The organism is made up of molecules which are analogous to them.
The cell-walls of plants render the entry of solid material into the organism impossible.
Every organism takes origin from a parent organism of the same kind.
Any organism may pass through a series of free-living larval stages.
An organism was to him something controlled by a formative organizing principle.
The nodules on the roots of leguminous plants are induced by the presence of a minute organism now known to do no injury to the plant.
It is within common observation that parent and offspring are alike: that the new organism resembles that from which it has come into existence: in fine, biogenesis is homogenesis.
In the former case the nature of the organism is such that it yields readily, when subjected to certain conditions, and all or nearly all the individuals become modified in the same way.
This method of study has to a large extent modified our ideas of the relative importance of the parts of such an organism as a large tree.
He looked on the actions of the individual organism and of society as determined by the needs of self-preservation.
He looked on the actions of the individual organism and of society as determined by the needs of self-preservation.
The organism is largely dependent for its vital processes upon gaseous interchanges.
Their cells during the period of incubation of the symbiotic organism are abundantly supplied with starch.
The heat attendant on these actions, and on the vital processes of the animal organism, naturally first attracted attention.
That the fixation of the gas is carried out by the fungal organism either in the soil or in the plant, and the nitrogenous substance so produced is absorbed by the organism, which is in turn consumed by the green plant.
In some cases the zoogloea thread or tube has not been seen, the organism consisting entirely of the bacterioids.
In spite of the statement that the nature of the organism is the most important factor in variation, the tendency amongst evolutionists has been to take much more account of the influence of external conditions.
The conjoined organism is, in fact, a colony or association of the protoplasmic tinits, though each unit retains its independence.
It is an integral part of an individual organization and as such the exercise of its functions must be governed by the organism as a whole.
Anaerobic-An organism that grows and thrives in an oxygen-free environment.
Today advanced gene splicing procedures allow scientists to identify and remove genes, clone them and then replant them; sometimes into the same organism from which they were removed and other times into a totally different organism.
The cell reproduced and the organism grew.
The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism in its normal and diseased states the same general principles which had been adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena.
The laws which govern particles of matter in the inorganic world govern them likewise if they are joined into an organism.
Sir Leslie Stephen finds that moral laws are the conditions needful for the good of the social organism, and are imposed as such by society upon its individual members.
- In the Hydromedusae the medusa-individual occurs, as already stated, in one of two conditions, either as an independent organism leading a true life c2 a2 in the open seas, or as a subordinate individuality in the hydroid c colony, from which it is never set free; it then becomes a mere reproductive appendage or gono- phore, losing suc FIG.
(a) The Medusa as an Independent Organism.
At the same time the world as a developed whole is regarded as an organism which is permeated with the divine Spirit, and so we may say that the world-process is a self-realization of the divine Being.
It can only be understood by subordinating the mechanical conception to the vital, by conceiving the world as one organism animated by a spiritual principle or intelligence (Weltseele).
There are three stadia, or moments, in this process of nature - (i) the mechanical moment, or matter devoid of individuality; (2) the physical moment, or matter which has particularized itself in bodies - the solar system; and (3) the organic moment, or organic beings, beginning with the geological organism - or the mineral kingdom, plants and animals.
In fact, while holding firmly by the former, Bonnet more or less modified the latter in his later writings, and, at length, he admits that a " germ " need not be an actual miniature of the organism, hut that it may be merely an " original preformation " capable of producing the latter.4 But, thus defined, the germ is neither more nor less than the "particula genitalis" of Aristotle, or the "primordium vegetale" or " ovum " of Harvey; and the " evolution " of such a germ would not be distinguishable from " epigenesis."
It is not true, for example, that a fish is a reptile arrested in its development, or that a reptile was ever a fish; but it is true that the reptile embryo, at one stage of its development, is an organism which, if it had an independent existence, must be classified among fishes; and all the organs of the reptile pass, in the course of their development, through conditions which are closely analogous to those which are permanent in some fishes.
1880), the Christians were particularly dangerous, inasmuch as they taught a unity which transcended that of the Roman Empire, and must, therefore, have been regarded as antagonistic to the existing political and social organism.
The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.
The use of the term to mean the individualized nucleated mass of living protoplasm, which, whether with or without a limiting membrane, primitively forms the proximate histological element of the body of every organism, dates from the second quarter of the i9th century.
What little differentiation can be found to exist in the protoplasm of the simple unicellular organism shows the importance of an adequate water-supply, and indeed, the dependence of life upon it.
The cells in which the fungoid organism is vigorously flourishing are exceedingly active, showing large size, brilliant nuclei, protoplasm and vacuole, all of which give signs of iptense metabolic activity.
Th~ phenomenon of irritability here concerned is well shown in certain cases where a parasitic organism gains access to a celle.g.
Botrytis, Ergot, &c. Now it is clear that if an organism gains access to all parts of a plant, and stimulates all or most of its cells to hypertrophy, we may have the latter behaving abnormallyi.e.
6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.
v.): In all cases there are two factors, the nature of the organism, which is much the most important of the two, and the nature of the conditions.
It is inconceivable that external conditions can impart to an organism the capacity to develop something that it does not already possess: can impart to it, that is, the capacity for variation in the direction of higher complexity.
Just as every crystallizable chemical substance assumes a definite and constant crystalline form which cannot be accounted for otherwise than by regarding it as one of the properties of the substance, so every living organism assumes a characteristic form which is the outcome of the properties of its protoplasm.
But whereas the crystalline form of a chemical substance is stable and fixed, the organized form of a living organism is unstable and subject to change.
Darwins expression the nature of the organism has been interpreted in the preceding paragraph to mean an inherent tendency towards higher organization; that interpretation may now be completed by adding that the organism is susceptible to, and can respond to, the action of external conditions.
AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.
"Just as a steamengine," he says in Kraft and Stoff (7th ed., p. 130), "produces motion, so the intricate organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects, which, when bound together in a unity, are called by us mind, soul, thought."
No biological generalization rests on a wider series of observations, or has been subjected to a more critical scrutiny than that every living organism has come into existence from a living portion or portions of a pre-existing organism.
The conception of homogenesis, however, does not imply an absolute similarity between parent and organism.
Homogenesis means simply that such organism comes into existence directly from a parent organism of the same race, and hence of the same species, sub-species, genus and so forth.
According to the latter theory, the offspring of a given organism may be utterly different from itself,.
But by a process of successive and continued artificial cultures under different conditions, the virus of the organism is found to become attenuated; and when this weakened virus is administered, the animal is rendered immune against further attacks.
This has taken the form of inoculating the soil with the particular organism required by the particular kind of leguminous crop. To this end the endeavour has been made to produce preparations which shall contain in portable form the organisms required by the several plants, and though, as yet, it can hardly be claimed that they have been generally successful, the work done justifies hopes that the problem will eventually be solved in a practical direction.
During the whole time the animal is living the feeder has to pay what has been termed the " life tax " - that is, so much of the food has to go to the maintenance of the animal as a living organism, independently of that which may be undergoing conversion into what will subsequently be available in the form of beef or mutton.
At low tide the limpet (being a strictly intertidal organism) is exposed to the air, and (according to trustworthy observers) quits its attachment and walks away in search of food (minute encrusting algae), and then once more returns to the identical spot, not an inch in diameter, which belongs, as it were, to it.
In such a case, the best retort was to return in all haste in order to put more energy into the huge centralized organism which the emperor alone could work.
Human experience consists, not of processes in an animal organism, but of these processes recognized as such.
Hence we are inclined to look on the imaginal disks as cellular areas that possess in a latent condition the powers of growth and development that exist in the embryo, powers that only become evident in certain special conditions of the organism.
At other times the pest is introduced, and under congenial conditions (and possibly in the absence of some other organism which keeps it in check in its native country) increases accordingly.
But this specific application is dependent upon a prolonged racial preparation of the organism to respond in this particular way.
They are sometimes called the histogenetic bodies or proteids, because they are essential to the building up of the animal organism.
They also occur in the fluids of the living organism.
These cilia pass on any diatoms and -_„ other minute organism which come within their range of action to the -_-„ capacious oval mouth, which appears as a mere 10 --- deepening of the gutter in the middle line.
It became isolated and detached, why or with what advantage to the organism it is difficult to say, and at that period of Arachnidan development the great ventral nerve cords occupied a more lateral position than they do at present.
Degenerative simplicity is never uniformly distributed over all the structures of the organism.
The reduction of the organism to seven leg-bearing somites, of which the first pair, as in so many Eu-arachnida, are chelate, is a form of degeneration connected with a peculiar quasi-parasitic habit resembling that of the crustacean Laemodipoda.
At the opening sitting (May 30) Czechs, Poles and Ruthenes defined their national attitude in formal resolutions, and the Slovene leader, Father Korosec, in the name of the Yugoslays, demanded " the union of all the Yugoslav territories of the Monarchy in an independent state organism, free from the rule of any foreign nation, and resting on a democratic basis, under the sceptre of the Habsburg-Lorraine Dynasty."
The astonishing colours and grotesque forms of some animals and plants which the museum zoologists gravely described without comment were shown by these observers of living nature to have their significance in the economy of the organism possessing them; and a general doctrine was recognized, to the effect that no part or structure of an organism is without definite use and adaptation, being designed by the Creator for the benefit of the creature to which it belongs, or else for the benefit, amusement or instruction of his highest creature - man.
According to that theory, every organ, every part, colour and peculiarity of an organism, must either be of benefit to that organism itself or have been so to its ancestors: no peculiarity of structure or general conformation, no habit or instinct in any organism, can be supposed to exist for the benefit or amusement of another organism, not even for the delectation of man himself.
The efforts of the best minds in zoology had been directed for thirty years or more to ascertaining with increased accuracy and minuteness the structure, microscopic and gross, of all possible forms of animals, and not only of the adult structure but of the steps of development of that structure in the growth of each kind of organism from the egg to maturity.
It amounts toa new and unprecedented factor in organic development, external to the organism and yet produced by the activity of the organism upon which it permanently reacts.
not a composite organism)..
The healthy bone marrow reacts with remarkable rapidity to the demand for more blood cells which may be required by the organism; its reactions and variations in disease are very striking.
The part played by the thyroid body in the internal economy of the organism has also received much attention.
The human organism is far too complex to enable us to understand the true significance of diseased processes.
What do we mean when we talk of a healthy organism?
The use of the term " pathological physiology " may at first appear strange, for if we define physiology as the sum of the normal functions of the body or organism, it may be hard to see how there can be a physiology which is pathological.
Influences Working For Evil Upon The Organism (I) Malnutrition.
If the eyeball be kept perfectly clean and no organism be admitted from the outside then ulceration will not follow.
This wasting may be general or local - continuously from the embryonic period there is this natural process of displacement and decay of tissues going on in the growing organism.
There can be little doubt that all unnatural and artificial modes of life tend to deterioration of the powers of resistance of the organism to disease.
Every living organism, animal and vegetable, tends to maintain a normal state of health; it is when the natural laws of health are violated that the liability to disease begins to assert itself.
The living organism may be regarded as constantly engaged in a warfare with these silent and apparently insignificant messengers of destruction and death, with the result that too often the battle ends in favour of the attacking enemy.
Assuming, with Sedgwick and others, this amassed and bound condition of the tissues to be true, it would be necessary to reject the cell-doctrine in pathology altogether, and to regard the living basis of the organism as a continuous substance whose parts are incapable of living independently of the whole.
We do not now concur with the old view that inflammation was essentially an injurious process; rather do we look upon it as beneficial to the organism.
In the various reactions of the tissues against the exciting cause of the injury we see a striking example of a beautifully organized plan of attack and defence on the part of the organism.
In some of the infective conditions the conflict fortifies the organism against future attacks of the same nature, as for example in the immunity following many of the acute infective diseases.
We have already compared the body to a social community, each constituent element of which - the cell - lives its own life but subordinates its individuality to the good of the whole organism.
Haemosiderin in the normal process of haemolysis is stored up in the cells of certain organs until required by the organism for the formation of fresh haemoglobin.
In extraneous pigmentation we have coloured substances either in a solid or fluid state, gaining entrance into the organism and accumulating in certain tissues.
They were unable to verify any direct connexion between its production and the organism of tubercle.
Response Of Tissues To Stimulation A stimulus may be defined as every change of the external agencies acting upon an organism; and if a stimulus come in contact with a body possessing the property of irritability, i.e.
Stimuli comprise chemical, mechanical, thermal, photic and electrical changes in the environment of the organism.
phagocytic reaction on the part of the organism against irritants.
Each organism possesses within itself the means of protection against its parasitical enemies, and these properties are more in evidence when the organism is in perfect health than when it is debilitated.
One chief means employed by nature in accomplishing this object is the investment of those parts of the organism liable to be attacked with an armour-like covering of epidermis, periderm, bark, &c. The grape is proof against the inroads of the yeastplant so long as the husk is intact, but on the husk being injured the yeast-plant finds its way into the interior and sets up vinous fermentation of its sugar.
Its serum in course of time is found to contain something (antitoxin) which has the power of neutralizing the toxin secreted by the organism when parasitical upon the body.
This fact gave rise in ancient times to the false idea that the tapeworm originated from the union of these segments; and in modern times it has led to the view that the tapeworm is not a segmented organism (the monozoic view), but is a colony composed of the scolex which arises from the embryo and of the proglottides, which are asexually produced buds that, upon or before attaining their full size and maturity, become separated, grow, and, in some cases, live freely for a time, just as the segments of a strobilating jelly-fish grow, separate and become sexual individuals (the polyzoic view).
Whether this view is soundly based is discussed below; the fact remains, however, that a tapeworm is, with few and rare exceptions, not directly comparable at all points with a liver-fluke or indeed with any other organism.
By a process of infolding, the thicker end is partially invaginated, the middle portion or " hind-body " and the organism may now present a superficial likeness to a cercaria.
We therefore regard the body of a Cestode as a single organism within which the gonads have become segmented, and the segmentation of the body as a secondary phenomenon associated with diffuse osmotic feeding in the narrow intestinal canal.
The bacterium, Clostridium pasteurianum, common in most soils, is able to utilize free nitrogen under anaerobic conditions, and an organism known as Azotobacter chroococcum and some others closely allied to it, have similar powers which they can exercise under aerobic conditions.
Cultures of the typhoid organism planted at a depth of 18 in.
In the winter months the deeper layers of the soil act as a shelter to the organism, which again grows towards the surface during the summer.
Depriving the organism of any of these essential conditions for its existence in the soil will secure our best weapon for defence.
To this end he examined such immediate vital products as blood, bile and urine; he analysed the juices of flesh, establishing the composition of creatin and investigating its decomposition products, creatinin and sarcosin; he classified the various articles of food in accordance with the special function performed by each in the animal economy, and expounded the philosophy of cooking; and in opposition to many of the medical opinions of his time taught that the heat of the body is the result of the processes of combustion and oxidation performed within the organism.
5) is remarkable in that two larvae (the so-called Diporpae) unite and fuse permanently into an X-shaped organism.
The compound organism now develops two sets of inter-connected genitalia and becomes a Diplozoon.
It escapes into the adjacent tissue and there gives rise either to one or more generations of rediae or at once to a new type of organism - the cercaria.
Comte's immense superiority over such praeRevolutionary utopians as the Abbe Saint Pierre, no less than over the group of post-revolutionary utopians, is especially visible in this firm grasp of the cardinal truth that the improvement of the social organism can only be effected by a moral development, and never by any changes in mere political mechanism, or any violences in the way of an artificial redistribution of wealth.
In the Principles of Sociology Spencer's most influential ideas have been that of the social organism, of the origination of religion out of the worship of ancestral ghosts, of the natural antagonism between nutrition and reproduction, industrialism and warfare.
Neither by geometrical, nor physical, nor metaphysical principles had he succeeded in reaching and grasping the infinite and the spiritual, or in elucidating their relation to man and man's organism, though he had caught glimpses of facts and methods which he thought only required confirmation and development.
An animal may be defined as a living organism, the protoplasm of which does not secrete a cellulose cell-wall, and which requires for its existence proteid material obtained from the living or dead bodies of existing plants or animals.
The first experiment he made with this new organism was brilliantly successful.
But if complete, this Wissenschaftslehre must be able to deduce the whole organism of cognition from certain fundamental axioms, themselves unproved and incapable of proof; only thus can we have a system of reason.
Though forming a distinct and separate organism Cluny claimed to be, and was recognized as, a body of Benedictine houses; but from that time onwards arose a number of independent bodies, or "orders," which took the Benedictine Rule as the basis of their life.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
Comte, Spencer, Bagehot, Durkheim and Giddings, for example, refer to it, if at all, only briefly and incidentally; they conceive society as an organism, or at all events as a growing whole, no one part or force being the cause of all others, and all interacting; society is not the product of any agreement or of force alone, but of a vast variety of interests, desires and needs.
Every change in a living organism involves adaptation; for in all cases life consists in a continuous adjustment of internal to external relations.
Every living organism reacts to its environment; if the reaction is unfavourable, disability leading to ultimate extinction is the result.
It takes a comprehensive view of all the plants which cover the earth, from the minutest organism, only visible by the aid of the microscope, to the most gigantic productions of the tropics.
But besides the innumerable characters which are visible and measurable, there are probably thousands which we cannot measure or which have not been discovered, since every part of the organism enjoys its gradual and independent evolution.
It is certainly a very striking fact that wherever we have been able to trace genetic series, either of invertebrates or vertebrates, in closely sequent geological horizons, or life zones, we find strong proof of evolution through extremely gradual mutation simultaneously affecting many parts of each organism, as set forth above.
The dynamical series of stages in nature, the forms in which the ideal structure of nature is realized, are matter, as the equilibrium of the fundamental expansive and contractive forces; light, with its subordinate processes - magnetism, electricity, and chemical action; organism, with its component phases of reproduction, irritability and sensibility.'
The latter organism, in certain phases, very closely resembles a Spirochaete.
Laveran and Mesnil (27) gave the name Piroplasma donovani to Leishman's form,' and there is no doubt that the parasites are closely allied to that type of organism.
This is the case with the celebrated organism first described by Schaudinn and E.
Nevertheless the resemblance between the biology of this organism in relation to syphilis (as regards mode of infection, habitat, &c.) and that of Trypanosoma equiperdum, the cause of dourine or " horse-syphilis," may not be without significance.
Plimmer, " The Trypanosoma brucei, the organism found in Nagana or the Tsetsefly disease," Quart.
One of the most important contributions to the discussion is that of Sir Leslie Stephen (Science of Ethics), who elaborated a theory of the "social organism" in relation to the individual.
Instead, therefore, of the criterion of "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," Stephen has that of the "health of the organism."
In the Middle and Western states the township is a more artificial organism than the rural town of New England.
The county is to be found in every state of the Union, but its importance varies inversely with the position held in the system of local government by that smaller and older organism, the town.
To put one extreme case, about the soul he could think at first in the Eudemus like Plato that it is imprisoned in the body, and long afterwards in the De Anima like himself that it is the immateriate essence of the material bodily organism.
Still a man is not the only organism; and every organism has a soul, whose immediate organ is the spirit (7rvEwµa), a body which - analogous to a body diviner than the four so-called elements, namely the aether, the element of the stars - gives to the organism its nonterrestrial vital heat, whether it be a plant or an animal.
In an ascending scale, a plant is an organism with a nutritive soul; an animal is a higher organism with a nutritive, sensitive, orectic and locomotive soul; a man is the highest organism with a nutritive, sensitive, orectic, locomotive and rational soul.
Sensation is not the reception of the selfsame essence of an external body, but one's perception of one's sentient organism as affected, and especially of its organs resisting one another, e.g.
one's lips, hands, &c., preventing one another from occupying the same place at the same moment within one's organism.
His theory of the world and of humanity is universal and idealistic. The world itself and mankind, its highest component, constitute an organism (Gliedbau), and the universe is therefore a divine organism (Wesengliedbau).
It is a top-shaped, free-swimming organism provided with a preoral band of cilia,.
- Trichoplax adhaerens, an organism considered, on the Gastraea-hypothesis, to be closely allied to the progenitors of the Platyelmia.
Such an organism is found in the peculiar Trichoplax, Lohmanniella, &c. The early stages of most animals pass through such a stage, which is known as a ” planula."
In connexion with this Biran treats most of the obscure problems which arise in dealing with conscious experience, such as the mode by which the organism is cognized, the mode by which the organism is distinguished from extra-organic things, and the nature of those general ideas by which the relations of things are known to us - cause, power, force, &c.
Aristotle had imputed to all living beings a soul, though to plants only in the sense of a vegetative, not a sensitive, activity, and in Moleschott's time many scientific men still accepted some sort of vital principle, not exactly soul, yet over and above bodily forces in organisms. Moleschott, like Lotze, not only resisted the whole hypothesis of a vital principle, but also, on the basis of Lavoisier's discovery that respiration is combustion, argued that the heat so produced is the only force developed in the organism, and that matter therefore rules man.
" In man, as in brutes," said he, " there is no proof that any state of consciousness is the cause of change in the nature of the matter of the organism "; so that " we are conscious automata."
The second question he answered from his parallelistic metaphysics by deducing that even within the organism there is only a constant dependency of sensation on nervous process without causation, because the nervous process is physical but the sensation psychical.
This answer supposed that the whole physical process from the action of the external stimulus on the nervous system to the reaction of the organism on the external world is one series, while the conscious process beginning with sensation is only parallel and as it were left high and dry.
But his substitute was his own hypothesis of panpsychism, from which he deduced a "cosmorganic " evolution from a " cosmorganic " or original condition of the world as a living organism into the inorganic, by the principle of tendency to stability.
Sensation, as Aristotle said, is not of itself: it is the apprehension of a sensible object in the organism.
When Green said that " Nature is the system of related appearances, and related appearances are impossible apart from the action of an intelligence," he was speaking as a pure Kantian, who could be answered only by the Aristotelian position that Nature consists of related bodies beyond appearances, and by the realistic supposition that there, , h is a tactical sense of related bodies, of the inter-resisting members of the organism, from which reason infers similar related bodies beyond sense.
As, however, he does not suppose that we have a direct perception of something resisting the organism, such as Hamilton maintained, it becomes necessary to state exactly what he means by " attuition."
He vacillated a great deal about our mode of perceiving the external world; but his final view (edition of Reid's works, note D*) consisted in supposing that (1) sensation is an apprehension of secondary qualities purely as affections of the organism viewed as ego; (2) perception in general is an apprehension of primary qualities as relations of sensations in the organism viewed as non-ego; while (3) a special perception of a so-called " secundo-primary " quality consists in " the consciousness of a resisting something external to our organism."
The common tenet of the whole school is that without inference we immediately perceive the external world, at all events as a resisting something external to our organism.
There are three reasons against it, and for the view that we perceive a sensible object within, and infer an external object without, the organism.
Secondly, there are so-called " subjective sensations," without any external object as stimulus, most commonly in vision, but also in touch, which is liable to formication, or the feeling of creeping in the skin, and to horripilation, or the feeling of bristling in the hair; yet, even in " subjective sensations," we perceive something sensible, which, however, must be within, and not outside, the organism.
a table, we feel our organism pressed and pressing; we do not feel the table pressing and pressed, but infer it.
The Scottish School never realized that every sensation of the five senses is a perception of a sensible object in the bodily organism; and that touch is a perception, not only of single sensible pressure, but also of double sensible pressure, a perception of our bodily members sensibly pressing and pressed by one another, from which, on the recurrence of a single sensible pressure, we infer the pressure of an external thing for the first time.
This illogical hypothesis, which consists of incautiously passing from the truth that the sensible object perceived is not external but within the organism to the non-sequitur that therefore it is within the mind, derived what little plausibility it ever possessed from three prejudices: the first, the scholastic dogma that the sensible object is a species sensibilis, or immaterial sensible form received from the external thing; the second, the Cartesian a priori argument that the soul as thinking thing can perceive nothing but its own ideas; the third, the common assumption of a sense of sensations.
green, which is in the organism, but has never been proved to be a mental fact, or not to be a material fact.
So touch perceives not a sensation of pressure, but a pressure which is a material fact in the organism.
But the primary sense of touch perceives one bodily member causing pressure on another, reciprocally, within the organism, from which we infer similar particular pressures caused between the organism and the external world; but without needing the supposed stupendous belief and assumption of the uniformity of Nature, which is altogether ignored in the inferences of the ordinary man.
influences and from the domination of lay sovereignties; to convert the Church thus regenerated, spiritualized, and detached from the world, into an organism which would be submissive to the absolute authority of the papal see, and to concentrate at Rome all its energies and jurisdictions; to establish the supremacy of the Roman see over all the Christian Churches, and win over to the Roman Church the Churches of the Byzantine Empire, Africa and Asia; to establish the temporal domain of St Peter, not only by taking possession of Rome and Italy, but also by placing all the crowns of Europe under the supreme sovereignty of the popes, or even in direct vassalage to them; and, finally, to maintain unity of faith in Christendom and defend it against the attacks of unbelievers, Mussulmans, heretics and pagans - these were the main features of his scheme.
Although, among other obstacles, the popes of the 12th century had experienced some difficulty in subduing the inhabitants of the city, which was the seat and centre of the of the Christian world, their monarchy did not cease to gain in authority, solidity and prestige, and the work of centralization, which was gradually making them masters of the whole ecclesiastical organism, was accomplished steadily and without serious interruption.
Mistress of the entire Christian organism, Rome thus gained control of international education, and the mendicant monks who formed her devoted militia lost no time in monopolizing the professorial chairs.
The socialistic idea, with which the " Democratie Chretienne " had identified itself both in France and Belgium, regards numbers as the centre of gravity of the whole state organism.
In modern times the best attested premonitions are those relating to events about to occur in the subject's own organism.
The power of prediction possessed by the subject in such cases may be explained in two ways: (i) As due to an abnormal power of perception possessed by certain persons, when in the hypnotic trance, of the working of their own pathological processes; or (2) more probably, as the result of self-suggestion; the organism is "set" to explode at a given date in a crisis, or to develop the fore-ordained symptoms.
The fungal part of the organism nearly always consists of a number of the Discomycetes or Pyrenomycetes, while the algal portion is a member of the Schizophyceae (Cyanophyceae or Blue-green Algae) or of the Green Algae; only in a very few cases is the fungus a member of the Basidiomycetes.
They owe their capacity to live under the most inhospitable conditions to the dual nature of the organism, and to their capacity to withstand extremes of heat, cold and drought without destruction.
It is a special case of growth, and consists of an increase of living substance in such fashion that the new substance is either set free as a new individual, or, whilst remaining attached to the parent organism, separated by some sort of partition so as to have a subordinate individuality.
ava, up, (30Xri, a throw), the biological term for the building up in an organism of more complex from simpler substances, constructive metabolism.
From the surfaces of all objects there are continually flowing thin filmy images exactly copying the solid body whence they originate; and these images by direct impact on the organism produce (we need not care to ask how) the phenomena of vision.
The latter Mansel's psychology reduces to consciousness of our organism as extended; with the former is given consciousness of free will and moral obligation.
Sir William Dawson's name is especially associated with the Eozoon canadense, which in 1864 he described as an organism having the structure of a foraminifer.
His views on the subject were contested at the time, and have since been disproved, the so-called organism being now regarded as a mineral structure.
Regarding it as an organism which represented the simplest form of life, Huxley about 1868 named it Bathybius Haeckelii.
Multiplication takes place in some cases by the endogenous formation of zoospores, the organism having come to rest; in others by longitudinal division, when the organism is still motile.
No unicellular Rhodophyceae are known, although a flagellate organism, Rhodomonas, has recently been described as possessed of the same red colouring matter.
He laid much stress on the unity of the organism in every stage of its existence, with the resulting correlation of variations, so that the favouring of one particular variation entailed modifications of correlated structures.
He showed how different varieties in a species, or species in a genus, tended to display parallel variation, clearly indicating that the range and direction of variation were limited or determined by the nature of the organism.
He insisted that the great powers of increase of all organisms led to a tremendous struggle for existence, and that variability extended to every part and organ of every organism; that the variability was large in amount in proportion to the size of the part affected, and occurred in a considerable proportion of the individuals of those large and dominant species which might be supposed to be breaking up into new species.
Wallace, whilst insisting that the range of observed and measured variation was much larger in proportion to the size of the organisms or parts of organism affected than was generally believed, leaned to the Darwinian view in excluding from the normal factors in the origin of species variations of the extremer ranges of magnitude.
When the cells of the morula stage of an embryo are shaken asunder, each, instead of forming the appropriate part of a single organism, may form a complete new organism.
And similarly in the development of a complicated organism, the suppression or doubling of a single cell or group of cells may bring about striking differences in the symmetry of the adult, or the reduction or increase in the number of metameric organs.
A slight change in the structure or activity of a gland, by altering the internal secretion, may produce widespread alterations even in an adult organism; and we have good reason to suppose that, if compatible with viability, such minute changes would have even a greater ultimate effect if they occurred in an embryo.
The organism is not a passive medium; the amount and nature of the response it makes to the action of environment depends on its own qualities, and these qualities, on any theory of inheritance, pass from generation to generation.
Even the results of mutilation involve an intrinsic factor, for they range, according to the organ and organism affected, from complete regeneration to the most imperfect healing.
The interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors also differs with the age of the organism affected: the more nearly adult it may be, the more direct appears to be the influence of the environment; the more nearly embryonic the organism may be, the less direct is the result of a force impressed from without.
The old organism is more stable and responds in obvious ways to direct assaults from without; the young organism is at once less stable and more profoundly modified by environmental change, replying in terms less easy to predict from knowledge of the nature and amount of the impinging agency.
Every organism is an individual, its different parts, organs and functions being associated in a degree of intimacy that varies, but that corresponds roughly with the integration of the individual and its place in the ascending scales of animal or vegetable life.
The various parts of a living organism affect each other in adult life and during growth.
A difference in calibre, elasticity or branching of a blood vessel, the smallest variation in a nerve or group of vessel-cells, any anatomical or physiological divergence, is reflected throughout the organism.
measure of the individual variability of the organism which produces them.
Their experimental work shows that many facts of inheritance correspond with the theory that the essential fabric of an organism is a mosaic of unit characters.
Such units frequently occur in pairs, one member of the pair being characterized by the presence, the other by the absence of a problematical body at least comparable with a ferment, the result of the presence or absence being a notable modification of the whole organism or of parts of it.
A similar kind of segregation may take place in the formation of the repeated parts of an organism, so that symmetrical repetition may be compared with normal heredity, and be due to the presence of similar factors in the divisions of the embryonic cells, whilst the differentiation of repeated parts may be due to the unequal distribution of such factors and be comparable with variation.
Obviously variations depend on the constitution of the varying organism; a modification, whether it be large or small, is a modification of an already definite and limited structure.
Finally, it is important to remember that the fundamental characteristic of a living organism is its power of response to environment, a response or series of responses being necessary in a continuous environment for the normal facies of the organism to appear, and necessary in a shifting environment if the organism is to change suitably and not to perish.
With regard to adaptations, it is becoming more and more apparent, as experimental knowledge advances, that it is a fundamental property of every living organism in every stage of its existence to display adaptive response to its environment.
The disciplined philosopher, who had devoted himself to the task of comprehending the organism of the state, had no patience with feebler or more mercurial minds who recklessly laid hands on established ordinances, and set them aside where they contravened humanitarian sentiments.
Reason convinced that the world and the soul are alike rational observes the external world, mental phenomena, and specially the nervous organism, as the meeting ground of body and mind.
Thought in its primary form is, as it were, thoroughly transparent and absolutely fluid, free and mutually interpenetrable in every part - the spirit in its seraphic scientific life, before creation had produced a natural world, and thought had risen to independent existence in the social organism.
Philosophy alone sees God revealing Himself in the ideal organism of thought as it were a possible deity prior to the world and to any relation between God and actuality; in the natural world, as a series of materialized forces and forms of life; and in the spiritual world as the human soul, the legal and moral order of society, and the creations of art, religion and philosophy.
material culture it had passed through the elementary stages and was a fully established though not, perhaps, a very advanced organism.
Once acquired the habitué depends on the drug for a comfortable existence, and as the organism becomes quickly tolerant of the alkaloid the original dose no longer suffices.
As the living organism includes something of mechanism - the skeleton, for example - so an organic logic doubtless includes determinations of formal consistency.
The skeleton is meaningless apart from reference to its function in the life of an organism, yet there are laws of skeleton structure which can be studied with most advantage if other characters of the organism are relegated to the background.
The position of the search for truth, for which knowledge is a growing organism in which thought needs, so to speak, to feed on something other than itself, is conditioned in the view of logic wholly metaphysical.
There is, perhaps, an increasing tendency to recognize that the organism of knowledge is a thing which from any single viewpoint must be seen in perspective.
It is no longer merely the scene for the drama of the soul and God, nor is man independent of it, but man and nature constitute an organism, humanity being a part of the vaster whole.
The social organism of the Aryan tribe did not probably differ essentially from that of most communities at that primitive stage of civilization; whilst the body of the people - the Vis (or aggregate of Vaisyas) - would be mainly occupied with agricultural and pastoral pursuits, two professional classes - those of the warrior and the priest - had already made good their claim to social distinction.
In the same way the disease caused by the mildew organism may be counteracted by a slight addition of alcohol and tannin.
He does, however, lay much stress upon the naturally social character of man; and this points forward to that treatment of morality as a function of the social organism which characterizes modern ethical theory.
For the rest, Spencer's doctrine is valuable more as stimulating to thought by its originality and width of view than as offering direct solutions of ethical problems. Following up the same line of thought, Leslie Stephen with less brilliance but more attention to scientific method has worked out in his Science of Ethics (1882) the conception of morality as a function of the social organism: while Professor S.
PALAEOSPONDYLUS, a small fish-like organism, of which the skeleton is found fossil in the Middle Old Red Sandstone From British Museum Guide to Fossil Reptiles and Fishes, by permission of the Trustees.
All psychical states may, according to him, be treated as incidents of the correspondence between the organism and its environment.
By inoculation with increasing doses of these the resistance of the organism is greatly increased and the invading microbes destroyed.
The high temperature characteristic of this condition is no doubt injurious to the body itself, but it is frequently more so to the microbe which has invaded the organism; and thus fever, instead of now being regarded as a morbid condition to be suppressed by every means in our power, is considered to be a reaction of the organism tending to protect it by destroying the infection.
Fever is not to be looked upon as an unmitigated evil, to be removed if possible, but rather as a defensive mechanism by which the organism may prevent invasion from noxicus microbes.
Nevertheless, as in a campaign the general's plan may be spoiled by too hasty or too eager action on the part of some of his troops, so the defensive arrangement carried to excess may prove injurious or fatal to the organism.
After the struggle between the organism and the microbes is over, even when it has ended victoriously for the former, injuries are left behind which require repair.
Therapeutic measures which are commonly adopted in the treatment of a cold have for their object, to destroy the microbes before they penetrate fairly into the organism, and to restore the balance of the circulation and increase the strength of the invaded parts.
Both inflammation and fever are protective processes calculated to defend the organism against the attacks of microbes.
But protective processes misdirected or carried to excess may become injurious or even dangerous to the organism.
The healthy organism can adapt itself to great varieties both in regard to the quality and quantity of food; but when health begins to fail much care may be required, and many ailments arise from dyspepsia.
The state is, therefore, an artificial organism for the promotion of individual and collective good.
respiration; the disciples of Hippocrates, without much modifying this primitive belief, explained the maintenance of vital warmth to be the function of the breath within the organism.
In Trendelenburg's treatment of the state, as the ethical organism in which the individual (the potential man) may be said first to emerge into actuality, we may trace his nurture on the best ideas of Hellenic antiquity.
Lister put forth similar ideas about the same time; and Billroth came forward in 1874 with the extravagant view that the various bacteria are only different states of one and the same organism which he called Cocco-bacteria septica.
When Pasteur in 1857 showed that the lactic fermentation depends on the presence of an organism, it was already known from the researches of Schwann (1837) and Helmholtz (1843) that fermentation and putrefaction are intimately connected with the presence of organisms derived from the air, and that the preservation of putrescible substances depends on this principle.
In 1862 Pasteur placed it beyond reasonable doubt that the ammoniacal fermentation of urea is due to the action of a minute Schizomycete; in 1864 this was confirmed by van Tieghem, and in 1874 by Cohn, who named the organism Micrococcus ureae.
In 1862 Pasteur repeated and extended such experiments, and paved the way for a complete explanation of the anomalies; Cohn in 1872 published confirmatory results; and it became clear that no putrefaction can take place without bacteria or some other living organism.
Long before any clear ideas as to the relations of Schizomycetes to fermentation and disease were possible, various thinkers at different times had suggested that resemblances existed between the phenomena of certain diseases and those of fermentation, and the idea that a virus or contagium might be something of the nature of a minute organism capable of spreading and 1 Cladothrix dichotoma, for example, which is ordinarily a branched, filamentous, sheathed form, at certain seasons breaks up into a number of separate cells which develop a tuft of cilia and escape from the sheath.
Koch in 1876 published his observations on Davaine's bacilli, placed beyond doubt their causal relation to splenic fever, discovered the spores and the saprophytic phase in the life-history of the organism, and cleared up important points in the whole question (figs.
In 1870 Pasteur had proved that a disease of silkworms was due to an organism of the nature of a bacterium; and in 1871 Oertel showed that a Micrococcus already known to exist in diphtheria is intimately concerned in producing that disease.
The cilia may be present during a short period only in the life of a Schizomycete, and their number may vary according to the medium on which the organism is growing.
Hardy has shown that such a destruction of part of the filament may be effected by the attacks of another organism.
W.) A very characteristic method of reproduction is that of sporeformation, and these minute reproductive bodies, which represent a resting stage of the organism, are now known in many spores.
None of these systems, which are chiefly due to the medical bacteriologists, has maintained its position, owing to the difficulty of applying the characters and to the fact that such properties are physiological and liable to great fluctuations in culture, because a given organism may vary greatly in such respects according to its degree of vitality at the time, its age, the mode of nutrition observed; or, at any rate, the strictest rules should be followed in accepting the evidence adduced to render the union of any forms probable.
The principal objections to this system are the following: - (1) The extraordinary difficulty in obtaining satisfactory preparations showing the cilia, and the discovery that these motile organs are not formed on all substrata, or are only developed during short periods of activity while the organism is young and vigorous, render this character almost nugatory.
Mintz and others had proved that nitrification was promoted by some organism, when Winogradsky hit on the happy idea of isolating the organism by using gelatinous silica, and so avoiding the difficulties which Warington had shown to exist with the organism in presence of organic nitrogen, owing to its refusal to nitrify on gelatine or other nitrogenous media.
This iron deposit is not merely mechanical but is due to the physiological activity of the organism which, according to Winogradsky, liberates energy by oxidizing ferrous and ferric oxide in its protoplasm - a view not accepted by H.
Considerable advances in our knowledge of the various chromogenic bacteria have been made by the studies of Beyerinck, Lankester, Engelmann, Ewart and others, and have assumed exceptional importance owing to the discovery that Bacteriopurpurin - the red colouring matter contained in certain sulphur bacteria - absorbs certain rays of solar energy, and enables the organism to utilize the energy for its own life-purposes.
If we now streak these plates with an organism, e.g.
The cause of this luminosity is Micrococcus phosphorens, an immotile round, or almost round organism.
This organism is quite distinct from that causing the luminosity of marine fish.
The idea that this film of bacteria oxidizes the alcohol beneath by merely condensing atmospheric oxygen in its interstices, after the manner of spongy platinum, has long been given up; but the explanation of the action as an incomplete combustion, depending on the peculiar respiration of these organisms - much as in the case of nitrifying and sulphur bacteria - is not clear, though the discovery that the acetic bacteria will not only oxidize alcohol to acetic acid, but further oxidize the latter to CO 2 and 01-1 2 supports the view that the alcohol is absorbed by the organism and employed as its respirable substance.
Bacterial diseases in the higher plants have been described, but the subject requires careful treatment, since several points suggest doubts as to the organism described being the of the disease referred to their agency.
The microscope magnifies the distance traversed as well as the organism, and although a bacterium which covers 9 - ro cm.
Soc., 18 93, p. 1 54) has suggested yet another source of energy, in the bombardment of these minute masses by the molecules of the environment, the velocity of which is sufficient to drive them well into the organism, and carry energy in of which they can avail themselves.
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