People who buy organic food, for instance, are not doing it simply because they have more money.
Nature is essentially a process of organic self-evolution.
Yet Leibnitz prepared the way for a new conception of organic evolution.
Yet Leibnitz prepared the way for a new conception of organic evolution.
Experience forbids our excluding organic activity from natural causes, also our excluding intelligence from purposeful (zwecktdtigen) causes; hence experience forbids our defining the fundamental force or first cause out of which living creatures arose.'
"I made these with Dusty's organic ingredients," she told him.
Just as Kant thus sharply marks off the regions of the inorganic and the organic, so he sets man in strong opposition to the lower animals.
GLYCOLS, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to the aliphatic dihydric alcohols.
The peculiarity of organic and sentient bodies is due to the minuteness and shape of their particles, and to their special motions and combinations.
Marshall's prides itself on its healthy, organic products.
Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.
Organic life presents itself to him as a progressive scale of complexity determined by its final end, namely, man.'
All this is only the coincidence of conditions in which all vital organic and elemental events occur.
In the silicious matter which the water deposits is perhaps the bony system, and in the still finer soil and organic matter the fleshy fibre or cellular tissue.
The menu includes organic meats, fresh seafood and fresh vegetables.
The concordat was solemnly promulgated on Easter Day 1802, but the government had added to it unilateral provisions of Gallican tendencies, which were known as the Organic Articles.
The short straight or curved process from the back of the pitcher behind the lid represents the organic apex of the leaf (A in fig.
Whether you are for the organic food movement or against it, for genetically modified crops or against them, for corporate farms or seed banks or raw food or anything else, is influenced significantly by your larger view of politics.
The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.
All material things are assimilated to one another as organic, the vitalizing principle being inherent in all matter.
In this instance it may happen that the work of intelligence has only been mimicked in nature by blind forces which have accidentally produced organic life; and Mill is disposed to hold that if the evolution of species should be clearly established as due to natural law - if there has been no creation by special interposition - the argument falls to the ground and theism (apparently) is lost.
The disturbing conditions of will, life and organic forces are eliminated from the problem; he starts with the clear and distinct idea of extension, figured and moved, and thence by mathematical laws he gives a hypothetical explanation of all things.
Knowledge grows, not by mechanical addition, but by organic transformation.
Many organic compounds of boron are known; thus, from the action of the trichloride on ethyl alcohol or on methyl alcohol, ethyl borate B(OC2H5)3 and methyl borate B(OCH 3) 3 are obtained.
In any case the daughter-individuals produced from the buds may be imagined as remaining attached to the parent and forming a colony of individuals in organic connexion with one another, and thus three possible cases arise.
In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).
It is noteworthy that he sought to establish the identity of organic and inorganic matter by help of the facts of vegetal and animal nutrition.
The supposition that sensation thus rests on a material process of absorption from external bodies naturally led up to the idea that plants and even inorganic subtances are precipient, and so to an indistinct recognition of organic life as a scale of intelligence.
5) he says that the universal existence of sensation in matter cannot be disproved, though he shows that when there are no organic arrangements the mental side of the movement (phantasma) is evanescent.
It is noteworthy that he sought to establish the identity of organic and inorganic matter by help of the facts of vegetal and animal nutrition.
Finally, human development, as exhibited in historical and prehistorical records, is regarded as the highest and most complex result of organic and physical evolution.
But whilst all the organic processes in man go on mechanically, and though by reflex action he may repel attack unconsciously, still the first affirmation of the system was that man was essentially a thinking being; and, while we retain this original dictum, it must not be supposed that the mind is a mere spectator, or like the boatman in the boat.
The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds, red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.
A typical Siphonophore is a stock or cormus consisting of a number of appendages placed in organic connexion with one another by means of a coenosarc. The coenosarc does not differ in structure from that already described in colonial Hydrozoa.
These first unscientific ideas of a genesis of the permanent objects of nature took as their pattern the process of organic reproduction and development, and this, not only because these objects were regarded as personalities, but also because this particular mode of becoming would most impress these early observers.
Empedocles tries to explain the genesis of organic beings, and, according to Lange, anticipates the idea of Darwin that adaptations abound, because it is their nature to perpetuate themselves.
Aristotle's teleological conception of organic evolution often approaches modern mechanical conceptions.
He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."
Thus he does not account for the fact that organic beings - which have always existed as preformations (in the case of animals as animaux spermatiques) - come to be developed under given conditions.
But whilst all the organic processes in man go on mechanically, and though by reflex action he may repel attack unconsciously, still the first affirmation of the system was that man was essentially a thinking being; and, while we retain this original dictum, it must not be supposed that the mind is a mere spectator, or like the boatman in the boat.
His ascription to man of a unique faculty, free-will, forbade his conceiving our species as a link in a graduated series of organic developments.
But the most remarkable and daring application of the theory was to account for the phenomena of organic life, especially in animals and man.
FULMINIC ACID, Hcno or H 2 C 2 N 2 0 2, an organic acid isomeric with cyanic and cyanuric acids; its salts, termed fulminates, are very explosive and are much employed as detonators.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
Yet while thus placing himself at a point of view opposed to that of a gradual evolution of the organic world, Locke prepared the way for this doctrine in more ways than one.
in his cosmology Kant thus relies on mechanical conceptions, in his treatment of organic life his mind is, on the contrary, dominated by teleological ideas.
PYRIMIDINES, METADIAZINES or Miazines, in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing a ring complex, composed of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms, the nitrogen atoms being in the meta-position.
Aristotle's distinction of form and matter, and his conception of becoming as a transition from actuality to potentiality, provides a new ontological way of conceiving the process of material and organic evolution.'
In this particular, as in his view of organic actions, Kant distinctly opposed the idea of evolution as one universal process swaying alike the physical and the moral world.
From this point of view the processes of nature from the inorganic up to the most complex of the organic become stages in the self-realization of nature.
The last question on the organic chemistry exam required the students to draw the structure of a complex protein.
As in other cases where animal colonies are formed by organic union of separate individuals, there is ever a tendency for the polyp-colony as a whole to act as a single individual, and for the members to become subordinated to the needs of the colony and to undergo specialization for particular functions, with the result that they simulate organs and their individuality becomes masked to a greater or less degree.
Baked goods are made from scratch using local, organic ingredients when possible.
Friedel achieved distinction both in miner alogy and organic chemistry.
Graham's doctrine of polybasicity was extended to the organic acids.
Menu highlights include bison burgers, beef and lamb club sandwiches, organic pickled hen eggs and specialty cheese platters.
As befits such an eco-friendly hotel, the brunch does feature a number of healthy options, including a house-made granola with oats, honey, nuts and dried fruits as well as organic chicken and salmon.
The cuisine is trendy, with organic produce and locally sourced, artisanal cheeses and chocolate.
This vegan restaurant caters to a variety of eating styles, like ovo-vegetarian, lacto-vegetarian, vegan, and organic.
Menu pptions include omelets and scrambles made from organic eggs, as well as a chorizo hash and plenty of pancakes.
PYRUVIC ACID, Or [[Pyroracemic Acid, Ch 3 Co Co 2 H]], an organic acid first obtained by J.
Lotze for the decision of the question lays down the broad principle, " All that has once come to be will eternally continue so soon as for the organic unity of the world it has an unchangeable value, but it will obviously again cease to be, when that is not the case " (Gr.
All organic forms are at bottom but one organization, and the inorganic world shows the same formative activity in various degrees or potences.
The detailed exhibition of the organizing activity of nature in the several processes of the organic and inorganic world rests on a number of fanciful and unscientific ideas.
Yet, as Strauss and others have shown, Kant's mind betrayed a decided leaning at times to a more mechanical conception of organic forms as related by descent.
The organic world (like the world as a whole) arises out of a primitive chaos, namely, the infusorial slime.
There are three stadia, or moments, in this process of nature - (i) the mechanical moment, or matter devoid of individuality; (2) the physical moment, or matter which has particularized itself in bodies - the solar system; and (3) the organic moment, or organic beings, beginning with the geological organism - or the mineral kingdom, plants and animals.
As Ludwig Noire observes, Schopenhauer has no feeling for the problem of the origin of organic beings.
The growth of an organic being is simply a process of enlargement, as a particle of dry gelatine may be swelled up by the intussusception of water; its death is a shrinkage, such as the swelled jelly might undergo on desiccation.
general acceptance of evolution; but it seems established as a historical fact that the world has come to accept evolution, first, because of Darwin's theory of natural selection, and second, because of Darwin's exposition of the evidence for the actual occurrence of organic evolution.
Another group of investigations that seems to play an important part in the future development of the theory of evolution relates to the study of what is known as organic symmetry.
It is to be noticed, however, that, even after such phenomena have been properly grouped and designated under Greek names as laws of organic growth, they have not become explanations of the series of facts they correlate.
The following are a few of the more general works: Bateson, Materials for the Study of Variation; Bunge, Vitalismus and Mechanismus; Cope, Origin of the Fittest, Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, Darwin's Life and Letters; H.
In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, le i tving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin.
An account of the structure of plants naturally begins with the cell which is the proximate unit of organic structure.
A specialized conducting tissue of this kind, used mainly for transmitting organic substances, is always developed in plants where the region of assimilative activity is local in the plant-body, as it is in practically all the higher plants.
The internal tissue of the body of the solid higher Fungi, particularly the elongated stalks (stipes) of the fructifications of the Agarics, consists of hyphae running in a longitudinal direction, which no doubt serve for the conduction of organic food substances, just as do the trumpet-hyphae, similar in appearance, though not in origin, of the higher Brown Seaweeds.
gonium largely independent of the supply of elaborated organic food from the thallus of the mother plant (the gametophyte).
In addition to the water-conducting tissue or hydrom there is a welldeveloped tissue (leptom) inferred to be a conducting channel for organic substances.
The idea was till recently currently accepted, that anything which plants absorbed from without, and which went to build up their organic substance, or to supply them with energy, or to exert some beneficial influence upon their metabolism, coiistituted their food.
Those Fungi which are saprophytic can only live when supplied with organic compounds of some complexity, which they derive from decomposing animal or vegetable matter.
Its nutritive pabulum is supplied to it in the shape of certain complex organic substances which have been stored in some part or other of the seed, sometimes even in its own tissues, by the parent plant from which it springs.
If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.
The organic compounds of the latter are absorbed by the protruding fungal filaments, which take the place of root-hairs, the tree ceasing to develop the latter.
It may be in the form of an albumen crystal sometimes associated with a more or less spherical bodygloboid-composed of a combination of an organic substance with a double phosphate of magnesium and calcium.
The cell sap contains various substances in solution such as sugars, inulin, alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids and various inorganic salts.
It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.
Nuclein is a complex albuminoid substance containing phosphorus and iron in organic combination (Macallum).
Boveri in fact has put forward the view that the chromosomes are elementary units which maintain an organic continuity and independent existence in the cell.
Oceanic islands are divided according to their geological character into volcanic islands and those of organic origin, including coral islands.
These are instances, now well understood, that almost every organic system, even when studied by itself, may yield valuable indications as to the natural affinities of the various groups of birds.
The colour of amethyst is usually attributed to the presence of manganese, but as it is capable of being much altered and even discharged by heat it has been referred by some authorities to an organic source.
It was formerly believed that the sulphur had a volcanic origin, but it is now generally held that it has either been reduced from gypsum by organic agencies, or more probably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters.
It is also produced during the putrefaction of organic substances containing sulphur and is found among the products obtained in the destructive distillation of coal.
It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.
It reacts most energetically with many organic compounds, removing the elements of water in many cases and leaving a carbonized mass.
"Just as a steamengine," he says in Kraft and Stoff (7th ed., p. 130), "produces motion, so the intricate organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects, which, when bound together in a unity, are called by us mind, soul, thought."
They are admirably adapted for moving through the soil, where some of them live on decaying organic matter, while others are predaceous.
A broad belt of hilly tracts - in every respect alpine in character, and displaying the same variety of climate and organic life as alpine tracts usually do - skirts the plateau formation throughout its entire length on the N.
The local self-government institutions after a short period of feverish and not always well-directed activity, showed symptoms of organic exhaustion.
Apart from tradition, Samoan is the most archaic of all the Polynesian tongues, and still preserves the organic letter s, which becomes h or disappears in nearly all the other archipelagos.
The order is well represented in Britain by 18 genera, which include several species of Orchis: Gymnadenia (fragrant orchis), Habenaria (butterfly and frog orchis), Aceras (man orchis), Hermin- ium (musk orchis), Ophrys (bee, spider and fly orchis), Epipactis (Helleborine), Cephalanthera, Neottia (bird's-nest orchis), one of the few saprophytic genera, which have no green leaves, but derive their nourishment from decaying organic matter in the soil, Listens (Tway blade), Spiranthes (lady's tresses), Malaxis (bog-orchis), Liparis (fen-orchis), Corallorhiza (coral root), also a saprophyte, and Cypripedium (lady's slipper), represented by a single species now very rare in limestone districts in the north of England.
- The fact that Aegean civilization is distinguished from all others, prior or contemporary, not only by its geographical area, but by leading organic characteristics, has never been in doubt, since its remains came to be studied seriously and impartially.
"That which is" is a whole, not an aggregate; an organic complex of parts, not a mechanical mass; a "whole" too not material but spiritual, a "world of thought-relations."
His advice was followed and he returned home in time to be elected a member of the convention which framed the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, still the organic law of that commonwealth.
In Der Kampf urns Dasein am Himmel von Prel endeavoured to apply the Darwinian doctrine of organic evolution not only to the sphere of consciousness but also even more widely as the philosophical principle of the world.
The theories propounded may be divided into two groups, namely, those ascribing to petroleum an inorganic origin, and those which regard it as the result of the decomposition of organic matter.
On the other hand, an overwhelming and increasing majority of those who have studied the natural conditions under which petroleum occurs are of opinion that it is of organic origin.
The earlier supporters of the organic theory held that it was a product of the natural distillation of coal or carbonaceous matter; but though in a few instances volcanic intrusions appear to have converted coal or allied substances into oil, it seems that terrestrial vegetation does not generally give rise to petroleum.
Two important principles are illustrated by these thoughts, (1) that there is no absolute distinction between the organic and the inorganic, and (2) that the argument from final causes is no explanation of phenomena.
Antliff, Thomas Bateman and Henry Hodge) finds Primitive Methodism as a connexion of federated districts, a unity which may be described as mechanical rather than organic. The districts between 1853 and 1873 were ten in number, Tunstall, Nottingham, Hull, Sunderland, Norwich, Manchester, Brinkworth, Leeds, Bristol and London.
As in his active career he had wrought organic changes in the ordering, direction and control of fleets, so by his historic studies, pursued after his retirement, he helped greatly to effect, if he did not exclusively initiate, an equally momentous change in the popular, and even the professional, way of regarding sea-power and its conditions.
His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.
PROPIOLIC ACID, CH:C CO 2 H, acetylene mono-carboxylic acid, an unsaturated organic acid prepared by boiling acetylene dicarboxylic acid (obtained by the action of alcoholic potash on dibromsuccinic acid) or its acid potassium salt with water (E.
XANTHONE (dibenzo-y-pyrone, or diphenylene ketone oxide), C H 0 in organic chemistry, a heterocyclic compound containing the ring system shown below.
This section includes a brief history of the subject, and proceeds to treat of the principles underlying the structure and interrelations of organic compounds.
The analysis of organic compounds is also noticed.
This may be due in some measure to the small number of gaseous and easily volatile substances then known, to the attention which the study of the organic compounds received, and especially to the energetic investigations of J.
This subject is discussed in section IV., Organic Chemistry.
The gradual accumulation of data referring to organic compounds brought in its train a revival of the discussion of atoms and molecules.
From a detailed study of organic compounds Gerhardt had promulgated a " theory of types " which represented a fusion of the older radical and type theories.
Such isomerism, named stereoisomerism (q.v.),hasbeen assiduously developed during recentyears; it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry.
Kopp contributed the general theoretical part, Kolbe the organic, and Buff and Zamminer the physico-chemical.
Organic chemistry was especially developed by the publication of Gerhardt's Traite de chimie organique in 1853-1856, and of Kekule's Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1861-1882.
Their full significance is treated in the section of this article dealing with organic chemistry, and in the articles Isomerism and STEREO-Isomerism.
Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.
After having been somewhat neglected for the greater attractions and wider field presented by organic chemistry, the study of the elements and their inorganic compounds is now' rapidly coming into favour; new investigators are continually entering the lists; the beaten paths are being retraversed and new ramifications pursued.
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
It thus happened that in the earlier treatises on phlogistic chemistry organic substances were grouped with all combustibles.
The development of organic chemistry from this time until almost the end of the 18th century was almost entirely confined to such compounds as had practical applications, especially in pharmacy and dyeing.
A new and energetic spirit was introduced by Scheele; among other discoveries this gifted experimenter isolated and characterized many organic acids, and proved the general occurrence of glycerin (Olsiiss) in all oils and fats.
At the same time, however, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was only when identical compounds were obtained from both vegetable and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry.
At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital force; and the difficulty of artificially realizing this action explained the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic compounds.
But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.
The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades.
In addition to the vitalistic doctrine of the origin of organic compounds, views based on purely chemical considerations were advanced.
Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
This view was accepted in 1817 by Leopold Gmelin, who, in his Handbuch der Chemie, regarded inorganic compounds as being of binary composition (the simplest being oxides, both acid and basic, which by combination form salts also of binary form), and organic compounds as ternary, i.e.
A consequence of this empirical division was that marsh gas, ethylene and cyanogen were regarded as inorganic, and at a later date many other hydrocarbons of undoubtedly organic nature had to be included in the same division.
2 Compound radicals came to be regarded as the immediate constituents of organic compounds; and, at first, a determination of their empirical composition was supposed to be sufficient to characterize them.
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he concluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small measure, the conception of the structure of compounds.
Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.
The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.
van't Hoff and Le Bel, occupies such a position in organic chemistry that its value can never be transcended.
Classification of Organic Compounds.
An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is "the study of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives."
A third hydroxyl group may be introduced into the - CH: 0 residue with the formation of the radical - C(OH) :0; this is known as the carboxyl group, and characterizes the organic acids.
Organic acids also condense with alcohols to form similar compounds: the fats, waxes, and essential oils are naturally occurring substances of this class.
The carboxyl group constitutes another convenient startingpoint for the orientation of many types of organic compounds.
From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.
True ring systems, which possess the characters of organic nuclei, do not come into existence in threeand four-membered rings, their first appearance being in penta-atomic rings.
Carius (see below, § Organic Analysis).
The limits of space prevent any systematic account of the separation of the rare metals, the alkaloids, and other classes of organic compounds, but sources where these matters may be found are given in the list of references.
The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.
Messinger, and we may hope that with subsequent improvements it may be adapted to all classes of organic compounds.
These relations have been more thoroughly tested in the case of organic compounds, and the results obtained agree in some measure with the deductions from molecular volumes.
In organic chemistry it is more customary to deal with the " heat of combustion," i.e.
Colour and Constitution.-In this article a summary of the theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour of organic compounds with their constitution will be given, and the reader is referred to the article Colour for the physical explanation of this property, and to Vision for the physiological and psychological bearings.
von Liebig (Ann., 1908, 360, p. 128), from a very complete discussion of triphenyl methane derivatives, concluded that the group i ng A A A was the only true organic chromophore, colour production, however, requiring another condition, usually the closing of a ring.
Researches in synthetical organic chemistry have shown that this property of fluorescenceis common to an immense number of substances, and theories have been proposed whose purpose is to connect the property with constitution.
S, Se; Te (in tellurides); Cr, Mn, Te (in the acids H 2 RO 4); As, Sb (in the glances MR2) As, Sb, Bi; Te (as an element); P, Vd (in salts); N, P (in organic bases).
Organic. - F.
Lachmann, Spirit of Organic Chemistry; J.
Cohen, Organic Chemistry (1908); A.
Stewart, Recent Advances in Organic Chemistry (1908); and in a series of pamphlets issued since 1896 with the title Sammlung chemischer and chemisch-technischer Vortrcige.
Organic Analysis: Hans Meyer, Analyse and Konstitutionsermittlung organischer Verbindungen (1909); Wilhelm Vaubel, Die physikalischen and chemischen Methoden der quantitativen Bestimmung organischer Verbindungen.
For the historical development of the proximate analysis of organic compounds see M.
Even when we treat him merely as a dramatist our enjoyment of his later works gains enormously if we take them as organic wholes, and not as mere plots dressed up in verse and action.
PYRROL, C 4 H 5 N or C 4 H 4 NH, an organic base found in coaltar and Dippel's oil.
The depths of the Black Sea are lifeless, higher organic life not being known to exist below loo fathoms. Fossiliferous remains of Dreissena, Cardium and other molluscs have, however, been dredged up, which help to show that conditions formerly existed in the Black Sea similar to those that exist at the present day in the Caspian Sea.
"When we who call ourselves Imperialists talk of the British Empire we think of a group of states bound, not in an alliance - for affiances can be made and unmade - but in a permanent organic union.
The project of the Code Napoleon, however - the code itself not being available in Louisiana, though promulgated in France in 1804 - was used by the compilers in the arrangement and substance of their work; and the French traditions of the colony, thus illustrated, were naturally introduced more and more into the organic commentaries and developments that grew up around the Code Napoleon.
The foreign slave-trade was forbidden by this organic act.
But the government has always opposed this unconstitutional measure, holding that the suppression could only be effected by an organic law, and that it would necessarily involve a remodelling of the administrative organization.
OXIMES, in organic chemistry, compounds containing the grouping > C: N OH, derived from aldehydes and ketones by condensing them with hydroxylamine.
The city's water-supply is derived from the Chile river and is considered dangerous to new arrivals because of the quantity of saline and organic matter contained.
The acid finds considerable use in organic chemistry, being employed to discriminate between the different types of alcohols and of amines, and also in the production of diazo, azo and diazo-amino compounds.
It crystallizes in prisms or leaflets which melt at 72-75°C. and are readily soluble in water and in all organic solvents except ligroin.
Apart from unimportant modifications, the form of the budget must have remained unchanged until the organic reforms of Selim III., while its complete transformation into European shape dates only from the year 1278 (1862), when Fuad Pasha attached a regular budget to his report on the financial situation of the empire.
Finally, at the outbreak of the Crimean War Turkey was assisted by her allies to raise a loan of £3,000,000 in London, guaranteed by Great Britain and France; in 1855 an organic law was issued regulating the budget, and in the same year a second guaranteed loan of £5,000,000 was contracted in Great Britain.
The organic law for Crete was to be carried out, and special laws enacted for other parts of Turkey.
It consists largely of a dark brown or black sandy loam, finely comminuted, the richness of which in organic matter and mineral salts induces rapidity of growth, and the strength and durability of which render it capable of a long succession of crops.
In addition to these departments provided for in the organic act, the university included in 1909 colleges of dentistry (three-year course), pharmacy (two-year and three-year courses), a school of mines (1891; four-year course, leading to the degree of Engineer of Mines or Metallurgical Engineer), a school of analytical and applied chemistry (four-year courses, leading to the degree of Bachelor in Science in Chemistry, or in Chemical Engineering), a college of education (1906; three-year course, after two years of college work, leading to a Master's degree), a graduate school (with courses leading to the degrees of Master of Arts, of Science and of Laws, and of Doctor of Philosophy, of Science and of Civil Law), and a university summer school.
It crystallizes in colourless plates melting at 20°C. and boiling at 202°C.; it is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in the ordinary organic solvents.
These facts of distribution are due to certain conditions that govern the production of organic substance in the oceans.
The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
The bottom water is relatively rich in these substances as well as in decaying organic matter, and would become progressively richer but for the slow drift towards the equator and the welling-up of bottom water to the surface in these latitudes.
It would seem that, on the whole, nitrogen compounds in the ocean (whether existing in the organic or inorganic forms) remain constant in amount.
albus, white), an organic substance typical of a group of bodies (albumins or albuminates) of very complicated chemical composition.
The chemistry of the albumins is one of the most complicated and difficult in the whole domain of organic chemistry.
Melanins obtained from tumours form black, shiny masses; they are insoluble in water, neutral salt solutions, dilute acids and in the common organic solvents.
THIAZOLES, in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing the grouping shown below; the replaceable hydrogen atoms in which are designated a, (3 and µ.
It is possible that in complicated organic substances we might have two kinds of dissociation, electrical and non-electrical, occurring simultaneously, while the possibility of the association of molecules accompanied by the electrical dissociation of some of them into new parts should not be overlooked.
On the constitution of phenanthrene see CHEMISTRY: § Organic.
After this every portion of the animal is thoroughly examined, for if there is any organic disease the devout Jew cannot taste the meat.
In such a consideration we have to make use not only of the fact just mentioned, but of three important generalizations which serve as it were as implements for the proper estimation of the relationships of any series of organic forms. First of all there is the generalization that the relationships of the various forms of animals (or of plants) to one another is that of the ultimate twigs of a much-branching genealogical tree.
NITRO COMPOUNDS, in organic chemistry, compounds containing the monovalent radical -NO 2 directly combined with carbon.
Tetranitromethane, C(N02)4, obtained by adding nitroform to a hot mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, is a crystalline solid which melts at 13° C. Chlorpicrin, CC1 3 NO 2, is a liquid of suffocating odour obtained by the action of nitric acid and chloride of lime on many organic compounds.
The delay in the establishment of the doctrine of organic evolution was due, not to the ignorant and unobservant, but to the leaders of zoological and botanical science.
Knowing the almost endless complexity of organic structures, realizing that man himself with all the mystery of his life and consciousness must be included in any explanation of the origin of living things, they preferred to regard living things as something apart from the rest of nature, specially cared for, specially created by a Divine Being.
It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.
lishing the doctrine of organic evolution by the introduction into the web of the zoological and botanical sciences of a new science.
Darwin's introduction of thremmatology into the domain of scientific biology was accompanied by a new and special development of a branch of study which had previously been known as teleology, the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur.
It cannot be said that previously to Darwin there had been any very profound study of teleology, but it had been the delight of a certain type of mind - that of the lovers of nature or naturalists par excellence, as they were sometimes termed - to watch the habits of living animals and plants, and to point out the remarkable ways in which the structure of each variety of organic life was adapted to the special circumstances of life of the variety or species.
Thus not only did Darwin's theory give a new basis to the study of organic 'structure, but, whilst rendering the general theory of organic evolution equally acceptable and Effects of necessary, it explained the existence of low and simple forms of life as survivals of the earliest ancestry of theory more highly complex forms, and revealed the classifications of the systematist as unconscious attempts to construct the genealogical tree or pedigree of plants and animals.
- The lore of the farmer, gardener, sportsman, fancier and field-naturalist, including thremmatology, or the science of breeding, and the allied teleology, or science of organic adaptations: exemplified by the patriarch Jacob, the poet Virgil, Sprengel, Kirby.
We now arrive at the period when the doctrine of organic evolution was established by Darwin, and when naturalists, being convinced by him as they had not been by the transmutationists of fifty years' earlier date, were compelled to take an entirely new view of the significance of all attempts at framing a " natural " classification.
General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.
The analysis of the specific variations of organic form so as to determine what is really the nature and limitation of a single " character " or " individual variation," and whether two such true and strictly defined single variations of a single structural unit can actually " blend " when one is transmitted by the male parent and the other by the female parent, are matters which have yet to be determined.
A new and most important feature in organic development makes its appearance when we set out the facts of man's evolutional history.
It amounts toa new and unprecedented factor in organic development, external to the organism and yet produced by the activity of the organism upon which it permanently reacts.
This factor is the Record of the Past, which grows and develops by laws other than those affecting the perishable bodies of successive generations of mankind, and exerts an incomparable influence upon the educable brain, so that man, by the interaction of the Record and his educability, is removed to a large extent from the status of the organic world and placed in a new and unique position, subject to new laws and new methods of development unlike those by which the rest of the living world is governed.
That which we term the Record of the Past comprises the " taboos,' the customs, the traditions, the beliefs, the knowledge which are handed on by one generation to another independently of organic propagation.
TRIAZINES, in organic chemistry, a series of cyclic compounds, containing a ring system composed of three carbon and three nitrogen atoms. Three series are possible, the positions of Marine Trias Of The Alpine And Indian Types.
It forms double salts with metallic chlorides and with the hydrochlorides of organic bases.
In the latter range a few Ordovician fossils have been found, but in general the oldest strata which have yielded organic remains belong to the Cretaceous system.
t' rhos, horse, o15pov, urine), benzoyl glycocoll or benzoyl amidoacetic acid, C 9 H 9 NO 3 or C 6 H 5 CO NH CH 2 CO 2 H, an organic acid found in the urine of horses and other herbivorae.
TRIAZOLES (pyrro-a and (3'-diazoles), in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing the ring complex (annexed formula).
Cohnheim's hypothesis of " embryonic residues " provides that early in the development of the embryo some of the cells, or groups of cells, are separated from their organic continuity during the various foldings that take place in the actively growing embryo.
Over and above the bacterial intoxications we have a very extreme degree of fatty degeneration, widely distributed throughout the tissues, which is produced by certain organic and inorganic poisons; it is seen especially in phosphorus and chloroform poisoning.
If the particle enveloped by the protoplasm be of an organic nature, such as a bacterium, it undergoes digestion, and ultimately becomes destroyed, and accordingly the term " phagocyte " is now in common use to indicate cells having the above properties.
He regarded all bodies, organic and inorganic, as composed of the three elements - spirit, sulphur and salt, the first being only found abundantly in animal bodies.
Upon this too static a view, both of clinical type and of post-mortem-room pathology, came a despairing spirit, almost of fatalism, which in the contemplation of organic ruins lost the hope of cure of organic diseases.
By chemical warnings the defensive processes seem to be awakened, or summoned; and when we think of the infinite variety of such possible phases, and of the multitude of corresponding defensive agents, we may form some dim notion of the complexity of the animal blood and tissues, and within them of the organic molecules.
Now, what is remarkable in these and many other reactions is not only that effects apparently very opposite may result from minute differences of molecular construction, but also that, whatever the construction, agents, not wholly indifferent to the body or part, tend to anchor themselves to organic molecules in some way akin to them.
The conditions of diet and digestion in children are now far better understood, and many of their maladies, formerly regarded as organic or incomprehensible, are cured or prevented by dietetic rules.
Des Cloizeaux (1817-1897) at the Ecole Normale, and in 1876 he became professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne, but on the death of Wurtz in 1884 he exchanged that position for the chair of organic chemistry.
In organic chemistry, his study of the ketones and aldehydes, begun in 1857, provided him with the subject of his other doctoral thesis.
It was based on an accidental observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body.
All phenomena, moral as well as material, are contemplated by him in their relation to one great organic whole, which he acknowledges under the name of "Natura daedala rerum," and the most beneficent manifestations of which he seems to symbolize and almost to deify in the "Alma Venus," whom, in apparent contradiction to his denial of a divine interference with human affairs, he invokes with prayer in the opening lines of the poem.
Kolbe had an important share in the great development of chemical theory that occurred about the middle of the 19th century, especially in regard to the constitution of organic compounds, which he viewed as derivatives of inorganic ones, formed from the latter - in some cases directly - by simple processes of substitution.
Unable to accept Berzelius's doctrine of the unalterability of organic radicals, he also gave a new interpretation to the meaning of copulae under the influence of his fellow-worker Edward Frankland's conception of definite atomic saturation-capacities, and thus contributed in an important degree to the subsequent establishment of the structure theory.
He published a Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1854, smaller textbooks of organic and inorganic chemistry in 1877-1883, and Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der theoretischen Chemie in 1881.
6NH 31 and it also serves as the starting point for the preparation of numerous organic derivatives of silicon.
Organic Derivatives of Silicon.
The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.
(2) The organic carbonates are the esters of carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3, and of the unknown ortho-carbonic acid, C(OH) 4.
And as the personal element disappears in the conception of the prophetic calling, so it tends to disappear in the prophetic view of history, and the future comes to be conceived not as the organic result of the present under the divine guidance, but as mechanically determined from the beginning in the counsels of God, and arranged under artificial categories of time.
guanos, bone-meal and all other organic materials, which are spread over or dug or ploughed into the land for the benefit of farm and' garden crops, is bound up with the action of these minute living beings.
It has long been known that when organic materials such as the dung and urine of animals, or even the bodies of animals and plants, are applied to the soil, the nitrogen within them becomes oxidized, and ultimately appears in the form of nitrate of lime, potash or some other base.
Lime also assists in the decomposition of the organic matter or humus in the soil and promotes nitrification; hence it is of great value after green manuring or where the land contains much humus from the addition of bulky manures such as farm-yard dung.
This tendency to destroy organic matter makes the repeated application of lime a pernicious practice, especially on land which contains little humus to begin with.
Generally speaking light poor lands deficient in organic matter will need the less caustic form or chalk, while quicklime will be most satisfactory on the stiff clays and richer soils.
The results of many analyses show that the capacity of soils for moisture increases with the amount of organic substances present; decomposition appears to be most active when the moisture is about 4%, but can continue when it is as low as 2%, while it appears to be retarded by any excess over 4%.
The conditions which favour the vitality, growth and multiplication of the typhoid bacillus are the following: the soil should be pervious; it should be permeated with a sufficiency of decaying - preferably animal - organic matters; it should possess a certain amount of moisture, and be subject to a certain temperature.
For warmth, for dryness, for absence of fog, and for facility of walking after rain, just when the air is at its purest and its best, there is nothing equal to gravel; but when gravel has been rendered foul by infiltration with organic matters it may easily become a very hotbed of disease.
In fact, there seems to have been little or no organic connexion between the two classes of gilds.
The demand for saltpetre as an ingredient of gunpowder led to the formation of saltpetre plantations or nitriaries, which at one time were common in France, Germany, and other countries; the natural conditions were simulated by exposing heaps of decaying organic matter mixed with alkalies (lime, &c.) to atmospheric action.
It contains from 48 to 75% of sodium nitrate and from 20 to 40% of common salt, which are associated with various minor saline components, including sodium iodate and more or less insoluble mineral, and also some organic matter, e.g.
The constituents of tobacco, as of all other vegetable matter, can be grouped under three heads: water, mineral acids and bases (which pass into the ash on combustion) and organic substances.
It is extremely hygroscopic and is 'used in synthetical organic chemistry as a condensing agent.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.
Berzelius hailed this discovery as marking the dawn of a new era in organic chemistry, and proposed for benzoyl the names "Proin" or "Orthrin" (from irpcoi and dpOpus).
In 1837 with Dumas he published a note on the constitution of organic acids, and in the following year an elaborate paper on the same subject appeared under his own name alone; by this work T.
STEARIC ACID, n-Octodecylic acid CH 3 (CH 2) 16 CO 2 H, an organic acid found as its glyceride stearin, mixed with palmitin and olefin, in most tallows (hence its name, from Gr.
For data concerning the conductivity of the organic bases see G.
The primary amines are colourless liquids or crystalline solids, which are insoluble in water, but readily soluble in the common organic solvents.
Prior to 1830, little was known of the process other than that organic compounds generally yielded tarry and solid matters, but the discoveries of Liebig and Dumas (of acetone from acetates), of Mitscherlich (of benzene from benzoates) and of Persoz (of methane from acetates and lime) brought the operation into common laboratory practice.
- The general practice of laboratory distillation is discussed in all treatises on practical organic chemistry; reference may be made to Lassar-Cohn, Manual of Organic Chemistry (1896), and Arbeitsmethoden fiir organisch-chemische Laboratorien (1901); Hans Meyer, Analyse and Konstitutionermittlung organischer Verbindungen (1909).
MALIC ACID (HYDROXYETHYLENE SUCCINIC Acid), C4H605, an organic acid found abundantly in the juices of many plants, particularly in mountain-ash berries, in unripe apples and in grapes.
Another question to which he gave much attention was the connexion of the boiling-point of compounds, organic ones in particular, with their composition.
In other Cheilostomes the amount of calcification may be much less, the supporting skeleton being largely composed of the organic material chitin.
What are the undertakings necessary in order to pass successfully through it towards an organic state?
The system for which the Positive Philosophy is alleged to have been the scientific preparation contains a Polity and a Religion; a complete arrangement of life in all its aspects, giving a wider sphere to Intellect, Energy and Feeling than could be found in any of the previous organic types, - Greek, Roman or Catholic-feudal.
The writer does not make that use of the fact of man's superior organic endowments which one might expect from his general conception of the relation of the physical and the mental in human development.
the salts of the metals, the organic salts (or esters) being termed nitriles.
This is at once connected with the nebular hypothesis, and subsequently deduced "from the ultimate law of the" persistence of force,"and finally supplemented by a counter-process of dissolution, all of which appears to Spencer only as" the addition of Von Baer's law to a number of ideas that were in harmony with it."It is clear, however, that Spencer's ideas as to the nature of evolution were already pretty definite when Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) revolutionized the subject of organic evolution by adding natural selection to the direct adaptation by use and disuse, and so suggesting an intelligible method of producing modifications in the forms of life.
1886, Factors of Organic Evolution.
The same inventor has patented the application of electrolysed chlorides to the purification of starch by the oxidation of less stable organic bodies, to the bleaching of oils, and to the purification of coal gas, spirit and other substances.
Hydrogen and oxygen may also be produced electrolytically as gases, and their respective reducing and oxidizing powers at the moment of deposition on the electrode are frequently used in the laboratory, and to some extent industrially, chiefly in the field of organic chemistry.
Similarly, the formation of organic halogen products may be effected by electrolytic chlorine, as, for example, in the production of chloral by the gradual introduction of alcohol into an anode cell in which the electrolyte is a strong solution of potassium chloride.
Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.
- Organic acids are characterized by the presence of the monovalent group - CO.
The basicity of an organic acid, as above defined, is determined by the number of carboxyl groups present.
For further information, the reader is referred to any standard work on organic chemistry.
It is apparent that metallic salts of organic acids would, in aqueous solution, be ionized, the positive ion being the metal, and the negative ion the acid residue.
OXALIC ACID, H2 C204 2H20, one of the oldest known organic acids.
It is formed in the oxidation of many organic compounds (e.g.
It contains albuminous bodies in solution, and is in fact a pure solution of two or more poisonous proteids, which are the active agents, with a small quantity of an organic acid or colouring matter.
The animal cell can absorb its carbohydrate and proteid food only in the form of carbohydrate and proteid; it is dependent, in fact, on the pre-existence of these organic substances, themselves the products of living matter, and in this respect the animal is essentially a parasite on existing animal and plant life.
It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization.
p. 381; " The Dielectric Constants of Certain Organic Bodies at and below the Temperature of Liquid Air," id.
Their most striking feature is the close organic relationship between the two parts.
Auric chloride combines with the hydrochlorides of many organic bases - amines, alkaloids, &c. - to form characteristic compounds.
They occur in mud and on sea-weeds at the bottom of shallow seas below low-water mark and devour organic debris.
He also wrote Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1856), in which he applied to history the doctrine of organic evolution; Discourses and Essays (1856); A Manual of Church History (2 vols., 1857), a translation of Guericke; A History of Christian Doctrine (2 vols., 1863); Theological Essays (1877); Literary Essays (1878); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1879); The Doctrine of Endless Punishment (1885); and he edited Coleridge's Complete Works (7 vols., New York, 1894).
In 1779 he was a member of the convention which framed the constitution of Massachusetts that was adopted in 1780, and is still, with some amendments, the organic law of the commonwealth and one of the oldest fundamental laws in existence.
Travers, The Experimental Study of Gases (1901); and vapour density determinations in Lassar-Cohn's Arbeitsmethoden fur organisch-chemische Laboratorien (1901), and Manual of Organic Chemistry (1896), and in H.
Others are scavengers feeding on decaying organic matter; the pond skaters, for example, live mostly on the juices of dead floating insects.
Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
The blue colouring substance is ferrous sulphide, the upper reddish layer contains more ferric oxide, which the predominance of decomposing organic matter in the substance of the mud reduces to ferrous oxide and subsequently by further action to sulphide.
Red mud may be classed as a variety of blue mud, from which it differs on account of the larger proportion of ochreous substance and the absence of sufficient organic matter to reduce the whole of the ferric oxide.
The formation of the blue mud is largely aided by the putrefaction of organic matter, and as a result the water deeper than 120 fathoms is extraordinarily deficient in dissolved oxygen and abounds in sulphuretted hydrogen, the formation of which is brought about by a special bacterium, the only form of life found at depths greater than 120 fathoms in the Black Sea.
When those deposits of organic origin are wanting or have been removed, the red clay composed of the mineral constituents is found alone.
It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.
A small proportion of organic matter including the fat globules of the plankton is mixed with the calcium carbonate, the amount according to Giimbel's analysis being about 1 part in 1000.
It is, however, a curious question how, considering the increase of carbonic acid by the decomposition of organic bodies and possible submarine exhalations of volcanic origin, the water has not in some places become saturated and a precipitate of amorphous calcium carbonate formed in the deepest water.
Radiolarian ooze was recognized as a distinct deposit and named by Sir ' John Murray on the " Challenger " expedition, but it may be viewed as red clay with an exceptionally large proportion of siliceous organic remains, especially those of the radiolarians which form part of the pelagic plankton.
Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.
When these processes continue for a long time in deep water shut off from free circulation so that it does not become aerated by contact with the atmosphere the water becomes unfit to support the life of fishes, and when the accumulation of putrefying organic matter gives rise to sulphuretted hydrogen as in the Black Sea below 125 fathoms, life, other than bacterial, is impossible.
In this coal, as well as in the lignite of Tasmania, known as white coal or Tasmanite, the sulphur occurs in organic combination, but is so firmly held that it can only be very partially expelled, even by exposure to a very high and continued heating out of contact with the air.
He succeeded his master, Vauquelin, as professor of organic chemistry at the natural history museum in 1830, and thirty-three years later assumed its directorship also; this he relinquished in 1879, though he still retained his professorship. In 1886 the completion of his hundredth year was celebrated with public rejoicings; and after his death, which occurred in Paris on the 9th of April 1889, he was honoured with a public funeral.
Acetylene is readily decomposed by heat, polymerizing under its influence to form an enormous number of organic of compounds; indeed the gas, which can itself be directly prepared from its constituents, carbon and hydrogen, under the influence of the electric arc, can be made the startingpoint for the construction of an enormous number of different organic compounds of a complex character.
The essence of his views is contained in the following passage, which he follows up with the conclusion "that one and the same kind of living filaments is and has been the cause of all organic life": "Would it be too bold to imagine that, in the great length of time since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, - would it be too bold to imagine that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which the great First Cause endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions and associations, and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down these improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end!"
Nor is it possible at any point in knowledge to prove the existence of a merely given in whose construction the thinking subject has played no part nor a merely thinking subject in whose structure the object is not an organic factor.
annihilation of all differences but the apprehension of them in organic relation to one another and to the whole to which they belong.
In a gigantic system embracing hundreds of monasteries and thousands of monks, and spread over all the countries of western Europe, without any organic bond between the different houses, and exposed to all the vicissitudes of the wars and conquests of those wild times, to say that the monks often fell short of the ideal of their state, and sometimes short of the Christian, and even the moral standard, is but to say that monks are men.
For the first four or five centuries of Benedictine history there was no organic bond between any of the monasteries; each house formed an independent autonomous family, managing its own affairs and subject to no external authority or control except that of the bishop of the diocese.
Words and phrases are the organic parts of the sentence, on which, therefore, the languages are classified.
In the course of time it was noticed that certain materials, such as charcoal, had the power to some extent also of softening hard water and of removing organic matter, and at the beginning of the 19th century charcoal, both animal and vegetable, came into use for filtering purposes.
But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.
Whilst pyrites is found abundantly in the older crystalline rocks and slates, marcasite is more abundant in clays, and has often been formed as a concretion around organic remains.
In 1892 he accepted the chair of organic chemistry at the Victoria University, Manchester, which he held until 1912.
During this period his stimulating teaching and brilliant researches attracted students from all parts, and he formed at Manchester a school of organic chemistry famous throughout Europe.
His text-books on practical chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, written in conjunction with Prof. Kipping, are in general use.
Being soluble in water containing carbonic acid or organic acids it may be readily removed in solution, and may thus furnish plants and animals with the phosphates required in their structures.
They occur (a) in crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks as an original constituent, (b) in veins associated with igneous rocks, and (c) in sedimentary rocks either as organic fragments or in secondary concretionary forms.
Hofmann's work covered a wide range of organic chemistry, though with inorganic bodies he did but little.
His first research, carried out in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of aniline.
It includes also permanent alliances or organic unions.
295): "The vital force of the Apostolic convictions gave to Apostolic thought a certain organic and consistent form."
It is lack of this organic quality in the thought, not only of Clement but also of the Apostolic Fathers generally - with the possible exception of Ignatius, who seems to share the Apostolic experience more fully than any other, to which Reuss rightly directs attention.
From 1863 to 1867 he first studied organic chemistry under A.
Calcium nitrate, Ca(N0,)2.4H20, is a highly deliquescent salt, crystallizing in monoclinic prisms, and occurring in various natural waters, as an efflorescence in limestone caverns, and in the neighbourhood of decaying nitrogenous organic matter.
3, p. 319.) Ammonia finds a wide application in organic chemistry as a synthetic reagent; it reacts with alkyl iodides to form amines, with esters to form acid amides, with halogen fatty acids to form amino-acids; while it also combines with isocyanic esters to form alkyl ureas and with the mustard oils to form alkyl thioureas.
The commercial salt is known as salvolatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, &c., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulphate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers.
But some, especially those on Celestial Dynamics and Organic Motion, are admirable examples of what really valuable work may be effected by a man of high intellectual powers, in spite of imperfect information and defective logic.
Organic compounds are rapidly attacked by the gas.
His eldest Son, William Henry Perkin, who was born at Sudbury, near Harrow, on the 17th of June 1860, and was educated at the City of London School, the Royal College of Science, and the universities of Wiirzburg and Munich, became professor of chemistry at the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, in 1887, and professor of organic chemistry at Owens College, Manchester, in 1892.
PYRAZINES, PIAZINES, or Paradiazines, In organic chem istry, a group of compounds containing a ring system composed of 4 carbon, atoms and 2 nitrogen atoms, the nitrogen atoms being in the para position.
Sodamide was introduced by Claisen (Ber., 1905, 3 8, p. 6 93) as a condensing agent in organic chemistry, and has since been applied in many directions.
Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.
Sodium dioxide is chiefly employed as an oxidizing agent, being used in mineral analysis and in various organic preparations; it readily burns paper, wood, &c., but does not evolve oxygen unless heated to a high temperature.
Sprengel's work, which had been almost forgotten, was taken up again by Charles Darwin, who concluded that no organic being can fertilize itself through an unlimited number of generations; but a cross with other individuals is occasionally - perhaps at very long intervals - indis pensable.
It has also been observed as a product of contact-metamorphism in carbonaceous clay-slates near their contact with granite, and where igneous rocks have been intruded into beds of coal; in these cases the mineral has clearly been derived from organic matter.
OLEFINE, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to open chain hydrocarbons having only singly and doubly linked pairs of carbon atoms. The word is derived from the French olefiant (from olefier, to make oil), which was the name given to ethylene, the first member of the series, by the Dutch chemists, J.
QUINONES, in organic chemistry, a group of compounds in which two hydrogen atoms of a benzene nucleus are replaced by two oxygen atoms. This replacement may take place either in the ortho or para positions, giving rise to orthoquinones or to paraquinones; metaquinones do not appear to have been isolated.
These salts are sucked up by the roots of plants, and by taking part in the process of nutrition are partly converted into oxalate, tartrate, and other organic salts, which, when the plants are burned, are converted into the carbonate, K 2 CO 3.
The carbonate, being insoluble in strong alcohol (and many other liquid organic compounds), is much used for dehydration of the corresponding aqueous preparations.
On the advent of the Left to power in 1876, Brin was appointed minister of marine by Depretis, a capacity in which he continued the programme of Saint-Bon, while enlarging and completing it in such way as to form the first organic scheme for the development of the Italian fleet.
The best soils are the alluvium in the bottom-lands along some of the larger rivers and that of the Blue Grass Region, which is derived from a limestone rich in organic matter (containing phosphorus) and rapidly decomposing.
In Italy, where shells of the subApennine formations were discovered in the extensive quarrying for the fortifications of cities, the close similarity between these Tertiary and the modern species soon led to the established recognition of their organic origin.
Deperet points also that we owe to Cuvier the first clear expression of the idea of the increasing organic perfection of all forms of life from the lower to the higher horizons, and that, while he believed that extinctions were due to sudden revolutions on the surface of the earth, he also set forth the pregnant ideas that the renewals of animal life were by migration from other regions unknown, and that these migrations were favoured by alternate elevations and depressions which formed various land routes between great continents and islands.
The selection of organisms through the crucial test of fitness and the shaping of the organic world is an orderly process when contemplated on a grand scale.
Among American contributions to vertebrate palaeontology, 'the development of Cope's theories is to be found in the volumes of his collected essays, The Origin of the Fittest (New York, 1887), and The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution (Chicago, 1896).
It is in this position that free-swimming forms glide over the substratum of organic debris in which they find their food.
This appearance puzzled the older observers, who were led thereby to give the name" wheel-bearers "to the group, until the true character of ciliary motion was recognized; for a wheel cannot be i i organic continuity with the support on which it rotates..
In the mountain region the soil is mostly a sandy loam composed of disintegrated granitic gneiss and organic matter; on the lower and more gentle slopes as well as in the valleys this is generally deep enough for a luxuriant vegetable growth but on the upper and more precipitous slopes it is thin, or the rocks are entirely bare.
The mineral has occasionally been observed as a recent formation replacing organic matter, such as wood; and it is sometimes found in beds of coal.
Iodine finds application in organic chemistry, forming addition products with unsaturated compounds, the combination, however, being more slow than in the case of chlorine or bromine.
It is found that most organic compounds containing the grouping CH 3 CO.
It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.
ACETIC ACID (acidum aceticum), CH 3 ï¿½CO 2 H, one of the most important organic acids.
AZOXIMES (furo [a.b.] diazoles), a class of organic compounds which contain the ring system N C = CH O.
PRUSSIC ACID, or Hydrocyanic Acid, Hcn, an organic acid first prepared in1782-1783by C. Scheele and subsequently examined by J.
The salts of this acid, known as cyanides, may be prepared by the action of cyanogen or of gaseous hydrocyanic acid on a metal; by heating the carbonates or hydrooxides of the alkali metals in a current of hydrocyanic acid; by heating alkaline carbonates with carbon in the presence of free nitrogen: BaCO 3 + 4 C + N2 = Ba(NC) 2 + 3C0; by ignition of nitrogenous organic substances in the presence of alkaline carbonates or hydroxides; or by processes of double decomposition.
Organic Cyanides or Nitriles.
Like all organic growths, whether of nature or of the fancy, they are not the immediate product of one country or of one time; they have a pedigree, and the question of their ancestry and affiliation is one of wide bearing.
The gens in turn was regarded as an expansion of the family, as was the state of the gens; and members of these larger units by worship of common ancestors - usually mythical - kept alive the feeling that they were a single organic whole animated by a common soul and joined in consanguinity.
This knob or ridge may be appropriately regarded as an ancient physiographic fossil, inasmuch as, being a monadnock of very remote origin, it has long been preserved from the destructive attack of the weather by burial under sea-floor deposits, and recently laid bare, like ordinary organic fossils of much smaller size, by the removal of part of its cover by normal erosion.
ALKALOID, in chemistry, a term originally applied to any organic base, i.e.
During an attack of fever he made observations on himself with reference to the action of quickened circulation upon thought, which led him to the conclusion that psychical phenomena were to be accounted for as the effects of organic changes in the brain and nervous system.
[Supposed by Zeller to belong to the latter half of the 1st century B.C.] 6.7repi iiuxiis: De anima: On soul, conjoined with organic body.
On the other hand, in the case of logic, it is certain that he did not combine his works on the subject into one whole, but that the Peripatetics afterwards put them together as organic, and made them the parts of logic as an organon, as they are treated by Andronicus.
But natural substances are inorganic and organic; and a man is an organic substance composed of an organic body (6pyavLKOv vwµa) as matter, and a soul (i ' vxii) as essence, which is the primary actuality of an organic body capable of life q'w1 i).
What differentiates man from other natural and organic substances, and approximates him to a supernatural substance, God, is reason (Aoyos), or intellect (vows).
Soul is not an immateriate essence of an organic body capable, but an immateriate conscious substance within an organic body.
The blue colour in sapphire has been variously referred to the presence of oxides of chromium, iron or titanium, whilst an organic origin has also been suggested.
But the parcels, examined by an expert, contained no trace of organic remains, proving how much the Egyptians depended on magic imitations and make-believe.
He published many textbooks of chemistry, organic and inorganic, which were republished in England and were translated abroad.
The shell consists of an organic basis the substance of which is called conchiolin, impregnated with carbonate of lime, with a small proportion, I-2%, of phosphate of lime.
AZO COMPOUNDS, organic substances of the type R N:N R' (where R = an aryl radical and R' = a substituted alkyl, or aryl radical).
Rice is also -the source of a drinking spirit in India, known as arrack, and the national beverage of Japan - sake - is prepared from the grain by means of an organic ferment.
Ideal society results from the widening of the organic operation of this principle from the individual man to small groups of meri, and finally to mankind as a whole.
Kundt,' who initiated this line of investigation, came to the conclusion that the absorption spectra of certain organic substances like cyanin and fuchsin were displaced towards the red by the solvent, and that the displacement was the greater the greater the dispersive power of the solvent.
Huntingdon examined by photographic methods the absorption spectra of a great number of organic compounds.
The fact that benzene and its derivatives are remarkable for their powerful absorption of the most refrangible rays, and for some characteristic absorption bands appearing on dilution, led Hartley to a more extended examination of some of the more complicated organic substances.
and it seems highly probable by this delicate mode of analysis that the hypothetical position of any hydrogen which is replaced may be identified, a point which is of prime importance in organic chemistry.
The compounds formed by the action of magnesium on alkyl iodides in the cold have been largely used in synthetic organic Gri chemistry since V.
The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.
R'; the yield increases with the complexity of the organic residue of the acid amide.
On passing a current of dry carbon dioxide over the reagent,- the gas is absorbed and the resulting compound, when decomposed by dilute acids, yields an organic acid, and similarly with carbon oxysulphide a thio-acid is obtained: RMgX-R CO 2 MgX?R CO 2 H; COS-CS(OMgX) R--R Csoh.
of matter from the inorganic to the organic world, moleschott and back again, and he urged this metabolism against the hypothesis of vital force.
On the strength of the consilience of arguments for evolution in the organic world, he carries back the process in the whole world, until he comes to a cosmology which recalls the rash hypotheses of the Presocratics.
He supposes that this evolution does not remain cosmic, but becomes organic. In accordance with Lamarck's hypothesis, he supposes an evolution of organisms by hereditary adaptation to the environment (which he considers necessary to natural selection), and even the possibility of an evolution of life, which, according to him, is the continuous adjustment of internal to external relations.
Now, Spencer has clearly, though unconsciously, changed the meaning of the term " phenomenon " from subjective affection of consciousness to any fact of nature, in regarding all this evolution, cosmic, organic, mental, social and ethical, as an evolution of phenomena.
Lastly, when a theory of the world supposes a noumenal power, a resistent and persistent force, which results in an evolution, defined as an integration of matter and a dissipation of motion, which having resulted in inorganic nature and organic nature, further results without break in consciousness, reason, society and morals, then such a theory will be construed as materialistically as that of Haeckel by the reader, whatever the intention of the author.
The study of evolution, without considering how many conditions are required for " the integration of matter and the dissipation of motion " to begin, and the undoubted discoveries which have resulted from the study of inorganic and organic evolution, have led men to expect too much from this one law of Nature.
According to the other alternative, however, he suggested that at least organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, which are not phenomena; but something realizing or rather substantializing phenomena, and not mere aggregates of monads, but something substantial beyond their monads, because an organic body, though composed of monads, has a real unity (unio realis).
According to this alternative, these organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, between monads and phenomena; and Leibnitz is a metaphysical realist.
(b) He contends that, when matter ascends to the evolution of organic life, the unconscious has a power, over and above its atomic volitions, of introducing a new element, and that in consequence the facts of variation, selection and inheritance, pointed out by Darwin, are merely means which the unconscious uses for its own ends in morphological development.
In the first place, he resolved the doubt of Leibnitz about bodies by deciding entirely against his realistic alternative that an organic body is a substantia realizans phaenomena, and for his idealistic alternative that every body is a phenomenon and not a substance at all.
Like other German voluntarists, he imputes " impulsive will " to the whole organic world.
If he is to be believed, at the bottom of all organic evolution organic impulses becoming habits produce structural changes, which are transmitted by heredity; and as an impulse thus gradually becomes secondarily automatic, the will passes to higher activities, which in their turn become secondarily automatic, and so on.
As now he supposes feeling even in " impulsive will " to be directed to an end, he deduces the conclusion that in organic evolution the pursuit of final causes precedes and is the origin of mechanism.
He does not accept the universal voluntarism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, but believes in individual wills, and a gradation of wills, in the organic world.
He maintained that the physical and the psychical are two orders which are parallel without interference; that the physical or objective order is merely phenomena, or groups of feelings, or " objects," while the psychical or subjective order is both a stream of feelings of which we are conscious in ourselves, and similar streams which we infer beyond ourselves, or, as he came to call them, " ejects "; that, if we accept the doctrine of evolution at all, we must carry these ejective streams of feelings through the whole organic world and beyond it to the inorganic world, as a " quasimental fact "; that at bottom both orders, the physical phenomena and the psychical streams, are reducible to feelings; and that therefore there is no reason against supposing that they are made out of the same " mind-stuff," which is the thing-in-itself.
Psychologically, Aristotle applied his dualism of matter and form to explain the antithesis of body and soul, so that the soul is the form, or entelechy, of an organic body, and he applied the same dualism to explain sensation, which he supposed to be reception of the sensible form or essence, without the matter, of a body, e.g.
Of his earlier papers, some deal with questions of organic chemistry, others with Graham's hydrogenium and its physical constants, others with high temperatures, e.g.
The supplementary Organic Articles of April 1802, however, centralized the administration of the Church in the hands of the First Consul; and some of these one-sided regulations were considered by Rome to be minute and oppressive; nevertheless, the Napoleonic arrangements remained in force, with but brief exceptions, till the year 1905.
He made brilliant experiments elucidating the blue of the sky, and discovered the precipitation of organic vapours by means of light.
As a rule none of these letters can be placed before any of the same organic class.
The experiments of Raoult on solutions of organic bodies in water and on solutions of many substances in some dozen organic solvents have confirmed this result, and therefore the theoretical value of the osmotic pressure from which it was deduced.
Seidell, Dictionary of the Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Substances (1907).
The ferric hydrate is also readily deposited from ferruginous waters, often by means of organic agencies.
Granular and concretionary limonite accumulates by organic action on the floor of certain lakes in Sweden, forming the curious "lake ore."
Bog iron ore is an impure limonite, usually formed by the influence of micro-organisms, and containing silica, phosphoric acid and organic matter, sometimes with manganese.
Custom has to some extent restricted its use to inorganic chemistry; the corresponding property of organic compounds being generally termed isomerism.
Strychnine crystallizes from alcohol in colourless prisms, which are practically insoluble in water, and with difficulty soluble in the common organic solvents.
The enclosed alga is protected by the threads (hyphae) of the fungus, and supplied with water and salts and, possibly, organic nitrogenous substances; in its turn the alga by means of its green or blue-green colouring matter and the sun's energy manufactures carbohydrates which are used in part by the fungus.
On a bare rocky surface a fungus would die from want of organic substance and an alga from drought and want of mineral substances.
Organic acids such as vinegar, common salt, the natural ingredients of food, and the various extraneous substances used as food preservatives, alone or mixed together, dissolve traces of it if boiled for any length of time in a chemicallyclean vessel; but when aluminium utensils are submitted to the ordinary routine of the kitchen, being used to heat or cook milk, coffee, vegetables, meat and even fruit, and are also cleaned frequently in the usual fashion, no appreciable quantity of metal passes into the food.
As a synthetical agent in organic chemistry, aluminium chloride has rendered possible more reactions than any other substance; here we can only mention the classic syntheses of benzene homologues.
The latter is not sufficiently retentive of moisture and gets too hot in summer and requires large quantities of organic manures to keep it in good condition.
Plant houses were formerly heated in a variety of ways - by fermenting organic matter, such as dung, by smoke flues, by steam and by hot water circulating in iron pipes.
- These are of two classes, organic and inorganic - the former being of animal and vegetable, the latter of mineral origin.
The following are organic manures: Farm-yard manure consists of the mixed dung of horses and cattle thrown together, and more or less soaked with liquid drainings of the stable or byre.
It is largely supplied in all the most fertilizing of organic manures, but when required in the inorganic state must be obtained from some of the salts of ammonia, as the sulphate, the muriate or the phosphate, all of which, being extremely energetic, require to be used with great caution.
It does not supply the place of organic manures, but only renders that which is present available for the nourishment of the plants.
Many fossils are mineralized with pyrites, which has evidently been reduced by the action of decomposing organic matter on a solution of ferrous sulphate, or perhaps less directly on ferrous carbonate dissolved in water containing carbonic acid, in the presence of certain sulphates.
In western Europe the advent of the Carboniferous period was accompanied by the production of a series of synclines which permitted the formation of organic limestones, free from the sediments which generally characterized the concluding phases of the preceding Devonian deposition.
KETONES, in chemistry, organic compounds of the type R CO R', where R, R' = alkyl or aryl groups.
While some moulds (Penicillium, Aspergillus) can utilize almost any organic food-materials, other fungi are more restricted in their choice - e.g.
Invisible to the microscope, but rendered visible by reagents, are glycogen, Mucor, Ascomycetes, yeast, &c. In addition to these cell-contents we have good indirect evidence of the existence of large series of other bodies, such as proteids, carbohydrates, organic acids, alkaloids, enzymes, &c. These must not be confounded with the numerous substances obtained by chemical analysis of masses of the fungus, as there is often no proof of the manner of occurrence of such bodies, though we may conclude with a good show of probability that some of them also exist preformed in the living cell.
The same fact is indicated by the wide range of organic substances which can be utilized by Penicillium and other moulds, and by the behaviour of parasitic fungi which destroy various cell-contents and tissues.
But we may refer generally here to certain phenomena peculiar to these plants, the life-actions of which are restricted and specialized by their peculiar dependence on organic supplies of carbon and nitrogen, so that most fungi resemble the colourless cells of higher plants in their nutrition.
One of the earliest, if not the earliest, was the investigation, published in 1830, which proved the polymerism of cyanic and cyanuric acid, but the most famous were those on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde) and the radicle benzoyl (1832), and on uric acid (1837), which are of fundamental importance in the history of organic chemistry.
But it was the achievement of Wailer alone, in 1828, to break down the barrier held to exist between organic and inorganic chemistry by artificially preparing urea, one of those substances which up to that time it had been thought could only be produced through the agency of "vital force."
It is a product of the action of heat on many organic compounds, being formed when the vapours of ether, camphor, acetic acid, ethylene, acetylene, &c., are passed through a red-hot tube (M.
DIAZO COMPOUNDS, in organic chemistry, compounds of the type R N 2 X (where R = a hydrocarbon radical, and X = an acid radical or a hydroxyl group).
Especially prominent is the fact that polymerism and metamerism are mainly reserved to the domain of organic chemistry, or the chemistry of carbon, both being discovered there; and, more especially, the phenomenon of metamerism in organic chemistry has largely developed our notions concerning the structure of matter.
That this particular feature belongs to carbon compounds is due to a property of carbon which characterizes the whole of organic chemistry, i.e.
Whereas carbon renders isomerism possible in organic compounds, cobalt and platinum are the determining elements in inorganic chemistry, the phenomena being exhibited especially by complex ammoniacal derivatives.
In this article we shall confine ourselves to the fatty compounds, from which the fundamental notions were first obtained; reference may be made to the article Chemistry: Organic, for the general structural relations of organic compounds, both fatty and aromatic.
Now, in this case, the first definition expresses much better the whole chemical behaviour of ozone, which is that of "energetic" oxygen, while the second only includes the fact of higher vapour-density; but in applying the first definition to organic compounds and calling isobutylene "butylene with somewhat more energy" hardly anything is indicated, and all the advantages of the atomic conception - the possibility of exactly predicting how many isomers a given formula includes and how you may get them - are lost.
As an example another series of organic compounds may be taken, viz.
(Compare Chemistry: Organic.) The above examples may illustrate how, in a general way, chemical properties of isomers, their formation as well as transformation, may be read in the structure formula.
Jager in complicated organic compounds.
It exhibits itself in the peculiar behaviour of some organic compounds containing the group - C CO.
ESTERS, in organic chemistry, compounds formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water; they may also be considered as derivatives of alcohols, in which the hydroxylic hydrogen has been replaced by an acid radical, or as acids in which the hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. In the case of the polybasic acids, all the hydrogen atoms can be replaced in this way, and the compounds formed are known as "neutral esters."
The word "species" now signifies a grade or rank in classification assigned by systematists to an assemblage of organic forms which they judge to be more closely interrelated by common descent than they are related to forms judged to be outside the species, and of which the known individuals, if they differ amongst themselves, differ less markedly than they do from those outside the species, or, if differing markedly, are linked by intermediate forms. It is to be noted that the individuals may themselves be judged to fall into groups of minor rank, known as sub-species or local varieties, but such subordinate assemblages are elevated to specific rank, if they appear not to intergrade so as to form a linked.
Gdppert as vegetable structures and were supposed to point to an organic origin, but this view is no longer held.
It must be a unit, its forces constant and its totality an organic whole.
Teleology, in this narrower sense, as the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur, was completely revolutionized by Darwinism and the research founded on it.
This proposition, however, has been conclusively shown to be erroneous, there being no such difference of law between the increase of man and that of the organic beings which form his food.
AMIDINES, in organic chemistry, the nan e given to compounds of general formula R.
The Knipovich expedition in 1004 found no traces of organic life below the depth of 220 fathoms except micro-organisms and a single Oligochaete; but above that level there exist abundant evidences of rich pelagic life, more particularly from the surface down to a depth of 80 fathoms.
This conception led Kekule to his "closed-chain" or "ring" theory of the constitution of benzene which has been called the "most brilliant piece of prediction to be found in the whole range of organic chemistry," and this in turn led in particular to the elucidation of the constitution of the "aromatic compounds," and in general to new methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition, and to a deeper insight into the composition of numberless organic bodies and their mutual relations.
Japp, in the Kekule memorial lecture he delivered before the London Chemical Society on the 15th of December 1897, declared that three-fourths of modern organic chemistry is directly or indirectly the product of Kekule's benzene theory, and that without its guidance and inspiration the industries of the coal-tar colours and artificial therapeutic agents in their present form and extension would have been inconceivable.
In these cases the zinc sulphide has probably arisen from the reduction of sulphate by organic matter.
VALERIC ACID, or [[Valerianic Acid, C4h9 C02h]], an organic acid belonging to the fatty acid series, which exists in four isomeric forms, one of which contains an asymmetric carbon atom and consequently occurs in two optically active modifications and one optically inactive modification.
The silt and mud brought down by these rivers is rich in clay and organic matter, and sometimes when dry contains as much as I% of nitrogen.
In this way as the water sinks down through the porous subsoil or into the subterranean drains oxygen enters and supplies an element which is needed, not only for the oxidation of organic matters in the earth, but also for the direct and indirect nutrition of the roots.
In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalate, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether.
It was empowered to arrange the fundamental laws of the confederation; to fix the organic institutions relating to its external, internal and military arrangements; to regulate the trade relations between the various federated states.
Finally it~was laid down by Article 7 that a unanimous vote was necessary for changing fundamental laws, organic institutions, individual rights, or in matters of religion, a formula wide enough to embrace every question of importance with which the diet might be called upon to deal.
Besides many memoirs in the Transactions of learned societies, he published Acadian Geology: The geological structure, organic remains and mineral resources of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island (1855; ed.
Bodies were established for executive, financial and judicial purposes, the Austrian lands constituted one of the imperial circles which were established in 1512, and in 1518 representatives of the various diets (Landtage) met at Innsbruck, a proceeding which marks the beginning of an organic unity in the Austrian lands.
In The Wisdom of God, &c., Ray recites innumerable examples of the perfection of organic mechanism, the multitude and variety of living creatures, the minuteness and usefulness of their parts, and many, if not most, of the familiar examples of purposive adaptation and design in nature were suggested by him, such as the structure of the eye, the hollowness of the bones, the camel's stomach and the hedgehog's armour.
As is so often the case with animals which eat mud and sand, and extract what little nutriment is afforded by the organic debris therein, the walls of the alimentary canal are thin and apparently weak.
When Hellenism came to stand in the world for something concrete and organic, it was, of course, no mere abstract principle, but embodied in a language, a literature, an artistic tradition.
p. 60) as water 84 09, organic matter 13.38, and inorganic matter 1.53 - that of the leaves being water 87.14, organic matter 11.27 and inorganic matter 1.59.
The terms agreed upon in this instrument, known as the London Convention, were embodied in a khedivial decree, which, with some modification in detail, remained for twenty years the organic law under which the finances of Egypt were administered.
Prehistoric.The earliest civilized population of Egypt was highly skilled in mechanical accuracy and regularity, but had little sense of organic forms. They kept the unfinished treatment of the limbs and extremities which is so characteristic of most barbaric art; and the action was more considered than the form.
But let it be observed, first, that to reduce the huge and confused mass of pre-existing law into the compass of these two collections was an immense practical benefit to the empire; secondly, that, whereas the work which he undertook was accomplished in seven years, the infinitely more difficult task of codification might probably have been left unfinished at Tribonian's death, or even at Justinian's own, and been abandoned by his successor; thirdly, that in the extracts preserved in the Digest we have the opinions of the greatest legal luminaries given in their own admirably lucid, philosophical and concise language, while in the extracts of which the Codex is composed we find valuable historical evidence bearing on the administration and social condition of the later Pagan and earlier Christian empire; fourthly, that Justinian's age, that is to say, the intellect of the men whose services he commanded, was quite unequal to so vast an undertaking as the fusing upon scientific principles into one new organic whole of the entire law of the empire.
In Britain the brine is so pure that, keeping a small stream of it running into the pan to replace the losses by evaporation and the removal of the salt, it is only necessary occasionally (not often) to reject the mother-liquor when at last it becomes too impure with magnesium chloride; but in some works the mother-liquor not only contains more of this impurity but becomes quite brown from organic matter on concentration, and totally unfit for further service after yielding but two or three crops of salt crystals.
The segment so cut off does not usually divide again by means of a transverse wall, nor indeed by a longitudinal wall which passes through the organic axis of the cell.
Although algae generally are able to use carbonic acid gas as a, source of carbon, some algae, like certain of the higher plants, are capable of utilizing organic compounds for this purpose.
Some algae, however, seem to flourish better in the presence of organic compounds.
The presence of phycocyanin, phyco a role in the morphological development of land plants is entirely wanting in algae, such conducting tissues as do exist in the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae serving rather for the convection of elaborated organic substance, and being thus comparable with the phloem of the higher plants.
Ann., 1828, 12, p. 253) is of theoretical importance, since it was the first organic compound obtained from inorganic materials.
Allen, Commercial Organic Analysis).
In descending order they embrace the following subdivisions, whose thickness in the district of Durness is estimated at about 2000 ft.: (e) limestones, dolomites and cherts, with numerous organic remains; (d) grit and quartzite, with Saltarella and Olenellus (Serpulite Grit); (c) calcareous shales and dolomites, with many annelid casts and sometimes Olenellus (Fucoid Beds); (b) Upper Quartzite, often crowded with annelid pipes (Pipe Rock Quartzite); (a) Lower Quartzite - their original upper limit can nowhere be seen, for they have been overridden by the Eastern Schists in those gigantic underground disturbances already referred to, by which these rocks, the Archean gneiss and Torridonian sandstone, were crumpled, inverted, dislocated and thrust over each other.
Several of the ancients had a vague belief in continuity between the inorganic and the organic and in the modifying or variation-producing effects of the environment.
von Herder suggested that increase by multiplication with the consequent struggle for existence had played a large part in the organic world, but his theme remained vague and undeveloped.
P. Lamarck was the first author to work out a connected theory of descent and to suggest that the relationships of organic forms were due to actual affinities.
One aspect of organic individuality is the correlation of variations, the fact that when one part varies, other parts vary more or less simultaneously.
Much correlation is the inevitable result of organic structure.
Darwin and his generation were deeply imbued with the Butlerian tradition, and regarded the organic world as almost a miracle of adaptation, of the minute dovetailing of structure, function and environment.
Variation, again, as has been shown in this article, is limited by correlation; as any change involves other changes, the possibilities are limited by the organic whole.
The past history of the organic world displays many successful series and these, as they have survived, must inevitably display orthogenesis to some extent; but it also displays many failures which indeed may be regarded as showing that the limitation of variation has been such that the organisms have lost the possibility of successful response to a new environment.
It is readily soluble in hot water and the ordinary organic solvents, but is only slightly soluble in cold water.
It is found, more especially in the case of organic compounds, that if a substance which oxidizes readily at ordinary temperature be mixed with another which is not capable of such oxidation, then both are oxidized simultaneously, the amount of oxygen used being shared equally between them; or in some cases when the substance is spontaneously oxidized an equivalent amount of oxygen is converted into ozone or hydrogen peroxide.
Villiger (Be y ., 1901, 34, pp. 2679, 3612) showed that many organic compounds (ethers, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, &c.) behave towards acids, particularly the more complex acids, very much like bases and yield crystallized salts in which quadrivalent oxygen must be assumed as the basic element.
A little later this same knowledge led him to the beginnings of quantitative organic analysis.
Knowing that the water produced by the combustion of alcohol was not pre-existent in that substance but was formed by the combination of its hydrogen with the oxygen of the air, he burnt alcohol and other combustible organic substances, such as wax and oil, in a known volume of oxygen, and, from the weight of the water and carbon dioxide produced and his knowledge of their composition, was able to calculate the amounts of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen present in the substance.
It is the age of unconscious morality, when the individual's life is lost in the society of which he is an organic member.
Religion in this shape is the nearest step to the stage of absolute knowledge; and this absolute knowledge- " the spirit knowing itself as spirit " - is not something which leaves these other forms behind but the full comprehension of them as the organic constituents of its empire; " they are the memory and the sepulchre of its history, and at the same time the actuality, truth and certainty of its throne."
For example, the seed of the plant is an initial unity of life, which when placed in its proper soil suffers disintegration into its constitutents, and yet in virtue of its vital unity keeps these divergent elements together, and reappears as the plant with its members in organic union.
Thought became only the result of organic conditions - subjective and human; and the system of Hegel was no longer an idealization of religion, but a naturalistic theory with a prominent and peculiar logic.
The whole falls under the three heads of mechanics, physics and " organic " - the content under each varying somewhat in the three editions of the Encyklopadie.
Lastly, under the head of " organic," come geology, botany and animal physiology - presenting the concrete results of these processes in the three kingdoms of nature.
Indeed, the deduction to be drawn from Goethe's contributions to botany and anatomy is that he, as no other of his contemporaries, possessed that type of scientific mind which, in the 19th century, has made for progress; he was Darwin's predecessor by virtue of his enunciation of what has now become one of the commonplaces of natural science - organic evolution.
The antiquity of certain principles and details is undeniable - as also in the Talmud - but since one must start from the organic connexions of the composite sources, the problems necessitate proper attention to the relation between the stages in the literary growth (working backwards) and the vicissitudes which culminate in the postexilic age.
Any comparison of the treatment of biblical figures or events in the later literature will illustrate the retention of certain old details, the appearance of new ones, and an organic connexion which is everywhere in accordance with contemporary thought and teaching.
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