see them in operation.
The origin of the parasite and its mode of introduction into the blood remained to be discovered.
If the cycle be broken at any point the parasite must die out, assuming that it has no other origin or mode of existence.
Across the river from the town ancient earthworks (Bucton Castle), of British origin, are seen, and a Roman road passing them, and running north and south is also traceable.
There can be hardly a doubt about the time and general circumstances of its origin.
The fables of the phoenix and of the conduct of the wild ass and the ape at the time of the equinox owe their origin to astronomical symbols belonging to the.
Besides these, or part of them, certain copies contain sections of unknown origin about the bee, the stork, the tiger, the woodpecker, the spider and the wild boar.
The town occupies the site of the ancient Atria, which gave its name to the Adriatic. Its origin is variously ascribed by ancient writers, but it was probably a Venetian, i.e.
Its origin and character have given rise to endless surmises.
In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
There are, of course, numerous problems relating to the nature, limits and dates of the two recensions, of the incorporated sources, and of other sources (whether early or late) of independent origin; and here there is naturally room for much divergence of opinion.
Older material (often of composite origin) has been used, not so much for the purpose of providing historical information, as with the object of showing the religious significance of past history; 3 Or land Israel, W.
Traditions of Origin.
The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.
The traditions which prevailed among the Hebrews concerning their origin belong to a time when Judah and Israel were regarded as a unit.
Their names vary in origin and probably also in point of age, and where they represent fixed territorial limits, the districts so described were in some cases certainly peopled by groups of non-Israelite ancestry.
Both Israel and Judah had their own annals, brief excerpts from which appear in the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, and they are supplemented by fuller narratives of distinct and more popular origin.
When the narratives describe the life of the young David at the court of the first king of the northern kingdom, when the scenes cover the district which he took with the sword, and when the brave Saul is represented in an unfavourable light, one must allow for the popular tendency to idealize great figures, and for the Judaean origin of the compilation.
Biblical criticism is concerned with a composite (Judaean) history based upon other histories (partly of non-Judaean origin), and the relation between native written sources and external contemporary evidence (monumental and.
The origin of the outbreak is uncertain.
Its monarchy traced its origin to Hebron in the south, and its growth is contemporary with a decline in Israel (§ 7).
Yahwism presents itself under a variety of aspects, and the history of Israel's relations to the God Yahweh (whose name is not necessarily of Israelite origin) can hardly be disentangled amid the complicated threads of the earlier history.
Whatever recollection they preserved of their origin and of the circumstances of their entry would be retold from a new standpoint; the ethnological traditions would gain a new meaning; the assimilation would in time become complete.
2 Sargon had removed Babylonians into the land of Hatti (Syria and Palestine), and in 715 B.C. among the colonists were tribes apparently of desert origin (Tamud, Hayapa, &c.); other settlements are ascribed to Esar-haddon and perhaps Assur-bani-pal (Ezra iv.
Whatever the predominant party might think of foreign marriages, the tradition of the half-Moabite origin of David serves, in the beautiful idyll of Ruth (q.v.), to suggest the debt which Judah and Jerusalem owed to one at least of its neighbours.
Thus, in any estimate of the influence of Babylonia upon the Old Testament, it is obviously necessary to ask whether certain features (a) are of true Babylonian origin, or (b) merely find parallels or analogies in its stores of literature; whether the indebtedness goes back to very early times or to the age of the Assyrian domination or to the exiles who now returned.
In England emancipation was of democratic origin and concerned itself with practical questions.
TEµevos or Sanskrit tamas, darkness, shadow), and none that suggest a non-Indo-European origin.
In 1799 a revolution, having its origin in jealousy between two natives of high rank, broke out.
The origin is to be found in the initial letters of the names and titles of Jesus in Greek, viz.
This word is of doubtful origin, but it is probably an adaptation of the Fr.
The Moslems, as well as the Christians, are of Greek origin and speak Greek.
The origin of the Cretan laws was of course attributed to Minos, but they had much in common with those of the other Dorian states, as well as with those of Lycurgus at Sparta, which were, indeed, according to one tradition, copied in great measure from those already existing in Crete.'
4), the Belgae were a people of German origin, who had crossed the Rhine in early times and driven out the Galli.
they who were looked upon as servants to the king being then called ` Cavaliers,' and the other of the rabble contemned and despised under the name of ` Roundheads.'" Baxter ascribes the origin of the term to a remark made by Queen Henrietta Maria at the trial of Strafford; referring to Pym, she asked who the roundheaded man was.
The origin and antiquity of the episcopal mitre have been the subject of much debate.
Some have claimed for it apostolical sanction and found its origin in the liturgical head-gear of the Jewish priesthood.
2 On the other hand, the Roman ordines of the 8th and 9th centuries make no mention of the mitre; the evidence goes to prove that this liturgical head-dress was first adopted by the popes some time in the 10th century; and Father Braun shows convincingly that it was in its origin nothing else than the papal regnum or phrygium which, originally worn only at outdoor processions and the like, was introduced into the church, and thus developed into the liturgical mitre, while outside it preserved its original significance as the papal 1 Father Braun, S.
has a helmet-like mitre, the origin of which H FIG.
Of the origin of the kingdom of the North Britons we have no information, but there seems little reason to doubt that they were the dominant people in southern Scotland before the Roman invasion.
This was the origin of the Brethren of the Common Lot (or Common Life).
Origin of Societies.
(1587-1629) and a number of Gudars, a peculiar pariah race, probably of Indian origin.
The population of Minas Geraes is chiefly of Portuguese origin, which has been constantly strengthened by immigrants from the mother country.
Much doubt attaches to the origin of the name.
The general results of recent inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan is to support the general correctness of Bellew's theories of the origin of the Afghan races.
On the other hand Christianity, though Asiatic in its origin and essential ideas, has to a large extent taken its present form on European soil, and some of its most important manifestations - notably the Roman Church - are European reconstructions in which little of the Asiatic element remains.
Much of this art is Greek in origin, being derived from the Perso-Greek states on the north-west frontiers.
Two of the greatest religions of the world, Christianity and Islam, are Semitic in origin, as well as Judaism.
300) India was invaded from the north by tribes partly of Parthian and partly of Turki (Yue-chi, &c.) origin.
Much of Sivaism has probably the same origin.
- The Persians, with whom are often coupled the Medes, appear to be pure Aryans in origin, and the earliest form of their language and religion offers remarkable analogies to the Vedas.
The present dynasty, which is of Turkoman origin, dates from 1789.
Egyptian influence within the Aegean area seems certain, and the theory that Greek writing and systems for reckoning time are Babylonian in origin has not been disproved, though the history of the alphabet is more complex than was supposed.
Besides the priory of St Mary Overy, there was the hospital of St Thomas, founded in 1213 from the neighbouring priory of Bermondsey, and forming the origin of the great modern hospital of the same name in Lambeth (q.v.).
i, LXX reads Maon), and a more southerly origin has been thought of (Winckler).
And although the Levitical organization, as ascribed to David, is manifestly post-exilic, it is at least certain that many of the Levitical families were of southern origin.
From its origin in Descartes and onwards through Locke and Berkeley, modern philosophy carried with it, Reid contends, the germ of scepticism.
Feudal in origin, Dunster's later importance was commercial, and the port had a considerable wool, corn and cattle trade with Ireland.
A dyke called Blemund's Ditch, of unknown origin, bounded it on the south, where the land was marshy.
He was of peasant origin, but obtained a good education at Sofia and then at Halle in Germany.
The main trunks of the vascular system often possess valves at the origin of branches which regulate the direction of the blood flow.
One view of the origin of the latter (largely based upon observations upon the development of Polygordius) sees in the blood system a persistent blastocoel.
The whole organ, having, as is thought but not known, this double origin, is termed a nephromixium.
We can only say that he wrote on the origin and history of the Goths, using both Gothic saga and Greek sources; and that if Jordanes used Cassiodorus, Cassiodorus used, if to a less extent, the work of Ablabius.
Strictly, it is confined to the upper class from whom Sivaji's generals were mostly drawn, and who sometimes claim a Rajput origin.
It was founded by plundering expeditions, and its subsequent existence was tainted by the baseness of this predatory origin.
The people, notwithstanding their German origin, showed a very strong feeling against the invaders, and in no part of France was the enemy resisted with greater stubbornness.
BAGGARA (" Cowherds"), African "Arabs" of Semitic origin, so called because they are great cattle owners and breeders.
After tracing the origin of commerce, Turgot develops Quesnay's theory that the land is the only source of wealth, and divides society into three classes, the productive or agricultural, the salaried (stipendiee) or artisan class, and the land-owning class (classe disponible).
He professed the most open materialism, denied immortality in all forms and taught that the soul of man is homogeneous with the soul of animals and plants, material in origin and incapable of separate existence.
The exact origin of the palace and of its name (Lat.
Hence the nations of antiquity ascribed to it a divine origin; Brahma in Hindustan, Isis in Egypt, Demeter in Greece, and Ceres in Italy, were its founders.
Scanty information on its agriculture is to be derived from the Works and Days of Hesiod (about the 8th century B.C.), the Oeconomicus of Xenophon (4th century B.C.), the History of Plants and the Origin of Plants of Theophrastus (4th century B.C.).
Its origin is obscure.
In 278 the Gauls broke into Asia Minor, and a victory which Antiochus won over these hordes is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter (Gr.
BUCCLEUCH The substantial origin of the ducal house of the Scotts of Buccleuch dates back to the large grants of lands in Scotland to Sir Walter Scott of Kirkurd and Buccleuch, a border chief, by James in consequence of the fall of the 8th earl of Douglas (1452); but the family traced their descent back to a Sir Richard le Scott (1249-1285).
Other Guebres occupied themselves privately with the collection of these traditions; and, when a prince of Persian origin, Yakub ibn Laith, founder of the Saffarid dynasty, succeeded in throwing off his allegiance to the caliphate, he at once set about continuing the work of his illustrious predecessors.
Hearing that the poet was born at Tus, the sultan made him explain the origin of his native town, and was much struck with the intimate knowledge of ancient history which he displayed.
9, 10) of _ the nervous systems of ` Patella and of Haliotis, e as determined by Spengel, show the identity in the origin of the nerves passing from the visceral loop to Spengel's olfactory ganglion of the fig..
The minute structure of the epithelium which clothes it, as well as the origin of the nerve which is distributed to the parabranchia, proves it to be the same organ which is found universally in molluscs at the base of each gill-plume, and tests the indrawn current of water by the sense of ?,g smell.
A further degree of modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the original opening.
It is clear enough that the sac is of a different origin from that of Aplysia (described in the section treating of Opisthobranchia), being primitive instead of secondary.
This school, of which the origin (though assigned to Athenagoras) is unknown, was the first and for a long time the only institution where Christians were instructed simultaneously in the Greek sciences and the doctrines of the holy Scriptures.
From this follows the necessity for the created spirit, after apostasy, error and sin, to return always to its origin in God.
On the other hand, when he turned to consider the origin of the Logos he did not hesitate to speak of Him as a KTivµa, and to include Him amongst the rest of God's spiritual creatures.
The legend continued to gather accretions, and a miraculous origin came to be assigned to the image.
It is interesting to note that the fanciful derivation of the same Veronica from the words Vera icon (euccav) " true image" - is not, as has been thought, of modern origin, since it occurs in the Otia Imperialia (iii.
The origin and early history of the Parthian kingdom, of which we possess only very scanty information, is surrounded by fabulous legends, narrated by Arrian in his Parthica (preserved in Photius, cod.
Origin, Nature and History of Aegean Civilization.
Origin and Continuity.
The result of this, however, has not so far established more than the fact that the Aegean races, as a whole, belonged to the dark, long-headed Homo Mediterraneus, whose probable origin lay in mid-eastern Africa - a fact only valuable in the present connexion in so far as it tends to discredit an Asiatic source for Aegean civilization.
The earthworks, of British origin, were modified in almost every successive age.
Prince Louis of Battenberg, a most patriotic and capable sailor, unjustly attacked because of his German origin, tendered his resignation as First Sea Lord, and Mr. Churchill put in his place the indefatigable veteran, Lord Fisher.
The ground and origin of all things is Pira, or more correctly Pera rabba (" the great abyss," or from -um, "to split," cf.
Of the names of the planets Estera (Ishtar Venus, also called Ruha d'Qudsha, "holy spirit"), Enba (Nebo, Mercury), Sin (moon), Kewan (Saturn), Bil (Jupiter), and Nirig (Nirgal, Mars) reveal their Babylonian origin; Il or Il Il, the sun, is also known as Kadush and Adunay (the Adonai of the Old Testament); as lord of the planetary spirits his place is in the midst of them; they are the source of all temptation and evil amongst men.
In the Gnostic basis itself it is not difficult to recognize the general features of the religion of ancient Babylonia, and thus we are brought nearer a solution of the problem as to the origin of Gnosticism in general.
The story of his origin is very obscure.
- In the adult insect the head is insignificant in invagination, and are from their origin distinct from the mesoderm.
Heider has suggested, however, that the apparent origin six segments.
- The nervous system is ectodermal in origin, and is developed and segmented to a large extent in connexion with the outer part of the body, so that it affords important evidence as to the segmentation thereof.
- From the mesoderm most of the organs of the body - muscular, circulatory, reproductive - take their origin.
Ritter (1890) have since observed a similar early origin for the germ-cells in the midge Chironomus and in the Aphidae.
The paired oviducts and vasa deferentia are, as we have seen, mesodermal in origin.
The imaginal disks make their appearance (that is, have been first detected) at very different epochs in the life; their absolute origin has been but little investigated.
Much consideration has been given to the nature of metamorphosis in insects, to its value to the creatures and to the mode of its origin.
The origin of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths, comparable to the wingrudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early stages of their evolution.
Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.
Twinning is represented only by twinlamellae, which are parallel to the planes m and f and are of secondary origin, having been produced by pressure.
The origin of the word almucium is a philological mystery.
The library is said to owe its origin to Petrarch's donation of his books to the republic. Most of these have now disappeared.
It is usually affirmed that the state of Venice owes its origin to the barbarian invasions of north Italy; that it was founded by refugees from the mainland cities who sought asylum from the Huns in the impregnable shallows and mud banks of the lagoons; and that the year 452, the year when Attila sacked Aquileia, may be taken as the birth-year of Venice.
Rivalry in fishing and in trading, coupled with ancient antipathies inherited from the various mainland cities of origin, were no doubt the cause of these internecine feuds.
Otranto occupies the site of the ancient Hydrus or Hydruntum, a town of Greek origin.
Sometimes, as among the Australians, it is merely the ghosts of those who have died in the year which are thus driven out; from this custom must be distinguished another, which consists in dismissing the souls of the dead at the close of the year and sending them on their journey to the other world; this latter custom seems to have an entirely different origin and to be due to love and not fear of the dead.
The present library (antedated by several circulating, social and professional collections) may justly be said to have had its origin in the efforts of the Parisian, Alexandre Vattemare (1796-1864), from 1830 on, to foster international exchanges.
The origin and whole industry of the town are connected with the government silver-mines in the neighbourhood.
There is reason to believe that before the 6th century B.C. the caravans reached Damascus without coming near the oasis of Tadmor; probably, therefore, we may connect the origin of the city with the gradual forward movement of the nomad Arabs which followed on the overthrow of the ancient nationalities of Syria by the Babylonian Empire (6th century B.C.).
Both Bel and Malak-bel were of Babylonian origin.
Its cartesian equation, when the line joining the two fixed points is the axis of x and the middle point of this line is the origin, is (x 2 + y 2)2 = 2a 2 (x 2 - y 2) and the polar equation is r 2 = 2a 2 cos 20.
The town of Kuttenberg owes its origin to the silver mines, the existence of which can be traced back to the first part of the 13th century.
Reference has already been made to the silken tube or tent, of simple structure, with an orifice at one or both ends, as the possible origin of all snares, however complex they may be.
The habits of certain other spiders suggest the origin of the perfect adaptation to aquatic conditions exhibited by Desis and Argyroneta.
An original medial p preceding the chief accent of the word also appears as b in English and the other members of the same group. It is not certain that any English word is descended from an original word beginning with b, though it has been suggested that peg is of the same origin as the Latin baculum and the Greek (6 KTpov.
It was also called Hakeptah, "Residence of the ka of Ptah," and this name furnishes a possible origin for that of Egypt (A'lyvirros).
The city owes its origin to a series of commercial experiments.
During the periods the cottons have been cultivated, selection, conscious or unconscious, has been carried on, resulting in the raising, from the same stock probably, in different places, of well-marked forms, which, in the absence of the history of their origin, might be regarded as different species.
Then again, during at least the last four centuries, cotton plants have been distributed from one country to another, only to render still more difficult any attempt to establish definitely the origin of the varieties now grown.
Country of origin,Tropical America - (I) G.barbadense, L.