How to use Opium in a sentence
Opium is mainly grown in Anatolia.
In the north the staple products for export are salt, grain, wool and cotton, in the south opium and cotton; while the imports consist of sugar, hardware and piece goods.
The government monopolies of opium and salt were then for the first time placed upon a remunerative basis.
Imports include woven goods, metals, ironware, machinery, tea, wines and spirits, mineral oils, opium, paper, and arms and powder.
This plain produces large quantities of indigo and opium, and is physically remarkable for the number of isolated conical hills which dot its surface.Advertisement
Opium is obtained from the latex of the opium poppy (Pa paver somniferum), which contains the alkaloid morphine.
There is an export trade in opium.
Stimulants, warmth and opium may be required.
There is also a government opium depot for the payment of duty, the town being a considerable centre for the trade in opium as well as in grain.
Here on the 28th of December 1825 he succumbed to the combined effects of climate and of opium.Advertisement
The commodities otherwise mostly dealt in are opium, tea, rice, oil, raw cotton, fish and silk.
The Behar Opium Agency has its headquarters at the town of Patna.
There is some success with using lachesis and homeopathic opium for the treatment of sleep apnea.
It is now a centre of the trade in Malwa opium, with a wealthy colony of Bohra merchants.
Much tobacco of excellent quality, principally for consumption in Persia, is also grown (especially in Fessa, Darab and Jahrom) and a considerable quantity of opium, much of it for export to China, is produced.Advertisement
A divorce may be granted only to one who has lived for at least one year in the state; among the recognized causes for divorce are desertion for two years, cruelty, insanity or physical incapacity at time of marriage, habitual drunkenness or excessive use of opium or other drugs, and the conviction of either party of felony.
One of the first abuses with which the Japanese had to deal was the excessive use of opium by the Chinese settlers.
It has a trade in cereals, cotton, opium, valonia and boracite and is connected by a carriage road with Balikisri.
The principal crops are barley,',rice, wheat, other food-grains, pulse, sugar-cane and opium.
The modern town is connected with Smyrna by railway, and exports cotton, wool, opium, cocoons and cereals.Advertisement
The products are chiefly cereals, fruits, opium, cotton, tobacco, wool, ordinary goat-hair and mohair, in which there is a large trade.
The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
Among the principal goods dealt with are tea, silk, opium, sugar, flax, salt, earthenware, oil, amber, cotton and cotton goods, sandal-wood, ivory, betel, vegetables, live stock and granite.
Only the interest of the matter prevents one from thinking of Rivarol's ill-natured remark upon Condorcet, that he wrote with opium on a page of lead.
Moliere's medical student accounts for it by a soporific principle contained in the opium.Advertisement
Its principal imports are cotton and woollen goods, yarn, metals, sugar, coffee, tea, spices, cashmere shawls, &c., and its principal exports opium, wool, carpets, horses, grain, dyes and gums, tobacco, rosewater, &c. The importance of Bushire has much increased since about 1862.
Rice, wheat, barley, oats, Indian corn, various kinds of millet, pulses, oil-seeds, tobacco, cotton, indigo, opium, flax and hemp and sugar-cane, are the principal agricultural products of Bhagalpur district.
His will-power had early been undermined by the opium habit, and was further weakened by the sensual excesses that ultimately killed him.
The revenue of Penang, that is to say, not only of the island but of the entire settlement, amounted in 1906 to $6,031,917, of which $2,014,033 was derived from the revenue farms for the collection of import duties on opium, wine and spirits; $160,047 from postal revenue; $119,585 from land revenue; $129,151 from stamps.
In 1855 he supported Gladstone in the efforts to bring about peace with Russia before the capture of Sebastopol; in 1856 he opposed the opening of museums on Sunday; in the following year he supported Cobden in his disapproval of the second opium war with China.
For the weighing of gold, gems, opium, &c., the fuang, equal to s tical, and the salung, equal to 4 tical, are used.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
In the second half of the 17th century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from India to Europe, was severely felt.
In 1803 a commission met to consider the state of the Dutch colonies, and advocated drastic administrative and commercial reforms, notably freedom' of trade in all commodities except firearms, opium, rice and wood - with coffee, pepper and spices, which were state monopolies.
From Bengal are imported opium, drugs and cloths; from China, teas, raw silk, silk piece-goods, coarse China wares, paper, and innumerable smaller articles for the Chinese settlers.
The district is fertile and produces much grain and some opium.
The principal crops are rice, barley, other food-grains, pulse, sugar-cane and opium.
Besides fruits and agricultural produce, its exports include raw silk, [[Cotton (disambiguation)|cotton, opium, ]]-water, attar of roses, wax and the dye known as Turkey red.
The natives are poor, owing chiefly to maladministration, the use of opium and the usury practised by foreigners (Chinese, Arabs, &c.).
The exports which come next in value are opium, wood-oil, hides, beans, cotton yarn and raw silk.
The king's acceptance of two bribes - one of $75,000 and another of $80,000 for the assignment of an opium licence - precipitated the revolution of 1887.
The legislative session of 1892, during which four changes of ministry took place, was protracted to eight months chiefly by her determination to carry through the opium and lottery bills and to have a pliable cabinet.
In the market at Lhasa opium sells for its weight in silver.
In acute opium poisoning strychnine is very valuable.
The antidotes are mild alkalis, together with the use of opium to relieve pain.
The city trade chiefly consists of salt and opium.
The imports consist chiefly of English goods, indigo, cloth, boots, leather, sugar, salt, iron and copper, from Hindustan, and of shawls, carpets, "Barak" (native woollen cloth), postins (coats made of skins), shoes, silks, opium and carpets from Meshed, Herat and Turkestan.
The cultivation of opium is a government monopoly, and no person is allowed to grow the poppy except on account of government.
Annual engagements are entered into by the cultivators, under a system of pecuniary advances, to sow a certain quantity of land with poppy, and the whole produce in the form of opium is delivered to government at a fixed rate.
The chief sources of revenue were licences (which include the farms let for the collection of import duties in opium, wine and spirits) $4,248,856, nearly half the revenue of the settlement; post and telegraphs $424,645; railway receipts $196,683; and land revenue $104,482.
It is of value in cyanide and opium poisoning and in the resuscitation of the apparently drowned.
The heading Opium in the finance accounts represents the duty on the export of the drug.
The opium, known as " provision opium," is manufactured in government factories at Patna and Ghazipur, and sold by auction at Calcutta for export to China.
The net opium revenue represents the difference between the sum realized at these sales and the cost of production.
Malwa opium is exported from Bombay, the duty having previously been levied on its passage into British territory.
In1907-1908the net opium revenue from both sources amounted to £3,576,000.
The Chinese government having issued an edict that the growth and consumption of opium in China should be entirely suppressed within ten years, the government ÿf India accordingly agreed in 1908 that the export of opum from India should be reduced year by year, so that the opium revenue would henceforth rapidly decline and might be expected to cease altogether.
In 1908 an international commission that met at Shanghai passed resolutions inviting all the states there represented to take measures for the gradual suppression of the manufacture, sale and distribution of opium, except for medicinal purposes.
Apart from spirits, excise duties are levied upon the sale of a number of intoxicating or stimulant drugs, of which the most important are opium, bhang, ganja and charas.
Opium is issued for local consumption in India from the government manufactories at Ghazipur and Patna in the Behar and Benares Agencies, and sold through private retailers at a monopoly price.
The chief exports are raw cotton, cotton goods and yarn, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, raw jute and jute-manufactures, hides and skins, tea, opium and lac. In1905-1906there was great activity in both the cotton and jute industries.
But both the indigo and opium trades are declining industries, which mean a serious loss to the Indian exchequer.
Indigo fell to about one-tenth of its value in the previous decade; and an agreement was come to with China in 1907, by which the area under opium is to be gradually reduced.
The principal heads of revenue are land, opium, salt, stamps, excise, customs, assessed taxes, forests, registration and tributes from native states; and the chief heads of expenditure are charges of collection, interest, post-office, telegraph and mint, civil departments, famine relief and insurance, railways, irrigation, other public works and army.
Though Hastings always prided himself specially upon that reform, as well as upon the improvements he introduced into the collection of the revenues from salt and opium, his name will be remembered in history for the boldness d success of his foreign policy.
This he effected by reductions in permanent expenditure, amounting in the aggregate to 12 millions sterling, as well as by augmenting the revenue from land that had escaped assessment, and from the opium of Malwa.
Morphine is an analgesic and hypnotic, relieving pain and producing deep sleep. As contrasted with opium it differs in being less astringent and constipating.
The principal articles of import are shirtings, drills, jeans and twills, opium, woollens, steel, lead, needles, J apanese sea-weed and sugar; and of export, wool, skins, beans and pease, straw braid, coal, dates, tobacco and rhubarb.
The principal staples include wheat, oilseeds, raw cotton, indigo, sugar, molasses, timber and forest produce, dry-stuffs, ghee, opium and tobacco.
Before the anti-opium campaign of 1906 (see China) opium was much grown.
The trade of the port amounted in 1899 to 531,229, and in 1904 to X424,442, the principal import being cotton yarn and the principal export opium.
Its principal products are cotton, wheat and opium - the anti-opium decrees of 1906 had little effect on the province up to 1910 - and these it exchanges with the neighbouring provinces for coal, iron, salt, &c. Kao-liang, pulse, millet, maize, groundnut, barley, beans, pease, lucerne, and rape seed are also grown.
The Shen-si opium is much valued by smokers and ranked next to the Shan-si drug, which was second only to that produced in Kan-suh.
The principal sources of revenue are the licences granted for the importation and retailing of opium, wine and spirits, which are in the hands of Chinese; a customs duty of 5% on imports; an export tax of 5 70 on jungle produce; a poll-tax sanctioned by ancient native custom; and a stamp duty.
The most important vegetable productions are - cereals, cotton, gum tragacanth, liquorice, olive oil, opium, rice, saffron, salep, tobacco and yellow berries.
Opium in large quantities is produced in its vicinity and forms the staple article of its commerce; and there are, besides, manufactures of black felts, carpets, arms and saddlery.
Opium and millet are the principal crops grown upon it.
The chief articles imported are sugar, rice, raw cotton and opium, as well as cotton cloths, iron goods and other European manufactures.
Combined with opium it is an efficient remedy in diabetes insipidus.
The use of opium is very general.
The cultivation of poppy for opium greatly increased after 1880, and it was estimated in 1900 that the annual produce of opium amounted to over 1000 tons, of which about two-fifths was consumed and smoked in the country.
The principal exports are fruits (dried and fresh), carpets, cotton, fish, rice, gums, wool, opium, silk cocoons, skins, live animals, silks, cottons, wheat, barley, drugs and tobacco.
In these cases lime-water, alkalis and magnesia should be used as antidotes, and opium may be required.
Sometimes the patient is put to bed and the circulation is encouraged, especially on the surface of the body, by the use of hot spirits and water, or opium and ipecacuanha, while the outside of the nose is protected to a certain extent from loss of heat, and consequent irritation, by smearing it with a tallow candle or rubbing some ointment over the skin.
But by the addition of some antiseptic to the ointment its defensive action would be converted from passive to active, and its power to prevent infection would become greater; and if inflammation had already set up in the skin, the addition of opium, belladonna, or cocaine would lessen local pain; and an astringent, either metallic or organic, would restrain inflammation and accelerate repair.
Irritation is lessened by lotions containing substances that will diminish irritability of the nerve-endings and skin, such as carbolic acid, hydrocyanic acid, morphine or opium, cocaine, belladonna or atropine.
Amongst those which lessen excitability of the brain-cells are opium, morphine, hyoscyamus, chloral, sulphonal, trional, paraldehyde, chloralamide, chloralose, hop and many others.
Irritation of sensory nerves tends to cause contraction of the vessels, and to raise the blood pressure, and where pain is ffi, present opium or morphine is the most efficient sedative.
Pain may be stopped by removing the cause of irritation, as, for example, by the extraction of a carious tooth or by rendering the nerveendings insensitive to irritation, as by the application of cocaine; by preventing its transmission along the spinal cord by antipyrin, phenacetin, acetanilide, cocaine, &c.; or by dulling the perceptive centre in the brain by means of opium or its alkaloids, by anaesthetics, and probably also, to a certain extent, by antipyrin and its congeners.
After the irritant has been removed and fermentation stopped, the irritation still remaining in the intestinal wall may be soothed by chalk mixture and bismuth, to which if necessary small quantities of opium may be added.
The remedy most trusted to in this disease is opium and its alkaloids, morphine and codeine.
In 1801 begins the period of Coleridge's life during which, in spite of the evidence of work shown in his compositions, he sank more and more under the dominion of opium, in which he may have first indulged at Cambridge.
Three years after this, having failed to conquer the opium habit, he determined to enter the family of Mr James Gillman, who lived at Highgate.
His own plagiarisms were doubtless facilitated by the physiological effects of opium.
The imports are mainly woollen and cotton goods, iron and opium, and the exports include bean cake, bean oil, peas, raw silk, straw-braid, walnuts, a coarse kind of vermicelli, vegetables and dried fruits.
Liniments containing opium, belladonna or aconite rubbed into the affected part will often soothe the most severe local pain.
Early in the 19th century a large transit trade in opium between Karachi and China was carried on at Damaun, but it ceased in 1837, when the British prohibited it after their conquest of Sind.
The principal crops are rice, wheat, pulse and other food-grains, sugar-cane and opium.
From the 1st to the 12th century the opium of Asia Minor appears to have been the only kind known in commerce.
In the 13th century opium thebaicum is mentioned by Simon Januensis, physician to Pope Nicholas IV., while meconium was still in use.
In the 16th century opium is mentioned by Pyres (1516) as a production of the kingdom of Cous (Kuch Behar, south-west of Bhutan) in Bengal, and of Malwa.
The opium monopoly was the property of the Great Mogul and was regularly sold.
In the 17th century Kaempfer describes the various kinds of opium prepared in Persia, and states that the best sorts were flavoured with spices and called " theriaka."
Opium is said to have been introduced into China by the Arabs probably in the 13th century, and it was originally used there as a medicine, the introduction of opium-smoking FIG.
In a Chinese Herbal compiled before 1700 both the plant and its inspissated juice are described, together with the mode of collecting it, and in the General History of the Southern Provinces of Yunnan, revised and republished in 1736, opium is noticed as a common product.
In the year 1757 the monopoly of opium cultivation in India passed into the hands of the East India Company through the victory of Clive at Plassey.
The trade was contraband, and the opium was bought by the Chinese from depot ships at the ports.
Up to 1839 no effort was made to stop the trade, but in that year the emperor Tao-Kwang sent a commissioner, Lin Tsze-sii, to Canton to put down the traffic. Lin issued a proclamation threatening hostile measures if the British opium ships serving as depots were not sent away.
The importation of opium continued and was legalized in 1858.
From that time, in spite of the remonstrances of the Chinese government, the exportation of opium from India to China continued, increasing from 52,925 piculs (of 1333 lb) in 1850 to 96,839 piculs in 1880.
While, however, the court of Peking was honestly endeavouring to suppress the foreign trade in opium from 1839 to 1858 several of the provincial viceroys encouraged the trade, nor could the central government put a stop to the home cultivation of the drug.
The cultivation increased so rapidly that at the beginning of the 10th century opium was produced in every province of China.
Of this amount China required for home consumption 325,270 piculs, the remainder being chiefly exported to IndoChina, whilst 54,225 piculs of foreign opium were imported into China.
Of the whole amount of opium used in China, equal to 22,588 tons, only about one-seventh came from India.
The Chinese government regarding the use of opium as one of the most acute moral and economic questions which.as a nation they have to face, representing an annual loss to the country of 856,250,000 taels, decided in 1906 to put an end to the use of the drug within ten years, and issued an edict on the 10th of September 1906, forbidding the consumption of opium and the cultivation of the poppy.
As an indication of their earnestness of purpose the government allowed officials a period of six months in which to break off the use of opium, under heavy penalties if they failed to do so.
In October of the same year the American government in the Philippines, having to deal with the opium trade, raised the question of the taking of joint measures for its suppression by the powers interested, and as a result a conference met at Shanghai on the 1st of February 1909 to which China, the United States of America, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal and Russia sent delegates.
At this meeting it was resolved that it was the duty of the respective governments to prevent the export of opium to any countries prohibiting its importation; that drastic measures should be taken against the use of morphine; that anti-opium remedies should be investigated; and that all countries having concessions in China should close the opium divans in their possessions.
The British government made an offer in 1907 to reduce the export of Indian opium to countries beyond the seas by 5100 chests, i.e.
The average annual import of Persian and Turkish opium into China is estimated at 1125 piculs, and if this quantity were to be reduced every year by one-ninth, beginning in 1909, in nine years the import into China would entirely cease, and the Indian, Persian and Turkish opiums no longer be articles of commerce in that country.
One result of these regulations was that the price of foreign opium in China rose, a circumstance which was calculated to reduce the loss to the Indian revenue.
Thus in 1909-1910, with only 350,000 acres under cultivation and 40,000 chests of opium in stock, the revenue was 4,420,600 as against 3,572,944 in1905-1906with 613,996 acres under cultivation and a stock of 76,063 chests.
No opium dens have been allowed since 1907 in their possessions or leased territories in China by Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia or Japan.
Various remedies for the opium habit have been experimented with in China, but with doubtful success.
Its comparative cheapness, one dollar's worth being equal to three dollars' worth of opium in the effect produced, its portability and the facilities offered in obtaining it, are all in its favour.
It is worse even than opium-eating, in proportion as morphine is more active than opium.
The varieties of poppy grown, the mode of cultivation adopted and the character of the opium produced differ so greatly that it will be convenient to consider the opiums of each country separately.
In localities where there is hoar frost in autumn and spring the seed is sown in September or at latest in the beginning of October, and the yield of opium and seed is then greater than if sown later.
At this period gentle showers are of great value, as they cause an increase in the subsequent yield of opium.
The petals fall in a few hours, and the capsules grow so rapidly that in a short time - generally from nine to fifteen days - the opium is fit for collection.
The seed, which yields 35 to 42% of oil, is worth about two-thirds of the value of the opium.
Before the crop is all gathered in a meeting of buyers and sellers takes place in each district, at which the price to be asked is discussed and settled, and the opium handed to the buyers, who in many instances have advanced money on the standing crop. When sufficiently solid the pieces of opium are packed in cotton bags, a quantity of the fruits of a species of Rumex being thrown in to prevent the cakes from adhering together.
On the arrival of the opium at its destination, in the end of July or beginning of August, it is placed in cool warehouses to avoid loss of weight until sold.
The opium is then of a mixed character and is known as talequale.
When transferred to the buyer's warehouses the bags are opened and each piece is examined by a public inspector in the presence of both buyer and seller, the quality of the opium being judged by appearance, odour, colour and weight.
After inspection the opium is hermetically sealed in tin-lined boxes containing about 150 lb.
Turkey opium is principally used in medicine on account of its purity and the large percentage of morphia that it contains, a comparatively small quantity being exported for smoking purposes.
About three-quarters of the opium prepared in Turkey is produced in Anatolia, and is exported by way of Smyrna, and the remainder is produced in the hilly districts of the provinces near the southern coast of the Black Sea, and finds its way into Constantinople, the commercial varieties bearing the name of the district where they are produced.
The Smyrna varieties include the produce of Afium Karahissar, Uschak, Akhissar, Taoushanli, Isbarta, Konia, Bulvadan, Hamid, Magnesia and Yerli, the last name being applied to opium collected in the immediate neighbour " hood of Sm y rna.
The opium exported by way of Constantinople includes that of Hadjikeuy and Malatia; the Tokat kind, of good quality, including that produced in Yosgad, Sile and Niksar, and the current or second quality derived from Amasia and Oerek; the Karahissar kind including the produce of Mykalitch, Carabazar, Sivrahissar, Eskichehir.
The average amount of Turkish opium exported is 7000 chests, but in rare seasons amounts to 12,000 chests, but the yield depends upon fine weather in harvest time, heavy rains washing the opium off the capsules, and lessening the yield to a considerable extent.
These commercial varieties differ in appearance and quality, and are roughly classified as Soft or Shipping opium, Druggists' and Manufacturers' opium.
Shipping opium is distinguished by its soft character and clean paste, containing very little debris, or chaff, as it is technically called.
The chief markets for the soft or shipping varieties of opium are, China, Korea, the West Indian Islands, Cuba, British Guiana, Japan and Java; the United States also purchase for re-exportation as well as for home consumption.
Druggists' opium includes the kinds purchased for use in medicine, which for Great Britain should, when dried and powdered, contain 92-101% of morphine.
The softer varieties of opium are preferred in the American market, as being richer in morphine.
In all Turkey opium the pieces vary much in size.
Manufacturers' opium includes any grade yielding not less than 102% of morphine, but the Yoghourma or " pudding " opium, on account of its paste being more difficult to work, is not used for the extraction of the active principles.
For the extraction of codeine, the Persian opium is preferred when Turkey opium is dear, as it contains on the average 22% of that alkaloid, whilst Turkey opium yields only 2-4%.
Malatia opium is in pieces of irregular size usually of a broadly conical shape, weighing from 1-2 lb.
Tokat opium resembles that of Malatia, but the cakes are flatter, and the paste is similar in character, though the leaves covering it are of a yellower tint of green.
Bogaditz opium occurs in smaller pieces, about 3 or 4 oz.
Karahissar opium, which usually includes the produce of Adet, Akhissar and Amasia, occurs in rather large shortly conical or more or less irregular lumps.
Angora opium is met with in small smooth pieces, has generally a pale paste and is rich in morphia.
Yerli opium is of good quality, variable in size and shape; the surface is usually rough with Rumex capsules.
Gheve opium formerly came over as a distinct kind, but is now mixed with other varieties; the pieces form small rounded cakes, smooth and shining like those of Angora, about 3-6 oz.
In Macedonia opium culture was begun in 1865 at Istip with seed obtained from Karahissar in Asia Minor, and extended subsequently to the adjacent districts of Kotchava, Stroumnitza, Tikvish and Kinprulu-veles, most of the produce being exported under the name of Salonica opium.
Macedonian opium, especially that 1 Gheve is the commercial name for opium from Geiveh on the river Sakaria, running into the Black Sea.
For some years past, however, it .has been occasionally mixed with pieces of inferior opium, like that of Yoghourma, recognizable on cutting by their solidity and heavy character.
The Turkish government encourage the development of the industry by remitting the tithes on opium and poppy-seed for one year on lands sown for the first time, and by distributing printed instructions for cultivating the poppy and preparing the opium.
In these directions it is pointed out that the opium crop is ten times as profitable as that of wheat.
Opium is also grown in Bulgaria, but almost entirely for home consumption; any surplus produce is, however, bought by Jews, and Turks at low prices and sent to Constantinople, where it is sold as Turkish opium.
The opium industry in Bengal is a government monopoly, under the control of officials residing respectively at Patna and Ghazipore.
Any one may undertake the industry,, but cultivators are obliged to sell the opium exclusively to the government agent at a price fixed beforehand by the latter, which,.
The chief centres of production are Bihar in Bengal, and the district of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh lying along the Gangetic valley, and north of it, of which the produce is known as Bengal opium.
The opium manufactured at Patna is of two classes, viz.
Provision opium manufactured for' export, and Excise or Akbari opium intended for local consumption in India.
The Benares ball opium has.
Malwa opium is produced in a large number of states in the Central India and Rajputana Agencies, chiefly Gwalior, Indore and Bhopal, in the former, and Mewar in the latter.
The cultivation of Malwa opium is free and extremely profitable, the crop realizing usually from three to.
On its entering British territory a heavy duty is imposed on Malwa opium, so as to raise its price to an equality with the government article.
It is shipped from Bombay to northern China, where nearly the whole of the exported Malwa opium is consumed.
In Nepal, Bashahr and Rampur, and at Doda Kashtwar in the Jammu territory, opium is produced and exported to Yarkand, Khotan and Aksu.
A small amount of opium alkaloids only is manufactured in India.
The poppy blossoms about the middle of February, and the petals when about to fall are collected for the purpose of making " leaves " for the spherical coverings of the balls of opium.
The collection of opium commences in Behar about 25th February, and continues to about 25th March, but in Malwa is performed in March and April.
The operation is usually performed about three or four o'clock in the afternoon, and the opium collected the next morning.
In Bengal a small sheet-iron scoop or " seetoah" is used for scraping off the dried juice, and, as it becomes filled, the opium is emptied into an earthen pot carried for the purpose.
Sometimes the opium is in a fluid state by reason of dew, and in some places it is rendered still more so by the practice adopted by collectors of washing their scrapers, and adding the washings to the morning's collection.
In order to get rid of this fluid, called " pasewa " or " pussewah," the opium is placed in a shallow earthen vessel tilted on one side, and the pussewah drained off.
When received into the government stores the opium is kept in large wooden boxes holding about 50 maunds and occasionally stirred up, if only a little below the standard.
When the inside of the brass cup is ready a ball of opium previously weighed is placed on the leafy case in it, and the upper half of it covered with leaves in the same way that the casing for the lower half was made, the overhanging leaves of the lower half being pressed upwards and the sphere completed by one large leaf which is placed over the upper half.
The chests need to be kept in a dry warehouse for a length of time, but ultimately the opium ceases to lose moisture to the shell, and the latter becomes extremely solid.
In Malwa the opium is manufactured by private enterprise, the government levying an export duty of 600 rupees (60) per chest.
It contains as much as 95% of dry opium, but is of much less uniform quality than the Bengal drug, and, having no guarantee as to purity, is not considered so valuable.
The opium is collected in March and April, and the crude drug or " chick " is thrown into an earthen vessel and covered with linseed oil to prevent evaporation.
This takes place in seven to ten days, but the bags are left for four to six weeks until the oil remaining on the opium has become oxidized and hardened.
The amount of opium revenue collected in India was £10,480,051 in 1881, but in1907-1908was only £5,244,986.
It is a remarkable fact that the only Indian opium ever seen in England is an occasional sample of the Malwa sort, whilst the government monopoly opium is quite unknown; indeed, the whole of the opium used in medicine in Europe and the United States is obtained from Turkey.
This is in some measure due to the fact that Indian opium contains less morphia.
It has recently been shown, however, that opium grown in the hilly districts of the Himalayas yields 50% more morphia than that of the plains, and that the deficiency of morphia in the Indian drug is due, in some measure, to the long exposure to the air in a semi-liquid state which it undergoes.
The Yezd opium is considered better than that of Ispahan, but the strongest or Theriak-e-Arabistani is produced in the neighbourhood of Dizful and Shuster, east of the river Tigris.
Good opium is also produced about Sari and Balfarush in the province of Mazanderan.
Although the cultivation of opium in Persia was probably carried on at an earlier date than in India, Persian opium was almost unknown in England until about the year 1870, except in the form of the inferior quality known as " Trebizond," which usually contains only 0.2 to 3% of morphia.
This opium is in the form of cylindrical sticks about 6 in.
Since 1870 Persian opium has been largely exported from Bushire and Bandar-Abbas in the Persian Gulf to London, the Straits Settlements and China.
At that date the annual yield is said not to have exceeded 2600 cases; but, the profits on opium having about that time attracted attention, all available ground was utilized for this to the exclusion of cereals, cotton and other produce.
The trade - only 300 chests in 1859 - gradually increased until 1877, when the Persian opium was much adulterated with glucose.
The heavy losses on this inferior opium and the higher prices obtained for the genuine article led to a great improvement in its preparation, and in 1907 the production had increased to 10,000 piculs.
The Shuster opium is sent partly via Bushire to Muscat for transhipment to Zanzibar, and part is believed to be smuggled into India by way of Baluchistan and Mekran.
Smaller quantities grown in Teheran, Tabriz and Kermanshah find their way to Smyrna, where it is said to be mixed with the local drug for the European market, the same practice being carried on at Constantinople with the Persian opium that arrives there from Samsun and Trebizond.
For the Chinese market the opium is usually packed in chests containing 102 shahmans (of 131 Ib), so that on arrival it may weigh 1 Chinese picul (=1331 lb), 5 to io% being allowed for loss by drying.
At Ispahan, Shiraz and Yezd the drug, after being dried in the sun, is mixed with oil in the proportion of 6 or 7 Ib to 141 lb of opium, with the object, it is said, of suiting the taste of the Chinese - that intended for the London market being now always free from oil.
Persian opium, as met with in the London market, occurs in several forms, the most common being that of brick-shaped pieces.
Ispahan opium also occurs in the form of parallelopipeds weighing about 16-20 oz.; sometimes flat circular pieces weighing about 20 oz.
The opium is usually of much firmer and smoother consistence than that of Turkey, of a chocolate-brown colour and cheesy appearance, the pieces bearing evidence of having been beaten into a uniform mass previously to being made into lumps, probably with the addition of Sarcocoll, as it is always harder when dry than Turkey opium.
Great care is now taken to prevent adulteration, and consequently Persian opium can be obtained nearly as rich in morphia as the Turkish drug - on the average from 9-12%.
The greater proportion of the Persian opium imported into London is again exported, a comparatively small quantity being used, chiefly for the manufacture of codeine when Turkey opium is dear, and a little in veterinary practice.
According to Dr Reveil, Persian opium usually contains 75 to 84% of matter soluble in water, and some samples contain from 13 to 30% of glucose, probably due to an extract or syrup of raisins added to the paste in the pots in which it is collected, and to which the shining fracture of hard Persian opium is attributed.
Experiments made in England, France, Italy, Switzerland, Greece, Spain, Germany, and even in Sweden, prove that opium as rich in morphia as that of Eastern countries can be produced in Europe.
In 1830 Young, a surgeon at Edinburgh, succeeded in obtaining 56 lb of opium from an acre of poppies, and sold it at 36s.
The juice yields about one-fourth of its weight of opium, and the percentage of morphia varies according to the variety of poppy used, the purple one giving the best results.
By mixing assayed samples he is able to produce an opium containing uniformly 10% of morphia.
Some specimens of French opium have been found by Guibourt to yield 22.8% of morphia, being the highest percentage observed as' yet in any opium.
Experiments made in Germany by Karsten, Jobst and Vulpius have shown that it is possible to obtain in that country opium of excellent quality, containing from 8 to 13% of morphia.
It was found that the method yielding the best results was to make incisions in the poppy-heads soon after sunrise, to collect the juice with the finger immediately after incision and evaporate it as speedily as possible, the colour of the opium being lighter and the percentage of morphia greater than when the juice was allowed to dry on the plant.
Black grew opium in Tennessee which contained to% of morphia.
Flint in 1873 yielded 74% of morphia, equal to to% in perfectly-dried opium.
Pictet, Vegetable Opium also contains a gum, pectin, a wax, sugar and similar substances, in addition to meconic and lactic acids.
Thebaine is not so used, but is an important and sometimes very dangerous constituent of the various opium preparations, which are still largely employed, despite the complexity and inconstant composition of the drug.
A drug of so complex a composition as opium is necessarily incompatible with a large number of substances.
The chief difference between the action of opium and morphine is due to the presence in the former of thebaine, which readily affects the more irritable spinal cord of very young children.
In infants especially opium acts markedly upon the spinal cord, and, just as strychnine is dangerous when given to young children, so opium, because of the strychnine-like alkaloid it contains, should never be administered, under any circumstances or in any dose, to children under one year of age.
When given by the mouth, opium has a somewhat different action from that of morphine.
Often it relieves vomiting, though in a few persons it may cause vomiting, but in far less degree than apomorphine, which is a powerful emetic. Opium has a more marked diaphoretic action than morphine, and is much less certain as a hypnotic and analgesic. There are a few therapeutic indications for the use of opium rather than morphine, but they are far less important than those which make the opposite demand.
In some abdominal conditions, for instance, opium is still preferred by the majority of practitioners, though certainly not in gastric cases, where morphine gives the relief for which opium often increases the need, owing to the irritant action of some of its constituents.
Opium is often preferred to morphine in cases of diabetes, where prolonged administration is required.
In such cases the soporific action is not that which is sought, and so opium is preferable.
Opium rather than morphine is also usually employed to relieve the pain of haemorrhoids or fissure of the rectum.
Under this heading must be considered acute poisoning by opium, and the chronic poisoning seen in those who eat or smoke the drug.
Chronic opium poisoning by the taking of laudanum - as in the familiar case of De Quincey - need not be considered here, as the hypodermic injection of morphine has almost entirely supplanted it.
The action on the circulation is largely secondary, however, to the all-important action of opium on the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata.
In treating acute opium poisoning the first proceeding is to empty the stomach.
But apomorphine is not always to be obtained, and even if it be administered it may fail, since the gastric wall is often paralysed in opium poisoning, so that no emetic can act.
This must be repeated at intervals of about half an hour, since some of the opium is excreted into the stomach after its absorption into the blood.
But the final resort in cases of opium poisoning is artificial respiration, which should be persevered with as long as the heart continues to beat.
It has, indeed, been asserted that, if relays of trained assistants are at hand, no one need die of opium poisoning, even if artificial respiration has to be continued for hours or days.
The ma ority took their opium twice daily, morning and evening, the quantity taken varying from 2 to 46 grains daily, large doses being the exception, and the average 5 to 7 grains daily.
Richards concludes that the excessive use of opium by the agricultural classes, who are the chief consumers in Orissa, is very rare indeed.
It seems probable that violent physical exercise may counteract in great measure the deleterious effect of opium and prevent it from retarding the respiration, and that in such cases the beneficial effects are obtained without the noxious results which would accrue from its use to those engaged in sedentary pursuits.
There is no doubt that the spread of the practice is connected with the ban imposed in Mohammedan countries on the use of alcoholic beverages, and to some extent with the long religious fasts of the Buddhists, Hindus and Moslems, in which opium is used to allay hunger.
Foreign opium was first imported by the Portuguese (early 18th century).
In 1906 it was estimated of Chinese smoked opium, or 27% of adult males; but during1908-1910the consumption of opium is believed to have diminished by about one-third.
For smoking the Chinese use an extract of opium known as prepared opium or chandoo, and a cheaper preparation is made from 60% used opium known as " opium dross " and 40% native opium.
As thus prepared it has the consistence of a thin treacly extract, and is called boiled or prepared opium.
The average quantity boiled each day is from six to eight chests of Patna opium, this being the only kind used."
The only alkaloids likely to remain in the prepared opium, and capable of producing well-marked physiological results, are morphine, codeine and narceine.
Even if sublimed in smoking opium, morphine would, in M'Callum's opinion, probably be deposited in the pipe before it reached the mouth of the smoker.
The bitter taste of morphine is not noticeable when smoking opium, and it is therefore possible that the pleasure derived from smoking the drug is due to some product formed during combustion.
The opium must not be burnt or made too dry, but roasted gently till it looks like burnt worsted; every now and then he takes it away from the flame and rolls it (still on the end of the dipper) on the flat surface of the bowl.
When it is roasted and rolled to his satisfaction he gently heats the centre of the bowl, where there is a small orifice; then he quickly thrusts the end of the dipper into the orifice, twirls it round smartly and withdraws it; if this is properly done, the opium (now about the size of a grain of hemp-seed or a little larger) is left adhering to the bowl immediately over the orifice.
There can be no doubt that the use of the drug is opposed by all thinking Chinese who are not pecuniarily interested in the opium trade or cultivation, for several reasons, among which may be mentioned the drain of bullion from the country, the decrease of population, the liability to famine through the cultivation of opium where cereals should be grown, and the corruption of state officials.
These fertile tracts produce rice and other cereals, cotton, tobacco, opium and fruits in profusion.
William Dampier (c. 1688) and others speak of the number of foreign merchants settled there - English, Dutch, Danes, Portuguese, Chinese, &c. Dampier says the anchorage was rarely without ten or fifteen sail of different nations, bringing vast quantities of rice, as well as silks, chintzes, muslins and opium.
Export duties, it may be observed, are not important in systems of taxation generally, as there are few articles where the charge will not really fall on the wages of labour and profits of capital within the country imposing them; but opium grown in India is a well-known exception, and in the West Indies export duties on principal articles of production, in spite of their incidence, have been found a convenient source of revenue.
Opium is grown in Behar with its head station at Patna.
The principal imports are cotton piece goods, railway materials, metals and machinery, oils, sugar, cotton, twist and salt; and the principal exports are jute, tea, hides, opium, rice, oil-seeds, indigo and lac. The inter-provincial trade is mostly carried on with Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and the Central Provinces.
From the United Provinces come opium, hides, raw cotton, wheat, shellac and oil-seeds; and from Assam, tea, oil-seeds and jute.
Other local products are carpets (silk and felt), silk goods, hides, grapes, rice and other cereals, fruits, tobacco, opium and cotton.
Excellent crops of wheat, barley, maize, sesame, millet, cotton, opium, tobacco and rice are grown, and several of the oases, e.g.
A considerable amount of trade is done in the export of wool, hides, cotton, carpets, silks, felts, cereals (wheat, barley, maize, rice), sheep, fruit and vegetables, and in tea, silver, porcelain and opium imported from China, cloth and groceries from India, and cloth, cottons, silks, sugar, matches and leather from West Turkestan and Russia.
In the six months ending with that date the receipts were $1,259,574 (largely from import and export duties, and taxes on liquors, tobacco, matches, coffee, opium, salt, steamship companies and money changers), and the cash balance for the six months was $105,307.
The town has a trade in valonia, cereals and opium.
It is a centre of trade in opium, silk and cereals, communicating by carriage roads with Panderma.
The arrangement is altogether abnormal, and was consented to by the Portuguese government in 1887 to assist the Chinese authorities in the suppression of opium smuggling.
The district produces grain, opium, cotton, wool, limes (their juice, made into green extract, is exported in little earthenware jars), and manufactures gilims (woollen carpets without pile).
The chief agricultural products are grain, rice, beans, cotton, opium and poppy seed, sesame, fennel, red pepper, and much of the finest tobacco grown in Europe; there is also some trade in timber, livestock, skins, furs, wool and silk cocoons.
The principal articles of import are coffee, cotton-piece goods, &c., grain, hides, coal, opium, cottontwist and yarn.
There are exceptions to this, however, as children are more affected in proportion by opium and some other substances, and less by mercury and arsenic. In old age also the nervous system and the tissues generally do not react so readily as in youth.
It is well known that the habitual consumption of certain drugs, such as tobacco, Indian hemp, opium, arsenic, alcohol and many others, gradually induces a condition of tolerance to their effects, so that large doses can be taken without causing symptoms of poisoning.
Morphine and the other opium alkaloids (codeine, narcotine, laudanine, &c.) have two prominent actions - a narcotic followed by a tetanic action.
He had been a follower of Confucius and an opium addict and his wife had demonic problems.
Opium is very strong as it contains codeine and morphine.
Opium, he told the commons in April 1840, was not the cause of the war.
To help finance its governing activities, the Company had in 1773 acquired a monopoly of opium cultivation in Bengal.
Children are drugged either with Godfrey's Cordial or stronger decoctions of opium.
Afterward he took me into his opium den next door.
Like the opium forced upon a reluctant China by British gunboats, once you've started using GM, you're stuck with it.
In a war that has no heroes, Bishop Charles Henry Brent was almost heroic in the dedication with which he fought against opium.
One effect he describes is that, after taking opium, " The peristaltic Motion of the Intestines becomes more languid.
As well as lotus they had mandrake and cannabis, and there is a strong suggestion the also used opium.
I therefore kept thinking that if only I smoked some opium the pain would disappear.
Indian farmers were often forced to destroy other crops in order to grow opium for the company the Indian cotton industry suffered badly.
Britain fought a war with China to force them to buy opium from British traders!
What are the effects on their strategy if local opium growers attempt to produce illegal opium on their own?
Details such as these were designed to explain the painful circumstances that first led him to take opium.
The Chinese introduced harsh laws to try and stop their people using opium.
The flood of Afghan opium has swamped Pakistani security forces.
He gathered irresistible force and made the foreigners disgorge over a thousand tons of prepared opium.
To produce the medicine the raw opium has to be purified.
In recent years, the war-torn nation has been the main global source of illicit opium.
Life appeared so worthless and pointless and I kept thinking about smoking opium again to make me feel better.
For example, a large quality of the world's opium is grown in the region.
To some the dispute over opium may seem outrageous, to others delightfully ironic.
It turned to opium for a solution, which proved to be immensely profitable.
A dose of opium sells for 5,000 Iranian rials (60 US cents ).
Methadone is an opiate substitute and is synthesized from the raw materials found in the opium poppy.
Spice Route features a rare Javanese opium bed made from reclaimed teak with local carved wood panels.
Laudanum is an alcoholic tincture of opium that is given orally to treat diarrhea.
From the opium dens of the past to the hi-tech wizardry of today.
Tin (68%) and opium (27.8%) are the principal exports, and textiles (71%), mostly cottons, and tobacco (4%) are the chief imports.
The former contained 55, or, according to some formulae, 72 ingredients, and occurs in all the dispensatories, from that of Corvus Valerius up to the pharmacopoeias of the 19th century; and aromatic preparations of opium are still used, under the name of Theriaka in Persia.
The actual therapeutical resources of Paracelsus included a large number of metallic preparations, in the introduction of some of which he did good service, and, among vegetable preparations, the tincture of opium, still known by the name he gave it, laudanum.
Among the land plants may be noted the blue anemone; the ranunculus along the road-sides, with a strong perfume of violets; the Malta heath, which flowers at all seasons; Cynomorium coccineum, the curious " Malta fungus," formerly so valued for medicinal purposes that a guard was set for its preservation under the rule of the Knights; the pheasant's-eye; three species of mallow and geranium; Oxalis cernua, a very troublesome imported weed; Lotus edulis; Scorpiurus subvillosa, wild and cultivated as forage; two species of the horseshoe-vetch; the opium poppy; the yellow and claret-coloured poppy; wild rose; Cartaegus azarolus, of which the fruit is delicious preserved; the ice-plant; squirting cucumber; many species of Umbelliferae; Labiatae, to which the spicy flavour of the honey (equal to that of Mt Hymettus) is ascribed; snapdragons; broom-rape; glass-wort; Salsola soda, which produces when burnt a considerable amount of alkali; there are fifteen species of orchids; the gladiolus and iris are also found; Urginia scilla, the medicinal squill, abounds with its large bulbous roots near the sea; seventeen species of sedges and seventy-seven grasses have been recorded.
Internally the permanganate is a valuable antidote in opium poisoning.
The chief products are wheat, millets, pulses of various kinds, maize, rice, linseed and other oil-seeds; poppy, yielding the Malwa opium; sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, indigo, garlic, turmeric and ginger.
P. somniferum, the opium poppy, with large white or blue-purple flowers, is widely cultivated (see Opium).
The difficulties of the task undertaken by the Chinese government to eradicate a national and popular vice, in a country whose population is generally estimated at 400,000,000, are increased by the fact that the opium habit has been indulged in by all classes of society, that opium has been practically the principal if not the only national stimulant; that it must involve a considerable loss of revenue, which will have to be made up by other taxes, and by the fact that its cultivation is more profitable than that of cereals, for an English acre will on the average produce raw dry opium of the value of5, 16s.
The capsules are generally incised only once, but the fields are visited a second or third time to collect the opium from the poppy-heads subsequently developed by the branching of the stem.
The substances used to adulterate opium are grape-juice thickened with flour, fig-paste, liquorice, half-dried apricots, inferior gum tragacanth and sometimes clay or pieces of lead or other metals.
Each ball consists of a little over 31 lb of fine opium, in addition to other poppy products.
The Excise opium not having a covering of poppy petals lacks the aroma of Provision opium.
The poppy is grown for opium in the Punjab to a limited extent, but it has been decided to entirely abolish the cultivation there within a short time.
The workman sits on a wooden stand, with a brass cup before him, which he lines with the leaves of poppy petals before-mentioned until the thickness of half an inch is reached, a few being allowed to hang over the cup; the leaves are agglutinated by means of " lewa," a pasty fluid which consists of a mixture of inferior opium, 8% of " pussewah " and the " dhoe " or washings of the vessels that have contained opium, and the whole is made of such consistence that 100 grains evaporated to dryness over a water-bath leave 53 grains of solid residue.
The ball, which resembles a Dutch cheese in size and shape, is now rolled in " poppy trash " made from the coarselypowdered leaves, capsules and stalks of the poppy plant, and is placed in an earthen cup of the same size as the brass one; the cups are then placed in dishes and the opium exposed to the sun to dry for three days, being constantly turned and examined.
This insoluble residue, called ` nai chai ' (opium dirt), is the perquisite of the head boiling coolie, who finds a ready market for it in Canton, where it is used for adulterating, or rather in manufacturing, the moist inferior kinds of prepared opium.
The filtrate or opium solution is concentrated by evaporation at the boiling point, with occasional stirring until of a proper consistence, the time required being from three to four hours; it is then removed from the fire and stirred with great vigour till cold, the cooling being accelerated by coolies with large fans.
This supposition is rendered probable by the fact that the opiums most prized by smokers are not those containing most morphine, and that the quality is judged by the amount of soluble matter in the opium, by its tenacity or " touch," and by peculiarities of aroma - the Indian opium, especially the Patna kind, bearing much the same relation to the Chinese and Persian drug that champagne does to y in ordinaire.
Papaverine on fusion with alkalis yields a dimethoxyisoquinoline, whilst hydrohydrastinine, hydrocotarnine and the salts of cotarnine may be considered as derivatives of reduced isoquinoliaes (see Opium).
The best sort is gathered by the hand like opium; sometimes the resinous exudation of the plant is made to stick first of all to cloths, or to the leather garments of men, or even to their skin, and is then removed by scraping, and afterwards consolidated by kneading, pressing and rolling.
A dose of opium sells for 5,000 Iranian rials (60 US cents).
Heroin, which comes from an opium gum from the poppy plant, was originally developed as a "safe" alternative to morphine.
After the petals fall off, the capsule can be cut and the opium gum on the inside is scraped off of it.
The raw opium gum is dried out, then traded or sold later.
Homeopathic opium is used for those who have a history of emotional and/or physical pain while lachesis is given to those that are charismatic, extroverted or angry.
The narcotic analgesics, also termed opioids, are all derived from opium.
Ancient Sumerian and Egyptian medical texts dated as early as 4000 B.C. mention the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) as the source of a milky fluid (opium latex) that could be given to relieve coughs and insomnia as well as ease pain.
Traditional Chinese medicine recommended the opium poppy, known to Chinese physicians as ying su ke, for the treatment of asthma, severe diarrhea, and dysentery as well as chronic pain and insomnia.
Opium latex contains between 10 and 20 percent morphine, which in its purified form is a white crystalline powder with a bitter taste.
These laws became necessary when opium addiction in the nineteenth century became a widespread social problem in the developed countries.
The opium in paregoric works to control diarrhea because it slows down the rhythmic contractions of the intestines that ordinarily move food through the digestive tract.
Morphine-The principal alkaloid derived from the opium poppy for use as a pain reliever and sedative.
Narcotic-A drug derived from opium or compounds similar to opium.
Opium latex-The milky juice or sap of the opium poppy, used to produce morphine.
In severe cases, opium derivatives such as codeine can be prescribed.