Some account has been already given of scholastic opinion on presbyteral ordination to the diaconate and even to the priesthood.
St Jerome (Ep. 1 4 6) tells us that as late as the middle of the 3rd century the presbyters of Alexandria, when the see was vacant, used to elect one of their own number and without any further ordination set him in the episcopal office.
In the Roman Church to-day the office of archdeacon is merely titular, his sole function being to present the candidates for ordination to the bishop. The title, indeed, hardly exists save in Italy, where the archdeacon is no more than a dignified member of a chapter, who takes rank after the bishop. The ancient functions of the archdeacon are exercised by the vicar-general.
It is his privilege to present all candidates for ordination to the bishop of the diocese.
V.) shows that in exceptional cases men were consecrated bishops without previous ordination to the priesthood.
The Roman theologians regard them as incapable of true ordination, alleging i Tim.
He was educated at the English college, Douai, where on his ordination to the priesthood he held successively the chairs of philosophy and divinity.
The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.
And was absent for ten weeks from about the 6th of December to the 6th of March, presumahly for the purpose of his ordination as a sub-deacon, which was performed by the bishop of Derry, acting as suffragan to the bishop of London.
The ordination and induction of ministers is always the act of a presbytery.
The ordination and induction of elders in some branches of the Church is the act of the kirk-session; in others it is the act of the presbytery.
It is consistent with this view to argue the absolute parity of ministers and elders, conceding to all presbyters" equal right to teach, to rule, to administer the sacraments, to take part in the ordination of ministers, and to preside in church courts."The practice of the Presbyterian churches of the present day is in accord with the first-named theory.
In 1570 Presbyterian views found a distinguished exponent in Dr Thomas Cartwright at Cambridge; and the temper of parliament was shown by the act of 1571, for the reform of disorders in the Church, in which, while all mention of doctrine is omitted, the doctrinal articles alone being sanctioned, ordination without a bishop is implicitly recognized.
The ministers were mostly Puritans; by their ordination, &c., Episcopalian; and for the most part strongly impressed with the desirability of nearer agreement with the Church of Scotland, and other branches of the Reformed Church on the Continent.
The time had now come for Gregory, who was still a layman and father of two sons, to receive ordination; so he went to Caesarea, where Leontius ordained and consecrated him catholicos or vicar-general of Armenia.
Gregory's ordination at Caesarea is historical.
The idea of an identity of protoplasm does not involve a denial of special powers developed in it in different situations, and the possession of such a power by the vegetable cell is not more striking than the location of the powers of co-ordination and thought in the protoplasm of cells of the human brain.
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
At the last meeting of the Lambeth Conference (1907) some overtures, on certain conditions, were made for (a) joint consecration of bishops, (b) joint ordination of ministers, (c) interchange of pulpits.
In 403 he repaired to Constantinople, where he received ordination as deacon at the hands of Chrysostom.
Dorset's beneficent intentions for his sons' pedagogue probably suggested Wolsey's ordination as priest at Marlborough on March ro, 1498, and on October io, r50o, he was instituted, on Dorset's presentation, to the rectory of Limington in Somerset.
In the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during a vacancy.
In Great Britain agricultural education as a whole lacks the scope and co-ordination which it has in some continental countries.
There was, in a word, co-ordination rather than subordination; nor did the kings ever attempt to embark on a policy of centralization.
The second half of the 17th century witnessed remarkable transitions and developments in all branches of natural science,and the facts accumulated by preceding generations during their generally unordered researches were re placed by a co-ordination of experiment and deduction.
Lavoisier adequately recognized and acknowledged how much he owed to the researches of others; to himself is due the co-ordination of these researches, and the welding of his results into a doctrine to which the phlogistic theory ultimately succumbed.
The first step in this direction was effected by the co-ordination of Gay Lussac's observations on the combining volumes of gases.
He preached frequently in the churches near Oxford in the months succeeding his ordination, and in April 1726 he obtained leave from his college to act as his father's curate.
Despite his strong sayings, it was Wesley who broke the links to the church, for, as Lord Mansfield put it, "ordination is separation."
He had gone to Wesley's help at West Street after his ordination at Whitehall in 1757 and had been one of his chief allies ever since.
As the Ecclesiastical History was written in 731, we obtain the following dates for the principal events in Bede's uneventful life: - birth, 672-673 entrance into the monastery, 679-680; ordination as deacon, 691-692; as priest, 702-703.
A member of his expeditions, de Flotte Rocquevaire, made a triangulation of part of the western portion of the main Atlas, his labours affording a basis for the co-ordination of the work of previous explorers.
Sacerdotal benedictions are not indeed sacraments - means of grace ordained by Christ himself, but sacramentals (sacramenta minora) ordained by the authority of the Church and exercised by the priests, as the plenipotentiaries of God, in virtue of the powers conferred on them at their ordination; "that whatever they bless may be blessed, and whatever they consecrate may be consecrated."
The benediction of abbots, of priests at their ordination, of virgins taking the veil, of churches, cemeteries, oratories, and of all articles for use in connexion with the altar (chalices, patens, vestments, &c.), of military colours, of soldiers and of their arms. The holy oil is also blessed by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church; in the Greek Church, on the other hand, the oil for the chrism at baptism is blessed by the priest.
The tenth canon tolerates the marriages of deacons who previous to ordination had reserved the right to take a wife; the thirteenth forbids chorepiscopi to ordain presbyters or deacons; the eighteenth safeguards the right of the people in objecting to the appointment of a bishop whom they do not wish.
Soon after his ordination in 1599, he assisted Cardinal Duperron in his controversy with the Protestant Philippe de Mornay, and made numerous converts.
Even when introduced, the monarchical episcopate was not thought necessary for the ordination of other bishops or presbyters.
The Roman Church forbids ordination to higher grades unless the candidate has received all the inferior orders.
Passing to the effect of ordination, we meet with two views, each of which still finds advocates.
According to some, ordination simply entitles a man to hold an office and perform its functions.
This theory is clearly stated by Cranmer: " In the New Testament he that is appointed bishop or priest needed no consecration, by the Scripture, for election or appointment thereto is sufficient."2 This view, widely held among modern scholars, has strong support in the fact that the words used for ordination in the first three centuries (xaporov€ v, xaOcvTav€CV, «Afpova9at, constituere, ordinare) also expressed appointment to civil office.
Holy order is a sacrament, and as such instituted by Christ; it confers grace and power, besides setting a mark or character upon the soul, in consequence of which ordination to the same office cannot be reiterated.
The ordinary minister of orders is a bishop. The tonsure and minor orders are, however, still sometimes conferred by abbots, who, though simple priests, have special faculties for the ordination of their monks.
Is a simoniacal ordination valid ?
According to common opinion, the matter and form of ordination to the episcopate were the imposition of the consecrating bishop's hands with the words, " Receive the Holy Ghost."
The final imposition of hands and the bestowal of power to forgive sins at the end of the ordination rite for priests in the Roman Pontifical is later even than the tradition of instruments.
The handing over of paten and chalice in ordination to the priesthood, are admittedly non-essential, unless we adopt the opinion of some Roman theologians that our Lord left the determination of matter and form to the church, which has insisted on different rites at different times.
The necessity of reference to sacerdotal power in the ordination of priests and bishops will be considered a little farther on in connexion with Anglican orders.
Ordination is to be effected by imposition of hands.
For the consecration of bishops, priests and deacons, contains all that is necessary for such ordination and nothing which is of itself superstitious.
I I) that "there may be sometimes very just and sufficient reason to allow ordination made without a bishop," or of the High Church Thorndike (apud Gibson on the Articles, ii.
The corresponding form for the ordination of a priest was " Receive thou the Holy Ghost: whose sins thou dost forgive," &c. These were the sole forms in use from 1552 to 1 562.
He knew very well that the theologians of his church almost without exception held that the handing over of the paten and chalice with the words, " Receive power of offering sacrifice," &c., were the essential matter and form of ordination to the priesthood; indeed he published the decree of Eugenius IV.
But then the liturgy of Serapion, the friend of Athanasius, recently discovered, contains forms for the ordination of priests and bishops which do not say a word about power to sacrifice, much less about power to sacrifice Christ's literal body and blood.
So far the development of algebra and geometry had been mutually independent, except for a few isolated applications of geometrical constructions to the solution of algebraical problems. Certain minds had long suspected the advantages which would accrue from the unrestricted application of algebra to geometry, but it was not until the advent of the philosopher Rene Descartes that the co-ordination was effected.
A defect in co-ordination allows the stimulated active vegetative cellular elements, or the more fully differentiated tissue, to over-develop and so form tumours, simple or malignant.
When satisfied, the presbytery proceeds with the ordination and induction.