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orders

orders Sentence Examples

  • He gave everybody strict orders to leave you alone.

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  • I'm under strict orders to keep you safe.

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  • I'm under strict orders to keep you safe.

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  • I don't take orders from your kind.

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  • She turned away, issuing silent orders to the death-dealers.

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  • Damian issued few clean-up orders, for there was no way to maintain the discretion his Guardians needed to mask their shadow operations protecting humanity.

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  • I thought it was strange, since Jimmy's the last person who would veer off course from your orders because you let him blow up whatever he wants and he doesn't wanna lose that.

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  • She readied herself for a fight, making certain none of them had orders to jump her yet, and then continued to the panoramic window.

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  • She readied herself for a fight, making certain none of them had orders to jump her yet, and then continued to the panoramic window.

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  • Orders are issued for a battle.

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  • Uhtred was slain by the orders of Canute, who gave the province to Eric (Eirikr) earl of Lade.

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  • I know the service, and it is my habit orders strictly to obey.

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  • The orders were not to let them in.

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  • You don't give me orders, Damian.

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  • "If he chooses to protect this target from us—" "First," Damian said, standing, "Jule doesn't take orders from you.

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  • You.ll take orders from me?

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  • She just rotated to the southwest on orders that neither you nor Jule nor I issued, and the Tucson sites have fallen like flies.

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  • He walked away with his clipboard in hand, barking some orders at another officer.

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  • The adversaries were regrouping, with one barking orders to those remaining.

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  • The prince gave orders that no one should leave his post.

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  • "Prince," said Berg, recognizing Prince Andrew, "I only spoke because I have to obey orders, because I always do obey exactly....

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  • We heard them say they have orders to kill everyone.

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  • Alex gave her orders not to cook.

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  • Once again, he was the Sirian she remembered, the man she worshipped as a child as he belted orders to the army.

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  • We have orders to watch him but not interfere, unless someone is in danger.

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  • In fact, he had given her strict orders not to lift anything.

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  • Landon issued orders to the dealers last night to seal the others in the lakes where we found the souls originally.

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  • Dean asked with a smile as the others began to follow the orders to leave the room.

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  • I just follow orders.

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  • He'd deal with her after he issued orders to his assassins.

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  • I'll issue the orders.

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  • You know how hard it is to track down everyone one-by-one to relay orders?

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  • Keep at it until I send orders otherwise and change locations daily.

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  • The man melted from the shadows, awaiting his orders.

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  • He heard Mansr issue orders to others to rally on the moon and Jetr's voice come over the speakers.

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  • She did not agree with the commander's orders to kill anyone who stepped within range.

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  • "You have orders for lodging and supplies," the fed said, hurrying to catch up to him.

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  • I'll have the command submit your new orders.

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  • Most were short phrases that looked like orders.

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  • I found encrypted correspondence from Greene and your orders to Brady to find me, before the nuke attacks.

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  • She knew without a doubt Brady would follow Mr. Tim's orders.

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  • I'll be happy when Darkyn orders your death.

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  • That was how he got away with giving orders.

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  • Alright, how am I supposed to protect you when you won't follow my orders?

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  • He was probably upset that she didn't answer her cell phone, but he had given her strict orders not to use it when she was driving.

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  • Because the Grey God's orders trump your better judgment every time.

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  • Memon presided over all before him, at times as still as the statues lining the halls and at times barking orders for more wine or shouting at servants who placed food wrong on the tables.

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  • Having taken holy orders his advancement in the Church was very rapid, mainly through the influence of his brother Andrew.

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  • After having preached the gospel in Wiirzburg, the whole party were put to death by the orders of an unjust judge named Gozbert.

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  • Later he took holy orders, held two livings, and became master of the rolls in 1494, while Henry VII.

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  • He has also been the recipient of many foreign orders.

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  • In 1561 he became a fellow of his college and took holy orders.

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  • The colour of the vestment is usually white for bishops and priests (this is the rule in the Coptic Church); for the other orders there is no rule, and all colours,.

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  • He died on the 14th of September and by his orders the words Hic jacet pulvis, cinis, et nihil were put on his tomb.

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  • Certain concordats deal with the orders and congregations of monks and nuns with a view to subjecting them to a certain control while securing to them the legal exercise of their activities.

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  • A convention on the religious orders was concluded in 1904, but had not received the assent of the Senate in 1908.

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  • In one day all the usual orders were conferred on him, and even the great preacher Massillon consented to take part in the ceremonies.

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  • As far as possible he saw to everything personally, and never sent away a petitioner of the lower orders.

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  • He later took orders, and, through the favour of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother of Nicholas V., obtained from Paul II.

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  • The origin of such unendowed curacies is traceable to the fact that benefices were sometimes granted to religious houses pleno jure, and with liberty for them to provide for the cure; and when such appropriations were transferred to lay persons, being unable to serve themselves, the impropriators were required to nominate a clerk in full orders to the.

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  • The term "curate" in the present day is almost exclusively used to signify a clergyman who is assistant to a rector or vicar, by whom he is employed and paid; and a clerk in deacon's orders is competent to be licensed by a bishop to the office of such assistant curate.

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  • Not satisfied with procuring this, Alexander had Parmenio himself, who had been left in command in Media, put to death by secret orders.

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  • He communicates to the tribesmen the orders of the vali, which must be framed in accordance with their customs and institutions.

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  • THE System Described As compared with the Church of England (Episcopal) in which there are three orders of clergy - bishops, priests and deacons, Order.

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  • When ministers and elders are associated in the membership of a church court their equality is admitted; no such idea as voting by orders is ever entertained.

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  • The four orders mentioned in the Institutio are recognized: pastors, doctors, elders and deacons.

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  • They adopted a purely Presbyterian system which was published as the Orders of Wandsworth.

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  • The most important orders were the Ku Klux Klan and the Knights of the White Camelia.

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  • Churches and chapels are founded and maintained by religious orders and private gift as well.

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  • Here, by the emperor's orders, the assembled Spaniards proceeded to the election of a captain-general, and their choice fell almost unanimously on Domingos Martinez de Irala, who was proclaimed captain-general of the Rio de la Plata (August 1538).

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  • The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.

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  • First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.

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  • This last word is the regular French for "knight," and is chiefly used in English for a member of certain foreign military or other orders, particularly of the Legion of Honour.

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  • After the holy sites had been determined, Constantine gave orders for the construction of two magnificent churches, the one over the tomb and the other over the place where the cross was discovered.

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  • The walls were repaired by her orders, and the line of fortifications appears to have been extended on the south so as to include the pool of Siloam.

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  • There are two orders, the Marsupialia and the Monotremata, which do not possess this organ; both these are found in Australia, to which region indeed they are not absolutely confined.

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  • The bishop has acquired control of the sacraments, presbyters and deacons acting only under his orders; the episcopate appears as a unit, bishops being bound to respect one another's disciplinary decrees.

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  • Having taken priest's orders, he held in 1524 a cure in the neighbourhood of Augsburg, but soon (1525) went over to the Reformed party at Nuremberg and became preacher at Gustenfelden.

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  • For the modern order of the Golden Fleece, see Knighthood And Chivalry, section Orders of Knighthood.

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  • Khosrev was executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed (Mahommed the Greek); and on the 29th of May 1632, by a successful personal appeal to the loyalty of the janissaries, Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippodrome.

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  • Instead they used every endeavour to establish friendly relations with the rulers of all the neighbouring kingdoms, and before d'Alboquerque returned to India he despatched embassies to China, Siam, and several kingdoms of Sumatra, and sent a small fleet, with orders to assume a highly conciliatory attitude toward all natives, in search of the Moluccas.

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  • As an officer he was obedient and never disputed my orders or argued with them.

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  • In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag, made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.

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  • The parasitic Nematodes include by far the greatest number of the known genera; they are found in nearly all the orders of the animal kingdom, but more especially among the Vertebrata, and of these the Mammalia are infested by a greater variety than any of the other groups.

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  • The Code made known, in a vast number of cases, what that decision would be, and many cases of appeal to the king were sent back to the judges with orders to decide in accordance with it.

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  • The word is still sometimes employed in this sense, as of the ship's telegraph, by means of which orders are mechanically transmitted from the navigating bridge to the engine room, but when used without qualification it usually denotes telegraphic apparatus worked by electricity, whether the signals that express the words of the message are visual, auditory or written.

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  • The parcel post and money order services have largely increased since 1887--1888, the number of parcels having almost doubled (those for abroad are more than trebled), while the number of money orders issued is trebled and their value doubled (about 40,000,000).

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  • The value of the foreign orders paid in Italy increased from 1,280,000 to ~2,356,oo0owing to the increase of emigration and of the savings sent home by emigrants.

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  • The schools which do not obtain equality with government schools are either some of those conducted by religious orders, or else those in which a sufficient standard is not reached.

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  • To priests and choristers, for example, of the proprietary or endowed orders were assigned 24 per annum if they were upwards of sixty years of age, 16 if upwards of 40, and 14, 8s.

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  • Among the principal events of that reign must be reckoned the foundation of the two orders, Franciscan and Dominican, who were destined to form a militia for the holy see in conflict with the empire and the heretics of Lombardy.

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  • their affairs were managed by Manfred and by Charles of Anjou, the supreme captains of the parties, under whose orders acted the captains of the people in each city.

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  • In, taking this step the Modenese and Romagnols had the encouragement of Bonaparte, despite the orders which the French directory sent to him in a contrary sense.

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  • Thereupon the French general, Miollis, who still occupied Rome, caused the pope to be arrested and carried him away northwards into Tuscany, thence to Savona; finally he was taken, at Napoleons orders, to Fontainebleau.

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  • Pressure from all sides of the House, however, induced the ministry to retain office until after the debate on the application to Rome and the Papal States of the Religious Orders Bill (originally passed in 1866)a measure which, with the help of Ricasoli, was carried at the end of May.

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  • While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.

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  • The proceeds of the sale of the suppressed convents and monasteries were partly converted into pensions for monks and nuns, and partly allotted to the municipal charity boards which had undertaken the educational and charitable functions formerly exercised by the religious orders.

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  • To the pope was made over 16,000 per annum as a contribution to the expense of maintaining in Rome representatives of foreign orders; the Sacred College, however, rejected this endowment, and summoned all the suppressed confraternities to reconstitute themselves under the ordinary Italian law of association.

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  • A few days after the passage of the Religious Orders Bill, the death of Rattazzi (5th June 1873) removed all probability of the immediate advent of the Left.

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  • Perceiving the advantage of a visit to the imperial and apostolic court after the Italian occupation of Rome and the suppression of the religious orders, and convinced of the value of more cordial intercourse with the German empire, Visconti-Venosta and Minghetti advised their sovereign to accept both the Austrian and the subsequent German invitations.

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  • As a precaution against an eventual French attempt to restore the temporal power, orders were hurriedly given to complete the defences of Rome, but in other respects the Italian government maintained its subservient attitude.

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  • In view of the violence of Extremist obstruction, an effort was made to reform the standing orders of the Lower House, but parliamentary feeling ran so high that General Pelloux thought it expedient to appeal to the country.

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  • All then took an oath to keep its terms, and orders were sent to the sheriffs to publish it, and to see that its provisions were observed, two or three days being taken up with making and sending out copies for this purpose.

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  • Having decided to take orders he graduated, by special letters from the chancellor, at Exeter College, Oxford, and was ordained in 1722.

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  • They may prove eventually to belong to other orders.

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  • Another expression of the same method, due to Cope, and specially valuable to the taxonomist, is that when the relationship between orders is being considered, characters of subordinal rank must be neglected.

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  • The law includes with clerics, monks, deaconesses, nuns, ascetics; and the word " clerics " covered persons in minor orders, down to doorkeepers.

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  • With the later 9th century we enter upon a new epoch, and by the time of Gregory VII., in the 11th century, the tribunals have fallen into the hands of a regular class of canonists who are in fact professional church-lawyers in orders.

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  • (n) Officials, even of bishops and metropolitans, need not be in holy orders, though Bishop Stubbs in his paper in the Report of the Commission on Ecclesiastical Courts seems to say so.

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  • Abroad unsuccessful attempts were made by local councils to enact that officials and vicars-general should be in holy orders (Hefele on Councils of Tortosa in 1429 and Sixth of Milan in 1582).

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  • In the case of persons in holy orders there is a concurrent jurisdiction of the two tribunals (Valancy v.

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  • In the Roman communion, on the other hand, both where the Church is established and where it is not, the tendency is to reduce the status of cure to that of desservant, and to deal with all members of the priestly or lower orders by administrative methods.

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  • those orders which have solemn vows.

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  • Over the members of these orders their superiors have jurisdiction and not the bishop. Otherwise if they live out of their monastery, or even within that enclosure so notoriously offend as to cause scandal.

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  • The exemption of regular religious orders may be extended to religious societies without solemn vows by special concession of the pope, as in the case of the Passionists and Redemptorists (ib.

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  • This synod in 1667 deposed Nikon, degraded him from holy orders, and sentenced him to perpetual penance in a monastery (ib.

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  • In addition to these there were in Ghent in 1901 fifty religious houses of various orders.

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  • In the monastic period pharmacy was to a great extent under the control of the religious orders, particularly the Benedictines, who, from coming into contact with the Arabian physicians, devoted themselves to pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics; but, as monks were forbidden to shed blood, surgery fell largely into the hands of barbers, so that the class of barber-surgeons came into existence, and the sign of their skill in blood-letting still appears in provincial districts in England in the form of the barber's pole, representing the application of bandages.

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  • Wren's earlier designs have the exterior of the church arranged with one order of columns; the division of the whole height into two orders was an immense gain in increasing the apparent scale of the whole, and makes the exterior of St Paul's very superior to that of St Peter's in Rome, which is utterly dwarfed by the colossal size of the columns and pilasters of its single order.

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  • the orders, families, genera and species.

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  • 492): Here, more perhaps than in any other part of the globe, in Compositae as in so many other orders, we ma~ fancy we see the scattered remains of ancient races dwindlinf down to their last representatives.

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  • Herodotus (himself a notable traveller in the 5th century B.C.) relates that the Egyptian king Necho of the XXVIth Dynasty (c. 600 B.C.) built a fleet on the Red Sea, and confided it to Phoenician sailors with the orders to sail southward and return to Egypt by the Pillars of Hercules and the Mediterranean sea.

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  • The first seat of the Holy Office was in the convent of San Pablo, where the friars, however, resented the orders, on the pretext that they were not delegates of the inquisitor-general.

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  • But this was not enough for the inquisitor-general, who in the following month (April) issued orders to forbid Christians, under severe penalties, having any communication with the Jews or, -after the period of grace, to supply them even with the necessaries of life.

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  • It is surrounded on the first story by a sixteensided gallery (the Hochmiinster) adorned by antique marble and granite columns, of various sizes, brought by Charlemagne's orders from Rome, Ravenna and Trier.

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  • He was, however, the first to show clearly that the Ratitae are the retrograde descendants of flying ancestors, that the various groups of surviving Ratitae are, as such, a polyphyletic group, and he has gone fully into the interesting question of the development and subsequent loss of the power of flight, a loss which has taken place not only in different orders of birds but also at various geological periods, and is still taking place.

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  • discoveries expressed in the new terms of the orders Ciconiiformes and' Charadriiformes.

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  • This type attains its highest development in the Oscines, but it occurs also in many other orders.

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  • So long as the characters of new fossils are only of specific and generic value, it is mostly possible to assign the birds to their proper place, but when these characters indicate new families or orders, for instance Hesperornithes, Ichthyornithes, Palaelodi, their owners are put outside the more tersely constructed classifications applicable to modern birds.

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  • But it also follows that, if every extinct and recent bird were known, neither species, nor genera, nor families, nor orders could be defined.

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  • The upper Eocene has yielded many birds, most of which are at least close forerunners of recent genera, the differentiation into the leading orders and families being already well marked, e.g.

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  • Birds being of all animals most particularly adapted for extended and rapid locomotion, it became necessary for him to eliminate from his consideration those groups, be they small or large, which are of more or less universal occurrence, and to ground his results on what was at that time commonly known as the order Insessores or Passeres, comprehending the orders now differentiated as Passeriformes, Coraciiformes and Cuculiformes, in other words the mass of arboreal birds.

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  • Of the Passeres the honeysuckers (Meliphagidae) are most characteristic, and, abounding in 1 The following old-fashioned rough computation may serve as an indication of the relative size of the orders and suborders of recent birds: Ratitae.

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  • The fourteen orders of the Carinatae are further congregated into four " Legions ".

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  • After taking orders he went (1770) to Rome, where he obtained the degree of doctor of theology and common law, and devoted himself enthusiastically to the study of the fine arts, especially of architecture and painting.

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  • His own family, especially, suffered from his fits of jealousy; his eldest son was slain, and the eyes of his other children were put out, by his orders.

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  • In June 1828 he received priest's orders; in April and November of the same year he took his degrees of B.D.

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  • He took orders in the Protestant Church of Ireland, and was rector of Killyleagh, Down, from 1825 till his death on the 3rd of December 1866.

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  • It is divided into six "orders," according to subject, and each order is subdivided into chapters.

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  • Both Talmuds are arranged according to the six orders of the Mishnah, but the discussion of the Mishnic text often wanders off into widely different topics.

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  • It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."

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  • In some orders the parts are numerous, chiefly in the case of the stamens and the carpels, as in the buttercup and other members of the order Ranunculaceae.

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  • Our first glimpses of authentic Roman history set before us two orders in the same state, one of which is distinguished from the other by many exclusive privileges.

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  • All that was done was done step by step. First, marriage between the two orders was legalized.

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  • But the result did not lead to the abolition of all distinctions between the orders.

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  • Patricians and plebeians went on as orders defined by law, till the distinction died out in the confusion of things under the empire, till at last the word "patrician" took quite a new meaning.

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  • The other old Greek cities, as well as those of medieval Italy and Germany, would supply us with endless examples of the various ways in which privileged orders arose.

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  • Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.

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  • In this way the Moravian orders were maintained; the "ecclesiola" became an independent body, and the British parliament recognized the Brethren as "an ancient Protestant Episcopal Church" (1 749, 22 Geo.

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  • The orders of the ministry are bishops, presbyters, deacons.

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  • On the 20th of October 1349 Clement published a bull commanding the bishops and inquisitors to stamp out the growing heresy, and in pursuance of the pope's orders numbers of the sectaries perished at the stake or in the cells of the inquisitors and the episcopal justices.

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  • of France met with it in Provence, and attempted to acclimatize it at Paris, where he formed bands divided into various orders, each distinguished by a different colour.

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  • COLEOPTERA, a term used in zoological classification for the true beetles which form one of the best-marked and most natural of the orders into which the class Hexapoda (or Insecta) has been divided.

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  • For the relationship of the Coleoptera to other orders of insects see Hexapoda.

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  • The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.

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  • These are nominated by the governors,' and have under their orders in the principal localities commissaries (stanovoi pristav).

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  • The system established by the law of 1864 is remarkable in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate, as the supreme court of cassation.

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  • - The old subdivisions of the population into orders possessed of unequal rights is still maintained.

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  • For disobedience to his orders he imprisoned a boyar who was his own brother-in-law, and he caused another to be beheaded for complaining that the boyar-council was not consulted in important affairs of state.

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  • In neither case did the allegiance involve strict obedience to orders from the superior, and their loyalty was always in danger of being troubled by their love of independence and equality and their desire for loot.

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  • In reality the younger son of Ivan the Terrible had been strangled before his brother's death - by orders, it was said, of Godunov - and the mysterious individual who was impersonating him was an impostor; but he was regarded as the rightful heir by a large section of the population, and immediately after Boris's death in 1605 he made his triumphal entry into Moscow.

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  • F o i Notwithstanding the efforts of the Poles and the Military Orders to exclude Russia from the shores of the Baltic and keep her in a state of isolation, she was coming slowly into closer relations with central and western Europe.

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  • After the success of the Rocket, the Stephensons received orders to build seven more engines, which were of very similar design, though rather larger, being four-wheeled engines, with the two driving wheels in front and the cylinders behind; and in October 1830 they constructed a ninth engine, the Planet, also for the Liverpool & Manchester railway, which still more closely resembled the modern type, since the driving wheels were placed at the fire-box end, while the two cylinders were arranged under the smoke-box, inside the frames.

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  • In 1869 Massachusetts had instituted a commission of more modern type, which was given only powers of investigation and recommendation, the force of public opinion being relied upon to make its orders effective.

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  • For its enforcement, it created an Interstate Commerce Commission of five members, with powers of investigation, and with authority to issue remedial orders upon complaint and after hearing.

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  • Findings of the Commission were to be prima facie evidence in any court proceeding for the enforcement of its orders.

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  • Orders of the Commission became effective within such time, not less than thirty days, as the Commission should prescribe, and penalties began to take effect from the date fixed by the Commission, unless the carrier secured an injunction from the Court suspending the order.

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  • It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.

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    0
  • The orders actually granted have allowed 50 lb, 56 lb, 60 lb and 70 lb rails, with corresponding axle loads of 10, 12, 14 and 16 tons.

    0
    0
  • During the first ten years after the act came into force 545 applications for orders were received, 313 orders were made, and 282 orders were confirmed.

    0
    0
  • The orders confirmed were for 1731 m., involving an estimated capital expenditure of (12,770,384.

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  • They pointed out that while during the first five years the act was in force there were 315 applications for orders, during the second five years there were only 142 applications, and that proposals for new lines had become less numerous owing to the various difficulties in carrying them to a successful completion and to the difficulty of raising the necessary capital even when part of it was provided with the aid of the state and of the local authorities.

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  • He took priests' orders and appears to have held the chaplaincy of St Matthews, Dundee, but in March 1539 he was accused of heresy, apparently for having, in conjunction with his brothers, written some anti-Catholic ballads.

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    0
  • On leaving Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1681, he became an assistant master at the Birmingham grammarschool, and took holy orders.

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    0
  • He nevertheless took deacon's orders in 1838 and priest's orders in 1840.

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  • Through an elder line from Neill Mor was descended Brian Mac Phelim O'Neill, who was treacherously seized in 1573 by the earl of Essex, whom he was hospitably entertaining, and executed together with his wife and brother, some two hundred of his clan being at the same time massacred by the orders of Essex.

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  • DIPTERA (Sis, double, 7rTEpa, wings), a term (first employed in its modern sense by Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, 1st ed., 1746, p. 306) used in zoological classification for one of the Orders into which the Hexapoda, or Insecta, are divided.

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  • The relation of the Diptera (two-winged flies, or flies proper) to the other Orders is dealt with underHexapoda.

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  • The elder took monastic orders under the name of Sergius, and became famous among the peasants around.

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    0
  • In response to his complaints Nicanor was appointed governor of Judaea with power to treat with Judas, It appears that the two became friends at first, but fresh orders from Antioch made Nicanor, guilty of treachery in the eyes of Judas's partisans.

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    0
  • Jerusalem was rebuilt by Hadrian, orders to this effect being given during the emperor's first journey through Syria in 130, the date of his foundations at.

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    0
  • A good example of the dependence of prelacy on jurisdiction is found in those religious orders, such as the Dominicans, where authority is strictly elective and temporary.

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    0
  • About the time of the Revolution he took orders, and was shortly afterwards made rector of St Austin's, London, and lecturer of St Dunstan's in the West.

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    0
  • Having completed his studies in the Capranica College' at Rome, and having taken holy orders, he studied diplomacy at the College of Ecclesiastical Nobles, and in 1875 was appointed councillor to the papal nunciature at Madrid.

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  • As for Gramont, he had "no conception of the exigencies of this regime; he remained an ambassador accustomed to obey the orders of his sovereign; in all good faith he had no idea that this was not correct, and that, himself a parliamentary minister, he had associated himself with an act destructive of the authority of parliament."

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  • A survey sufficiently accurate as regards the maritime parts was also executed, under the orders of the British admiralty, by Captain Graves and Captain (afterwards Admiral) Spratt.

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  • Crown orders of 1764 and 1767 extended the limits N.

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  • The most significant canons are those directly affecting the clergy, wherein the clergy appear as a privileged class, far above the laity, but with sharply differentiated and carefully graded orders within itself.

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  • In the beginning of the 13th century the foundation of the Dominican and Franciscan_ orders furnished a more ecclesiastical and regular means of supplying the same wants, and numerous convents sprang up at once throughout Germany.

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  • men in holy orders (see Clerk).

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  • As applied to the Roman Catholic Church the word embraces the whole hierarchy, whether its clerici be in holy orders or merely in minor orders.

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  • The principal orders, arranged according to their numerical importance, are as follows: - Leguminosae,Rubiaceae, Orchidaceae, Compositae, Gramineae, Euphorbiaceae, Acanthaceae, Cyperaceae and Labiatae.

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  • The chief trees belong to the orders of Terebinthaceae, Sapindaceae, Meliaceae, Clusiaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, Leguminosae, laurels, oaks and figs, with Dilleniaceae, Sapotaceae and nutmegs.

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  • Of the orders most largely developed in south India, and more sparingly elsewhere, may be named Aurantiaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Balsaminaceae, Ebenaceae, Jasmineae, and Cyrtandraceae; but of these few contain as many as 100 peculiar Indian species.

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  • The higher mountains rise abruptly from the plains; on their slopes, clothed below almost exclusively with the more tropical forms, a vegetation of a warm temperate character, chiefly evergreen, soon begins to prevail, comprising Magnoliaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, subtropical Rosaceae, rhododendron, oak, Ilex, Symplocos, Lauraceae, Pinus longifolia, with mountain forms of truly tropical orders, palms, Pandanus, Musa, Vitis, Vernonia, and many others.

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  • Of the marine orders of Sirenia and Cetacea the Dugong, Halicore, is exclusively found in the Indian Ocean; and a dolphin, Platanista, peculiar to the Ganges, ascends that river to a great distance from the sea.

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  • There is a further resemblance between the two orders of Chaetopoda in that this budding is not a general phenomenon, but confined to a few forms only.

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  • Matthew is a vehement supporter of the monastic orders against their rivals, the secular clergy and the mendicant friars.

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  • He was educated for the church, and, after some hesitation, took orders in 1736 at Salerno, where he was appointed professor of eloquence at the theological seminary.

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  • In 1633, although still below the canonical age, he took holy orders, and, accepting the invitation of Thomas Risden, a former fellow-student, to supply his place for a short time as lecturer in St Paul's, he at once attracted attention by his eloquence and by his handsome face.

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  • Consequently, in his first visitation, he declared thirty-six churches vacant; and of these forcible possesssion was taken by his orders.

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  • THE TEUTONIC ORDER, or Teutonic Knights of St Mary's Hospital at Jerusalem (Der deutsche Orden, Deutsche Ritter) was one of the three great military and religious orders which sprang from the Crusades.

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  • The Order was from the first, therefore, of a national character, unlike the cosmopolitan orders of the Templars and Hospitallers; but in other respects it was modelled upon the same lines, and shared in the same development.

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  • Like the knights of other orders, the Teutonic knights lived a semi-monastic life under the Augustinian rule; and in the same way they admitted priests and half-brothers (servientes) into their ranks.

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  • Like the other two orders, the Teutonic Order began as a charitable society, developed into a military club, and ended as something of a chartered company, exercising rights of sovereignty on the troubled confines of Christendom.

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  • In 1750 he decided not to take holy orders, giving as his reason, according to Dupont de Nemours, "that he could not bear to wear a mask all his life."

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  • He was opposed to the summoning of the states-general advocated by Malesherbes (May 6, 1775), possibly on the ground that the two privileged orders would have too much power in them.

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  • In Turgot's proposed system landed proprietors alone were to form the electorate, no distinction being made between the three orders; the members of the town and country municipalites were to elect representatives for the district municipalites, which in turn would elect to the provincial municipalites, and the latter to a grande municipalite, which should have no legislative powers, but should concern itself entirely with the administration of taxation.

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  • more especially the care of the sick and the arrangement of the externals of divine worship. Even thus early their close relation to the bishop and their employment in matters of episcopal administration gave them, though only in deacons' orders, great importance, which continually developed.

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  • describes him as judex ordinarius, and he possesses in his own right the powers of visitation, of holding courts and imposing penalties, of deciding in matrimonial causes and cases of disputed jurisdiction, of testing candidates for orders, of inducting into benefices.

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  • The archdeacons are appointed by their respective bishops, and they are, by an act of 1840, required to have been six full years in priest's orders.

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  • He was one of the king's secret managers during the troublesome and dangerous riksdag of 1789, but advised caution and compared the estate of clergy, which at one time held the balance between the jarring orders, to ice which might be walked upon but could not be driven over.

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  • Injurious insects occur among the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera (both heteroptera and homoptera), Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Thysanoptera.

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  • The sub-class is now divided into two orders: the Aspidobranchia in which the branchia or ctenidium is bipectinate and attached only at its base, and the Pectinibranchia in which the ctenidium is monopectinate and attached to the mantle throughout its length.

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  • The Euthyneura comprises two orders, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata.

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    0
  • At Auxonne, as previously at Valence, Napoleon commanded a small detachment of troops sent to put down disturbances in neighbouring towns, and carried out his orders unflinchingly.

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  • He therefore sent orders to have him seized by French soldiers and brought to Vincennes near Paris.

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  • His real concern for her was evinced shortly before the birth of their son, the king of Rome,when he gave orders that if the life of both mother and child could not be saved, that of the mother should be saved if possible (loth of March 1811).

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  • On the 29th of June the near approach of the Prussians (who had orders to seize him, dead or alive), caused him to retire westwards towards Rochefort, whence he hoped to reach the United States.

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  • The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691, and in Historiae Dunelmensis scriptores tres, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de Kilvington.

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  • The head is usually connected with the thorax by a distinct membranous neck, strengthened in the more generalized orders with small chitinous plates (cervical sclerites).

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  • The details of the nervuration vary greatly in the different orders, but J.

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  • Great diversity exists in the texture and functions of fore and hind-wings in different in sects; these differences are discussed in the descriptions of the various orders.

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  • In the higher orders several of the hinder segments may be altogether suppressed.

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  • In aquatic insects various devices for obtaining or entangling air are found; these modifications are described in the special articles on the various orders of insects (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, &c.).

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  • These tubes vary in number from four to over a hundred in different orders of insects.

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  • But in general we find that elaboration of imaginal structure is associated with degradation in the nature of the larva, cruciform and vermiform larvae being characteristic of the highest orders of the Hexapoda, so that unlikeness between parent and offspring has increased with the evolution of the class.

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  • For details, the reader may consult the special articles on the various orders and groups of insects.

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  • In the present article it is only possible to treat of the division of the Hexapoda into orders and sub-orders and of the relations of these orders to each other.

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  • For further classificatory details, reference must be made to the special articles on the various orders.

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  • As regards the vast majority of insects, the orders proposed by Linnaeus are acknowledged by modern zoologists.

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  • His classification was founded mainly on the nature of the wings, and five of his orders - the Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, &c.), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (two-winged flies), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and Hemiptera (bugs, cicads, &c.) - are recognized to-day with nearly the same limits as he laid down.

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  • Brauer (1885), who separated the spring tails and bristle-tails as a sub-class Apterygogenea from all the other Hexapoda, these forming the sub-class Pterygogenea distributed into sixteen orders.

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  • Brauer in his arrangement of these orders laid special stress on the nature of the metamorphosis, and was the first to draw attention to the number of Malpighian tubes as of importance in classification.

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  • Subsequent writers have, for the most part, increased the number of recognized orders; and during the last few years several schemes of classification have been published, in the most revolutionary of which - that of A.

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  • Handlirsch (1903-1904) - the Hexapoda are divided into four classes and thirty-four orders!

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  • In several recent attempts to group the orders into sub-classes, stress has been laid upon a few characters in the imago.

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  • Hence the grouping of the orders of winged Hexapoda into the divisions Exopterygota and Endopterygota, as suggested by D.

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  • Sharp's proposed association of the parasitic wingless insects in a group Anapterygota cannot, however, be defended as natural; and recent researches into the structure of these forms enables us to associate them confidently with related winged orders.

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  • Geological History The classification just given has been drawn up with reference to existing insects, but the great majority of the extinct forms that have been discovered can be referred with some confidence to the same orders, and in many cases to recent families.

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  • The latter has established, for all the Palaeozoic insects, an order Palaeodictyoptera, there being a closer similarity between the fore-wings and the hind-wings than is to be seen in most living orders of Hexapoda, while affinities are shown to several of these orders - notably the Orthoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Hemiptera.

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  • It is probable that many of these Carboniferous insects might be referred to the Isoptera, while others would fall into the existing orders to which they are allied, with some modification of our present diagnoses.

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  • With the dawn of the Mesozoic epoch we reach Hexapods that can be unhesitatingly referred to existing orders.

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  • Further details of the geological history of the Hexapoda will be found in the special articles on the various orders.

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  • Fragmentary as the records are, they show that the Exopterygota preceded the Endopterygota in the evolution of the class, and that among the Endopterygota those orders in which the greatest difference exists between imago and larva - the Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera - were the latest to take their rise.

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  • Geographical Distribution The class Hexapoda has a world-wide range, and so have most of its component orders.

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  • The caterpillar, or the maggot, is a specialized larval form characteristic of the most highly developed orders, while the campodeiform larva is the starting-point for the more primitive insects.

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  • Taken in connexion with the likeness of the young among the more generalized orders to the adults, it indicates clearly a thysanuroid starting-point for the evolution of the hexapod orders.

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  • It is most unlikely that wings have been acquired independently by various orders of Hexapoda, and if we regard the Thysanura as the slightly modified representatives of a primitively wingless stock, we must postulate the acquisition of wings by some early offshoot of that stock, an offshoot whence the whole group of the Pterygota took its rise.

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  • Relationships of the Orders.

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  • These ancient Exopterygota were synthetic in type, and included insects that may, with probability, be regarded as ancestral to most of the existing orders.

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  • It is hard to arrange the Exopterygota in a linear series, for some of the orders that are remarkably primitive in some respects are rather highly specialized in others.

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  • All these orders agree in the possession of biting mandibles, while their second maxillae have the inner and outer lobes usually distinct.

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  • The importance of great cardinal features of the life-history as indicative of relationship leads us to consider the Endopterygota as a natural assemblage of orders.

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  • So widely have most of the higher orders of the Hexapoda now diverged from each other, that it is exceedingly difficult in most cases to trace their relationships with any confidence.

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  • In all the remaining orders of the Endopterygota the larva is eruciform or vermiform.

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  • The Mecaptera, with their predominantly longitudinal wing-nervuration, serve as a link between the Neuroptera and the Trichoptera, their retention of small cerci being an archaic character which stamps them as synthetic in type, but does not necessarily remove them from orders which agree with them in most points of structure but which have lost the cerci.

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  • Further references will be found appended to the special articles on the orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, &C).

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  • "Nevertheless," says an eye-witness, "though earth, sea and sky were against us, the king's orders had to be obeyed and the daily march made."

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  • Despite strenuous opposition by the monastic orders, he obtained in 1528 a licence from the authorities to preach anywhere within the canton of Bern.

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  • His attempt at classification was certainly better than that of Linnaeus; and it is rather curious that the researches of the latest ornithologists point to results in some degree comparable with Brisson's systematic arrangement, for they refuse to keep the birds-of-prey at the head of the Class A y es, and they require the establishment of a much larger number of " Orders " than for a long while was thought advisable.

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  • Of such " Orders " Brisson had twenty-six and he gave pigeons and poultry precedence of the birds which are plunderers and scavengers.

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  • 5 He recognized sixteen Orders of Birds, while Vieillot had been content with five, and Iliiger with seven.

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  • " Observations on the Natural Affinities that connect the Orders and Families of Birds," read before the Linnean Society of London in 1823, and afterwards published in its Transactions (xiv.

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  • The class was to contain fifteen orders, but only three were dealt with in any detail.

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  • perching birds, that is to say, which are neither birds of prey nor pigeons - proposed by Professor Cabanis, was into four " Orders," as follows: - 1.

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  • The first of these four " Orders " had been already indefeasibly established as one perfectly natural, but respecting its details more must presently be said.

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  • Yet this distinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to his primary groups or " Orders " of the class, adopting, as Merrem had done long before, the same two divisions Cartnatae and Ratitae, naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the latter Homalosternii.

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  • Starting from the basis " that the phrase `birds are greatly modified reptiles' would hardly be an exaggerated expression of the closeness " of the resemblance between the two classes, which he had previously brigaded under the name of Sauropsida (as he had brigaded the Pisces and Amphibia as Ichthyopsida), he drew in bold outline both their likenesses and their differences, and then proceeded to inquire how the A y es could be most appropriately subdivided into orders, suborders and families.

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  • The upshot, however, admits of no, uncertainty: the class A y es is held to be composed of three " Orders" - I.

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  • The Schizognathae include a great many of the forms belonging to the Linnaean Orders Gallinae, Grallae and Anseres.

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  • These and other characters separate the two forms so widely as quite to justify the establishment of as many orders for their reception.

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  • Marsh states that he had fully satisfied himself that Archaeopteryx belonged to the Odontornithes, which he thought it advisable for the present to regard as a subclass, separated into three orders - Odontolcae, Odontotormae and Saururae - all well marked, but evidently not of equal rank, the last being clearly much more widely distinguished from the first two than they are from one another.

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  • The Dasypaedes of Sundevall are separated into six " orders "; but these will occupy us but a short while.

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  • Venice is administered by a prefect representing the crown and responsible to the central government at Rome, from whom he receives orders.

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  • In the region of foreign affairs it was in communication with envoys abroad, and its orders would override those of the senate.

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  • Very little is known of Bacon's life at Oxford; it is said he took orders in 1233, and this is not improbable.

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  • The two great orders, Franciscans and Dominicans, were in the vigour of youth, and had already begun to take the lead in theological discussion.

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  • In 1771 he took holy orders, and afterwards visited many parts of Europe as tutor and travelling companion to various noblemen and gentlemen.

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  • 1568), English ecclesiastic and statesman, was a native of Westmorland, and was educated at Cambridge, afterwards taking orders in the church.

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  • The possession of silk-glands has also profoundly influenced the geographical distribution of spiders and has enabled them to cross arms of the sea and establish themselves on isolated oceanic islands which most of the orders of Arachnida are unable to reach.

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  • In 1735 appeared the first edition of the Systema naturae of Linnaeus, in which the "Insecta" form a group equivalent to the Arthropoda of modern zoologists, and are divided into seven orders, whose names - Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, &c., founded on the nature of the wings - have become firmly established.

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  • References to the works of the above authors, and to many others, will be found under HEXAPODA and the special articles on various insect orders.

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  • Next year he was ordained to the curacy of St Mary's, Bryanston Square, and took priest's orders in 1868.

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  • This feature seemed a reflection on the mendicant orders, and the idea of a community life without vows and not in isolation from everyday life, was looked upon as something new and strange, and even as bearing affinities to the Beghards and other sects, at that time causing trouble to both Church and state.

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  • To all these various forces must be added the knights and native levies of the great orders, whose masters were practically independent sovereigns like the princes of Antioch and Tripoli; 3 and with these the total levy of the kingdom may be reckoned at some 25,000 men.

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  • But the strength of the kingdom lay less perhaps in the army than in the magnificent fortresses which the nobility, and especially the two orders, had built; and the most visible relic of the crusades to-day is the towering ruins of a fortress like Krak (Kerak) des Chevaliers, the fortress of the Knights of St John in the principality of Tripoli.

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  • For the history of the orders see the articles on the Templars; ST John Of Jerusalem, Knights Of; Knights, and the Teutonic Order.

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  • It was the two great orders of the Templars and the Hospitallers which were, in reality, most dangerous to the kingdom.

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  • At Tiberias a little squadron of the brethren of the two Orders went down before Saladin's cavalry in May; at Hattin the levy masse of the kingdom, some 20,000 strong, foolishly marching over a sandy plain under the heat of a July sun, was utterly defeated; and after a fortnight's siege Jerusalem capitulated (October 2nd, 1187).

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  • A fourth cause, on which many writers dwelt, particularly at the time when the suppression of the Templars was in question, was the dissensions between the two orders of Templars and Hospitallers, and the selfish policy of merely pursuing their own interest which was followed by both in common.

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  • A blockade of Egypt by an international fleet, an alliance with the Mongols, the union of the two great orders - these are the three staple heads of these proposals.

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  • The union of the two orders, already suggested at the council of Lyons in 1245, was nominally achieved by the council of Vienne in 1311; but the so-called "union" was in reality the suppression of the Templars, and the confiscation of all their resources by the cupidity of Philippe le Bel.

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  • They resulted too in a number of "chartered companies" - that is to say, the three military orders, which, beginning as charitable socities, developed into military clubs, and developed again from military clubs into chartered companies, possessed of banks, navies and considerable territories.

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  • There were medieval Baedekers in abundance for the use of the annual flow of tourists, who were carried every Easter by the vessels of the Italian towns or of the Orders to visit the Holy Land and to bathe in Jordan, to gather palms, and to see the miracle of fire at the Sepulchre.

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  • This book is chiefly remarkable for its unsparing satires on the monastic orders and the secular clergy.

    0
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  • Burger classifies Nemertines into four orders: I.

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  • The first three orders, which have a double muscular layer, external circular and internal longitudinal, are sometimes grouped together as the Dimyaria; the Heteronemertini, in which a third coat of longitudinal muscles arises outside the circular layer, are then placed in a second branch, the Trimyaria.

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  • After graduating at Cambridge (Emmanuel College) and taking holy orders, he officiated for several years as curate at Mitcham.

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  • There are two classes of these Indian Fakirs, (1) the religious orders, and (2) the nomad rogues who infest the country.

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  • The ascetic orders resemble the Franciscans of Christianity.

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  • These orders are of very ancient date, owing their establishment to the ancient Hindu rule, followed by the Buddhists, that each "twice-born" man should lead in the woods the life of an ascetic. The second class of Fakirs are simply disreputable beggars who wander round extorting, under the guise of religion, alms from the charitable and practising on the superstitions of the villagers.

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  • In 1154 he was promoted to be archdeacon of Canterbury, after first taking deacon's orders.

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  • The front has a large late Norman portal of four orders, with rich Early English arcading above; the nave arcade is ornate Norman.

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  • Although he had not yet taken even the minor holy orders, he was nominated bishop of Couserans by the king on the 28th of December 1641, but the pope refused to give his sanction.

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  • The land-snails which have no gill-plume in the mantle-chamber and breathe air, but have the sexes separated, and possess an operculum, belong to the orders Aspidobranchia and Pectinibranchia, and constitute the families Helicinidae, Proserpinidae, Hydrocenidae, Cyclophoridae, Cyclostomatidae and Aciculidae.

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  • He took orders; and his reputation for learning and piety attracted the notice of Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII., who made him her confessor and chaplain.

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  • The Friends (at any rate under the later Seleucid and Ptolemaic reigns) were distinguished by a special dress and badge of gold analogous to the stars and crosses of modern orders.

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  • But there was no end to the Vatican tragedies, and in July the duke of Bisceglie, whose existence was no longer advantageous, was murdered by Cesare's orders; this left Lucrezia free to contract another marriage.

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  • frere), the English generic name for members of the mendicant religious orders.

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  • Formerly it was the title given to individual members of these orders, as Friar Laurence (in Romeo and Juliet), but this is not now common.

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  • In England the chief orders of friars were distinguished by the colour of their habit: thus the Franciscans or Minors were the Grey Friars; the Dominicans or Preachers were the Black Friars (from their black mantle over a white habit), and the Carmelites were the White Friars (from their white mantle over a brown habit): these, together with the Austin Friars or Hermits, formed the four great mendicant orders - Chaucer's "alle the ordres foure."

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  • Besides the four great orders of friars, the Trinitarians, though really canons, were in England called Trinity Friars or Red Friars; the Crutched or Crossed Friars were often identified with them, but were really a distinct order; there were also a number of lesser orders of friars, many of which were suppressed by the second council of Lyons in 1274.

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  • Detailed information on these orders and on their position in England is given in separate articles.

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  • Though the usage is not accurate, friars, and also canons regular, are often spoken of as monks and included among the monastic orders.

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  • BETHLEHEMITES, a name borne at different times by three orders in the Roman Catholic Church.

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  • in 1707 gave them the privileges of the mendicant orders.

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  • with the duke of Burgundy; finally, they investigated and judged numbers of private cases, lawsuits between prelates, members of religious orders and holders of benefices, thus themselves falling into one of the serious abuses for which they had most blamed the court of Rome.

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  • Turning his attention from law to divinity, Hare took priest's orders in 1826; and, on the death of his uncle in 1832, he succeeded to the rich family living of Hurstmonceaux in Sussex, where he accumulated a library of some 12,000 volumes, especially rich in German literature.

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  • But he protested energetically against tlae loss of the pope's temporal power in 1870, against the confiscation of the property of the religious orders, and against the law of civil marriage established by the Italian government, and he refused to welcome Victor Emmanuel in his diocese.

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  • Slaves who were admitted to holy orders, or who entered a monastery, became freemen, under certain restrictions framed to prevent fraud or injustice.

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  • On the 23rd of July all was confusion at the depots, and the leaders were divided as to the course to be pursued; orders were not obeyed; a trusted messenger despatched for arms absconded with the money committed to him to pay for them; treachery, quite unsuspected by Emmet, honeycombed the conspiracy; the Wicklow contingent failed to appear; the Kildare men turned back on hearing that the rising had been postponed; a signal expected by a contingent at the Broadstone was never given.

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  • At the age of forty Ficino took orders, and was honoured with a canonry of S.

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  • This resulted in the dismissal of Suliman Niazi and the appointment of Hicks as commander-in-chief of an expeditionary force to Kordofan with orders to crush the mandi, who in January 1883 had captured El Obeid, the capital of that province.

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  • the great British herbaria the orders and genera of flowering plants are usually arranged according to Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum; the species generally follow the arrangement.

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  • He was ordained deacon in 1778 on the title of the curacies of Shepton Beauchamp and Sparkford, Somerset; and took priest's orders in 1780.

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  • In the administration of the ancien regime the term "prefect" was not employed; practically the only case in which it occurs was in the organization of the establishment of institutions opened by the religious orders, in which there was generally a "prefect of the studies" (prefet des etudes).

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  • The royal orders following 1825 developed a system of extraordinary and extreme repression.

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  • The set viewed as a class has many orders.

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  • This toleration of religious orders, though it did not prevent occasional outrages, remained to the last characteristic of Turkish policy in Bosnia; and even in 1868 a colony of Trappist monks was permitted to settle in Banjaluka.

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  • The grand master of ordnance is co-equal with the minister of war, and his department is classed separately in the budget; the artillery establishments, parts of the infantry and of the technical corps, and even hospitals are placed under his direct orders.

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  • The duties are estimated to produce £T393,107; other professional duties £T110,887 - together £T503,994 A " Military Exoneration tax " is levied on male Ottoman subjects between the ages of 15 and 75 to the amount of £T50 for 135 persons - certain exceptions such as priests, religious orders, &c., are allowed.

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  • The attempt was foiled; Andronicus was blinded by his father's orders and Sauji was put to death (1387).

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  • Before the surrender of the city, however, he was murdered by Ferdinand's orders on strong suspicion of treachery.

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  • Bir on the Euphrates, crossed the stream, by the sultan's orders, and advanced on Damascus.

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  • An Italian officer, General De Giorgis, was appointed to the chief command in the reorganization, and the three vilayets were apportioned among the great powers into districts, in each of which was appointed a staff officer with a number of subordinate officers of his nationality under his orders.

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  • The emperor was, moreover, imperfectly acquainted with the degree of preparation of his adversaries' designs, and when he dictated his preliminary orders he was still unaware of the direction that the allies' advance would assume.

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  • But these views obviously could not be published in army orders, hence the discontent and opposition he was destined to encounter.

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  • That night orders were despatched for a concentration on Briinn in expectation of a collision on the following day; but hearing that the whole allied force was moving towards him he decided to concentrate south-east of Briinn, covering his front by cavalry on the Pratzen heights.

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  • At the same time he issued his orders for his first great battle as a supreme commander.

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  • As the diplomatic crisis approached, spies were sent into Prussia, and simultaneously with the orders for preliminary concentration the marshals received private instructions, the pith of which cannot be better expressed than in the following two quotations from Napoleon's correspondence: " Mon intention est de concentrer toutes mes forces sur l'extremite de ma droite en laissant tout l'espace entre le Rhin et Bamberg entierement degarni, de maniere a avoir pres de 200,000 hommes reunis sur un meme champ de bataille; mes premieres marches menacent le coeur de la monarchie prussienne " (No.

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  • At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.

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  • Davout in obedience to his orders of the previous morning was packed on the narrow plateau of the mountain, whilst, below in the ravines on either flank, Soult on the right, and Augereau on the left, were getting into position.

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  • Exhaustive orders to organize the necessary trains were duly issued, but the emperor seems to have had no conception of the difficulties the tracks - there were no metalled roads - of Poland were about to present to him.

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  • Moreover, it was one thing to issue orders, but quite another to ensure that they were obeyed, for they entailed a complete transformation in the mental attitude of the French soldier towards all that he had been taught to consider his duties in the field.

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  • His orders were at once issued and complied with with such celerity that by the 31st he stood prepared to advance with the corps of Soult, Ney, Davout and Augereau, the Guard and the reserve cavalry (80,000 men on a front of 60 m.) from Myszienec through Wollenberg to Gilgenberg; whilst Lannes on his right towards Ostrolenka and Lefebvre (X.) at Thorn covered his outer flanks.

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  • His orders and the despatch conveying Napoleon's instructions fell into the hands of the Cossacks, and just in time Bennigsen's eyes were opened.

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  • Rapidly renouncing his previous intentions, he issued orders to concentrate on Allenstein; but this point was chosen too far in advance and he was anticipated by Murat and Soult at that place on the 2nd of February.

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  • Bernadotte, who was to have attacked Lestocq, again failed to receive his orders and took no part in the following operations.

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  • Hence the extraordinary slowness of their manoeuvres, not because the Austrian infantry were bad marchers, but because the preparation and circulation of orders was still far behind the French standard.

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  • On his return from Spain, seeing war imminent, he issued a series of march orders (which deserve the closest study in detail) by which on the 15th of April his whole army was to be concentrated for manoeuvres between Regensburg, Landshut, Augsburg and Donauwbrth, and sending on the Guard in wagons to Strassburg, he despatched Berthier to act as commander-in-chief until his own arrival.

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  • About noon Berthier returned and after hearing his explanation Massena received orders to move from Augsburg towards Ingolstadt.

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  • Issuing orders to Davout, Oudinot and his cavalry to concentrate with all speed towards Eckmuhl, he himself rode back along the Regensburg road and reached the battle-field just as the engagement between the advance troops had commenced.

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  • It was not till the night of the 19th of May that orders for the passage were finally issued, and during the night the troops commenced to occupy the island of Lobau.

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  • Immediate orders were despatched to summon every available body of troops to concentrate for the decisive stroke.

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  • The whole army was particularly strong in cavalry; out of the 450,000, 80,000 belonged to that arm, and Napoleon, mindful of the lessons of 1807, had issued the most minute and detailed orders for the supply service in all its branches, and the forwarding of reinforcements, no less than 100,000 men being destined for that purpose in due course of time.

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  • He seemed unaware of the vital importance of the moment, crouched shivering over a bivouac fire, and finally rode back to Dresden, leaving no specific orders for the further pursuit.

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  • Fortunately the industry and ability of the military history section of the French General Staff have rendered available, by the publication of the original orders issued during the course of his campaigns, a mass of information which, taken in conjunction with his own voluminous correspondence, renders it possible to trace the growth of his military genius with a reasonable approach to accuracy.

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  • The facts as to the position of an opponent accurately observed and correctly reported at a given moment, afford no reliable guarantee of his position 48 hours later, when the orders based on this information enter upon execution.

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  • On the 1st of June he was joined by a frigate and two line-of-battle ships sent with orders from Rochefort, and was told to remain in the West Indies till the 5th of July, and if not joined by Ganteaume to steer for Ferrol, pick up the French and Spanish ships in the port, and come on to the Channel.

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  • Moses summons the elders of Israel and orders them to kill the Passover and besprinkle the lintel and sideposts with a bunch of hyssop dipped in blood so that the Lord will pass over the door.

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  • He intended taking monastic orders, but in 1798 the occupation of the city by the French troops drove him from Rome and changed his proposed career.

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  • Nineteen private acts and provisional orders were obtained during the 19t11 century.

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  • Maret (afterwards duc de Bassano) for Italy where they had missions to Florence and Naples respectively, when the two envoys were kidnapped by Austrian orders in the Valtelline.

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  • The resident superior is assisted by the protectorate council, consisting of heads of French administrative departments (chief of the judicial service, of public works, &c.) and one native "notable," and the royal orders must receive its sanction before they can be executed.

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  • He took orders in 1874 and held a curacy at Dartford, in Kent, till 1877, when he became resident chaplain and private secretary to Dr Tait, archbishop of Canterbury, a position which he occupied till Dr Tait's death, and retained for a short time (1882-1883) under his successor Dr Benson.

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  • In 1861 he was ordained deacon, but he never took priest's orders, possibly because of a stammer which prevented reading aloud.

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  • Moore was ignorant of their exact position and strength, but he knew that Valladolid had been occupied, and so his first orders were that Baird should fall back to Galicia and Hope to Portugal.

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  • Writing to Soult from Austria, Napoleon had placed the corps of Ney and Mortier under his orders, and said: "Wellesley will most likely advance by the Tagus against Madrid; in that case, pass the mountains, fall on his flank and rear, and crush him."

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  • Hard fighting, chiefly between the French and British, now ensued, and at one time the Barrosa ridge, the key of the position left by La Pena's orders, practically undefended, 1811.

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  • During the Thirty Years' War the city received no direct harm; but the ruin of Germany reacted upon its prosperity, and the misery of the lower orders led to an agitation against the Rath.

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  • They generally were built where property had been left by the donors to foreign orders to pray for their souls.

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  • Before being admitted to deacon's orders he had communicated to a friend some fault which he had committed when about fifteen years of age.

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  • On the other hand, it was from Spain and Gaul that Rome probably received the orarium (stole) as an ensign of the major orders.

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  • of their use by the various orders of the clergy in the several liturgical functions, however, was established by the close of the 13th century and still continues in force.

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  • Before discussing the changes made in the various Reformed Churches, due to the doctrinal developments of the 16th century, we may therefore give here a list of the vestments now worn by the various orders of clergy in the Roman Catholic Church and the Oriental Churches.

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  • Taking the other orders downwards: deacons wear amice, alb, girdle, stole, maniple' and dalmatic; subdeacons, amice, alb, girdle, maniple and tunicle; the vestment proper to the minor orders, formerly the alb, is now the surplice or cotta.

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  • priest's orders is distinguished by wearing the epigonation; and in Russia the use of the mitre is sometimes conceded to distinguished priests by the tsar.

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  • The lesser orders wear a shorter sticharion and an orarion wound round it.

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  • On the 19th of September, seeing a movement among the Egyptian and Turkish ships in the bay, Codrington informed the Ottoman admiral, Tahir Pasha, that he had orders to prevent hostile movements against the Greeks.

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  • On the 25th an interview took place, in which Ibrahim gave a verbal engagement not to act against the Greeks, pending orders from the sultan.

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  • The trees and plants whose latices furnish caoutchouc in considerable quantity chiefly belong to the natural orders Euphorbiaceae, Urticaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae.

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  • In a later scheme based on our increased knowledge of fossil forms, the Brachiopoda are divided into four primary groups (orders).

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  • In some orders the Phylembryo is succeeded by an Obolella stage with a nearly circular outline, but this is not universal.

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  • Beecher's division of the Brachiopoda into four orders is based largely on the character of the aperture through which the stalk or pedicle leaves the shell.

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  • The orders Atremata and Neotremata are frequently grouped together, as the sub-class Inarticulata or Ecardines - the Tretenterata of Davidson - and the orders Protremata and Telotremata, as the Articulata or Testicardines - i the Clistenterata of Davidson.

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  • The offender, whether simoniacus (one who had bought his orders) or simoniace promotus (one who had bought his promotion), was liable to deprivation of his benefice and deposition from orders if a secular priest, - to confinement in a stricter monastery if a regular.

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  • Simony may be committed in three ways - in promotion to orders, in presentation to a benefice, and in resignation of a benefice.

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  • Similarly, by putting one or more of the deleted rows or columns equal to rows or columns which are not deleted, we obtain, with Laplace, a number of identities between products of determinants of complementary orders.

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  • Consider two binary equations of orders m and n respectively expressed' in non-homogeneous form, viz.

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  • For if u, v, w be the polynomials of orders m, n, p respectively, the Jacobian is (u 1 v 2 w3), and by Euler's theorem of homogeneous functions xu i +yu 2 +zu 3 = mu xv1 +yv2 +zv3 = /IV xw 1+y w 2+ zw 3 = pw; denoting now the reciprocal determinant by (U 1 V2 W3) we obtain Jx =muUi+nvVi+pwWi; Jy=�.., Jz=..., and it appears that the vanishing of u, v, and w implies the vanishing of J.

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  • the orders of the quantic and covariant, and the degree and weight of the leading coefficient; calling these 'n, e,' 0, w respectively we can see that they are not independent integers, but that they are invariably connected by a certain relation n9 -2w = e.

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  • An instantaneous deduction from the relation w= 2 n0 is that forms of uneven orders possess only invariants of even degree in the coefficients.

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  • A Similar Theorem Holds In The Case Of Any Number Of Binary Forms, The Mixed Seminvariants Being Derived From The Jacobians Of The Several Pairs Of Forms. If The Seminvariant Be Of Degree 0, 0' In The Coefficients, The Forms Of Orders P, Q Respectively, And The Weight W, The Degree Of The Covariant In The Variables Will Be P0 Qo' 2W =E, An Easy Generalization Of The Theorem Connected With A Single Form.

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  • It may denote a simultaneous orthogonal invariant of forms of orders n i, n2, n3,...; degree 0 of the covariant in the coefficients.

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  • From 1881 to 1884 his activity in Tunisia so raised the prestige of France that it drew from Gambetta the celebrated declaration, L'Anticldricalisme n'est pas un article d'exportation, and led to the e .?mption of Algeria from the application of the decrees concerning the religious orders.

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  • He received his education in Nicaea at a monastery of which he later became the abbot, though not in orders.

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  • He never took orders, but acted continually as the representative of the chapter under harassing conditions, administrative and political; he was besides commissary of the diocese of Ermeland; his medical skill, always at the service of the poor, was frequently in demand by the rich; and he laid a scheme for the reform of the currency before the Diet of Graudenz in 1522.

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  • Joseph Hall, bishop of Norwich, ordained him deacon: he never took priest's orders, holding that "he was properly ordained to the ministerial office."

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  • In the time of Severus, these equites were divided into two corps, each of which had its separate quarters, and was commanded by a tribune under the orders of the prefect of the praetorian guard.

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  • ' Orders.

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  • It has been variously divided into orders by a number of writers.

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  • The Pantopoda are divided into three orders, the characters of which are dependent on variation in the presence of the full number of legs.

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  • - Derivative forms in which the reduction in number of the anterior appendages is carried farther than in the other orders, reaching its extreme in the Pycnogonidae, where the 1st and 2nd pairs are absent in both sexes, and the 3rd pair also are absent in the female.

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  • J., " Organs and Characters in Different Orders of Arachnida," Entomol.

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  • Hansen and Sorensen, On Two Orders of Arachnida (Cambridge, 1904); Sorensen, " Opiliones laniatores," Nat.

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  • Liliaceae is one of the larger orders of flowering plants containing about 2500 species in zoo genera; it is of world-wide distribution.

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  • It resembles Juncaceae in the general plan of the flower, which, however, has become much more elaborate and varied in the form and colour of its perianth in association with transmission of pollen by insect agency; a link between the two orders is found in the group of Australian genera referred to above under Asphodeloideae.

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  • Under the early Frankish kings some comites did not exercise any definite functions; they were merely attached to the king's person and executed his orders.

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  • In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.

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  • Gray; but Dumeril and Bibron in their great work,' and Dr Gunther in his Catalogue, in substance, adopted Brongniart's arrangement, the Batrachia being simply one of the four orders of the class Reptilia.

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  • One of the characteristic orders of the Brazilian fauna is that of the Edentata, which comprises the sloth, armadillo and ant-eater.

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  • The church likewise exercises a far-reaching influence over the people through the beneficent work of its lay orders, and through the hospitals and asylums under its control in every part of the country.

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  • Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.

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  • The last he opposed because the proper remedy lay in resolutions and orders of the House.

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  • Dividing the power between their two orders of the nine and the people, they excluded the riformatori and replaced them by a new and heterogeneous order styled the aggregati, composed of nobles, exiles of 1456 and citizens of other orders who had never before been in office.

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  • Here we have the germ of orders in the technical sense.

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  • There were also other minor orders in the ancient church which have fallen into oblivion or lost their clerical character.

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  • The modern Greek Church recognizes only two minor orders, viz.

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  • The minor orders, and even the subdiaconate and diaconate, are now regarded as no more than steps to the priesthood.

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  • Roman theologians generally reckon only seven orders, although, if we count the episcopate an order distinct from the presbyterate, the sum is not seven, but eight.

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  • 5.) is that, whereas all the orders have reference to the body of Christ present on the altar, the episcopate, so far forth, is not a separate order, since a simple priest no less than a bishop celebrates the Eucharist.

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  • cap. 2) only seven orders, and yet maintains (cap. 4) the ecclesiastical hierarchy of bishops, priests and ministers, the bishops as successors of the Apostles holding the highest place.

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  • The Roman Church forbids ordination to higher grades unless the candidate has received all the inferior orders.

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  • Further, a cleric is bound to exercise the minor orders for a year before he can be ordained subdeacon, he must be subdeacon for a year before he is ordained deacon, deacon for a year before he is made priest.

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  • The ordinary minister of orders is a bishop. The tonsure and minor orders are, however, still sometimes conferred by abbots, who, though simple priests, have special faculties for the ordination of their monks.

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  • Pope Nicholas declared orders given by Photius of Constantinople null.

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  • The necessity of reference to sacerdotal power in the ordination of priests and bishops will be considered a little farther on in connexion with Anglican orders.

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  • On the other hand, St Thomas holds that orders may be validly conferred on children who have not come to the use of reason.

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  • Council of Trent also requires that any one who receives holy orders must have a " title," i.e.

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  • Holy orders are to be conferred on the Ember Saturdays, on the Saturday before Passion Sunday or on Holy Saturday (Easter Eve).

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  • The Lutheran Bugenhagen, who was in priest's orders, ordained seven superintendents, afterwards called bishops, for Denmark in 1527, and Norway, then under the same crown, derives its present episcopate from the same source.

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  • 74), who " neither justifies nor condemns the orders of foreign Protestants."

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  • The English Church derives its orders through Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, who was consecrated in 1559 by William Barlow, bishop-elect of Chichester.

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  • Roman authorities have from the beginning and throughout consistently repudiated orders given according to the Edwardine ordinal.

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  • 238 seq.') he clearly recognizes orders schismatical but valid, i.e.

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  • to that effect 1 Compare also the article on Anglican orders in the Catholic Encyclopedia, vol.

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    0
  • The Sacred Congregation, with the pope's approval, declared his orders to be null.

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  • Four of those divines were, it is said, decidedly opposed to the admission of Anglican orders as valid; four were more or less favourably disposed to them.

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  • The report of this commission was then handed over to a committee of cardinals, who pronounced unanimously for the nullity of the orders in question.

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  • His conclusion is that Anglican orders are " absolutely null and utterly void."

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  • The rejection of Anglican orders in the 16th and 17th centuries was based on a theory about the " tradition of instruments," which has long ceased to be tenable in the face of history, and is abandoned by Romanists themselves.

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  • For the controversy on Anglican orders see P. F.

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  • In recent times Anglican orders have been defended by A.

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  • Once he had defended the monastic orders, advocating their reform and not their suppression, supported the rural clergy and idealized the village priest in his Parocho da Aldeia, after the manner of Goldsmith in the Vicar of Wakefield.

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  • His protest against the Concordat of the 21st of February 1857 between Portugal and the Holy See, regulating the Portuguese Padroado in the East, his successful opposition to the entry of foreign religious orders, and his advocacy of civil marriage, were the chief landmarks in his battle with Ultramontanism, and his Estudos sobre o Casamento Civil were put on the Index.

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  • Entering St John's College, Cambridge, in 1724, he graduated in 1728; and on taking orders (in 1732) was presented to a small country curacy.

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  • Two days after the signature of the deed Retief and all of his party, 66 whites, besides Hottentot servants, were treacherously murdered by Dingaan's orders.

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  • Alexander of Hales belonged to the Franciscan order, and it is worth remarking that it was the mendicant orders which now came forward as the protagonists of Christian.

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  • When the clerk read the orders of the day Lord Palmerston rose, and in impressive and solemn tones declared "it was not.possible for the House to proceed to business without every member recalling to his mind the great loss which the House and country had sustained by the event which took place yesterday morning."

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  • Home had been admitted on the 9th of November 1756, as student at the Inner Temple, making the friendship of John Dunning and Lloyd Kenyon, but his father wished him to take orders in the English Church, and he was ordained deacon on the 23rd of September 1759 and priest on the 23rd of November 1760.

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  • Soon after his deliverance he applied to be called to the bar, but his application was negatived on the ground that his orders in the Church were indelible.

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  • Lord Temple endeavoured to secure his exclusion on the ground that he had taken orders in the Church, and one of Gilray's caricatures delineates the two politicians, Temple and Camelford, playing at battledore and shuttlecock, with Horne Tooke as the shuttlecock.

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  • The ministry of Addington would not support this suggestion, but a bill was at once introduced by them and carried into law, which rendered all persons in holy orders ineligible to sit in the House of Commons, and Horne Tooke sat for that parliament only.

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  • All that the gentry could do was to depress the lower orders, and this they did at every opportunity.

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  • Moreover, in the event of the failure of a Habsburg heir, the diet reserved the right to revive the " ancient, approved and accepted custom and prerogative of the estates and orders in the matter of the election and coronation of their king."

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    0
  • Under pressure from the palatine of Batthyany an imperial edict was issued, on the 7th day of May, ordering the ban to desist from his separatist plans and take his orders from Pest.

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  • Prince Windischgratz, who had received orders to reduce Hungary by fire and sword, began his advance on the 15th of December; opened up the way to the capital by the victory of Mor (Oct.

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  • His governor, Marshal D'Ornano, was arrested by Richelieu's orders, and then his confidant, Henri de Talleyrand, marquis de Chalais and Vendome, the natural sons of Henry IV.

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  • Orders were given that no one should be allowed to disturb their interview, but Richelieu entered by the unguarded chapel door.

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  • Apart altogether, however, from the question of orders, episcopacy represents a very special conception of the Christian Church.

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  • The bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, on the other hand, derive their orders from Thomas Coke, a presbyter of the Church of England, who in 1784 was ordained by John Wesley, assisted by two other presbyters, "superintendent" of the Methodist Society in America.

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  • No orders were given for the evacuation of Slovakia; in Transylvania an impossible shaped line was drawn, such as left Cluj (Kolozsvar) and many pure Rumanian districts in Magyar hands; while the Rumanians were incensed by the assignment of Temesvar (Temisoara) and the whole Banat to Serbia.

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  • The species of Linnaeus were supposed to represent a series of steps in a scale of ascending complexity, and it was thought possible thus to arrange the animal kingdom in a single series - the orders within the classes succeeding one another in regular gradation, and the classes succeeding one another in a similar rectilinear progression.

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  • Orders: Nuda, Appendiculata.

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  • Orders: Ciliati (Rotifera), Denudati (Hydroids), Vaginati (Anthozoa and Polyzoa), Natantes (Crinoids).

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  • Orders: Mollia (Acalephae), Echinoderma (including Actiniae)..

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  • Orders: Bothryllaria, Ascidia.

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  • Orders: Molles (Tape-Worms and Flukes), Rigiduli (Nematoids), Hispiduli (Nais, &c.), Epizoariae (Lernaeans, &c.).

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  • Orders: Aptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera.

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  • Orders: Antennato-Trachealia (= Thysanura and Myriapoda), Exantennato-Trachealia, ExantennatoBranchialia.

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  • Orders: Heterobranchia (Branchiopoda, Isopoda, Amphipoda, Stomapoda), Homobranchia (Decapoda).

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  • Orders: Apoda, Antennata, Sedentaria.

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  • Orders: Sessilia, Pedunculata.

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  • Orders: Dimyaria, Monomyaria.

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  • Orders: Pteropoda, Gasteropoda, Trachelipoda, Cephalopods, Heteropoda.

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  • The enumeration of orders above given will enable the reader to form some conception of the progress of knowledge relating to the lower forms of life during the fifty odd years which intervened between Linnaeus and Lamarck.

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  • Cuvier :bus laid the foundation of that branching tree-like arrangement of the classes and orders of animals now recognized as being the necessary result of attempts to represent what is practically a genealogical tree or pedigree.

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  • Orders: Bimana, Quadrumana, Carnivora, Marsupialia, Rodentia, Edentata, Pachydermata, Ruminantia, Cetacea.

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  • Orders: Accipitres, Passeres, Scansores, Gallinae, Grallae, Palmipedes.

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  • Orders: Chelonia, Sauria, Ophidia, Batrachia.

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  • Orders: (a) Acanthopterygii, Abdominales, Subbrachii, Apodes, Lophobranchii, Plectognathi; (b) Sturiones, Selachii, Cyclostomi.

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  • Orders: Pulmonata, Nudibranchia, Inferobranchia, Tectibranchia, Heteropoda, Pectinibranchia, Tubulibranchia, Scutibranchia, Cyclobranchia.

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  • Orders: Testacea, Tunicata.

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  • Orders: Tubicolae, Dorsibranchiae, Abranchiae.

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  • Orders: (a) Malacostraca: Decapoda, Stomapoda, Amphipoda, Laemodipoda, Isopoda; (b) Entomostraca: Branchioloda, Poecilopoda, Trilobitae.

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  • Orders: Pulmonariae, Tracheariae.

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  • Orders: Myriapoda, Thysanura, Parasita, Suctoria, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Rhipiptera, Diptera.

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  • Orders: Pedicellata, Apoda.

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  • Orders: Nematoidea, Parenchymatosa.

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  • Orders: Simplices, Hydrostaticae.

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  • Orders: Carnosi, Gelatinosi, Polypiarii.

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  • Orders: Rotifera, Homogenea (this includes the Protozoa of recent writers and some Protophyta).

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  • Orders: Anthozoa and Cylicozoa.

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  • Orders: Discophorae and Ctenophorae.

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  • Orders: Cystidea and Crinoidea.

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  • Orders: Echinida and Asterida.

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  • Orders: Holothuriae and Sipunculida.

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  • Orders: Cestodes and Acanthocephali.

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