Organic-compounds sentence example

organic-compounds
  • Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.
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  • Many organic compounds of boron are known; thus, from the action of the trichloride on ethyl alcohol or on methyl alcohol, ethyl borate B(OC2H5)3 and methyl borate B(OCH 3) 3 are obtained.
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  • Those Fungi which are saprophytic can only live when supplied with organic compounds of some complexity, which they derive from decomposing animal or vegetable matter.
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  • The organic compounds of the latter are absorbed by the protruding fungal filaments, which take the place of root-hairs, the tree ceasing to develop the latter.
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  • This section includes a brief history of the subject, and proceeds to treat of the principles underlying the structure and interrelations of organic compounds.
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  • The analysis of organic compounds is also noticed.
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  • The gradual accumulation of data referring to organic compounds brought in its train a revival of the discussion of atoms and molecules.
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  • From a detailed study of organic compounds Gerhardt had promulgated a " theory of types " which represented a fusion of the older radical and type theories.
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  • Such isomerism, named stereoisomerism (q.v.),hasbeen assiduously developed during recentyears; it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry.
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  • Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.
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  • It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
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  • At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital force; and the difficulty of artificially realizing this action explained the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic compounds.
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  • Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
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  • Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he concluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small measure, the conception of the structure of compounds.
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  • Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.
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  • The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.
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  • The carboxyl group constitutes another convenient startingpoint for the orientation of many types of organic compounds.
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  • From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.
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  • The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.
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  • Messinger, and we may hope that with subsequent improvements it may be adapted to all classes of organic compounds.
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  • Colour and Constitution.-In this article a summary of the theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour of organic compounds with their constitution will be given, and the reader is referred to the article Colour for the physical explanation of this property, and to Vision for the physiological and psychological bearings.
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  • Tetranitromethane, C(N02)4, obtained by adding nitroform to a hot mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, is a crystalline solid which melts at 13° C. Chlorpicrin, CC1 3 NO 2, is a liquid of suffocating odour obtained by the action of nitric acid and chloride of lime on many organic compounds.
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  • Prior to 1830, little was known of the process other than that organic compounds generally yielded tarry and solid matters, but the discoveries of Liebig and Dumas (of acetone from acetates), of Mitscherlich (of benzene from benzoates) and of Persoz (of methane from acetates and lime) brought the operation into common laboratory practice.
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  • Acetylene is readily decomposed by heat, polymerizing under its influence to form an enormous number of organic of compounds; indeed the gas, which can itself be directly prepared from its constituents, carbon and hydrogen, under the influence of the electric arc, can be made the startingpoint for the construction of an enormous number of different organic compounds of a complex character.
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  • It is found that most organic compounds containing the grouping CH 3 CO.
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  • Huntingdon examined by photographic methods the absorption spectra of a great number of organic compounds.
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  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.
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  • Custom has to some extent restricted its use to inorganic chemistry; the corresponding property of organic compounds being generally termed isomerism.
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  • Now, in this case, the first definition expresses much better the whole chemical behaviour of ozone, which is that of "energetic" oxygen, while the second only includes the fact of higher vapour-density; but in applying the first definition to organic compounds and calling isobutylene "butylene with somewhat more energy" hardly anything is indicated, and all the advantages of the atomic conception - the possibility of exactly predicting how many isomers a given formula includes and how you may get them - are lost.
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  • As an example another series of organic compounds may be taken, viz.
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  • Jager in complicated organic compounds.
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  • It exhibits itself in the peculiar behaviour of some organic compounds containing the group - C CO.
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  • Although algae generally are able to use carbonic acid gas as a, source of carbon, some algae, like certain of the higher plants, are capable of utilizing organic compounds for this purpose.
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  • Some algae, however, seem to flourish better in the presence of organic compounds.
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  • Villiger (Be y ., 1901, 34, pp. 2679, 3612) showed that many organic compounds (ethers, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, &c.) behave towards acids, particularly the more complex acids, very much like bases and yield crystallized salts in which quadrivalent oxygen must be assumed as the basic element.
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  • Many organic compounds containing antimony are known.
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  • It is very hygroscopic, dissolves sulphur readily and acts on organic compounds in a manner similar to sulphuric acid.
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  • The boiling points of the normal alcohols increase regularly about for each CH, increment; this is characteristic of all homologous series of organic compounds.
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  • He also devised a method of great value in the quantitative analysis of organic substances for the estimation of nitrogen, while the classification, of organic compounds into homologous series was advanced as one consequence of his researches into the acids generated by the oxidation of the alcohols.
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  • It melts readily, and on cooling resolidifies to a brown mass, which at moderately high temperatures gives off oxygen and leaves a residue of a basic lead salt; for this reason fused lead chromate is sometimes made use of in the analysis of organic compounds.
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  • When taken by the mouth, however, no such actions are seen, owing to the fact that very minute quantities are absorbed and that these become stored in the liver, where they are converted into organic compounds and ultimately go to form haemoglobin.
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  • Owing to their strong affinity for the hydrogen of organic compounds they often act as bleachers and deodorizers.
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  • The Environment Agency issued two new reports covering volatile organic compounds and new Soil Guidance Values covering contamination from toluene and ethyl benzene.
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  • Project 7: Title The gas phase kinetics and mechanisms of halogenated organic compounds.
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  • Ozone is formed from the reaction of volatile organic compounds with sunshine.
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  • Sunlight usually provides the energy for the production of organic compounds from inorganic compounds.
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  • The " lead " used in 4 star are organic compounds of lead - tetra ethyl lead and tetra methyl lead.
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  • Structural isomerism occurs when two or more organic compounds have the same molecular formulae, but different structures.
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  • However, few organic compounds react readily with water... Their molecules are mostly much less polar than the very polar water molecule.
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  • The " lead " used in 4 star are organic compounds of lead - tetra ethyl lead and tetra ethyl lead and tetra methyl lead.
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  • To this attitude he offered uncompromising opposition, and by the synthetical production of numerous hydrocarbons, natural fats, sugars and other bodies he proved that organic compounds can be formed by ordinary methods of chemical manipulation and obey the same laws as inorganic substances, thus exhibiting the "creative character in virtue of which chemistry actually realizes the abstract conceptions of its theories and classifications - a prerogative so far possessed neither by the natural nor by the historical sciences."
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  • His investigations on the synthesis of organic compounds were published in numerous papers and books, including Chimie organique fondee sur la synthese (1860) and Les Carbures d'hydrogene (1901).
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  • The thermochemical magnitude which is universally determined for organic compounds is the heat of combustion, usually by means of the calorimetric bomb.
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  • Simultaneously with this discussion of the atom and molecule, great controversy was ranging over the constitution of com pounds, more particularly over the carbon or organic compounds.
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  • Kekule was the forerunner of his celebrated benzene theory in particular, and of the universal application of structural formulae to the representation of the most complex organic compounds equally lucidly as the representation of the simplest salts.
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  • Constitutional formulae become of preponderating importance when we consider the more complicated inorganic and especially organic compounds.
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  • The atomic theory, and its correlatives - the laws of constant and multiple proportions - had been shown to possess absolute validity so far as well-characterized inorganic compounds were concerned; but it was open to question whether organic compounds obeyed the same laws.
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  • In this summary the leading factors which have contributed to a correct appreciation of organic compounds have so far been considered historically, but instead of continuing this method it has been thought advisable to present an epitome of present-day conclusions, not chronologically, but as exhibiting the principles and subject-matter of our science.
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  • The importance of such groups as methyl, ethyl, &c. in attempting a nomenclature of organic compounds cannot be overestimated; these compound radicals, fre q uently termed alkyl radicals, serve a similar purpose to the organic chemist as the elements to the inorganic chemist.
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  • The detection of carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds by the formation of carbon dioxide and water when they are burned was first correctly understood by Lavoisier, and as he had determined the carbon and hydrogen content of these two substances he was able to devise methods by which carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds could be estimated.
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  • Thus the actually observed densities of liquid chlorine and bromine at the boilingpoints are 1 56 and 2-96, leading to atomic volumes 22.7 and 26.9, which closely correspond to Kopp's values deduced from organic compounds.
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  • Many organic compounds can be prepared by taking advantage of secondary actions at the electrodes, such as reduction by the cathodic hydrogen, or oxidation at the anode (see Electrochemistry).
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  • Tetranitromethane, C(N02)4, obtained by adding nitroform to a hot mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, is a crystalline solid which melts at 13° C. Chlorpicrin, CC1 3 NO 2, is a liquid of suffocating odour obtained by the action of nitric acid and chloride of lime on many organic compounds.
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  • The new regulations will reduce emissions into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint and varnishes and vehicle refinishing products.
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  • Soil Clean Up - Believe it or not, like paint, some soil contains volatile organic compounds or VOCs.
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  • Hydrogen occurs naturally in many organic compounds and in water.
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  • Standard paint frequently emits Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).
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  • Dap Paneling and Foam Adhesive is low in volatile organic compounds.
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  • It has the Truman Cell that never needs to be replaced and a permanent Helios Shield® that will reduce odors and organic compounds from the air that passes through it.
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  • The professional value kit contains Odor Absorber Plus, which reduces volatile organic compounds and converts ozone to oxygen.
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  • In addition to reducing odors, this product also reduces volatile organic compounds (chemical fumes, for example) and converts harmful ozone to healthy oxygen.
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  • The basic ProShield model purifies the air in a 12' x 18' foot room, captures allergens and germs, requires no filter replacement, reduces volatile organic compounds and eliminates odors.
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  • The ProShield Plus model also has a Helios Shield, which uses ultraviolet light to reduce volatile organic compounds and kill odors.
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  • Purines are nitrogen-containing organic compounds in your body.
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