Organic chemistry Sentence Examples
This subject is discussed in section IV., Organic Chemistry.
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
At the same time, however, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was only when identical compounds were obtained from both vegetable and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry.
The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades.
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."Advertisement
An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is "the study of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives."
In organic chemistry it is more customary to deal with the " heat of combustion," i.e.
Researches in synthetical organic chemistry have shown that this property of fluorescenceis common to an immense number of substances, and theories have been proposed whose purpose is to connect the property with constitution.
Stewart, Recent Advances in Organic Chemistry (1908); and in a series of pamphlets issued since 1896 with the title Sammlung chemischer and chemisch-technischer Vortrcige.
The chemistry of the albumins is one of the most complicated and difficult in the whole domain of organic chemistry.Advertisement
Des Cloizeaux (1817-1897) at the Ecole Normale, and in 1876 he became professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne, but on the death of Wurtz in 1884 he exchanged that position for the chair of organic chemistry.
Friedel achieved distinction both in miner alogy and organic chemistry.
It is extremely hygroscopic and is 'used in synthetical organic chemistry as a condensing agent.
Hydrogen and oxygen may also be produced electrolytically as gases, and their respective reducing and oxidizing powers at the moment of deposition on the electrode are frequently used in the laboratory, and to some extent industrially, chiefly in the field of organic chemistry.
For further information, the reader is referred to any standard work on organic chemistry.Advertisement
He succeeded his master, Vauquelin, as professor of organic chemistry at the natural history museum in 1830, and thirty-three years later assumed its directorship also; this he relinquished in 1879, though he still retained his professorship. In 1886 the completion of his hundredth year was celebrated with public rejoicings; and after his death, which occurred in Paris on the 9th of April 1889, he was honoured with a public funeral.
In 1892 he accepted the chair of organic chemistry at the Victoria University, Manchester, which he held until 1912.
During this period his stimulating teaching and brilliant researches attracted students from all parts, and he formed at Manchester a school of organic chemistry famous throughout Europe.
His eldest Son, William Henry Perkin, who was born at Sudbury, near Harrow, on the 17th of June 1860, and was educated at the City of London School, the Royal College of Science, and the universities of Wiirzburg and Munich, became professor of chemistry at the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, in 1887, and professor of organic chemistry at Owens College, Manchester, in 1892.
Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.Advertisement
One of the earliest, if not the earliest, was the investigation, published in 1830, which proved the polymerism of cyanic and cyanuric acid, but the most famous were those on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde) and the radicle benzoyl (1832), and on uric acid (1837), which are of fundamental importance in the history of organic chemistry.
Especially prominent is the fact that polymerism and metamerism are mainly reserved to the domain of organic chemistry, or the chemistry of carbon, both being discovered there; and, more especially, the phenomenon of metamerism in organic chemistry has largely developed our notions concerning the structure of matter.
Japp, in the Kekule memorial lecture he delivered before the London Chemical Society on the 15th of December 1897, declared that three-fourths of modern organic chemistry is directly or indirectly the product of Kekule's benzene theory, and that without its guidance and inspiration the industries of the coal-tar colours and artificial therapeutic agents in their present form and extension would have been inconceivable.
In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalate, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether.
His most important contribution to organic chemistry was a series of researches, begun in 1835, on the haloid and other derivatives of unsaturated hydrocarbons.Advertisement
The proof that prussic acid contains hydrogen but no oxygen was a most important support to the hydrogen-acid theory, and completed the downfall of Lavoisier's oxygen theory;, while the isolation of cyanogen was of equal importance for the subsequent era of compound radicles in organic chemistry.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to organic chemistry.
It also finds an extensive use in organic chemistry as a substituting and oxidizing agent, as well as for the preparation of addition compounds.
It oxidizes carbon compounds to carbon dioxide and water, and therefore finds extensive application in analytical organic chemistry.
In 1845 he became assistant to Dumas at the Ecole de Medecine, and four years later began to give lectures on organic chemistry in his place.
But his original work was mainly in the domain of organic chemistry.
At this temperature the bacterial bodies are extremely brittle, and are thus readily broken up. The study of the nature of toxins requires, of course, the various methods of organic chemistry.
It receives application in synthetic organic chemistry by virtue of its power to remove the halogen atoms from alkyl haloids, and so effect the combination of the two alkyl residues.
Bromine is used extensively in organic chemistry as a substituting and oxidizing agent and also for the preparation of addition compounds.
In organic chemistry sulphuric acid is extensively employed.
From the chemical point of view the hydrocarbons are of fundamental importance, and, on account of their great number, and still greater number of derivatives, they are studied as a separate branch of the science, namely, organic chemistry.
In a paper on the atomic theory, published so early as 1826, he anticipated to a remarkable extent some ideas which are frequently supposed to belong to a later period; and the continuation of these studies led him to the ideas about substitution ("metalepsis") which were developed about 1839 into the theory ("Older Type Theory") that in organic chemistry there are certain types which remain unchanged even when their hydrogen is replaced by an equivalent quantity of a haloid element.
Potassium bichromate finds extensive application in organic chemistry as an oxidizing agent, being used for this purpose in dilute sulphuric acid solution, K 2 Cr 2 0 7 +4H 2 SO 4 = K 1 SO 4 +Cr 2 (SO 4) 3±4H20 +30.
This approach is becoming increasingly popular in Organic Chemistry as an alternative to the used of expensive chiral catalysts and auxiliaries.
In 1859 he was appointed professor of organic chemistry at the Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie, and in 1865 he accepted the new chair of organic chemistry, which was specially created for his benefit at the College de France.
When he began his active career it was generally believed that, although some instances of the synthetical production of organic substances had been observed, on the whole organic chemistry must remain an analytical science and could not become a constructive one, because the formation of the substances with which it deals required the intervention of vital activity in some shape.
In the first group we have to notice the use of iron or zinc and dilute sulphuric acid for the manufacture of hydrogen, which may be used directly, as for inflating balloons or for purposes of combustion, or in the nascent condition, for reduction purposes, as generally is the case in organic chemistry (see Aniline).
The last question on the organic chemistry exam required the students to draw the structure of a complex protein.