Origin Sentence Examples
The dust is chiefly of local origin, but partly comes from the Sahara.
The origin of the blotched as a special type is wholly unknown.
The story of his origin is very obscure.
Even the name Levite itself is of uncertain origin.
Its origin is connected with the establishment of the salt-marshes.Advertisement
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The origin of his family has been traced back as far as the end of the 14th century.
The origin of the name Aegean is uncertain.
The customs and dress of the people, who speak a patois of romaic origin, are interesting.
Partly owing to this, and partly to ancient feuds whose origin we cannot trace, the Athenian people was split up into three great factions known as the Plain (Pedieis) led by Lycurgus and Miltiades, both of noble families; the Shore (Parali) led by the Alcmaeonidae, represented at this time by Megacles, who was strong in his wealth and by his recent marriage with Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon; the Hill or Upland (Diacreis, Diacrii) led by Peisistratus, who no doubt owed his influence among these hillmen partly to the possession of large estates at Marathon.Advertisement
The soil is mainly of volcanic origin.
Wallace succeeded in displacing the naïf conception of special creation by belief in the origin of species out of other species through a process of natural law.
Near Bennachie (1619 ft.) are stone circles and monoliths supposed to be of Druidical origin.
Bede gives no information about its origin except that its earliest settlers were Angles.
Azurite occurs with malachite in the upper portions of deposits of copper ore, and owes its origin to the alteration of the sulphide or of native copper by water containing carbon dioxide and oxygen.Advertisement
The probable origin of the story is the part traditionally taken in the foundation of Syracuse by the Iamidae of Olympia, who identified the spring Arethusa with their own river Alpheus, and the nymph with Artemis Alpheiaia, who was worshipped at Ortygia.
Taking their origin from a series of lacustrine basins scattered over the plateaus and differing slightly in elevation, the Russian rivers describe immense curves before reaching the sea, and flow with a very gentle gradient, while numerous large tributaries collect their waters from over vast areas.
Their origin is unknown, but they are officially mentioned as early as 1765.
No one knew their origin or whence they came, or what religion they practised.
All through his reign he preferred to employ as officials men of humble origin, and habitually treated the boyars and great nobles very unceremoniously.Advertisement
Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.
The origin of the word almucium is a philological mystery.
The library is said to owe its origin to Petrarch's donation of his books to the republic. Most of these have now disappeared.
It is usually affirmed that the state of Venice owes its origin to the barbarian invasions of north Italy; that it was founded by refugees from the mainland cities who sought asylum from the Huns in the impregnable shallows and mud banks of the lagoons; and that the year 452, the year when Attila sacked Aquileia, may be taken as the birth-year of Venice.
Otranto occupies the site of the ancient Hydrus or Hydruntum, a town of Greek origin.Advertisement
Sometimes, as among the Australians, it is merely the ghosts of those who have died in the year which are thus driven out; from this custom must be distinguished another, which consists in dismissing the souls of the dead at the close of the year and sending them on their journey to the other world; this latter custom seems to have an entirely different origin and to be due to love and not fear of the dead.
As early as 1804, Humboldt expressed the opinion that petroleum was produced by distillation from deep-seated strata, and Karl Reichenbach in 1834, suggested that it was derived from the action of heat on the turpentine of pine-trees, whilst Brunet, in 1838, adumbrated a similar theory of origin on the ground of certain laboratory experiments.
Atlanta owes its origin to the development of pioneer railroads of Georgia.
Evidence is accumulating, though no completely satisfactory theory can yet be put forward, as to the northern origin of the dynastic Egyptians.
The origin of the term " Russia " has been much disputed.
Nestor, an old monkish chronicler Origin of Kiev, relates that in the middle of the 9th century of the the Slav and Finnish tribes inhabiting the forest region around Lake Ilmen, between Lake Ladoga and the upper waters of the Dnieper, paid tribute to military adventurers from the land of Ras, which is commonly supposed to have been a part of Sweden.
About the origin and character of these terrible invaders we are much better informed than the early Russian chroniclers.
This gave Catherine a certain right to the throne at her husband's death, and her claims were supported by Peter's most influential coadjutors, especially by Prince Menshikov, an ambitious man of humble origin who had been raised by his patron to the highest offices of state.
Her reign (1730-40) was a regime of methodical German despotism on the lines laid down by her uncle, Peter the Great, and as she was naturally indolent and much addicted to frivolous amusements, the administration was directed by her favourite Biren (q.v.) and other men of German origin.
Kammin is of Wendish origin, and obtained municipal privileges in 1274.
Railways had their origin in the tramways (q.v.) or wagon-ways which at least as early as the middle of the 16th century were used in the mineral districts of England round Newcastle for the conveyance of coal from the pits to the river Tyne for shipment.
Most of the improvements in operation and in traffic management have had their origin in one of these two countries.
This is of American origin, and is there known as the " Mogul."
The sacrifice is in its origin a communion; god and worshippers have a bond of kinship between them; but it is liable to be interrupted or its strength diminished.
Marillier further argues that if, on the other hand, there was no bond between god and people but that of the common meal, it does not appear that the god is a totem god; there is no reason why the animal should have been a totem; and in any case this idea of sacrifice can hardly have been anything but a slow growth and consequently not the origin of the practice.
Marillier sacrifice was, at its origin, essentially a magical rite - the liberation by the effusion of a victim's blood of a magical force which was to bend the gods to the will of man; from this arose, under the influence of cult of the dead, the gift theory of sacrifice.
Whatever their origin, sacrifices tend to be interpreted as gifts to the god.
Luther at one period (in his treatise De captivitate Babylonica) maintained, though not on historical grounds, that the offering of the oblations of the people was the real origin of the conception of the sacrifice of the mass; but he directed all the force of his vehement polemic against the idea that any other sacrifice could be efficacious besides the sacrifice of Christ.
The origin of Udine is uncertain; though it lay on the line of the Via Iulia Augusta, there is no proof of its existence in Roman times.
Their origin is attributed by some to the moraine formation of former glaciers.
The name Arsaces of Persia is also borne by some kings of Armenia, who were of Parthian origin.
It is impossible to discuss the other theories of the origin of this name.
Probably the custom was of African origin, and came from eastern Africa along with the Semitic race.
Several indications favour the view of the connexion in the age of Moses between the Yahweh-cult at Sinai and the moon-worship of Babylonian origin to which the name Sinai points (Sin being the Babylonian moon-god).
It was cultivated in England in the 17th century, and the name C. lusitanica was given by Philip Miller, the curator of the Chelsea Physick garden, in 1768, in reference to its supposed Portuguese origin.
Lawsoniana, the Port Orford cedar, a native of south Oregon and north California, where it attains a height of Too ft., was introduced into Scotland in 1854; it is much grown for ornamental purposes in Britain, a large number of varieties of garden origin being distinguished by differences in habit and by colour of foliage.
At the outbreak of the Second Punic War (219 B.C.) it was a large and commercially prosperous town of native - not Greek - origin.
Of these Nisyros alone is of volcanic origin; the others belong to the same limestone formation with the rocky headlands of the coast.
Rivoira, in the book cited below, shows that many of the characteristic architectural details can be traced back to a classical and in particular a Roman origin, and were not derived from the East, e.g.
The pulpit appears to be of Byzantine origin (Rivoira).
Astarabad owes its origin to Yazid ibn Mohallab, who occupied the province early in the 8th century for Suleiman, the seventh of the Omayyad caliphs (715-717), and was destroyed by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1384.
The group is of volcanic origin, and includes Palmarola (anc. Palmaria), Zannone (Sinonia), Ventotene (Pandateria, pop. in 1901, 1986) and San Stefano.
More original, perhaps, is the argument in the immediately preceding work, The Destiny of Man, viewed in the Light of his Origin (1884), which is, in substance, that physical evolution is a demonstrated fact; that intellectual force is a later, higher and more potent thing than bodily strength; and that, finally, in most men and some "lower animals" there is developed a new idea of the advantageous, a moral and non-selfish line of thought and procedure, which in itself so transcends the physical that it cannot be identified with it or be measured by its standards, and may or must be enduring, or at its best immortal.
There are very remarkable features in the solar system which point unmistakably to some common origin of many of the different bodies which it contains.
There is quite a different method of considering the nebular origin of our system, which leads in a very striking manner to conclusions practically identical with those we have just sketched.
The origin of the parasite and its mode of introduction into the blood remained to be discovered.
If the cycle be broken at any point the parasite must die out, assuming that it has no other origin or mode of existence.
Across the river from the town ancient earthworks (Bucton Castle), of British origin, are seen, and a Roman road passing them, and running north and south is also traceable.
There can be hardly a doubt about the time and general circumstances of its origin.
The fables of the phoenix and of the conduct of the wild ass and the ape at the time of the equinox owe their origin to astronomical symbols belonging to the.
Besides these, or part of them, certain copies contain sections of unknown origin about the bee, the stork, the tiger, the woodpecker, the spider and the wild boar.
The town occupies the site of the ancient Atria, which gave its name to the Adriatic. Its origin is variously ascribed by ancient writers, but it was probably a Venetian, i.e.
Its origin and character have given rise to endless surmises.
In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
There are, of course, numerous problems relating to the nature, limits and dates of the two recensions, of the incorporated sources, and of other sources (whether early or late) of independent origin; and here there is naturally room for much divergence of opinion.
The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.
The traditions which prevailed among the Hebrews concerning their origin belong to a time when Judah and Israel were regarded as a unit.
Their names vary in origin and probably also in point of age, and where they represent fixed territorial limits, the districts so described were in some cases certainly peopled by groups of non-Israelite ancestry.
Both Israel and Judah had their own annals, brief excerpts from which appear in the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, and they are supplemented by fuller narratives of distinct and more popular origin.
When the narratives describe the life of the young David at the court of the first king of the northern kingdom, when the scenes cover the district which he took with the sword, and when the brave Saul is represented in an unfavourable light, one must allow for the popular tendency to idealize great figures, and for the Judaean origin of the compilation.
The origin of the outbreak is uncertain.
Its monarchy traced its origin to Hebron in the south, and its growth is contemporary with a decline in Israel (§ 7).
Yahwism presents itself under a variety of aspects, and the history of Israel's relations to the God Yahweh (whose name is not necessarily of Israelite origin) can hardly be disentangled amid the complicated threads of the earlier history.
Whatever recollection they preserved of their origin and of the circumstances of their entry would be retold from a new standpoint; the ethnological traditions would gain a new meaning; the assimilation would in time become complete.
Whatever the predominant party might think of foreign marriages, the tradition of the half-Moabite origin of David serves, in the beautiful idyll of Ruth (q.v.), to suggest the debt which Judah and Jerusalem owed to one at least of its neighbours.
Thus, in any estimate of the influence of Babylonia upon the Old Testament, it is obviously necessary to ask whether certain features (a) are of true Babylonian origin, or (b) merely find parallels or analogies in its stores of literature; whether the indebtedness goes back to very early times or to the age of the Assyrian domination or to the exiles who now returned.
In England emancipation was of democratic origin and concerned itself with practical questions.
In 1799 a revolution, having its origin in jealousy between two natives of high rank, broke out.
The origin is to be found in the initial letters of the names and titles of Jesus in Greek, viz.
This word is of doubtful origin, but it is probably an adaptation of the Fr.
The Moslems, as well as the Christians, are of Greek origin and speak Greek.
The origin of the Cretan laws was of course attributed to Minos, but they had much in common with those of the other Dorian states, as well as with those of Lycurgus at Sparta, which were, indeed, according to one tradition, copied in great measure from those already existing in Crete.'
The origin and antiquity of the episcopal mitre have been the subject of much debate.
Some have claimed for it apostolical sanction and found its origin in the liturgical head-gear of the Jewish priesthood.
Of the origin of the kingdom of the North Britons we have no information, but there seems little reason to doubt that they were the dominant people in southern Scotland before the Roman invasion.
This was the origin of the Brethren of the Common Lot (or Common Life).
The population of Minas Geraes is chiefly of Portuguese origin, which has been constantly strengthened by immigrants from the mother country.
The general results of recent inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan is to support the general correctness of Bellew's theories of the origin of the Afghan races.
On the other hand Christianity, though Asiatic in its origin and essential ideas, has to a large extent taken its present form on European soil, and some of its most important manifestations - notably the Roman Church - are European reconstructions in which little of the Asiatic element remains.
Much of this art is Greek in origin, being derived from the Perso-Greek states on the north-west frontiers.
Two of the greatest religions of the world, Christianity and Islam, are Semitic in origin, as well as Judaism.
Much of Sivaism has probably the same origin.
The present dynasty, which is of Turkoman origin, dates from 1789.
Egyptian influence within the Aegean area seems certain, and the theory that Greek writing and systems for reckoning time are Babylonian in origin has not been disproved, though the history of the alphabet is more complex than was supposed.
Besides the priory of St Mary Overy, there was the hospital of St Thomas, founded in 1213 from the neighbouring priory of Bermondsey, and forming the origin of the great modern hospital of the same name in Lambeth (q.v.).
And although the Levitical organization, as ascribed to David, is manifestly post-exilic, it is at least certain that many of the Levitical families were of southern origin.
From its origin in Descartes and onwards through Locke and Berkeley, modern philosophy carried with it, Reid contends, the germ of scepticism.
Feudal in origin, Dunster's later importance was commercial, and the port had a considerable wool, corn and cattle trade with Ireland.
A dyke called Blemund's Ditch, of unknown origin, bounded it on the south, where the land was marshy.
He was of peasant origin, but obtained a good education at Sofia and then at Halle in Germany.
The main trunks of the vascular system often possess valves at the origin of branches which regulate the direction of the blood flow.
One view of the origin of the latter (largely based upon observations upon the development of Polygordius) sees in the blood system a persistent blastocoel.
The whole organ, having, as is thought but not known, this double origin, is termed a nephromixium.
We can only say that he wrote on the origin and history of the Goths, using both Gothic saga and Greek sources; and that if Jordanes used Cassiodorus, Cassiodorus used, if to a less extent, the work of Ablabius.
Strictly, it is confined to the upper class from whom Sivaji's generals were mostly drawn, and who sometimes claim a Rajput origin.
It was founded by plundering expeditions, and its subsequent existence was tainted by the baseness of this predatory origin.
The people, notwithstanding their German origin, showed a very strong feeling against the invaders, and in no part of France was the enemy resisted with greater stubbornness.
After tracing the origin of commerce, Turgot develops Quesnay's theory that the land is the only source of wealth, and divides society into three classes, the productive or agricultural, the salaried (stipendiee) or artisan class, and the land-owning class (classe disponible).
He professed the most open materialism, denied immortality in all forms and taught that the soul of man is homogeneous with the soul of animals and plants, material in origin and incapable of separate existence.
Hence the nations of antiquity ascribed to it a divine origin; Brahma in Hindustan, Isis in Egypt, Demeter in Greece, and Ceres in Italy, were its founders.
Scanty information on its agriculture is to be derived from the Works and Days of Hesiod (about the 8th century B.C.), the Oeconomicus of Xenophon (4th century B.C.), the History of Plants and the Origin of Plants of Theophrastus (4th century B.C.).
Its origin is obscure.
Other Guebres occupied themselves privately with the collection of these traditions; and, when a prince of Persian origin, Yakub ibn Laith, founder of the Saffarid dynasty, succeeded in throwing off his allegiance to the caliphate, he at once set about continuing the work of his illustrious predecessors.
Hearing that the poet was born at Tus, the sultan made him explain the origin of his native town, and was much struck with the intimate knowledge of ancient history which he displayed.
The minute structure of the epithelium which clothes it, as well as the origin of the nerve which is distributed to the parabranchia, proves it to be the same organ which is found universally in molluscs at the base of each gill-plume, and tests the indrawn current of water by the sense of ?,g smell.
A further degree of modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the original opening.
It is clear enough that the sac is of a different origin from that of Aplysia (described in the section treating of Opisthobranchia), being primitive instead of secondary.
This school, of which the origin (though assigned to Athenagoras) is unknown, was the first and for a long time the only institution where Christians were instructed simultaneously in the Greek sciences and the doctrines of the holy Scriptures.
From this follows the necessity for the created spirit, after apostasy, error and sin, to return always to its origin in God.
On the other hand, when he turned to consider the origin of the Logos he did not hesitate to speak of Him as a KTivµa, and to include Him amongst the rest of God's spiritual creatures.
The legend continued to gather accretions, and a miraculous origin came to be assigned to the image.
The result of this, however, has not so far established more than the fact that the Aegean races, as a whole, belonged to the dark, long-headed Homo Mediterraneus, whose probable origin lay in mid-eastern Africa - a fact only valuable in the present connexion in so far as it tends to discredit an Asiatic source for Aegean civilization.
The earthworks, of British origin, were modified in almost every successive age.
Prince Louis of Battenberg, a most patriotic and capable sailor, unjustly attacked because of his German origin, tendered his resignation as First Sea Lord, and Mr. Churchill put in his place the indefatigable veteran, Lord Fisher.
The origin and whole industry of the town are connected with the government silver-mines in the neighbourhood.
Both Bel and Malak-bel were of Babylonian origin.
Its cartesian equation, when the line joining the two fixed points is the axis of x and the middle point of this line is the origin, is (x 2 + y 2)2 = 2a 2 (x 2 - y 2) and the polar equation is r 2 = 2a 2 cos 20.
Reference has already been made to the silken tube or tent, of simple structure, with an orifice at one or both ends, as the possible origin of all snares, however complex they may be.
The habits of certain other spiders suggest the origin of the perfect adaptation to aquatic conditions exhibited by Desis and Argyroneta.
It was also called Hakeptah, "Residence of the ka of Ptah," and this name furnishes a possible origin for that of Egypt (A'lyvirros).
The city owes its origin to a series of commercial experiments.
During the periods the cottons have been cultivated, selection, conscious or unconscious, has been carried on, resulting in the raising, from the same stock probably, in different places, of well-marked forms, which, in the absence of the history of their origin, might be regarded as different species.
Then again, during at least the last four centuries, cotton plants have been distributed from one country to another, only to render still more difficult any attempt to establish definitely the origin of the varieties now grown.
At the same time of " futures " were becoming an increasing necessity to Origin Liverpool importers, because through " futures " alone could they cotton hedge on their purchases of cotton, or buy when the Associa- market seemed favourable, and they were not prepared tion .
These letters were the origin of circulars.
This view is now generally abandoned; for it is recognized that acts of superhuman power, even if established by adequate historical evidence, do not necessarily certify their divine origin.
Although our information respecting the chemical composition of petroleum has been almost entirely gained since the middle of the 18th century, a considerable amount of empirical knowledge of the substance was possessed by chemists at an earlier date, and there was much speculation as to its origin.
Bergman (1784) Charles Hatchett (1798) and others also expressed views with regard to the constitution and origin of bitumens.
The question of the origin of petroleum (and natural gas), though for the first half of the 19th century of little more than academic interest, has engaged the attention of naturalists and others for over a hundred years.
The theories propounded may be divided into two groups, namely, those ascribing to petroleum an inorganic origin, and those which regard it as the result of the decomposition of organic matter.
On the other hand, an overwhelming and increasing majority of those who have studied the natural conditions under which petroleum occurs are of opinion that it is of organic origin.
Peckham, but others have held that it is of exclusively animal origin, a view supported by such occurrences as those in the orthoceratities of the Trenton limestone, and by the experiments of C. Engler, who obtained a liquid like crude petroleum by the distillation of menhaden (fish) oil.
It owed its origin to his feverish zeal for the recovery of Jerusalem, rather than to any pressing need in the Holy Land.
A gild was formed at Acre - the gild of St Adrian - which, if nominally religious in its origin, soon came to represent the political opposition to Frederick, as was significantly proved by its reception of the rebellious John of Beirut as a member (1232).
The common use of armorial bearings, and the practice of the tournament, may be Oriental in their origin; the latter has its affinities with the equestrian exercises of the Jerid, and the former, though of prehistoric antiquity, may have received a new impulse from contact with the Arabs.
The Pliocene deposits are not very widely spread and are generally of fresh-water origin excepting near the coast, but marine Pliocene beds have been found at el Forklus in the Palmyra desert.
But how far these, or the indigenous " Jews " are of Hebrew rather than of Aramaean origin is impossible to say.
In origin the vascular system is due to a fusion of spaces which arise in the mesoblast of the larva.
Each consists of a more or less coiled, ciliated, longitudinal canal, which on its external surface gives origin to one or more transverse canals, which pass to the exterior and open a little way behind the mouth on the sides of the body.
The excretory system is epiblastic in its origin.
The origin of the lateral organs has already been noticed; that of the nerve system is essentially epiblastic.
Originally, Iphigeneia, the "mighty born," is probably merely an epithet of Artemis, in which the notion of a priestess of the goddess had its origin.
The two personages - the "old and foolish king" and the "poor and wise youth" - have been supposed (by Winckler) to be Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.) and Demetrius (162-150 B.C.), or (by Haupt) Antiochus and the impostor Alexander Balas (150-146 B.C.), or (by others) Demetrius and Alexander; in favour of Alexander as the "youth" it may be said that he was of obscure origin, was at first popular, and was later abandoned by his friends.
It was said by classical writers to be of Etruscan origin, and to have been founded, under the name Felsina, from Perusia by Aucnus or Ocnus.
Until recently many eminent scientists held the theory that the Malayan peoples were merely an offspring of the Mongol stock, and that their advance into the lands they now in habit had takenlace from the cradle of the Monplace origin.
This has its origin in the names Great Java and Lesser Java, by which the medieval Java and Sumatra were called, and it accordingly means the language spoken along the coasts of the two great islands.
That the origin of the name of these ascetics was unknown in Philo's time goes to prove their antiquity.
We have no clue to the origin of the Therapeutae, but it is plain that they were already ancient when Philo described them.
The idea of transmutation, in the country of its origin, had a philosophical basis, and was linked up with the Greek theories of matter there current; thus, by supplying a central philosophical principle, it to some extent unified and focussed chemical effort, which previously, so far as it existed at all, had been expended on acquiring empirical acquaintance with a mass of disconnected technical processes.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
It is commonly said to take its origin in some small lakes a little south of the summit plateau of the Mont Genevre Pass.
A majority of the population, however, is of Chilean origin.
There is strong evidence at all events that many of the conceptions are contrary to historical fact, and the points of similarity between native Canaanite cult and Israelite worship are so striking that only the persistent traditions of Israel's origin and of the work of Moses compel the conclusion that the germs of specific Yahweh worship existed from his day.
They disliked his French origin, and suspected him to be a man of levelling principles.
Inflamed with a hatred of France just then rising to the dignity of a party principle, they found in Gallatin an enemy who was both by origin and opinion peculiarly obnoxious to them.
Martin Van Buren, then in the Crawford interest, came to the conclusion that the candidate for the second place, by his foreign origin, weakened the ticket, and in October Gallatin retired from the contest.
A great number of the public institutions owe their origin to the munificence of patriotic Greeks, among whom Andreas Syngros and George Averoff may be especially mentioned.
We possess a fair amount of information on the origin of the last barbarian code, the laws of the Lombards.
Mailer's curious Les Origines de la Compagnie de Jesus (Paris, 1898), in which the author tries to establish a Mahommedan origin for many of the ideas adopted by the saint.
Mr Gutch thus explains the origin of the name.
The most beautiful portion of the mosque, however, still exists in the prayer chamber of Hakim, where are to be found the earliest examples of the cusped arch and the origin of many of the geometrical patterns in stucco at the Alhambra.
The two deities were, no doubt, of common origin, but their cults are historically distinct.
We Su have seen that the science took its origin in the arts practised by the Egyptians, and, having come under the influence of philosophers, it chose for its purpose the isolation of the quinta essentia, and subsequently the " art of making gold and silver."
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
In addition to the vitalistic doctrine of the origin of organic compounds, views based on purely chemical considerations were advanced.
It will be seen that each type depends upon a specific radical or atom, and the copulation of this character with any hydrocarbon radical (open or cyclic) gives origin to a compound of the same class.
The introduction of hydroxyl groups into the benzene nucleus gives rise to compounds generically named phenols, which, although resembling the aliphatic alcohols in their origin, differ from these substances in their increased chemical activity and acid nature.
It has been regarded as a survival of the Roman Floralia, but its origin is believed by some to be Celtic. Flowers and branches were gathered, and dancing took place in the streets and through the houses, all being thrown open, while a pageant was also given and a special ancient folk-song chanted.
But as a matter of fact an exclusively Elamite origin is not improbable, from the fact that its earliest and first types are found at Susa.
The name' is not Babylonian, and what evidence as to his origin there is points to his having come from Elam, to the east of Babylonia.
Following the example of his ancestors Philip cared for education and the general welfare of his land, and the Protestant university of Marburg, founded in 1527, owes to him its origin.
The values recognized in the great Hellenistic courts and the Greek world generally imposed their authority upon the dynasties of barbarian origin.
The Bulgars of the Volga were of Turkish origin, but may have assimilated Finnish and, later, Slavonian elements.
These miles, however, were not the ordinary Roman miles of l000 paces or 5000 ft., but smaller miles of Greek or Oriental origin, of which six were equal to five Roman miles, and as the latter were equal to 1480 metres, the Portolano miles had a length of only 1233 metres, and 75 2 of the former, and 90 3 of the latter were equal to a degree.
It consists of a single mountain mass (volcanic in origin), 18 m.
He accordingly raised the question of its apostolic origin; and by reviving old difficulties, with ingenious arguments of his own, he carried his point.
Victorinus wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse of John; and all these theologians, especially Lactantius, were diligent students of the ancient Sibylline oracles of Jewish and Christian origin, and treated them as divine revelations.
Nothing is known with certainty as to the origin of the vast majority of breeds of dogs, and it is an unfortunate fact that the progressive changes which have been made within comparatively recent times by fanciers have not been accurately recorded by the preservation, in museums or collections, of the actual specimens considered typical at different dates.
It is supposed, from their name, that they are of Spanish origin.
The Newfoundland is simply an enormous spaniel, and shows its origin by the facility with which it takes to water and the readiness with which it mates with spaniels and setters.
The origin of the breed is unknown, but undoubtedly it is closely related to spaniels.
The dachshund, or badger hound, is of German origin, and like the basset hound was originally an elongated distorted hound with crooked legs, employed in baiting and hunting badgers, but now greatly improved and made more definite by the arts of the breeder.
The pugdog is a dwarf race, probably of mastiff origin, and kept solely as a pet.
In fact, the number of men, either Quakers or of Quaker origin and proclivities, who occupy positions of influence in English life is large in proportion to the small body with which they are connected.
Other traditions trace their origin to the Himyaritic chiefs Sanhaj and Samamah, said to have been coeval with a King Afrikus, who is supposed to have conquered Africa about 400.
The Somali, however, declare themselves to be of Arab origin, alleging their progenitor to have been a certain Sherif Ishak b.
From the celebrity of this cemetery as an object of pilgrimage its name became extensively known, and in entire forgetfulness of the origin of the word, catacumbae came to be regarded as a generic appellation for all burial-places of the same kind.
Almost without exception, they had their origin in small burial areas, the property of private persons or of families, gradually ramifying and receiving additions of one subterranean storey after another as each was required for interments.
The loculi were intact and the epitaphs still in their places, so that " they form a kind of museum, in which the development, the formulae, and the symbolic figures of Christian epigraphy, from its origin to the end of the 3rd or 4th century, can be notified and contemplated, not in artificial specimens as in the Lateran, but in the genuine and living reality of their original condition."
The question of the origin of the territorial jurisdiction of the pope is treated under PAPACY.
Usually it passes from the throat (the anterior part of which, with the whole of the under jaw, is dark) above the origin of the flipper, along the middle of the flank, and descends again to the middle line before reaching the tail.
Volcanic in origin - the Jebel ed-Druz is a group of extinct volcanoes - the friable volcanic soil is extraordinarily fertile.
For the Greeks "love of wisdom" involved inquiry into the basis and origin of things; the Hebrew "wisdom" was the capacity so to order life as to get out of it the greatest possible good.
The beds lie several (for the most part four to six) hundred feet underground and are of disputed origin.
Many regard them as products of an extinct volcano; according to others they are of vegetable origin (they are found in conjunction with gypsum).
The Cuban coast was uninterruptedly full of infection, and the danger of an outbreak in each year was never absent, until the work of the United States army in 1901-1902 conclusively proved that this disease, though ineradicable by the most extreme sanitary measures, based on the accepted theory of its origin as a filth-disease, could be eradicated entirely by removing the possibility of inoculation by the Stegomyia mosquito.
Hagenau dates from the beginning of the 12th century, and owes its origin to the erection of a hunting lodge by the dukes of Swabia.
Viewing the subject as a whole, and apart from remote developments which have not in fact seriously influenced the great structure of the mathematics of the European races, it may be said to have had its origin with the Greeks, working on pre-existing fragmentary lines of thought derived from the Egyptians and Phoenicians.
The following tables show the total value of exports and imports arranged according to countries of origin or destination for1905-1906and 1908-1909; the same information for the year1905-1906with respect to the principal ports of the empire, and the tonnage of vessels cleared thereat during the year 1908-1909; and the value of the principal articles imported and exported for the year 1905-1906.
The Turkish historian, Kutchi Bey, attributes the origin of the decline of the empire to the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), when the conversion of many emiriye lands into vakufs was effected, and the system of farming out revenues first introduced.
The summary history given above of the origin of the system of taxation prevailing in Turkey explains how this came about.
Muller, it had its origin in the worship of Zeus Laphystius; the fleece is the pledge of reconciliation; Jason is a propitiating god of health, Medea a goddess akin to Hera; Aeetes is connected with the Colchian sun-worship. Forchhammer saw in it an old nature symbolism; Jason, the god of healing and fruitfulness, brought the fleece - the fertilizing rain-cloud - to the western land that was parched by the heat of the sun.
An important influence in Roman literature and belief, which had its origin in Sicily, first appeared in this poem - the recognition of the mythical connexion of Aeneas and his Trojans with the foundation of Rome.
These discrepancies however are chiefly of interest in their bearing upon the problem of the Pentateuch, and really throw little light upon the origin of the two feasts connected together under the name of the Passover, to which the present remarks must be mainly confined.
Reverting to the origin and the meaning of the feast, modern criticism draws attention to the different nature of the two observances combined with the name Passover, the pastoral sacrifice of the paschal lamb and the agricultural observance of a seven days' abstention from unleavened bread.
Terminus was probably in its origin only an epithet of Jupiter.
In his Practica geometriae plain traces of the use of the Roman agrimensores are met with; in his Liber abaci old Egyptian problems reveal their origin by the reappearance of the very numbers in which the problem is given, though one cannot guess through what channel they came to Leonardo's knowledge.
This iron has very often beautiful Widmannstatten figures like those of iron meteorites, but it is obviously of telluric origin.'
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
Castren considers that three of their stems are of Ostiak origin, the remainder being Samoyedic. The Kamasins, in the Kansk district of Yeniseisk, are either herdsmen or agriculturists.
The king's language and the royal writing, and also religious words are, however, apparently of Aryan origin and akin to Pali.
Its origin was ascribed to a Carian colony, whose memory was possibly preserved in Epicarus, the earlier name of the city; it was afterwards occupied by Ionians, and appears to have incorporated a body of Phlegyans from Thessaly.
The northern, as in Bali and Lombok, is of volcanic origin.
The history of the peach almond and nectarine is interesting and important as regards the question of the origin of species and the production and perpetuation of varieties.
As to the origin of the peach two views are held, that of Alphonse de Candolle, who attributes all cultivated varieties to a distinct species, probably of Chinese origin, and that adopted by many naturalists, but more especially by Darwin, who looks upon the peach as a modification of the almond.
As to the nectarine, of its origin as a variation from the peach there is abundant evidence, as has already been mentioned; it is only requisite to add the very important fact that the seeds of the nectarine, even when that nectarine has been produced by bud-variation from a peach, will generally produce nectarines, or, as gardeners say, "come true."
So far as we know, however, no case has yet been recorded of a peach or a nectarine producing an almond, or vice versa, although if all have had a common origin such an event might be expected.
On the other hand, Alphonse de Candolle, from philological and other considerations, considers the peach to be of Chinese origin.
The surface drifts of the greater part of the state, which are almost wholly of glacial origin, have provided Minnesota with a remarkably fertile soil.
It is of volcanic origin, and is partly occupied by a penal agricultural colony.
The service, the details of which vary in different countries, is of comparatively modern origin.
Father Thurston traces it to a combination in the i 6th and 17th centuries of customs that had their origin in the 13th, i.e.
Interesting speculations as to the periods of origin of great coral reefs have been made by Wayland Vaughan, Andrews and Daly and Humphreys.
On account of the presence and mode of origin (from the gut-wall) of this organ Bateson introduced the term hemichorda as a phyletic name for the class Enteropneusta.
Like the rest of the cluster, the island is of volcanic origin, with tuff, trachyte and obsidian among its ordinary rocks.
Before the days of the "higher criticism" and the rise of the modern scientific views as to the origin of species, there was much discussion among the learned, and many ingenious and curious theories were advanced, as to the number of the animals and the space necessary for their reception, with elaborate calculations as to the subdivisions of the ark and the quantities of food, &c., required to be stored.
Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808 by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a defence against the Sla y s, and called Hammaburg because of the surrounding forest (Hamme).
In early days the home of the Aymaras by Lake Titicaca was a "holy land" for the Incas themselves, whose national legends attributed the origin of all Quichua (Inca) civilization to that region.
As to the origin of the name, it was long held to be derived from the river Yssel or Saal.
This country, north of the Main and the first residence of the Franks, then received the name of Francia Orientalis, and became the origin of one of the duchies into which Germany was divided in the Toth century - the duchy of Franconia (Franken).
This was the origin of the principal liturgical vestment, the chasuble (q.v.).
If Spain and Gaul borrowed from Rome, they also exercised a reciprocal influence on the Roman use; it is interesting to note in this connexion, that of the names of the liturgical vestments a very large proportion are not of Roman origin, and that the non-Roman names tended to supersede the Roman in Rome itself.'
The chasuble and the rest, whatever their origin, had become associated during the middle ages with certain doctrines the rejection of which at the Reformation was symbolized by their disuse.
In 1909 the total production of rubber is stated to have been about 70,000 tons, of which more than one-half came from tropical America, about one-third from Africa, whilst the remainder was chiefly of Asiatic origin, including " plantation " rubber from Ceylon and Malaya, which amounted to about 3000 tons.
The ruthless way in which they plundered ancient buildings to adorn their own palaces is the origin of the saying, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt.
Of oriental origin, its first known performance in Italy occurred in A.D.
The principal occupation is the manufacture of the salt obtained from the brine springs or wyches, to which the town probably owes both its name and its origin.
Droitwich (Wic, Salturic, Wich) probably owed its origin to the springs, which are mentioned in several charters before the Conquest.
Occlusor muscle - its double origin (i.) is derived from the is shown.
In Discinisca they are provided with a muscular valve placed at their point of origin.
The chitinous chaetae have their origin in special ectodermal pits, at the base of which is one large cell which is thought to secrete the chaeta, as in Chaetopods.
Medianly, it has its origin in the sub-oesophageal ganglion, which, like the supra-oesophageal, is drawn out laterally, though not to the same extent.
His memoirs, to 1834, remain unpublished, but an Inquiry into the Origin and Course of Political Parties in the United States was compiled from it by his sons and published in 1867.
The linear transformation replaces points on lines through the origin by corresponding points on projectively corresponding lines through the origin; it therefore replaces a pencil of lines by another pencil, which corresponds projectively, and harmonic and other properties of pencils which are unaltered by linear transformation we may expect to find indicated in the invariant system.
As new axes of co-ordinates we may take any other pair of lines through the origin, and for the X, Y corresponding to x, y any new constant multiples of the sines of the angles which the line makes with the new axes.
Thus what have been called seminvariants are not all of them invariants for the general substitution, but are invariants for the particular substitution xl = X11 + J-s12, X 2 = 112 Again, in plane geometry, the most general equations of substitution which change from old axes inclined at w to new axes inclined at w' =13 - a, and inclined at angles a, l3 to the old axis of x, without change of origin, are x-sin(wa)X+sin(w -/3)Y sin w sin ' _sin ax y sin w a transformation of modulus sin w' sin w' The theory of invariants originated in the discussion, by George Boole, of this system so important in geometry.
Autour consists of seven letters, on the origin and aim of L'Evangile et l'Eglise; on the biblical question; the criticism of the Gospels; the Divinity of Christ; the Church's foundation and authority; the origin and authority of dogma, and on the institution of the sacraments.
The Inquisition, by its decree Lamentabili sane (2nd of July 1907), condemned sixty-five propositions concerning the Church's magisterium; biblical inspiration and interpretation; the synoptic and fourth Gospels; revelation and dogma; Christ's divinity, human knowledge and resurrection; and the historical origin and growth of the Sacraments, the Church and the Creed.
Nevertheless when Guillaume seeks help from Louis the emperor he finds all his relations in Laon, in accordance with his historic Frankish origin.
During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.
The market is of ancient origin, and was formerly held on Monday; in the survey the tolls are assessed at 45 shillings.
The place owes its origin to the decision of the government in 1814 to form a naval depot on Milford Haven.
The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).
Possibly, however, an investigation of the development of the median eyes of some Crustacea(Apus,Palaemon)may prove them to be diplostichous in origin.
The crural glands, which occur in many terrestrial Arthropods, are epidermal in origin and totally distinct from the coxal glands.
The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.
The figure B also shows the peculiar neural investiture formed by the cerebral arteries in Limulus and the derivation from this of the arteries to the limbs, III, IV, VI, whereas in Scorpio the latter have a separate origin from the anterior aorta.
In fact it is not possible to maintain that the renal excretory tubes of the gut are of one common origin in the Arthropoda.
In the same and other leading forms a pair of much-coiled glandular tubes, the coxal glands (coelomocoels in origin), is found with a duct opening on the coxa of the fifth pair of appendages of the prosoma.
The Holosomata and Rhynchostomi are probably offshoots from the stem of the Araneae, and it is not unlikely (in view of the structure of the prosomatic somites of the Tartarides) that the Solifugae are connected in origin with the Pedipalpi.
We shall therefore enter at once on a short account of the origin of this literature in Judaism, of its adoption by early Christianity, of the various meanings which the term " apocryphal " assumed in the course of its history, and having so done we shall proceed to classify and deal with the books that belong to this literature.
But as Christianity took its origin from Judaism, it is not unnatural that a large body of Jewish ideas was incorporated in the system of Christian thought.
It is of Jewish origin, and recounts the martyrdom of Isaiah at the hands of Manasseh.
Returning to the question of the Jewish origin of i., ii., iii., we have already observed that these spring from a common original.
One of these groups is certainly of non-Jewish origin, as it conceives Mary as living in the temple somewhat after the manner of a vestal virgin or a priestess of Isis.
This third work contained in the Coptic MS. referred to under Gospel of Mary gives cosmological disclosures and is presumably of Valentinian origin.
Im Neuen dos Alte (1837), which contains his theory of the origin and explanation of the Greek myths, which he never abandoned, in spite of the attacks to which it was subjected.
Elie de Beaumont's name is widely known to geologists in connexion with his theory of the origin of mountain ranges, first propounded in a paper read to the Academy of Sciences in 1829, and afterwards elaborated in his Notice sur le systeme des montagnes (3 vols., 1852).
According to his view, all mountain ranges parallel to the same great circle of the earth are of strictly contemporaneous origin, and between the great circles a relation of symmetry exists in the form of a pentagonal reseau.
He had not attempted to include in his calculations the orbital variations of the disturbing bodies; but Lagrange, by the happy artifice of transferring the origin of coordinates from the centre of the sun to the centre of gravity of the sun and planets, obtained a simplification of the formulae, by which the same analysis was rendered equally applicable to each of the planets severally.
Fuchs; the ultimate origin is unknown, but a connexion has been suggested with Sanskrit puccha, tail.
The style of Joel is clear (which hardly favours an early date), and his language presents peculiarities which are evidences of a late origin.
Various accounts are given both of the founding of Cyrene and of the origin of the founder's name.
With this monument as a basis, Franz Cumont has arranged the small Mithraic reliefs into two groups, one illustrating the legend of the origin of the gods, and the other the legend of Mithras.
What in the opinion of Albrecht Dieterich (Eine Mithrasliturgie, Leipzig, 1903) is a Mithras liturgy is preserved in a Greek MS. of Egyptian origin of about A.D.
Both religions were of Oriental origin; they were propagated about the same time, and spread with equal rapidity on account of the same causes, viz.
At their root lay a common Eastern origin rather than any borrowing.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
In the interior of Brazil, the Palaeozoic beds are directly overlaid by a series of red sandstones, &c., which appear to be of continental origin and of which the age is uncertain.
They consist chiefly of sands and clays of aeolian and freshwater origin.
But in 1402 the death of 1 The following are the ordini or monti that held power in Siena for any considerable time - gentiluomini, from the origin of the republic; nove, from about 1285; dodici, from 1355; riformatori, from 1368; popolo, from 1385.
The Sienese school of painting owes its origin to the influence of Byzantine art; but it improved that art, impressed it with a special stamp and was for long independent of all other influences.
The word iriCrK07r03 or overseer may be of Gentile origin, just as presbyter may have been borrowed from the Jews.
His History of the Origin and Establishment of the Inquisition (1854-1855), relating the thirty years' struggle between King John III.
All the rivers of Natal not purely coast streams have their origin in the Drakensberg or its secondary ranges.
The institutions adopted were to be as far as possible in accordance with the wishes of the people, but it was a fundamental condition " that there should not be in the eye of the law any distinction or disqualification whatever, founded on mere difference of colour, origin, language or creed."
The origin of this god is obscure; perhaps it arose from a cult connected with a statue or a tomb of some satrap.
The hilly regions of Transylvania and of the northern part of Hungary consist of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks and are closely connected, both in structure and origin, with the Carpathian chain.
There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools - for design, painting, sculpture, music, &c. Most of these special schools are of recent origin, and are almost entirely maintained by the state or the communes.
Scores of towns, too, owe their origin and enlargement to the care of the Angevin princes, who were lavish of privileges and charters, and saw to it that the high-roads were clear of robbers.
What little culture there was outside the court, the capital and the palaces of a few prelates, was to be found in the towns, most of them of German origin.
Except in the towns, mostly of German origin, it was generally detested, just because it came from Germany.
The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.
For philological and ethnographical research into the origin and growth of the language none excels Paul Hunfalvy.
He is, moreover, the warm advocate of the theory of its Ugrio-Finnic origin, as established by the Uralian traveller Anthony Reguly, the result of whose labours Hunfalvy published in 1864, under the title A Vogul fold es nep (The Vogul Land and People).
After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.
Since that time (1895) the number of periodical as well as of non-periodical literary works has been constantly rising, although, as in all countries with a literature of rather recent origin, the periodical publications are, in proportion to the whole of the output, far more numerous than the non-periodical.
That it formed the starting-point, and largely prescribed the course of thought on the subject of planetary origin is due to the simplicity of its assumptions, and the clearness of the mechanical principles involved, rather than to any cogent evidence of its truth.
It owed its origin to an attempt made in 452 B.C. by Sybarite exiles and their descendants to repeople their old home.
Moritz Cantor suspects the influence of Diophantine methods, more particularly in the Hindu solutions of indeterminate equations, where certain technical terms are, in all probability, of Greek origin.
It is of uncertain origin but was used as a monastery before 1119.
This high theory of episcopacy which, if certain of the Ignatian letters be genuine, has a very early origin, has, of course, fallen upon evil days.
Though probably of ancient origin, the town was unimportant till the 10th century when it became the residence of the counts.
Knowing the almost endless complexity of organic structures, realizing that man himself with all the mystery of his life and consciousness must be included in any explanation of the origin of living things, they preferred to regard living things as something apart from the rest of nature, specially cared for, specially created by a Divine Being.
In the edition of the Natiirliche Schopfungsgeschichte published in 1868 he made a great advance in his genealogical classification, since he now introduced the results of the extraordinary activity in the study of embryology which followed on the publication of the Origin of Species.
But it was only after Darwin that the cell-theory of Schwann was extended to the embryology of the animal kingdom generally, and that the knowledge of the development of an animal became a knowledge of the way in which the millions of cells of which its body is composed take their origin by fission from a smaller number of cells, and these at last from the single egg-cell.
On the other hand, the studies which occupied Darwin himself so largely subsequently to the publication of the Origin of Species, viz.
In the first place, the continued study of human population has thrown additional light on some of the questions involved, whilst the progress of microscopical research has given us a clear foundation as to the structural facts connected with the origin of the egg-cell and sperm-cell and the process of fertilization.
If round the origin of waves an ideal closed surface be drawn, the whole action of the waves in the region beyond may be regarded as due to the motion continually propagated across the various elements of this surface.
We have seen that the problem before us is independent of the law of the secondary wave as regards obliquity; but the result of the integration necessarily involves the law of the intensity and phase of a secondary wave as a function of r, the distance from the origin.
Taking co-ordinates in the plane of the screen with the centre of the wave as origin, let us represent M by, n, and P (where dS is situated) by x, y, z.
If the origin of light be treated as infinitely small, and be seen in focus, whether with the naked eye or with the aid of a telescope, the whole of the light in the absence of obstacles would be concentrated in the immediate neighbourhood of the focus.
In this way the principal features of the phenomenon are accounted for, and Schuster has shown further how to extend the results to spectra having their origin in prisms instead of gratings.
The origin of co-ordinates 0 corresponds to v = 0; and the asymptotic points J, J', round which the curve revolves in an ever-closing spiral, correspond to v= =co .
The origin of the obelisk may be sought in sacred upright stones set up in honour of gods and dead, like the menhirs, and the Semitic Massebahs and bethels.