Next come the great Alexandrians, Clement, Origen, Dionysius; the Carthaginians, Tertullian and Cyprian; the Romans, Minucius Felix and Novatian; the last four laid the foundations of a Latin Christian literature.
In his own lifetime Origen had to complain of falsifications of his works and forgeries under his name.
ORIGEN (c. 185 - c. 2J4), the most distinguished and most influential of all the theologians of the ancient church, with the possible exception of Augustine.
Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian, was adored in Egypt a century after his death (Origen, Contra Celsum, iii.
Origen reprobated medical art on the ground that the prescription here cited is enough; modern faith-healers and Peculiar People have followed in his wake.
It faded away in the great Church, and probably Celsus was describing Montanist circles (though Origen assumed that they were ordinary believers) when he wrote 3 of the many Christians of no repute who at the least provocation, whether within or without their temples, threw themselves about like inspired persons; while others did the same in cities or among armies in order to collect alms, roaming about cities or camps.
3 Origen, Contra Celsum, vii.
He was highly esteemed by Cyprian, bishop of Carthage; Novatian refers to his nobilissimae memoriae, and he corresponded with Origen.
In the second place, though it is true that the persecutions indicated by Celsus (Origen, Celsus, viii.
It is often difficult, if not impracticable, to draw the line between orthodox writers and heterodox; on which side, it might be asked, is Origen to be placed ?
the works of Justin, Irenaeus, the Alexandrian Clement, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian.
The word h7roXo'yia is used by Origen (Contra Cel.
views that he taught the transmigration of souls (Origen in Ep. ad Rom.
Peta y .), %vs ePaQCv yhvTCoX6yoc; Origen, Horn.
On the other hand, the opinion of Cardinal Pitra, who referred the Physiologus to the more orthodox though somewhat peculiar teaching of the Alexandrians, is fully borne out by a close examination of the irregularities of doctrine pointed out in the Physiologus by Cahier, all which are to be met with in Origen.
In the autumn of 397 Rufinus embarked for Rome, where, finding that the theological controversies of the East were exciting much interest and curiosity, he published a Latin translation of the Apology of Pamphilus for Origen, and also (398-99) a somewhat free rendering of the 7rep1 apXwv (or De Principiis) of that author himself.
The pope in his reply expressly condemned Origen, but left the question of Rufinus's orthodoxy to his own conscience.
In Sicily he was engaged in translating the Homilies of Origen when he died in 410.
The original works of Rufinus are - (I) De Adulteratione Librorum Origenis - an appendix to his translation of the Apology of Pamphilus, and intended to show that many of the features in Origen's teaching which were then held to be objectionable arise from interpolations and falsifications of the genuine text; (2) De Benedictionibus XII Patriarcharum Libri II - an exposition of Gen.
The other translations of Rufinus are - (I) the Instituta Monachorum and some of the Homilies of Basil; (2) the Apology of Pamphilus, referred to above; (3) Origen's Principia; (4) Origen's Homilies (Gen.
For the translations, see the various editions of Origen, Eusebius, &c.
This suspicion is strengthened by the fact (discovered by von Sybel) that even the very preface to his book is taken almost word for word from Rufinus's translation of Origen's commentary on the epistle to the Romans.
It was Origen who created the dogmatic of the church and laid the foundations of the scientific criticism of the Old and New Testaments.
By proclaiming the reconciliation of science with the Christian faith, of the highest culture with the Gospel, Origen did more than any other man to win the Old World to the Christian religion.
Orthodox theology has never, in any of the confessions, ventured beyond the circle which the mind of Origen first measured out.
Origen was born, perhaps at Alexandria, of Christian parents in the year 185 or 186.
In the year 202 a persecution arose, in which the father of Origen became a martyr, and the family lost their livelihood.
Origen, who had distinguished himself by his intrepid zeal, was supported for a time by a lady of rank, but began about the same time to earn his bread by teaching; and in 203 he was placed, with the sanction of the bishop Demetrius, at the head of the catechetical school.
Meanwhile the literary activity of Origen was increasing year by year.
In the year 21 6 - the time when the imperial executioners were ravaging Alexandria - we find Origen in Palestine.
In Alexandria, however, this custom had been given up, and Demetrius took occasion to express his disapproval and recall Origen to Alexandria.
On his way to Greece (apparently in the year 230) Origen was ordained a presbyter in Palestine by his friends the bishops.
This was undoubtedly an infringement of the rights of the Alexandrian bishop; at the same time it was simply a piece of spite on the part of the latter that had kept Origen so long without any ecclesiastical consecration.
A second synod, composed entirely of bishops, determined that Origen must be deposed from the presbyterial status.
This decision was communicated to the foreign churches, and seems to have been justified by referring to the self-mutilation of Origen and adducing objectionable doctrines which he was said to have promulgated.
No formal excommunication of Origen appears to have been decreed; it was considered sufficient to have him degraded to the position of a layman.
At a later period Origen sought to vindicate his teaching in a letter to the Roman bishop Fabian, but, it would seem, without success.
In these circumstances Origen thought it best voluntarily to retire from Alexandria (231-232).
In the, year 250 the Decian persecution broke out, Origen was arrested, imprisoned and maltreated.
Origen is probably the most prolific author of the ancient church.
We have more in the Latin translation of Rufinus; but this translation in by no means trustworthy, since Rufinus, assuming that Origen's writings had been tampered with by the heretics, considered himself at liberty to omit or amend heterodox statements.
Origen's real opinion, however, may frequently be gathered from the Philocalia - a sort of anthology from his works prepared by Basil the Great and Gregory Nazianzenus.
The writings of Origen consist of letters, and of works in textual criticism, exegesis, apologetics, dogmatic and practical theology.
Origen's textual studies on the Old Testament were undertaken partly in order to improve the manuscript tradition, and partly for apologetic reasons, to clear up the relation between the LXX and the original Hebrew text.
Origen worked also at the text of the New Testament, although he produced no recension of his own.
The exegetical labours of Origen extend over the whole of the Old and New Testaments.
With grammatical precision, antiquarian learning and critical discernment Origen combines the allegorical method of interpretation - the logical corollary of his conception of the inspiration of the Scriptures.
The principal apologetic work of Origen is his book Kara KeXuov (eight books), written at Caesarea in the time of Philip the Arabian.
What makes Origen's answer so instructive is that it shows how close an affinity existed between Celsus and himself in their fundamental philosophical and theological presuppositions.
The real state of the case is certainly unsuspected by Origen himself; but many of his opponent's arguments he is unable to meet except by a speculative reconstruction of the church doctrine in question.
Origen's apologetic is most effective when he appeals to the spirit and power of Christianity as an evidence of its truth.
(1875); Ornsby, "Origen against Celsus," Dublin Review (July 1879), p. 58; Pelagaud, E tude sur Celse (1878); Lebedeff, Origen's Book against Celsus (Moscow, 1878) (Russian); Overbeck in the Theolog.
Origen thus solved, after his own fashion, a problem which his predecessor Clement had not even ventured to grapple with.
The ten books of Stromata (in which Origen compared the teaching of the Christians with that of the philosophers, and corroborated all the Christian dogmas from Plato, Aristotle, Numenius and Cornutus) have all perished, with the exception of small fragments; so have the tractates on the resurrection and on freewill.2 6.
For a knowledge of Origen's Christian estimate of life and his relation to the faith of the church these two treatises are of great importance.
The most noteworthy are the Dialogues of a certain Adamantius "de recta in Deum fide," which seem to have been erroneously attributed to Origen so early as the 4th century, one reason being the fact that Origen himself also bore that name.
14.) Outline of Origen's View of the Universe and of Life.
- The system of Origen was formulated in opposition to the Greek philosophers on the one hand, and the Christian Gnostics on the other.
As a theologian, in fact, Origen is not merely an orthodox traditionalist and believing exegete, but a speculative philosopher of Neo-Platonic tendencies.
It is this combination which has determined the peculiar and varying relations in which theology and the faith of the church have stood to each other since the time of Origen.
As a philosophical idealist, however, he transmutes the whole contents of the faith of the church into ideas which bear the mark of Neo-Platonism, and were accordingly recognized by the later Neo-Platonists as Hellenic. 4 In Origen, however, 1 There are, however, extensive fragments of the original in existence.
Porphyry says of Origen, Kara Tds rrepi lrpay f caTWV Kai Belot) bo s as `EXX vt cav (Euseb.
As a means to the realization of this ideal, Origen introduces the whole ethics of Stoicism.
The Scriptures, however, are treated by Origen on the basis of a matured theory of inspiration in such a way that all their facts appear as the vehicles of ideas, and have their highest value only in this aspect.
The most convincing proof of this is that Origen (i) takes the idea of the immutability of God as the regulating idea of his system, and (2) deprives the historical "Word made flesh" of all significance for the true Gnostic. To him Christ appears simply as the Logos who is with the Father from eternity, and works from all eternity, to whom alone the instructed Christian directs his thoughts, requiring nothing more than a perfect - i.e.
This distinction was already current in the catechetical school of Alexandria, but Origen gave it its boldest expression, and justified it on the ground of the incapacity of the Christian masses to grasp the deeper sense of Scripture, or unravel the difficulties of exegesis.
At this point Origen succeeded in avoiding the heretical Gnostic idea of God by assigning to the Godhead the attributes of goodness and righteousness.
Indeed this is the fundamental idea of Origen - "the original and indestructible unity of God and all spiritual essences."
The actual sinfulness of all men Origen was able to explain by the theological hypothesis of pre-existence and the premundane fall of each individual soul.
The old Christian eschatology is set aside; no one has dealt such deadly blows to Chiliasm and Christian apocalypticism as Origen.
Although the theology of Origen exerted a considerable influence as a whole in the two following centuries, it certainly lost nothing by the circumstance that several important propositions were capable of being torn from their original setting and placed in new connexions.
With respect to other doctrines also, such as those of the Holy Spirit and the incarnation of Christ, &c., Origen prepared the way for the later dogmas.
The technical terms round which such bitter controversies raged in the 4th and 5th centuries are often found in Origen lying peacefully side by side.
The only man who tried to shake off the theological influence of Origen was Marcellus of Ancyra, who did not succeed in producing any lasting effect on theology.
The attacks on Origen, which had begun in his lifetime, did not cease for centuries, and only subsided during the time of the fierce Arian controversy.
Even in the 3rd century Origen's view of the Trinity and of the Person of Christ was called in question, and that from various points of view.
In the 4th century Pamphilus, Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, the Cappadocians, Didymus, and Rufinus were on the side of Origen against the attacks of Methodius and many others.
In the West Vincent of Lerins held up Origen as a warning example (Commonit.
In the East the exegetical school of Antioch had an aversion to Origen; the Alexandrians had utterly repudiated him.
118, &c. There is no complete critical edition of Origen's works..
Amongst the older works on Origen those of Huetius (printed in Delarue, vol.
In recent times the doctrine of Origen has been expounded in the great works on church history by Baur, Dorner, Bohringer, Neander, Miller (Geschichte der Kosmologie in der griechischen Kirche) and Kahnis (Die Lehre vom h.
The suspected theses included such points as the following: that Christ descended ad inferos not in His real presence but quoad effectum; that no image or cross should receive latreia even in the sense allowed by Thomas; that it is more reasonable to regard Origen as saved than as damned; that it is not in a man's free will to believe or disbelieve an article of faith as he pleases.
They were not contained in the text used by Origen (d.
The attempts of Methodius of Tyre at the beginning of the 4th century and Apollinarius of Laodicea about 360 to defend chiliasm and assail the theology of Origen had no result.
It was considered a sufficient safeguard against the spiritualizing eschatology of Origen and his school to have rescued the main doctrines of the creed and the regula fidei (the visible advent of Christ; eternal misery and hell-fire for the wicked).
Among his pupils were Origen (Eus.
Alexander, writing to Origen (c. 216), mentions Clement as dead (Eus.
The phrase was used as a booktitle by Origen and others, and is equivalent to our " miscellanies."
Among the early Christians, Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Synesius were eclectics in philosophy.
Thus Origen distinguishes between writings which were read by the churches and apocryphal writings: ypai?j q5Ep0,LLiv77 /2 V iv Togs Kolvocs KaL 6E6771.400-LEvybiotS (3L XLocs EIKOs S' On iv euroKpiiy50ts cbEpoµ4, 77 (Origen's Comm.
If we may trust the text, this meaning appears in Origen (Prolog.
with the other books, and with no marks of distinction, they were practically employed by the Greek Fathers in the same way as the other books; hence Origen, Clement and others often cite them as " scripture," " divine scripture," " inspired," and the like.
The book which treats of them is mentioned by Origen (ad Matt.
Origen also was acquainted with some form of the legend (Selecta in Genesin, ad Gen.
6.45; 9.63, 66; 13.92), subsequently by Origen (Horn.
This title was first given in the 16th century to a writing which is referred to as The Book of James (7) (31(Aos 'IaKtf30v) by Origen (torn.
For, since Origen states that many appealed to it in support of the view that the brothers of Jesus were sons of Joseph by a former marriage, the book must have been current about A.D.
A collection of the Greek and Latin fragments that have survived, mainly in Origen and Jerome, will be found in Hilgenfeld's NT extra Canonem receptum, Nicholson's Gospel according to the Hebrews (1879), Westcott's lntrod.
The former he traces to a mistaken interpretation of Origen (Horn.
709-712), and is of opinion that this gospel, in the form in which it was known to Epiphanius, Jerome and Origen, was " a recast of an older original," which, written originally in Aramaic, was nearly related to the Logia used by St Matthew and the Ebionitic writing used by St Luke, " which itself was only a later redaction of the Logia."
This gospel must have been translated at an early date into Greek, as Clement and Origen cite it as generally accessible, and Eusebius recounts that many reckoned it among the received books.
Again, Origen (InMatt.
7), and subsequently among the Manichaeans, and is frequently quoted from Origen downwards (Horn.
This gospel, which Origen knew (Horn.
Mentioned by Origen (Tract.
Though this gospel is attested by Origen (Hom.
The Acts therefore embrace now the following elements: - (a) Two quotations given by Origen in his Princip. i.
Heracleon had previously used it (see Origen, In Evang.
It is spoken unfavourably of by Origen (De Prin.
According to Eusebius, they were convinced of their error by Origen, and renounced it at a council held about A.D.
But, according to older Jewish tradition attested by Origen, 4 Ps.
Origen's rule accounts for all the psalms except i.
33 in the Western text; Origen; B.
The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).
It is difficult to understand a much-discussed passage of Origen (De oratione, 14), except as applying to prayer addressed to the saints.
Such allegorization meets us already in Origen, Eusebius and other early fathers, and is quite compatible with that use of a material Eucharist which Nerses II.
(So also Origen, Cont.
The brevity of the note and its lack of doctrinal significance prevented it from gaining frequent quotation in the early Christian literature, but it appears in Marcion's canon as well as in the Muratorian, whilst Tertullian mentions, and Origen expressly quotes it.
His reconstruction of the True Discourse of Celsus (1753), from Origen's reply to it, is a competent and learned piece of work.
- This work is referred to by Origen (de Princip. II.
Even the Greek cannot claim to be the original work, but only to be a recension of it; for, whereas Origen states that this apocalypse contained an account of the seven heavens, the existing Greek work describes only five, and the Slavonic only two.
The Prayer of Joseph is quoted by Origen [In Joann.
The fragments in Origen represent Jacob as speaking and claiming to be "the first servant in God's presence," "the first-begotten of every creature animated by God," and declaring that the angel who wrestled with Jacob (and was identified by Christians with Christ) was only eighth in rank.
Origen, Ambrosiaster, and Euthalius ascribe to it r Cor.
James holds that this book is referred to by Origen (Horn.
Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria and Origen quote it as Scripture, though in Africa it was not held in such high consideration, as Tertullian speaks slightingly of it.
This would explain the absence of specific address, so that it appears as in form a "general epistle," as Origen styles it.
4, and reappearing in the two types of Christian recognized by Clement and Origen and in later Catholicism.
The extracts from Cicero and Ovid, Origen and St John, Chrysostom, Augustine and Jerome are but specimens of a useful custom which reaches its culminating paint in book xxviii., which is devoted entirely to the writings of St Bernard.
30), but, urged by Origen, and at last almost compelled by Phaedimus of Amasia, his metropolitan, neither of whom was willing to see so much learning, piety and masculine energy practically lost to the church, he, after many attempts to evade the dignity, was consecrated bishop of his native town (about 240).
His festival (semiduplex) is observed by the Roman Catholic Church on the 17th of November, For the facts of his biography we have an outline of his early years in his eulogy on Origen, and incidental notices in the writings of Eusebius, of Basil of Caesarea and Jerome.
The principal works of Gregory Thaumaturgus are the Panegyricus in Origenem (Eis 't ptybniv iravrnvpucos Xbyos), which he wrote when on the point of leaving the school of that great master (it contains a valuable minute description of Origen's mode of instruction), a Metaphrasis in Ecclesiasten, characterized by Jerome as " short but useful "; and an Epistola canonica, which treats of the discipline to be undergone by those Christians who under pressure of persecution had relapsed into paganism, but desired to be restored to the privileges of the Church.
Origen indulged in many speculations which were afterwards condemned, but, as these matters were still open questions in his day, he was not reckoned a heretic. (iii.) In accordance with the New Testament use of the term heresy, it is assumed that moral defect accompanies the intellectual error, that the false view is held pertinaciously, in spite of warning, remonstrance and rebuke; aggressively to win over others, and so factiously, to cause division in the church, a breach in its unity.
By this time the canon of New Testament Scripture was fairly settled, and with Origen (d.
Origen was pre-eminently a teacher, and the didactic side of preaching is thus more conspicuous in his work.
Alongside Origen we may rank Hippolytus of Rome on the strength of the one sermon of his which is extant, a panegyric on baptism based on the theophany which marked the baptism of Jesus.
From Strido he went to Aquileia, where he formed some friendships among the monks of the large monastery, notably with Rufinus, with whom he was destined to quarrel bitterly over the question of Origen's orthodoxy and worth as a commentator; for Jerome was a man who always sacrificed a friend to an opinion, and when he changed sides in a controversy expected his acquaintances to follow him.
The result of his studies there was the translation of the Chronicon of Eusebius, with a continuation 1 of twenty-eight homilies of Origen on Jeremiah and 1 Cf.
Ezekiel, and of nine homilies of Origen on the visions of Isaiah.
Here he did most of his literary work and, throwing aside his unfinished plan of a translation from Origen's Hexaplar text, translated the Old Testament directly from the Hebrew, with the aid of Jewish scholars.
Earlier in life he had a great admiration for Origen, and translated many of his works, and this lasted after he had settled at Bethlehem, for in 389 he translated Origen's homilies on Luke; but he came to change his opinion and wrote violently against two admirers of the great Alexandrian scholar, John, bishop of Jerusalem, and his own former friend Rufinus.
He also wrote at Bethlehem De viris illustribus sive de scriptoribus ecclesiasticas, a church history in biographies, ending with the life of the author; De nominibus Hebraicis, compiled from Philo and Origen; and De situ et nominibus locorum Hebraicorum.'
3), and a more or less hesitant endorsement by Origen (" if one might adduce the epistle of Jude," In Matt.
- Origen (Euseb, H.E.
The rest of the patristic evidence from Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Victorinus, Eusebius and Jerome will be found in Swete's Apocalypse of St John 2, xcix.
Among these the most important were Clement of Alexandria and Origen.
The compatibility of Christian and later Neo-Platonic ideas is evidenced by the writings of Synesius, bishop of Ptolemais, and though Neo-Platonism eventually succumbed to Christianity, it had the effect, through the writings of Clement and Origen, of modifying the tyrannical fanaticism and ultradogmatism of the early Christian writers.
Undeniably Clement of Alexandria and Origen apply the language of the Greek mysteries to Christian gnosis and life.
And Origen compares them to the sacred vessels, and would have them " guarded secretly behind the veil of the conscience and not lightly produced before the public."
But because he uses the language of the Greek mysteries, Philo never imitated the thing itself; and he is ever ready to denounce it in the bitterest terms. Clement and Origen really meant no more than he.
Both men were deeply influenced by Origen, and compiled the wellknown anthology of his writings, known as Philocalia (edited by A.
The early Christians continued the Jewish practice of making such an ascription at the close of public prayer (Origen, Hopi Ekijs, 3 3) and introduced it after the sermon also.
Clement of Alexandria or Origen would not call his speculations dogmas.
19) in the case of Origen (216 A.D.).
It is specially valuable in the portion relating to the history of the text (which up to the middle of the 3rd century he holds to have been current only in a common edition (Kocvi EK60cn), of which recensions were afterwards made by Hesychius, an Egyptian bishop, by Lucian of Antioch, and by Origen) and in its discussion of the ancient versions.
178), a 2nd century opponent of Christianity, known to us mainly through the reputation of his literary work, The True Word (or Account; aXr191ts ?kayos), published by Origen in 248, seventy years after its composition.
A supernatural pride was blended with a natural anxiety, and it was at this juncture that Origen brought to light again a book written in the days of Marcus Aurelius, which but for the great Alexandrian might have been lost for ever.
Echoes of it are found in Tertullian and in Minucius Felix, and then it lay forgotten until Origen gave it new life.
Now from Philo to Origen we have a long Hellenistic, Jewish and Christian application of that all-embracing allegorism, where one thing stands for another and where no factual details resist resolution into a symbol of religious ideas and forces.
And Origen is still full of spontaneous sympathy with its pervading allegorism.
The Alexandrian Clement, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Jerome and Augustine only tell of the Zebedean what is traceable to stories told by Papias of others, to passages of Revelation and the Gospel, or to the assured fact of the long-lived Asian presbyter.
Among the immense literature of the subject, the following books will be found especially instructive by the classically trained reader: Origen's commentary, finished (only to John xiii.
It was at this time that Origen, then a young man, heard him preach (Hieron.
Hippolytus's voluminous writings, which for variety of subject can be compared with those of Origen, embrace the spheres of exegesis, homiletics, apologetics and polemic, chronography and ecclesiastical law.
was for a long time printed (with the title Philosophumena) among the works of Origen; Books iv.-x.
I I), Origen (Contra Celsum, vi.
The series of the Fathers alone contains Jerome (1516), Cyprian (1520), Pseudo-Arnobius (1522), Hilarius (1523), Irenaeus (Latin, 1526), Ambrose (1527), Augustine (1528), Chrysostom (Latin, 1530), Basil (Greek, 1532, the first Greek author printed in Germany), and Origen (Latin, 1536).
Though thus afflicted he never ceased his literary activity, dictating his tract On the Purity of the Church, and revising the sheets of a translation of Origen which was passing through the Froben press.
Origen in his commentary on Matt.
Origen, Tertullian and by Justin Martyr.
3 But the writings of Jerome in the 4th, and of Origen in the 3rd century both testify to a Hebrew text practically identical with that of the Massoretes.
As in the case of Aquila, our knowledge of the works of Theodotion and Symmachus is practically limited to the fragments that have been preserved through the labours of Origen.
That Origen did not succeed in his object of recovering the original Septuagint is due to the fact that he started with the false conception that the original text of the Septuagint must be that which coincided most nearly with the current Hebrew text.
It has further preserved the critical signs employed by Origen as well as many readings from the other Greek versions; hence it forms our chief authority for reconstructing the Hexapla.
Origen, in his Hexapla, placed side by side the Hebrew text, the Septuagint, and certain later Greek versions, and drew attention to the variations: he thus brought together for comparison, an indispensable preliminary to criticism, the chief existing evidence to the text of the Old Testament.
As applied to a class of epistles, the title dates from Eusebius, early in the 4th century; the epithet is given to single epistles by Origen, and is found as far back as the end of the 2nd century.
In the 3rd century the conspicuous figure is Origen (ob.
The corrections of s e are important, as they are based (according to a note by that scribe, at the end of Esther) on an early copy which had been corrected by, Pamphilus, the disciple of Origen, friend of Eusebius and founder of a library at Caesarea.
Athos, a MS. of the Acts and epistles, with an early (mixed) type of text and textual comments and notes from Origen.
All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups: (1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian, Marcion, Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially Methodius of Lycia and Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1).
Bezae, but is clearly far from identical; Origen in the main has the text of B; Athanasius a somewhat later variety of the same t y pe, while Cyril has the so-called Alexandrian text found especially in L.
In a certain wide sense the textual criticism of the New Testa ment began as soon as men consciously made recensions and versions, and in this sense Origen, Jerome, Augustine and many other ecclesiastical writers might be regarded as textual critics.
Semler (who in 1764 reprinted Wetstein's Prolegomena, and in comments of his own took over and expounded Bengel's views), collated many MSS., and distinguished three main groups: - the Alexandrian or Origenian (which roughly corresponded to Bengel's African), found in Abcl, the Egyptian version and Origen; the Western, found in D and Latin authorities; and the Constantinopolitan (Bengel's Asiatic), found in the later MSS.
Bezae and in Syr C; (2) the Alexandrine text used by Cyril of Alexandria and found especially in CL 33; and (3) a text which differs from both the above mentioned and is therefore called by WH the Neutral text, found especially in rt B and the quotations of Origen.
It is unfortunately not found in any extant MS. The second stage is that found in the quotations of Origen which is fairly well represented in B, though Origen seems at times to have used MSS.
I, Eop-r1 7 A B D, Origen, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Paschal Chronicle; KCLz 1-118, 33, the Egyptian versions, Eusebius, Cyril-Alex.
4: Cyril of Alexandria, in so far as his evidence is adverse to the words, appears to be incorporating a passage from the Commentary of Origen, not extant in loc.; and the only writer who perhaps really did omit the words - with the view, no doubt, of reconciling the witness of the fourth Gospel with the then widely spread tradition of the single-year ministry - is Origen himself.
240, 306; Hippolytus, Paschal Cycle and Chronicle; Origen, in Levit.
The eclipse meant is, presumably, that of the Crucifixion (so Origen, contra Celsum, ii.
147; Origen, Horn.
Charles (Assumption of Moses, pp. 105 seq.), and it appears that the incident was familiar to Clement of Alexandria, Origen and other early writers.
It), Apuleius (first half of 2nd century), Origen (who refers to a book of Jannes and Mambres), and various earlier and later Jewish sources; see I.
Thus Porphyry says of Origen (Euseb.
19), " The outer life of Origen was that of a Christian and contrary to law; but, as far as his views of things and of God are concerned, he thought like the Greeks, whose conceptions he overlaid with foreign myths."
Origen was quite as independent a thinker as Plotinus; only, they both drew on the same tradition.
A second work of Hippolytus (Kara 7raawv aip VEcov €Xeyxos) is preserved in the so-called Philosophumena which survives under the name of Origen.
The writings of Origen also contain a wealth of material.
The exposition of the system of the Ophites given by Celsus (in Origen vi.
25 seq.), and, in connexion with Celsus, by Origen, is particularly instructive on this point.
The connexion of the Seven with the planets is also clearly established by the expositions of Celsus and Origen (Contra Celsum, vi.
But the form in which the whole is set forth is Oriental, and it must be carefully noted that the Mithras mysteries, so closely connected with the Persian religion, are acquainted with this doctrine of the ascent of the soul through the planetary spheres (Origen, Contra Celsum, vi.
A part was also played in this movement by a free theology which arose within the Church, itself a kind of Gnosticism which aimed at holding fast whatever was good in the Gnostic movement, and obtaining its recognition within the limits of the Church (Clement of Alexandria, Origen).
Among these probably belong the Ophites of Celsus (in Origen), the many little sects included by Epiphanius under the name of Nicolaitans and Gnostics (Haer.
Beryllus, however, was convinced of the wrongness of this view by Origen, and recanted at the synod which had been called together in 244 to discuss it.
So Origen declares the bread which God the Word asserted was his body to be that which nourishes souls, the word from God the Word proceeding, the Bread from the heavenly Bread.
The work of lecturing was an intense strain to him, but its influence was immense: to attend one of Westcott's lectures - even to watch him lecturing - was an experience which lifted and solemnized many a man to whom the references to Origen or Rupert of Deutz were almost ludicrously unintelligible.
When the Christians of Smyrna decided that the bones of the martyrs were of more worth than gold or gems, and when Origen (Exh.
It is admitted by Origen in his reply to Celsus (p. 389), who has charged the Christians with being a secret society " because they forbid to build temples, to raise altars."
" The altars," says Origen, " are the heart of every Christian."
Origen implies that "the men of old" regarded it as Paul's, and that some churches at least in his own day shared this opinion.
According to some this disciple was Clement of Rome; others name Luke; but the truth, says Origen, is known to God alone (Euseb.
Still from the time of Origen the opinion that Paul wrote the epistle became prevalent in the East.
Yet it was perhaps, like those named by Origen, only an inference from the epistle itself, as if a "word of exhortation" (xiii.
If we could believe the fathers of the 5th and succeeding centuries Nicene orthodoxy prevailed in their country from the first; and in the 5th century they certainly chose for translation the works of orthodox fathers alone, such as Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory Nazianzen, Cyril of Jerusalem and Cyril of Alexandria, Athanasius, Julius of Rome, Hippolytus, Irenaeus, avoiding Origen and other fathers who were becoming suspect.
Among the Latin classical authors Juvenal, Suetonius and Pliny in well-known passages refer to the practice of physiognomy, and numerous allusions occur in the works of the Christian Fathers, especially Clement of Alexandria and Origen (for example, the familiar passage in his work against Celsus, i.
In the Greek and Latin Church the few fathers who, like Origen and Jerome, knew something of the language, were wholly dependent on their Jewish teachers, and their chief value for us is as depositaries of Jewish tradition.
Origen taught that a germ of the spiritual body is in the present body, and its development depends on the character, that perfect bliss is reached only by stages, that the evil are purified by pain, conscience being symbolized by fire, and that all, even the devil himself, will at last be saved.
The stay of Vigilantius lasted for some time; but, as was almost inevitable, he was dragged into the dispute then raging about Origen, in which he did not see fit wholly to adopt Jerome's attitude.
To these regions came St Louis and Raimon Lull, and one may in passing remember the strength of Christianity in Proconsular Africa in the days of Tertullian and Cyprian, and in Egypt under Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Athanasius.
But there are traces of fixed lessons coming into existence in the course of this century; Origen refers to the book of Job being read in Holy Week (Commentaries on Job, lib.
180) and by Origen (c. A.D.
6.3) for a decree of Hadrian respecting the Jews, but he is best known as the writer of a Dialogue (between Papiscus, an Alexandrian Jew, and Jason, who represents the author) on the witness of prophecy to Jesus Christ, which was approvingly defended by Origen against the reproaches of Celsus.
This tradition is found in Origen (Eus.
Early tradition connects Peter with Antioch, of which he is said to have been the first bishop. The first writer to mention it is Origen (Horn.
on I Peter), Origen (Hom.
Origen also relates the latter detail and adds that at his own request Peter was crucified head downwards.
evidence of ancient writers really begins, not with Origen,' but with Eusebius of Caesarea, who in his Eccl.
Apion, the Alexandrine grammarian 1 Dr Armitage Robinson, in his edition of the Philocalia (extracts made c. 358 by Basil and Gregory from Origen's writings), proved that the passage cited below is simply introduced as a parallel to an extract of Origen's; while Dom Chapman, in the Journal of Theol.
436 ff., made it probable that the passages in Origen's Comm.
33 f.) that the passage in the Philocalia is due not to its authors but to an early editor, since it is the only citation not referred to Origen.
13) - and again some twenty years later, when Origen refers to one of their leaders as having lately arrived at Caesarea (Euseb.
The great Christian School of Alexandria represented by Clement and Origen effected a durable alliance between Greek education and Christian doctrine.
Not long afterwards, his attention having been called to the spread of Origenistic opinions in Syria, he issued an edict condemning fourteen propositions drawn from the writings of the great Alexandrian, and caused a synod to be held under the presidency of Mennas (whom he had named patriarch of Constantinople), which renewed the condemnation of the impugned doctrines and anathematized Origen himself.
It is sometimes called by the name of Origen, who adopts it in his Homilies on Exodus.
His terse and pertinent letter to Origen, impugning the authority of the apocryphal book of Susanna, and Origen's wordy and uncritical answer, are both extant.
For Origen (d.
The site must have been much visited long before this, since Origen remarks that it was common knowledge, even among the infidels, that there was the birthplace of that Jesus whom the Christians worshipped (Contr.
And though Origen travelled to Rome, it was not to view the graves of dead men, but to establish relations with the living flock (Euseb.
He seems to have received the ordinary Christian scriptures; and Origen, who treats him as a notable exegete, has preserved fragments of a commentary by him on the fourth gospel (brought together by Grabe in the second volume of his Spicilegium), while Clement of Alexandria quotes from him what appears to be a passage from a commentary on Luke.
It must be noted, however, that Matthew and Levi were sometimes distinguished in early times, as by Heracleon (c. 170 A.D.), and more dubiously by Origen (c. Celsum, i.
Muratorian Canon, Irenaeus, Tertullian,Clement and Origen), all points to Luke, the companion and fellowworker of Paul (Philem.
Some of the Greeks, notably Origen, teach that even the perfect must go through fire in the next world.
Both groups had their scientific theologians who sought to vindicate their characteristic doctrines, the Adoptianist divines holding by the Aristotelian philosophy, and the Modalists by that of the Stoics; while the Trinitarians (Tertullian, Hippolytus, Origen, Novatian), on the other hand, appealed to Plato.
2 It was violently controverted by the bishops, notably by Dionysius of Alexandria, and the development in the East of the philosophical doctrine of the Trinity after Origen (from 260 to 320) was very powerfully influenced by the opposition to Sabellianism.
401, prohibited the reading of the works of Origen (see Cyprus, Church Of).
See NEO-Platonism, Origen.
i, 8) and, following him, Jerome and Origen reckon 22 books, taking Ruth with Judges and Lamentations with Jeremiah; whereas the ordinary Jewish reckoning gives 24 books, as in our Hebrew Bibles.
The theological position of Socrates, so far as he can be said to have had one, is at once disclosed in his unlimited admiration for Origen.
Closely connected with his high regard for Origen are his appreciation of science generally and the moderation of his judgment on all dogmatic questions.
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