You can't do something that long and not have some strong opinions on the matter.
Opinions vary widely; no one really knows.
You said opinions are free.
Don't ask for opinions; just do what you feel is best.
The difference, and sometimes complete contradiction, between men's opinions and their lives, and between one man and another, pleased him and drew from him an amused and gentle smile.
He returned to Basel charged with the task of collecting the opinions of continental reformers on the subject of Henry VIII.'s divorce, and was present at the death of Oecolampadius (Nov.
Bold as are his opinions in his works, here he was wholly unobtrusive of theories that might not have commended the assent of all present.
His political opinions were those he had inherited from his father and grandfather.
Artisans came from a great distance to view and honour the image of the popular writer whose best efforts had been dedicated to the cause and the sufferings of the workers of the world; and literary men of all opinions gathered round the grave of one of their brethren whose writings were at once the delight of every boy and the instruction of every man who read them.
Henceforward important works are produced not by schools but by particular teachers, who, however, no doubt often represent the opinions of a school.
It was an inevitable result of such an education that Mill acquired many of his father's speculative opinions, and his father's way of defending them.
Mr. Snowden made himself extremely unpopular during the World War owing to his pacifist opinions, and was one of the Socialist members of Parliament who lost their seats at the general election of 1918.
His friend Beeckman lent him a copy of Galileo's work, which he glanced through in his usual manner with other men's books; he found it good, and " failing more in the points where it follows received opinions than where it diverges from them."
The choice of governor-general of the new Commonwealth fell upon Lord Hopetoun (afterwards Lord Linlithgow), who had won golden opinions as governor of Victoria a few years before; Mr (afterwards Sir Edmund) Barton, who had taken the lead among the Australian delegates, became first prime minister; and the Commonwealth was inaugurated at the opening of 1901.
The struggle, however, with the Protestant princes of Germany not only led to continual demands of Charles for men and money from his Netherland dominions, but to his determination to prevent the spread of Protestant opinions; and a series of edicts was passed, the most severe of which (that of 1550) was carried out with extreme rigour.
By its enactments, men holding heretical opinions were condemned to the stake, women to be buried alive.
From early youth he took a prominent part in the politics of his clan, and owing to his extreme opinions with regard to the expediency of abolishing the Tokugawa administration, he was banished (1858) to the island of Oshima (Satsuma), where he attempted unsuccessfully to commit suicide.
Such opinions, combated by bishops and councils, were due to the influence of the consolamentum of the Cathars.
Opinions, no doubt, will always differ as to the wisdom or authority of the policy which brought Charles to the scaffold.
An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
CARPOCRATES, a Gnostic of the 2nd century, about whose life and opinions comparatively little is known.
This unification meant for the army the absorption of contingents from all parts of Italy and presenting serious differences in physical and moral aptitudes, political opinions and education.
By birth and breeding an Italian, highly gifted and widely cultivated, liberal in his opinions, a patron.
Milan and Piedmont were comparatively well governed; but repugnance to Austrian rule in the former case, and the contagion of French Jacobinical opinions in the latter, brought those populations into increasing hostility to the rulers.
(Turin, 1888-1897), based on a diligent stud of the original authorities and containing a large amount of informa tion; the author is a Mazzinian, which fact should be taken mt account, but he generally quotes the opinions of those who disagree with him as well.
A son of William Thistlewood, and born at Tupholme in Lincolnshire, young Thistlewood passed his early years in a desultory fashion; he became a soldier and visited France and America, imbibing republican opinions abroad and running into debt at home.
Bonnet had the courage of his opinions, and in the Palingenesie philosophique, part vi.
They report their opinions to the bishop, who passes final sentence (ib.
There seems no doubt that he lived some time at Athens, where it is said that he became so unpopular (probably owing to his supposed atheistical opinions) that his life was in danger.
The authors he most carefully studied at this period were Thucydides and Aristotle, and for their writings he formed an attachment which remained to the close of his life, and exerted a powerful influence upon his mode of thought and opinions, as well as upon his literary occupations in subsequent years.
To judge, however, from the insignificant remains of his writings, and from the opinions of Cicero and Horace, he can have had no pretension either to original genius or to artistic accomplishment.
Expert opinions have been advanced stating that gold-mining in Uruguay is capable of development into an important industry.
If we assume, as we must needs do, that the opinions which Basilides promulgates as the teaching of the "barbari" (Acta Archelai c. 55) were in fact his own, the fragments prove him to have been a decided dualist, and his teaching an interesting further development of oriental (Iranian) dualism.
This view has, however, made but little way in England and America, where the opinions of the great majority of spiritualists vary from orthodox Christianity to Unitarianism of an extreme kind.
A catena of opinions may be produced in favour of almost any theory; but formularies express the collective or average belief of any given period, and changes in them are a sure indication that there has been a general change in ideas.
30 of the finer feelings of moral evidence, which must, however, determine the action and opinions of our lives."
He wished the institutions of the present to approximate more closely to those of the past, and devised for the new French constitution a body of reforms which reflected the opinions he had formed upon the democracy at Rome and in ancient France.
Much as she liked Katie, they were miles apart in their opinions and dreams.
See The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy (Philadelphia, 1847), compiled (by Thomas Earle) "under the direction and on behalf of his children."
(e) Again, not all dogmatic teachings of the pope are under the guarantee of infallibility; neither his opinions as private instructor, nor his official allocutions, however authoritative they may be, are infallible; it is only his ex cathedra instruction which is guaranteed; this is admitted by everybody.
He remained there until September, frequenting the Society of the Friends of the Constitution, and entertaining deputies of the most advanced opinions, especially those who later became the leading Girondists.
He did not, however, in any way change either his opinions or his action.
Opinions are conflicting also as to the conditions, under which proteids are formed.
It is still very valuable as a help in ascertaining the principles of ancient music, and gives us the opinions of some of the best ancient writers on the art.
Possibly the freedom of his opinions may have put obstacles in the way of his preferment.
and to gain opinions from foreign universities in favour of the king's divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
Peace, he thought, might be made "if men would not call all opinions by the name of religion, and superstructures by the name of fundamental articles."
By the time Dean strolled by a few moments later, red-faced Fitzgerald was getting an ear full from a half dozen tourists and an elderly local, known for his unwavering opinions and surly disposition.
Why the sudden worry about parental opinions?
I gather information and present findings, not give my opinions.
His opinions were in broad contrast to the views of Dr. Andrews.
He redressed many grievances, regulated the administration of justice, encouraged commerce, reformed the coinage, but as time went on he was compelled to demand larger subsidies and to take severer measures against heretical opinions.
The state,"he said," in choosing men to serve it, takes no notice of their opinions.
They had frequent interviews, which had doubtless an important influence on Cranmer's opinions.
The performances of Los Comuneros were attended by members of the different parties; the utterances of the different characters were taken to represent the author's personal opinions, and every speech which could be brought into connexion with current politics was applauded by one half of the house and derided by the other half.
As to his honesty and kindness of heart there were never two opinions.
Gradually also he had the satisfaction of seeing the debates in the Speculative Society becoming famous enough to attract men with whom it was profitable for him to interchange opinions, among others Maurice and John Sterling..
In his Representative Government (1860) he systematized opinions already put forward in many casual articles and essays.
Thus, on the logical as well as the dogmatic side, he halts between two opinions.
The conclusions we reach may or may not modify any opinions we have formed as to the manner in which wages are determined under modern conditions.
For the time being such opinions are irrelevant to the question we are investigating, and the less they are in our minds the better.
The opinions of present-day economists appear to fluctuate between these two extremes.
Ultimately the Bonapartes had to flee from Corsica (11th of June 1793), an event which clinched Napoleon's decision to identify his fortunes with those of the French republic. His ardent democratic opinions rendered the change natural when Paoli and his compatriots declared for an alliance with England.
Opinions were divided in the emperor's circle between a Russian and an Austrian princess; but the marked coolness with which overtures for the hand of the tsar's sister were received at St Petersburg, and the skill with which Count Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, let it be known that a union with the archduchess, Marie Louise, would be welcomed at Schonbrunn, helped to decide the matter.
He often prided himself on his absolute consistency, and we have Chaptal's warrant for the statement that, after the time of the Consulate, his habit of following his own opinions and rejecting all advice, even when he had asked for it, became more and more pronounced.
Yet his followers, if not he himself, were ever making use of language in the highest degree metaphorical, and were always explaining facts in accordance with preconceived opinions.
The scheme could hardly fail to be a crude performance - a fact which nobody would know better than its author; but it must have presented much that was objectionable to the opinions then generally prevalent.
No doubt they all agreed in saying that they were prosecuting Y g Y g Y P g a search for what they called the true system of nature; but that was nearly the end of their agreement, for in what that true system consisted the opinions of scarcely any two would coincide, unless to own that it was some shadowy idea beyond the present power of mortals to reach or even comprehend.
to the Zoological Society in 1866, and published in its Proceedings for that year (pp. 5-20), since it was immediately after reprinted by the Smithsonian Institution, and with that authoriza tion has exercised a great influence on the opinions of American ornithologists.
His heterodox opinions regarding the doctrine of the Trinity drew upon his works the condemnation of the church.
In 1767 he was appointed to the charge of Mill Hill Chapel at Leeds, where he again changed his religious opinions from a loose Arianism to definite Socinianism and wrote many political tracts hostile to the attitude of the government towards the American colonies.
By the end of 1771 his scientific reputation was such that he was suggested for the post of "astronomer" to Captain Cook's second expedition to the South Seas, but his unorthodox opinions were objectionable to certain members of the board of longitude and the appointment was not ratified.
Within a week Ranke received the promise of a post at Berlin, and in less than three months was appointed supernumerary professor in the university of that city, a striking instance of the promptitude with which the Prussian government recognized scientific merit when, as in Ranke's case, it was free from dangerous political opinions.
Opinions were much divided in ancient times as to the personal character of Maecenas; but the testimony as to his administrative and diplomatic ability was unanimous.
The opinions of Berengar are to be ascertained from the works written in refutation of them by Adelmann, Lanfranc, Guitmund, &c. from the fragments of the De sacr.
r r, there are various opinions, but" world "appears to be the rendering favoured by the connexion:" God has made everything beautiful in its time, and.
While the Malays were famous almost exclusively for their piratical expeditions they naturally bore an evil reputation among Europeans, but now that we have come into closer Character, contact with them,, and have learned to understand aca them better, the old opinions concerning them have been greatly modified.
Opinions are divided as to whether he was a Culdee, a representative of a national Frankish movement, or simply the charlatan that Boniface paints him.
In after life he himself admitted the justice of their opinions.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
The hardships endured by Babeuf during early years do much to explain his later opinions.
Of late years the meetings have been, for the most part, held jointly, with equal liberty for all men and women to state their opinions, and to serve on all committees and other appointments.
Franklin's opinions we have already indicated; and Madison, Hamilton, and Patrick Henry all reprobated the principle of the system.
The cardinal, though ignorant of the details of the plot, perhaps suspected Wishart's knowledge of it, and in any case was not sorry to have an excuse for seizing one of the most eloquent supporters of the new opinions.
The councils of the conspirators were weakened by divided opinions as to the ultimate aim of their policy; and no clearly thought-out scheme of operations appears to have been arrived at when Emmet left Paris for Ireland in October 1802.
Vindiciae Gallicae was the verdict of a philosophic Liberal on the development of the French Revolution up to the spring of 1791, and though the excesses of the revolutionists compelled him a few years after to express his entire agreement with the opinions of Burke, its defence of the "rights of man" is a valuable statement of the cultured Whig's point of view at the time.
Any further inference that the birth really took place there is matter of probability on which opinions will differ.
That eminent scholars both in the synagogue and in the church should have been induced to believe in its antiquity is owing to the fact that the Zohar embodies many older opinions and doctrines, and the undoubted antiquity of some of them has served as a lever in the minds of these scholars to raise the late speculations about the En Soph, the Sephiroth, &c., to the same age.
His works, though interesting from the clearness and precision with which these peculiar opinions are presented, do not now possess much value for the student of political economy.
While the priests developed the sacrificial ritual, it was the prophets that represented the theocratic element of the national life - they devoted themselves to their task with noteworthy persistence and ability, and their efforts were crowned with success; but their virtue of singlemindedness carried with it the defect of narrowness - they despised all peoples and all countries but their own, and were intolerant of opinions, held by their fellow-citizens, that were not wholly in accordance with their own principles.
It was the basis and starting-point of his opinions that, under the empire of capital and so long as the working man was merely a receiver of wages, no improvement in his condition could be expected.
The first, if it is the work of Clement, must be a book merely of excerpts, for it contains many opinions which Clement opposed.
But he is temperate in his opinions; and the practical advices in the second and third books of the Paedagogue are remarkably sound and moderate.
In theology, as in ecclesiastical polity, Hofmann was a Lutheran of an extreme type, although the strongly marked individuality of some of his opinions laid him open to repeated accusations of heterodoxy.
He showed, on some occasions, great deference to the opinions of the magnates.
His friendship with Radicati, a man of liberal opinions, occasioned Frisi's removal by his clerical superiors to Novara, where he was compelled to do duty as a preacher.
It was originally so used of converts to Judaism, but any one who sets out to convert others to his own opinions is said to " proselytize."
There were, however, varying opinions as to the value to the Jewish body of these accessions.
Most divergent opinions have been held as to the time in which Arethas lived; the reasons for the dates given above will be found succinctly stated in the article "Aretas," by A.
His dissatisfaction with Ptolemaic doctrines was of early date; and he returned from Italy, where so-called Pythagorean opinions were then freely discussed, in strong and irrevocable possession of the heliocentric theory.
Glanvill's first work (a passage in which suggested the theme of Matthew Arnold's Scholar Gipsy), The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or Confidence in Opinions, manifested in a Discourse of the shortness and uncertainty of our Knowledge, and its Causes, with Reflexions on Peripateticism, and an Apology for Philosophy (1661), is interesting as showing one special direction in which the new method of the Cartesian philosophy might be developed.
At that epoch the same three opinions were taken up and congealed into dogmas, which may be considered characteristic of the churches adopting them.
From these sources it appears that he professed successively two opinions on the nature of the universals, having been dislodged from his first position by the criticism of Abelard, his quondam pupil.
The germs of Rationalism were unquestionably present in several of Abelard's opinions, and still more so, the traditionalists must have thought, in his general attitude towards theological questions.
In bringing together the conflicting opinions of the fathers on all the chief points of Christian dogmatics, it may be admitted that Abelard's aim was simply to make these contradictions the starting point of an inquiry which should determine in each case the true position and via media of Christian theology.
He at once became very popular with the students, but his political opinions made it impossible for the Saxon government to appoint him to a professorship. He was at that time a strong Liberal; he hoped to see Germany united into a single state with a parliamentary government, and that all the smaller states would be swept away.
He did more than any one to mould the minds * of the rising generation, and he carried them with him even in his violent attacks on all opinions and all parties which appeared in any way to be injurious to the rising power of Germany.
For, inexorable as Stephen ever was towards fanatical pagans, renegades and rebels, he was too good a statesman to inquire too closely into the private religious opinions of useful and quiet citizens.
The chief exponent of this temper was the Pesti Hirlap, Hungary's first political newspaper, founded in 1841 by Kossuth, whose articles, advocating armed reprisals if necessary, inflamed the extremists but alienated Szechenyi, who openly attacked Kossuth's opinions.
with the atheistical opinions he is commonly believed to have held.
Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909), gives a summary of various opinions and a survey of the subject from all points of view.
His son Gegnesius in 722 was taken to Constantinople, where he won over to his opinions the iconoclast emperor, Leo the Isaurian.
His opinions were received with marked respect by his brother prelates, and he acted as an assessor to the archbishop in the trial of the bishop of Lincoln.
As the reign of Louis Philippe went on, Lamartine, who had previously been a liberal royalist, something after the fashion of Chateaubriand, became more and more democratic in his opinions.
- Contemporary with the school of medical humanists, but little influenced by them, lived in Germany a man of strange genius, of whose character and importance the most opposite opinions have been expressed.
The abdomen is still "full of surprises"; and he who has most experience of this deceptive region will have least confidence in expressing positive opinions in particular cases of disease without operative investigation.
His opinions and his proposals for action were alike violent.
He published The Political and Financial Opinions of Peter Cooper, with an Autobiography of his Early Life (1877), and Ideas for a Science of Good Government, in Addresses, Letters and Articles on a Strictly National Currency, Tariff and Civil Service (1883).
There remained, nevertheless, a tendency on the part of the clergy who used incense, or desired to do so, to revert to the position they occupied before the Lambeth hearing - that is, to insist on the ceremonial use of incense as a part of the Catholic practice of the Church of England which it is the duty of the clergy to maintain, notwithstanding the decisions of ecclesiastical judges or the opinions or archbishops to the contrary.
This MS. gives us information which was unknown before, but upsets the received opinions as to the early governing position of the aldermen.
In December 1821 he returned to sit in the House of Peers, when he continued to maintain his Liberal opinions.
After the death of Alcuin he became the foremost councillor to the king on theological matters: it was he who made, on Charlemagne's request, a collection of the opinions of the fathers on the much-disputed point of the procession of the Holy Ghost.
Opinions differ as to the true import of these glosses; some scholars hold that the Salic Law was originally written in the Frankish vernacular, and that these words are remnants of the ancient text, while others regard them as legal formulae such as would be used either by a plaintiff in introducing a suit, or by the judge to denote the exact composition to be pronounced.
For the promulgation of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the doctrines of the standards of the national church of Scotland, he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where in the course of the investigations which followed he affirmed still more explicitly his belief that "every national church established by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions upon the subject of church government which amounted to a repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of the puritan type of Independency.
For these opinions he was in 1728 suspended from the discharge of ministerial functions, and finally deposed in 1730.
He published in 1819-1821 a two-volume Essai sur la vie et les opinions de M.
To this end he examined such immediate vital products as blood, bile and urine; he analysed the juices of flesh, establishing the composition of creatin and investigating its decomposition products, creatinin and sarcosin; he classified the various articles of food in accordance with the special function performed by each in the animal economy, and expounded the philosophy of cooking; and in opposition to many of the medical opinions of his time taught that the heat of the body is the result of the processes of combustion and oxidation performed within the organism.
Opinions differ as to the derivation of the name of the island.
These opinions must overrule the view of some Christian scholars that the writer often blunders in Jewish matters, the fact being that his knowledge is derived from the Judaism of Alexandria' rather than Palestine.
For thirty years he laboured with ever-increasing success, due not to any attractions of manner or to the enunciation of novel or bizarre opinions, but to the soundness of his investigations, the impartiality of his judgments, and the clearness of his method.
An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of the genuineness and authenticity of the gospel of St John is among the ablest that have been written; and although on some minor points his views did not altogether coincide with those of the traditional school, his critical labours on the New Testament must nevertheless be regarded as among the most important contributions to the maintenance of orthodox opinions.
The energy and imprudence of Eutyches in asserting his opinions led to his being accused of heresy by Domnus of Antioch and Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, at a synod presided over by Flavian at Constantinople in 448.
GERSHOM CARMICHAEL (c. 1672-1729), Scottish philosopher, was born probably in London, the son of a Presbyterian minister who had been banished by the Scottish privy council for his religious opinions.
The great undertaking was supported by liberal subscriptions, and Walton's political opinions did not deprive him of the help of the Commonwealth; the paper used was freed from duty, and the interest of Cromwell in the work was acknowledged in the original preface, part of which was afterwards cancelled to make way for more loyal expressions towards that restored monarchy under which Oriental studies in England immediately began to languish.
About the beginning of the 17th century he became a preacher among a sect called the "Seekers," and appears to have held unorthodox opinions about the divinity of Jesus Christ.
Legate was the last person burned in London for his religious opinions, and Edward Wightman, who was burned at Lichfield in April 1612, was the last to suffer in this way in England.
Concerning the virtues of truth and probity, extremely conflicting opinions have been expressed.
The Contemporary Review (1866), long edited by Sir Percy Bunting, and the Nineteenth Century (1877), founded and edited by Sir James Knowles, and renamed Nineteenth Century and After in 1900, are similar in character, consisting of signed articles by men of mark of all opinions upon questions of the day.
Atterbom and some fellow-students founded about 1810 a society for the deliverance of the country from French pedantry, which with this end carried on a periodical entitled Phosphoros (1810-1813), to propagate the opinions of Schlegel and Schelling.
He wrote Addresses on the Kingdom of God (1827), History of the Alton Riots (1837), Statement of Anti-Slavery Principles (1837), Baptism, its Import and Modes (1850), The Conflict of Ages (1853), The Papal Conspiracy Exposed (1855), The Concord of Ages (1860), and History of Opinions on the Scriptural Doctrine of Future Retribution(1 878).
The enlargement of the horizon of knowledge by the advance of science, the recognition of the only relative validity of human opinions and beliefs as determined by and adapted to each stage of human development, which is due to the growing historical sense, the alteration of view regarding the nature of inspiration, and the purpose of the Holy Scriptures, the revolt against all ecclesiastical authority, and the acceptance of reason and conscience as alone authoritative, the growth of the spirit of Christian charity, the clamorous demand of the social problem for immediate attention, all combine in making the Christian churches less anxious about the danger, and less zealous in the discovery and condemnation of heresy.
As long as the Christian Church was itself persecuted by the pagan empire, it advocated freedom of conscience, and insisted that religion could be promoted only by instruction and persuasion (Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Lactantius); but almost immediately after Christianity was adopted as the religion of the Roman empire the persecution of men for religious opinions began.
in questions of copyright) they have refused protection to persons promulgating irreligious or blasphemous opinions.
Apparently, if a proper case could be made out, an ecclesiastical court might still sentence a layman to excommunication for heresy, but by no other means could his opinions be brought under censure.
The right of every layman to the offices of the church is established by statute without reference to opinions, and it is not possible to say what opinions, if any, would operate to disqualify him.
In some of the cases the question has been raised how far the doctrine of the church could be ascertained by reference to the opinions generally expressed by divines belonging to its communion.
Such opinions, it would seem, might be taken into account as showing the extent of liberty which had been in practice, claimed and exercised on the interpretation of the articles, but would certainly not be allowed to increase their stringency.
Hale, as quoted by Phillimore (Ecc. Law), says that before the time of Richard II., that is, before any acts of Parliament were made about heretics, it is without question that in a convocation of the clergy or provincial synod" they might and frequently did here in England proceed to the sentencing of heretics."But later writers, while adhering to the statement that Convocation might declare opinions to be heretical, doubted whether it could proceed to punish the offender, even when he was a clerk in orders.
The supposed right of Convocation to stamp heretical opinions with its disapproval was exercised on a somewhat memorable occasion.
In spite of strong personal opinions to the contrary, he accepted the Triennial Act (1694), the vote reducing the army to io,000 men (1697), the vote disbanding his favourite Dutch Guards (1699) and even (November 1699) a bill re- scinding the grants of forfeited Irish estates, which he had made to his favourites.
In the Satires we find realistic pictures of social life, and the conduct and opinions of the world submitted to the standard of good feeling and common sense.
In all these biographies there is internal evidence of confusion; many of the incidents related are elsewhere told of other persons, and certain of them are quite irreconcilable with his character, so far as it can be judged of from his writings and from the opinions expressed of him by his contemporaries; we may safely reject, for instance, the legends that he set fire to the library of the Temple of Health at Cnidos, in order to destroy the evidence of plagiarism, and that he refused to visit Persia at the request of Artaxerxes Longimanus, during a pestilential epidemic, on the ground that he would in so doing be assisting an enemy.
The treatises have been classified according to (I) the direct evidence of ancient writers, (2) peculiarities of style and method, and (3) the presence of anachronisms and of opinions opposed to the general Hippocratic teaching - greatest weight being attached to the opinions of Erotian and Galen.
At this time he was much perplexed as to his religious opinions, and he ultimately found relief in a decision to take a further university course and to seek Anglican orders.
In that year he published Theological Essays, wherein were stated opinions which savoured to the principal, Dr R.
of all opinions seemed to trust even if their faith in other religious men and all religious systems had faded, and he had a marvellous power of attracting the zealot and the outcast.
generally, as media through, which to make known their opinions, there being a flavour of mysticism or occultism promotive of inquiry and suggestive of hidden meanings discernible or discoverable only by adepts.
Here Gfrdrer had manifested opinions unfavourable to Protestantism, which, however, were not openly avowed until fully developed in his church history (Allgemeine Kirchengeschichte bis Beginn des 14ten Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, 1841-1846).
The definiteness and persistence of this creed, which of course is the strength also of Mahommedanism, presents a contrast to the fluid character of the statements in the Vedas, and to the chaos of conflicting opinions of philosophers among the Greeks and Romans.
Amid the chaos of conflicting opinions as to the original teaching of Jesus, the Gospel within the Gospel, the central question " What think ye of Christ ?
Having traced " the opinions of the learned moderns " from Gerard Vossius, A.D.
The council sat at intervals from 1545-1563, but there was a marked divergence between the opinions advocated by prominent members of the council and its final decrees.
Being shy and constantly taunted with the opinions and fate of his grandfather, he appears to have been rendered miserable by his schoolfellows, and to have left Winchester in 1686 for a course of foreign travel.
He was brought thus into contact with those artistic and classical associations which exercised so marked an influence on his character and opinions.
In 1711 appeared the Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, in three volumes, also without any name or initials on the title-page, and without even the name of a printer.
Lyell again was in the forefront of the progressive movement, and his work on The Antiquity of Man, published in 1863, gave currency for the first time to the new opinions.
The evidence upon which these opinions were based had been gathered by such anthropologists as Schmerling, Boucher de Perthes and others, and it had to do chiefly with the finding of implements of human construction associated with the remains of extinct animals in the beds of caves, and with the recovery of similar antiquities from alluvial deposits the great age of which was demonstrated by their depth.
There are various opinions respecting the year of the foundation of Rome.
But though his work is thus, like that of many historians, coloured by his opinions, this was not the outcome of a conscious purpose, and he was scrupulously conscientious in collecting and weighing his materials.
15 are so delicately balanced, that inquirers may change their views, and modify or reverse their opinions, on the appearance of each fresh document that is brought to light; or even upon a new consideration of existing evidence.
His project of a constitution for Bolivia was presented to the congress of that state on the 25th of May 1826, accompanied with an address, in which he embodied his opinions respecting the form of government which he conceived most expedient for the newly established republics.
These embassies were the school in which Machiavelli formed his political opinions, and gathered views regarding the state of Europe and the relative strength of nations.
Calvin's Defensio orthodoxae fidei (1554) (in French, Declaration pour maintenir, &c., 1 554), is the source of prevalent misconceptions as to Servetus's opinions, and attitude on his trial.
A reaction against Lollardy, however, had already begun in the days of Henry IV., and both he and his son felt obliged to discountenance opinions which were believed to be politically and theologically dangerous.
His brother, Giovanni Durando (1804-1869), was in early life driven into exile on account of his Liberal opinions.
With Dean Church he may be said to have restored the waning influence of the Tractarian school, and he succeeded in popularizing the opinions which, in the hands of Pusey and Keble, had appealed to thinkers and scholars.
His philosophical opinions grew out of a diligent study of Descartes and Malebranche.
letters and memoranda dictated by them, while at the same time secretly warning her friends not to accept these letters as her own opinions, but to realize that she was dependent on the Constitutionals.'
He acquired a considerable reputation, but in 1843 his political opinions brought him under the suspicion of the police and caused his expulsion from the papal states.
This we may regard as one extreme of the various opinions about the constitution of bodies.
He tried to find some middle ground of reconciliation, and kept up his quiet work of informing England as to the opinions and conditions of the colonies, and of moderating the attitude of the colonies toward the home government; so that, as he said, he was accused in America of being too much an Englishman, and in England of being too much an American.
Though he was often on strained terms with Mirabeau, yet his views generally coincided with those of that statesman, who is said on his death-bed (2nd of April 1791) to have communicated to him his opinions on domestic and international affairs, especially advising a close understanding with England.
His most important scientific work is his Zoonomia (1794-1796), which contains a system of pathology, and a treatise on generation, in which he, in the words of his famous grandson, Charles Robert Darwin, "anticipated the views and erroneous grounds of opinions of Lamarck."
The diet refused to accede to the pope's demand that the edict of Worms should be enforced, and recommended that a Christian council should be summoned in January, to include not only ecclesiastics but laymen, who should be permitted freely to express their opinions.
The Protestants were requested to submit a statement of their opinions, and on June 25th the " Augsburg Confession " was read to the diet.
The king's ardent desire that diversities of minds and opinions should be done away with and unity be " charitably established " was further promoted by publishing in 1543 A Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christian Man, set forth by the King's Majesty of England, in which the tenets of medieval theology, except for denial of the supremacy of the bishop of Rome and the unmistakable assertion of the supremacy of the king, were once more restated.
" We have, it is true, ventured to prepare a catechism, but we force it on no one; we express our opinions, but we coerce no one.
In the intervening period the assessed valuation of realty in Boston increased more than 100%, while that of personalty slightly diminished (the corresponding figures for the entire United States from 1860 to 1890 being 172% and 12%), yet the most competent business and expert opinions regarded the true value of personalty as at least equal to and most likely twice as great as that of realty.
The government was frankly theocratic. Said Winthrop (1637): " We see not that any should have authority to set up any other exercises besides what authority bath already set up "; and a synod at Cambridge in 1637 catalogued eighty-two " opinions, some blasphemous, others erroneous and all unsafe," besides nine " unwholesome expressions," all of which were consigned " to the devil of hell from whence they came."
Massachusetts had excluded the English Book of Common Prayer, she had restricted the franchise, laid the death penalty, on religious opinions, and passed various other laws repugnant to the Crown, notably to Charles II.
His speech and tone, however, were moderate on these exciting subjects, and he claimed the right to stand free of pledges, and to adjust his opinions and his course by the development of circumstances.
The opinions of scholars, and the fantasies of poets, became an enthusiastic belief in the mind of Columbus.
These are individual opinions, subject to revision by that court of appeals, the institutional judgment.
symbolizing, "a vain crowd of contrary and warring opinions"; and again9 as "vain people"; both phrases being based on a mistaken etymology of the name Balaam.
In 655, after repeated examinations, in which he maintained his theological opinions with memorable constancy, he was banished to Byzia in Thrace, and afterwards to Perberis.
decree), and throughout its history the word has generally implied a decision, or body of decisions or opinions, officially adopted and regarded by those who make it as possessing authority.
But can a historian separate the opinions which rose to authority in the church from the other opinions which succumbed?
Diihring's opinions changed considerably after his first appearance as a writer.
In this capacity he was conspicuous for fearless independence of thought and action in his opinion in the test oath case, and in his dissenting opinions in the legal tender, conscription and "slaughter house" cases, which displayed unusual legal learning, and gave powerful expression to his strict constructionist theory of the implied powers of the Federal constitution.
Ferrar's marriage accounts for the loss of his bishopric in March 1554, and his opinions for his further punishment.
It is probable that Herodotus shared his relative's political opinions, and either was exiled from Halicarnassus or quitted it voluntarily at the time of his execution.
Thomas Turton, the regius professor of divinity (afterwards dean of Westminster and bishop of Ely), had written a pamphlet objecting to the admission, on the ground of the apprehended unsettlement of the religious opinions of young churchmen.
His peculiar theological opinions were set aside in Switzerland for the somewhat profounder views of Calvin.
Carneades left no written works; his opinions seem to have been systematized by Clitomachus.
Hence there is confusion on every side; it is difficult to distinguish between various sects and to determine their exact opinions or the circumstances under which they came into being.
The strongholds of these heretical opinions were the great towns, the centres of civilization, because there the growing sentiment of municipal independence, and the rise of a burgher class through commerce, created a spirit of criticism which was dissatisfied with the worldly lives of the clergy and their undue influence in affairs.
The result was that in the beginning of the 13th century there was a tendency to class all bodies of heretics together: partly their opinions had coalesced; partly they were assumed to be identical.
The teachers of these new opinions were men of high character and holy lives, who in spite of persecution wandered from place to place, and made many converts from those who were dissatisfied at the want of clerical discipline which followed upon the struggle for temporal supremacy into which the reforming projects of Gregory VII.
Their other opinions were forced upon them by their conflict with the authority of the Church.
These opinions were subversive of the system of the medieval church, and were naturally viewed with great disfavour by its officials; but it cannot fairly be said that they have much in common with the opinions of the Reformers of the 16th century.
The earliest known document proceeding from the Waldensians is an account of a conference held at Bergamo in 1218 between the Ultramontane and the Lombard divisions, in which the Lombards showed a greater opposition to the recognized priesthood than did their northern brethren.2 As these opinions became more pronounced persecution became more severe, and the breach between the Waldenses and the church widened.
Its function is to deliberate on subjects of common concern to the entire denomination, and to publish such opinions and counsels as a majority may see fit to send forth to the churches.
The Congregational churches, as distinct from the churches retaining the same polity, but separated by the adoption of Unitarian opinions, have in times past professed to be Calvinists of stricter or more moderate types.
But as early as 1865, Arminians were welcomed to Congregational fellowship. In the last few decades, with the spread in the community of innovations in doctrinal and critical opinions, a wider diversity of belief has come to prevail, so that " Evangelical," in the popular sense of the term, rather than " Calvinistic," is the epithet more suit able to American Congregational preachers and churches.
In two pamphlets, by an analysis of the teaching of the Socialists and a survey of Clerical policy during the 19th century, he explained and justified his opinions.
Noske, notwithstanding the genuineness of his Republican and Social Democratic opinions, enjoyed con siderable popularity in the new army and with the reactionary friends of law and order, as a man of decided character, great energy and resourcefulness in times of crisis.
In 1614, at the instance of the Arminian party, an edict was passed by the states-general, in which toleration of the opinions of both parties was declared and further controversy forbidden; but this act only served, by rousing the jealousy of the Calvinists, to fan the controversial flame into greater fury.
28 (great diversity of opinions as to the claims of Jesus); (b) the opposition to Him, 6 - iii.
I looked the ground over, and made up my mind that there were several other excellent people there, with honest opinions of the right, even though they differed from me.
Locke's retirement in 1700 removed any chance of the board of ' trade advocating more enlightened opinions on commercial subjects than those generally held.
The many floating and fragmentary notes of various dates that have found a place in the account of his reign in the book of Kings (q.v.) show how much Hebrew tradition was occupied with the monarch under whom the throne of Israel reached its highest glory; and that time only magnified in popular imagination the proportions of so striking a figure appears from the opinions entertained of him in subsequent writings.
In 1789 he was elected deputy to the states-general, and there _ became known for his advanced opinions.
She also protested to the prime minister (Lord John Russell) in 1848, 1849 and 1850, against various instances in which Palmerston had expressed his own personal opinions in matters of foreign affairs, without his despatches being properly approved either by herself or by the cabinet.
During his life his personal peculiarities and the fact that his opinions were nearly as obnoxious to the oneparty as to the other worked against him, but it was not so after his death.
Alexander II., personally averse from war, was not insensible to the patriotic enthusiasm, and halted between two opinions.
Privately he professed himself the representative of the Napoleonic tradition in its democratic aspect, and associated mainly with men of advanced political opinions.
His part as imperial pretender was unfortunate and inglorious: his democratic opinions were unacceptable to the imperial party, and before his death he was virtually deposed in favour of his son Prince Napoleon Victor, who, supported by Paul de Cassagnac and others, openly declared himself a candidate for the throne in 1884.
In any case it is to be remembered that Sidney is not charged with receiving money for advocating opinions which he did not enthusiastically hold.
By that time his religious opinions had begun to change, he grew dissatisfied with the views of the High Church party, and came under the influence of Carlyle's teaching.
was a useful protest against the idea that the king was a mere:sanguinary profligate, but his representation of him as the self-denying minister of his people's will is erroneous, and is founded on the false theory that the preambles of the acts of Henry's parliaments represented the opinions of the educated laymen of England.
At the least he wrote a great history, one which can never be disregarded by future writers on his period, be their opinions what they may; which attracts and delights a multitude of readers, and is a splendid example of literary form and grace in historical composition.
In spite of one or two stirring scenes it is a tedious book, and its personages are little more than machines for the enunciation of the author's opinions and sentiments.
In later life he ceased to hold the theological opinions of his youth, but remained a devout churchman.
A man who is always launching opinions must expect to be retorted on.
Originally of Liberal tendencies, he developed from 1837 onwards ultramontane opinions, founded in 1852 the Catholic group which in 1861 took the name of the Centre party (Centrum) and became one of its most conspicuous orators.
The Girondists were, indeed, rather a group of individuals holding certain opinions and principles in common than an organized political party, and the name was at first somewhat loosely applied to them owing to the fact that the most brilliant exponents of their point of view were deputies from the Gironde.
1896); also Helen Maria Williams, State of Manners and Opinions in the French Republic towards the close of the 18th Century (2 vols., London, 1801).
Whenever opinions did happen to be expressed which could be construed as criticism of Austria or Germany the offenders were speedily punished, and it was not long before the political leaders of the Czechs and Slovaks found themselves in confinement, some of them under sentence of death, while the Czech and Slovak press was subjected to a rigorous censorship and many of its organs prohibited from appearing.
His first work, Essays on the Formation and Publication of Opinions, published anonymously in 1821 (2nd ed., 1826; 3rd ed., 1837), attracted more attention than any of his other writings.
Between these two were Questions in Political Economy, Politics, Morals, &c. (1823), and a Critical Dissertation on the Nature, Measure, and Causes of Value (1825), directed against the opinions of Ricardo and his school.
(3) With regard to general and abstract ideas and general propositions, his opinions are those of the empirical school, but his analysis frequently puts the matter in a new light.
More favourable opinions of the work were expressed by others, but it is generally agreed that the author's scholarship is defective and that his views are far too conservative.
The extreme divergence in doctrinal position is fostered by the fact that the theology taught in the universities is in a great measure divorced from the practical religious life of the people, and the theological opinions uttered in the theological literature of the country cannot be held to express the thoughts of the members of the churches.
It is men's opinions or unwarranted judgments about things, say the sceptics, which betray them into desire, and painful effort and disappointment.
A hundred years afterwards a certain Katharina Malcher, on account of her Utraquist opinions, was condemned by Gamrat, the bishop of Cracow, to be burnt, which sentence was accordingly carried out in the ragmarket at Cracow.
In April 1622 Laud, by the king's orders, took part in a controversy with Percy, a Jesuit, known as Fisher, the aim of which was to prevent the conversion of the countess of Buckingham, the favourite's mother, to Romanism, and his opinions expressed on that occasion show considerable breadth and comprehension.
Various modern opinions of Laud's career can be studied in T.
The philosophical works, occupying the first six and the last of the twenty-one volumes, are generally divided according to the Aristotelian scheme of the sciences, and consist of interpretations and condensations of Aristotle's relative works, with supplementary discussions depending on the questions then agitated, and occasionally divergences from the opinions of the master.
The eccentricity which had characterized his opinions from the beginning of his career gradually became more marked until they developed into insanity.
In his theology he laid stress on the Gospel and on no sectarian opinions - he was, however, a pre-millenarianite - and he worked with men as much more "advanced" than himself as Henry Drummond, whom he eagerly defended against orthodox attack, and George Adam Smith.
In spite of his radical opinions he made a furious attack on the admiralty for the new prize money regulations which diminished the shares of the captains to the advantage of the men.
dicta of the Reformers challenging traditional opinions on the origin and character of the Old Testament; in the 17th century, among certain isolated scholars, elementary critical surveys of the whole field, which exercised, however, no C r extensive influence.
Opinions differ as to the correctness of the results reached by WH, but there is scarcely room for doubt that as an example of method their work is quite unrivalled at present and is the necessary starting-point for all modern investigations.
Exactly what modifications were first made in the system under which each month began by simple observation of the new moon we do not know, and opinions are not agreed as to the historical value of the rabbinical traditions; but probably the first step in the direction of astronomical precision would be the rule that no month could consist of less than twenty-nine or more than thirty days - to which appears to have been added, but at what date is uncertain, the further rule that Adar, the month preceding Nisan, was always to be limited to twentynine.
For that year the budget was already settled, and it was introduced by Mr Asquith himself, the ex-chancellor; but Mr Lloyd George earned golden opinions, both at the Treasury and in parliament, by his industry and his handling of the Finance Bill, especially important for its inclusion of Old Age Pensions, in the later stages.
1810, 8vo; Opinions of Eminent Lawyers on various points of English Jurisprudence, chiefly concerning the Colonies, Fisheries, and Commerce of Great Britain, Lond.
Unfortunately the chapters on the Roman period are entirely marred by the author's having accepted as genuine Bertram's forgery De Situ Britanniae; but otherwise his opinions on controverted topics are worthy of much respect, being founded on a laborious investigation of all the original authorities that were accessible to him.
Her first business was to plant herself firmly on her own territory, to make good her position and clear away old and objectionable opinions.
Success crowned these first efforts; and the Society began to win golden opinions.
A short experience convinced him that this was not for him the ideal Christian life ("amisi monachum, inveni Christianum"), and in February 1522 he made his way to Ebernburg, near Creuznach, where he acted as chaplain to the little group of men holding the new opinions who had settled there under the leadership of Franz von Sickingen.
His strong personal will and inflexible opinions had much to do with the resurrection of France; but the very same facts made it inevitable that he should excite violent opposition.
Walsingham, however, was an accomplished diplomatist, and he reserved these truculent opinions for the ears of his own government, incurring frequent rebukes from Elizabeth.
Here also he wrote a long poem against commerce, which he produced as an exposition of his opinions when, on his return to England, his father announced his intention of placing him in a commercial house at Bordeaux.
He was educated at Oxford, where he adopted Lollard opinions, and had graduated as a master of arts before the 6th of October 1406, when he was concerned in the irregular proceedings through which a letter declaring the sympathy of the university was addressed to the Bohemian reformers.
But such a tacit sanction on the part of the compilers of the second Prayer-Book is in the highest degree improbable, in view of their known opinions on the subject; and an examination of contemporary writings hardly justifies the contention that the two words are so carefully used as the argument would demand.
He received a liberal education, and, when he left school, became an officer in the artillery; but his sympathy with the peasants, among whom he had lived during his boyhood in the country, developed in him at first democratic and, later, revolutionary opinions.
He was chiefly identified with the Socialists in England and the Social Democratic parties on the Continent; but he was regarded by men of all opinions as an agitator whose motives had always been pure and disinterested.
Readers of Scott's Pirate will remember the frank contempt which Magnus Troil expressed for the Scots, and his opinions probably accurately reflected the general Norse feeling on the subject.
For his facts a textual critic may, and often must, be beholden to others: but never for his opinions.
Indeed, throughout his writings he shows a constant wish to avail himself of what is true in the opinions of others, whether they are philosophers, or poets or ordinary people expressing their thoughts in sayings and proverbs.
With one of his pupils in particular, Theophrastus, who was born about 370 and therefore was some fifteen years younger than himself, he had a long and intimate connexion; and the work of the pupil bears so close a resemblance to that of his master, that, even when he questions Aristotle's opinions (as he often does), he seems to be writing in an Aristotelian atmosphere; while he shows the same acuteness in raising difficulties, and has caught something of the same encyclopaedic genius.
II, 77 a 31-33); in that for appropriate principles it substitutes the probabilities of authority era g vbo a) which are the opinions of all, or of the majority, or of the wise (Top. i.
He is at the same time the only Greek philosopher who clearly discriminated discovery and disputation, science and dialectic, the knowledge of a definite subject from its appropriate principles and the discussion of anything whatever from opinions and authority.
But the general discussion of opinions, signified by both words, is only a subordinate part of Aristotle's profound investigation of the whole process of reasoning.
Besides, all the extant works, though apparently didactic, are full of dialectical matter in the way of opinions (AEyo,cisva), difficulties and doubts (hiropi),uara, europiac), solutions (XimrELs), and of dialectical style in the way of conversational expressions.
It is probable also that the " extraneous discourses " (Oi i wTEpLKoi Aoyoc) sometimes mentioned in them here mean dialectical discussions of a subject from opinions extraneous to its nature, as opposed to scientific deduction from its appropriate principles.
In 1530 he was denounced to the Inquisition as limiting the papal power and leaning to opinions of Erasmus, but the process failed; he was made professor of philosophy and (1533-1539) regent in theology.
1 The events of the next few months considerably modified his opinions in this matter.
Marie du Mesnil, Memoire sur le prince Le Brun, duc de Plaisance (Paris, 1828); Opinions, rapports et choix d'ecrits politiques de C. F.
His candour, enthusiasm and open tolerance of the opinions of others made him many warm friends and many fierce enemies.
But these members were so far from representing the opinions of the people that popular resentment compelled George to dismiss his advisers in 1862.
The course of his opinions and his practice is fully explained in successive letters in Fors.
Many volumes about his career and opinions were issued in his lifetime both at home and abroad.
He published two books on Freemasonry, Die drei altesten Kunsturkunden der Freimaurerbriiderschaft and Hohere Vergeistigung der echt iiberlieferten Grundsymbole der Freimaurerei, but his opinions drew upon him the opposition of the Masons.
an honest man, a kind friend, an honourable master, sincere in his opinions, and inclined to do everything that is right.
He had specially prepared himself, as he thought, for "teaching imaginative men, and political men, and legal men, and scientific men who bear the world in hand"; and he did not attempt to win their attention to abstract and worn-out theological arguments, but discussed the opinions, the poetry, the politics, the manners and customs of the time, and this not with philosophical comprehensiveness, not in terms of warm eulogy or measured blame, but of severe satire varied by fierce denunciation, and with a specific minuteness which was concerned primarily with individuals.
Probably the religious opinions of Irving, originally in some respects more catholic and truer to human nature than generally prevailed in ecclesiastical circles, had gained breadth and comprehensiveness from his intercourse with Coleridge, but gradually his chief interest in Coleridge's philosophy centred round that which was mystical and obscure, and to it in all likelihood may be traced his initiation into the doctrine of millenarianism.
Erasmus only ventures to say in his friend's defence " that while he was chancellor no man was put to death for these pestilent opinions, while so many suffered death in France and the Low Countries."
Opinions differ upon the question whether the apostles were chosen as representatives of the ecclesia to be founded (Hort) or as men fitted to become its duly authorized teachers and leaders from the beginning (Stone).
In a way they returned to the wider opinions of Aristotle, which had come down to Descartes and Locke, that reason in going beyond sense knows more things than phenomena; yet they would not hear of external bodies, or of bodies at all.
Now, Mach applies these preconceived opinions to " mechanics in its development," with the result that, though he shows much skill in mathematical mechanics, he misrepresents its development precisely at the critical point of the discovery of Newton's third law of motion.
With the conviction that the only fair way of describing metaphysics has been to avoid putting forward one system, and even to pay most attention to the dominant idealism, we have nevertheless been driven occasionally to test opinions by this independent metaphysical method.
It is evident that a philosophy containing so many questionable opinions is not fit to be made into an authoritative orthodoxy in metaphysics.
Now these, on the whole, are the very opinions of Aquinas, except so far as they were clearly inconsistent with the Christian faith.
His dialectical dexterity in evading the necessity of expressing his fiscal opinions further than he had already done became a daily subject for contemptuous criticism in the Liberal press; but he insisted that in any case no definite action could be taken till the next parliament; and while he declined to go the "whole hog" - as the phrase went - with Mr Chamberlain, he did nothing to discourage Mr Chamberlain's campaign.
Indeed, Price's opinions would seem to have been rather Arian than Socinian.
As to the source from which it was derived opinions still differ, some thinking that it was borrowed from the Romans a century or two before this time, while others place its origin much farther back and trace it to one of the ancient Greek alphabets.
Of the value of the logical writings of Ammonius there are various opinions.
Perforce thou must consult before everything the general interest of Christendom, and must consider it an obligation of thine office to respect the opinions of the highest dignitaries of the court of Rome."
The efforts of Leo to promote a crusade, which fall mainly in the years 1517 and 1518, deserve all recognition, but very various opinions have been held as to the attitude of the pope towards the Imperial election consequent on the death of Maximilian I.
So keen was his opposition to the new learning that his oration on the occasion of taking his degree of bachelor of divinity was devoted to an attack on the opinions of Melanchthon.
Latimer was prohibited from preaching in the university or in any pulpits of the diocese, and on his occupying the pulpit of the Augustinian monastery, which enjoyed immunity from episcopal control, he was summoned to answer for his opinions before Wolsey, who, however, was so sensible of the value of such discourses that he gave him special licence to preach throughout England.
At this time Protestant opinions were being disseminated in England chiefly by the surreptitious circulation of the works of Wycliffe, and especially of his translations of the New Testament.
The new leaven had begun to communicate its subtle influence to the universities, but was working chiefly in secret and even to a great extent unconsciously to those affected by it, for many were in profound ignorance of the ultimate tendency of their own opinions.
At last a sermon he was persuaded to preach in London exasperated John Stokesley, bishop of the diocese, and seemed to furnish that fervent persecutor with an opportunity to overthrow the most dangerous champion of the new opinions.
The duke's share in the coalition against France made his service incompatible with Constant's political opinions, which were already definitely republican, and, on the dissolution of his marriage in 1794, he resigned his post.
317), and they make a single report to the court, even if they express different opinions: in that case the grounds only of the different opinions are to be stated, and not the personal opinion of each of the experts (art.
From this time until the eve of the Civil War he held no public office, but his opinions on political questions continued to be sought, and he was much in demand as a speaker on public occasions.
Among these last may be noted his argument against the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, his views as to the manner in which the five books were composed, his opinions (singularly free for the time in which he lived) on the subject of inspiration in general, and particularly as to the inspiration of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles.
But she could order the use of the knout and of mutilation as freely as the most barbarous of her predecessors when she thought the authority of the state was at stake, and she did employ them readily to suppress all opinions of a heterodox kind, whether in matters of religion or of politics, after the beginning of the French Revolution.
Neumann (Berlin, 1884); Opinions of Grotius, by D.
He held several conferences on the subject with the clergy of his diocese; and in the hope of influencing candid minds by means of the opinions of unbiassed foreigners,.
Jurieu defended the doctrines of Protestantism with great ability against the attacks of Antoine Arnauld, Pierre Nicole and Bossuet, but was equally ready to enter into dispute with his fellow Protestant divines (with Louis Du Moulin and Claude Payon, for instance) when their opinions differed from his own even on minor matters.
BIGOT, one obstinately and intolerantly holding particular religious opinions, who refuses to listen to reason and is ready to force others to agree with him; hence also applied to one who holds similar views on any subject.
In the form of their solemn inauguration too, as we have noticed, the spurs together with the sword were always employed as the leading and most characteristic ensigns of knighthood.5 With regard to knights banneret, various opinions have been entertained as to both the nature of their dignity and the qualifications they were required to possess for receiving it at different periods and in different countries.
In 1843 he was appointed to a professorship in the Ecole Evangelique at Geneva, but the development of his opinions in favour of the Liberal movement in Protestant theology led to his resigning the post six years later.
Numbers have enlisted in the Burma police, but there are various opinions as to their value.
While it is true that very diverse opinions are held concerning missions, it is indisputable that the most favourable testimonies come from those who have really taken the most pains to examine and understand their work.
Darby induced many of the inhabitants of Plymouth; England, to associate themselves with him for the promulgation of his opinions.
His opinions also found their way into France, Germany, German Switzerland, and Italy; but French Switzerland has always remained the stronghold of Plymouthism on the Continent, and for his followers there Darby wrote two of his most important tracts, Le Ministere considere dans sa nature and De la Presence et de l'action du S.
As regards evergreens opinions are divided, some preferring August and September, others April or May.
Lessing's theological opinions exposed him to much petty persecution, and he was in almost constant straits for money.
Opinions differ as to whether the Chytridineae are degraded or primitive forms, and the group still needs critical revision.
With regard to the nature of the soul he merely quotes opinions.
Soon after he was dismissed from all his offices on the following charges, - the concealment, as attorney-general, of a bond belonging to the king, a charge which could not be proved, illegal interference with the court of chancery and disrespect to the king in the case of commendams. He was also ordered by the council to revise his book of reports, which was said to contain many extravagant opinions (June 1616).
None of these has been critically edited or translated; and there is much uncertainty as to the exact date of his career, and as to his opinions.
The latter piece-obtained a longer lease of life than its intrinsic literary merits warranted, on account of the popularity of the political opinions freely expressed in it - so freely expressed, indeed, that the displeasure of the king was incurred, and Delavigne lost his post.
Through Whitgift's vigilance the printers of the tracts were, however, discovered and punished; and in order more effectually to check the publication of such opinions he got a law passed in 1593 making Puritanism an offence against the statute law.
Occasionally the author attacks prevalent religious opinions, e.g.
With Wycliffe's religious opinions he had no sympathy.
The defeat of Grattan's mild proposals helped to promote more extreme opinions, which, under French revolutionary influence, were now becoming heard in Ireland.
Although originally a follower of Wesley, he in 1758 adopted extreme Calvinist opinions.
Hitherto the widest differences have been manifested in the estimate of Pascal's opinions on the main questions of philosophy, theology and human conduct.
Error can arise only because we mix up our opinions and suppositions with what we actually feel.
He refused to identify Social Democracy with the extreme views as to religion and the family advocated by Bebel, and successfully resisted attempts made in 1891 to expel him from the party in consequence of his opinions.
Johnson has frequently blamed Shakespeare for neglecting the proprieties of time and place, and for ascribing to one age or nation the manners and opinions of another.
His mental qualities were - a quick analytic perception, strong logical powers, a tenacious memory, a liberal estimate and tolerance of the opinions of others, ready intuition of human nature; and perhaps his most valuable faculty was rare ability to divest himself of all feeling or passion in weighing motives of persons or problems of state.
Contrary opinions they denounced as pestifera dogmata.
A new law was introduced forbidding the spread of Socialistic opinions by books, newspapers or public meetings, empowering the police to break up meetings and to suppress newspapers.
The whole organization of newspapers, societies and trades unions was at once broken up. Almost every political newspaper supported by the party was suppressed; almost all the pamphlets and books issued by them were forbidden; they were thereby at once deprived of the only legitimate means which they had for spreading their opinions.
But the cause of the conflict had been rather in the opinions of the Liberals than in the personal desire of Bismarck himself.
He had, how-ever, kept himself informed regarding these movements, chiefly by means of Hermann Wagener, an old editor of the Kreuzzeitung, and in the year 1878 he felt himself free to return in this matter to his older opinions.
It was, indeed, not easy to combine that respect and reverence which the emperor required should be paid to him, with that open criticism of his words which seemed necessary (even for selfdefence) when the monarch condescended to become the censor of the opinions and actions of large parties and classes among his subjects.
They resorted to the help of the government in order to stamp out the opinions with which they disagreed, and the claims of the artisans to practical equality were rejected by them, as in earlier days the claims of the middle class had been by the nobles.
The impulsive character of the emperor, which led him, with the best intentions and often with excellent effect, to interfere everywhere and in everything and to utter opinions often highly inconvenient to his ministers, was the subject of an interpellation in the Reichstag on the 20th of January 1903 by the Socialist Herr von Vollmar, himself a Bavarian.
See Recueil des opinions de Stanislas de Clermont-Tonnerre (q vols., Paris, 1791), the text of his speeches as published by himself; A.
At Stowmarket the teachings of the French philosophers were brought before him by a friend, Joseph Fawcet, who held strong republican opinions.
His opinions underwent a change in the direction of theism, influenced, he says, by his acquaintance with Coleridge.
Bright was not violent, and Cobden said that he did his work admirably, and won golden opinions from all men.
It deserves mention here that Garrison was then in utter ignorance of the change previously wrought in the opinions of English abolitionists by Elizabeth Heyrick's pamphlet in favour of immediate, in distinction from gradual emancipation.
The dissentients from his opinions determined to form an anti-slavery political party, while he believed in working by moral rather than political party instrumentalities.
vii., mostly on methods of decoration, has a preface (as usual) on the opinions of ancient Greek writers, with lists of Greek sculptors, architects and writers on architecture, and of Roman architects.
He appears to have disavowed his Roman Catholic opinions just after the accession of Edward VI., but having been chosen a member of parliament in 1547 he gained notoriety by his opposition to the act of uniformity in 1548.
Besides their judicial duties, the courts practically exercise legislative functions, as no important law can be made applicable to Europeans without the consent of the powers, and the powers are mainly guided by the opinions of the judges of the Mixed Courts.
Eg~ icerning earth and sky there were many different opinions.
He is perhaps best remembered by his destruction of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem (1010), a measure which helped to provoke the Crusades, but was only part of a general scheme for converting all Christians and Jews in his dominions to his own opinions by force.
These two books, which are remarkable not merely for their outspoken opinions, but also for their easy versification and powerful imagery, were the forerunners of the German political poetry of 1840-1848.
Little remains of the labours of this intellectual giant, his heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers that came into their possession, because their own religious opinions were different.
truthfulness, and form an imperishable monument of his life and opinions."
Moreover, as they proceeded from a large number of independent authors, who wrote expressing their own opinions, they contained many discrepancies and contradictions, the dicta of one writer being controverted by another, while yet both writers might enjoy the same formal authority.
As regards the jus vetus, therefore, the judges and practitioners of Justinian's time had two terrible difficulties to contend with - first, the bulk of the law, which made it impossible for any one to be sure that he possessed anything like the whole of the authorities bearing on the point in question, so that he was always liable to find his opponent quoting against him some authority for which he could not be prepared; and, secondly, the uncertainty of the law, there being a great many important points on which differing opinions of equal legal validity might be cited, so that the practising counsel could not advise, nor the judge decide, with any confidence that he was right, or that a superior court would uphold his view.
But let it be observed, first, that to reduce the huge and confused mass of pre-existing law into the compass of these two collections was an immense practical benefit to the empire; secondly, that, whereas the work which he undertook was accomplished in seven years, the infinitely more difficult task of codification might probably have been left unfinished at Tribonian's death, or even at Justinian's own, and been abandoned by his successor; thirdly, that in the extracts preserved in the Digest we have the opinions of the greatest legal luminaries given in their own admirably lucid, philosophical and concise language, while in the extracts of which the Codex is composed we find valuable historical evidence bearing on the administration and social condition of the later Pagan and earlier Christian empire; fourthly, that Justinian's age, that is to say, the intellect of the men whose services he commanded, was quite unequal to so vast an undertaking as the fusing upon scientific principles into one new organic whole of the entire law of the empire.
Not long afterwards, his attention having been called to the spread of Origenistic opinions in Syria, he issued an edict condemning fourteen propositions drawn from the writings of the great Alexandrian, and caused a synod to be held under the presidency of Mennas (whom he had named patriarch of Constantinople), which renewed the condemnation of the impugned doctrines and anathematized Origen himself.
To those accustomed to look on the Ten Words written on the tables of stone as the very foundation of the Mosaic law, it is hard to realize that in ancient Israel there were two opinions as to what these "Words" were.
Accord ' This " manifesto," which was bitterly attacked in the North, was agreed upon (October 18, 1854) by the three ministers after several meetings at Ostend and at Aix-la-Chapelle, arranged in pursuance of instructions to them from President Pierce to " corn-, pare opinions, and to adopt measures for perfect concert of action in aid of the negotiations at Madrid " on the subject of reparations demanded from Spain by the United States for alleged injuries to American commerce with Cuba.
This uncertainty had been brought about by the conflicting opinions of the jurists of the 6th century as to the proper interpretation to be given to the legislation of the emperor Justinian, from which had resulted a system of teaching which had deprived that legislation of all authority, and the imperial judges at last were at a loss to know by what rules of law they were to regulate their decisions.
Hefele's theological opinions inclined towards the more liberal school in the Roman Catholic Church, but he nevertheless received considerable signs of favour from its authorities, and was a member of the commission that made preparations for the Vatican Council of 1870.
Carlyle's doctrines, entirely opposed to the ordinary opinions of Whigs and Radicals, found afterwards an expositor in his ardent disciple Ruskin, and have obvious affinities with more recent socialism.
A few later utterances made known his opinions of current affairs.
During Carlyle's later years the antagonism roused by his attacks upon popular opinions had subsided; and upon his death general expression was given to the emotions natural upon the loss of a remarkable man of genius.
He was included in the proscription of the Girondists, whose political opinions he shared, and was executed in Paris.
Mar's highlanders began to desert; his council was a confusion of opinions and discontents, and when, after many dangers and in the worst of health, James joined the Jacobites at Perth, it was only to discourage his friends by his gloom, and to share their wintry flight before Argyll to Montrose.
Variation provides the material for selection, and although opinions may differ as to the nature of that material, the modes by which it comes into existence and their relative values and permanences, there is an increasingly wide consensus of opinion that all such material has to pass through the sieve of natural selection and that the sifted products form new varieties and species, and new adaptations.
Finally, in 1850, in an article published in the Edinburgh Review in defence of the " Gorham judgment" he asserted two principles which he maintained to the end of his life - first, " that the so-called supremacy of the Crown in religious matters was in reality nothing else than the supremacy of law," and, secondly, "that the Church of England, by the very condition of its being, was not High or Low, but Broad, and had always included and been meant to include, opposite and contradictory opinions on points even more important than those at present under discussion."
The difference of the opinions expressed in the MSS.
mentioned above, the redactor of the Mishnah, was honoured as the "Rabbi" xar' E oy v (" par excellence"), and in the tradition of the houses of learning, if it was necessary to speak of him or to cite his opinions and utterances, he was simply referred to as "Rabbi," without the mention of any name.
In 1895 to 1898 he was dramatic critic to the Saturday Review, his articles being collected in 1907 as Dramatic Opinions and Essays.
He studied both law and medicine, but found his real vocation in politics, and at once constituted himself a champion of the most advanced opinions.
He brought a vast amount of information from the most varied and distant sources to confirm his opinions, and the abundance of his materials never perplexed or burdened him in his argumentation, but examples of well-conducted historical argument are rare in his pages.
The story which tells how the two went out one morning to dance round a tree of liberty in a meadow is an anachronism, though in keeping with their opinions.
He had no opinions on theological subjects at variance with the theology taught at Erfurt and elsewhere.
It soon appeared that the intention of that practised debater was to force Luther into some admission which would justify opponents in accusing him of holding the opinions of Huss, who had been condemned by the great German Council of Constance.
The latter half of 1521 saw the silent spread of Lutheran opinions all over Germany.
Where opinions were divided the majority prevailed.
Nicaea in 787, which witnessed the triumph of his opinions; but, feeling dissatisfied with court life, he retired into a convent.
See Discours et opinions de M.
His first quarterly was followed, in 1844, by Brownson's Quarterly Review (first published in Boston and after 1855 in New York), in which he expressed his opinions on many themes until its suspension in 1864, and after its revival for a brief period in 1873-1875.
Averroes was accused of heretical opinions and pursuits, stripped of his honours, and banished to a place near Cordova, where his actions were closely watched.
His anti-slavery opinions grew in strength with years (though he was somewhat inconsistent in his attitude on the Missouri question in 1820 - 1821).
Moreover, independently of special incentives to the alarmist and the man of property, the opinions of many Americans turned again, after the war, into a current of sympathy for England, as naturally as American commerce returned to English ports.
As Hamilton was somewhat officious and very combative, and Jefferson, although uncontentious, very suspicious and quite independent, both men holding inflexibly to opinions, cabinet harmony became impossible when the two secretaries had formed parties about them and their differences were carried into the 1 It was at this period of his life that Jefferson gave expression to some of the opinions for which he has been most severely criticized and ridiculed.
Reed was a remarkable personality, of whom many good stories were told, and opinions varied as to his conduct in the chair; but he was essentially a man of rugged honesty and power, whose death was a loss to American public life.
Evil men, taking on them the yellow robe of the order, had given forth their own opinions as the teaching of Buddha.
The merest suspicion of unorthodox opinions, the possession of foreign newspapers, the wearing of a beard or an anonymous denunciation, sufficed for the arrest and condemnation of a man to years of imprisonment, while the attendibili, or persons under police surveillance liable to imprisonment without trial at any moment, numbered 50,000.
The term has been applied in modern usage, due to Plato's Symposium, to a collection of opinions of different writers on a given subject.
Her writings, containing an account of her life and of her visions and opinions, were collected by her disciple, Pierre Poiret (19 vols., Amsterdam, 1679-1686), who also published her life (2 vols., 1679).
He had been brought up in the strictest principles of the Evangelical school, but at Rugby he fell under the influence of Arnold and Tait, and his acquaintance with Maurice and Kingsley finally gave his opinions a direction towards Liberalism.
He says quite openly that " it is a great mistake to suppose that statements in his speeches express his real opinions " (Clu.
Conflicting opinions are held as to the various steps in the process of evolution and the order in which the various types succeed one another, but the following perhaps represents in the main the most generally accepted view.
Durham, killed under the reign of Hisham for heretical opinions, had followers in Mesopotamia, and that, when Merwan became caliph, the Khorasanians called him a Ja`d, pretending that all'Ja`d had been his teacher.
When he went into office he had no political opinions, only some popular notions.
In his youth, as duke of Anjou, he was warmly attached to the Huguenot opinions, as we learn from his sister Marguerite de Valois; but his unstable character soon gave way before his mother's will, and both Henry and Marguerite remained choice ornaments of the Catholic Church.
This empirical groundwork of Aristotle's logic was accepted by the Epicureans, who enunciated most distinctly the fundamental doctrine that all sensations are true of their immediate objects, and falsity begins with subsequent opinions, or what the moderns call " interpretation."
He also made the acquaintance of the leading English Positivists, to whose opinions he became an ardent convert.
As things are, if I were to encourage Tom Paine's opinions we should have a bloody revolution.'" Paine was indicted for treason in May 1792, but before the trial came off he was elected by the department of Calais to the French convention, and escaped into France, followed by a sentence of outlawry.
Little is known of her philosophical opinions, but she appears to have embraced the intellectual rather than the mystical side of Neoplatonism, and to have been a follower of Plotinus rather than of Porphyry and Iamblichus.
He soon became known for revolutionary opinions, and in 1847, after killing an opponent in a duel, he resigned his commission.
His open advocacy of Jansenist opinions, however, caused his superiors to relegate him to the most obscure houses of the order, and finally to keep him under surveillance at the abbey of St Germain-des-Pres at Paris.
Burnet, Recollections and Opinions of an Old Pioneer (New York, 1880); S.
But his opinions became more and more radical.
Opinions were divided, and the evidence appears even now nearly balanced, though the believers in contagion and importation gained the victory in public opinion.
Stillingfleet's actions were as liberal as his opinions, and he aided more than one ejected minister.
In Prague Jerome soon attracted attention by his advanced and outspoken opinions.
but in other passages he expresses conflicting opinions (De civitate, xx.
The Monophysites, who like the Greeks knew themselves simply as the Orthodox, were grievously persecuted by the emperor Justinian and the graecizing patriarchs of Antioch, because they rejected the decrees of the council of Chalcedon, in which they - not without good reason - saw nothing but a thinly veiled relapse into those opinions of Nestorius which the previous council of Ephesus had condemned.
But the people of these cessions, especially of Kentucky, were closely allied to the great up-country party of Virginia, and altogether they formed the basis of the Jeffersonian democracy, which from 1794 opposed the chief measures of the Washington administration, and which on the passage of the Alien and Sedition laws in 1798 precipitated the first great constitutional crisis in Federal politics by the adoption in the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures of the resolutions, known by the names of those states, strongly asserting the right and duty of the states to arrest the course of the national government whenever in their opinions that course had become unconstitutional.
Regarding the evidence on which these sweeping results are founded, opinions will vary.
Of all his singular opinions the best known is his advocacy of clerical monogamy, immortalized in the Vicar of Wakefield.
The quarrel began in 1871 when the Prussian government supported some teachers in state-aided Catholic schools whom the bishops wished to dismiss on account of their anti-infallibilist opinions.
Looking at the opposition between these and the ordinary opinions, we are not surprised that Empedocles notes the limitation and narrowness of human perceptions.
The same discord between his private opinions and his public actions maybe traced in his conduct subsequent to 1534.
To plead loyalty or honest political conviction in defence of his Medicean partianship is now impossible, face to face with the opinions expressed in the Ricordi politici and the Storia Fiorentina.
His phlegmatic and persistent egotism, his sacrifice of truth and honour to self-interest, his acquiescence in the worst conditions of the world, if only he could use them for his own advantage, combined with the glaring discord between his opinions and his practice, form a character which would be contemptible in our eyes were it not so sinister.
It is only after a careful perusal of these minor works that the student of history may claim to have comprehended Guicciardini, and may feel that he brings with him to the consideration of the Storia d'Italia the requisite knowledge of the author's private thoughts and jealously guarded opinions.
But his conservative opinions rendered him more and more unpopular, and after the 10th of August 1792, when he took the side of the king, he was forced to lie concealed for some weeks in the observatory of the Mazarin College, from which he contrived to escape to the country.
Nor were the rationalistic opinions of the Averroists without their value, though the church condemned these deviators from her discipline as heretics.
The partial triumph of this principle was secure, inasmuch as the majority of established powers in church and state felt threatened by the revolutionary opinions afloat in Europe.
Those of the French humanists who did not proclaim Huguenot opinions found themselves obliged with Muretus to lend their talents to the Counter-Reformation, or to suffer persecution for heterodoxy, like Dolet.
In truth the Renaissance was ruled by no Astraea redux, but rather by a severe spirit which brought no peace but a sword, reminding men of sternest duties, testing what of moral force and tenacity was in them, compelling them to strike for the old order or the new, suffering no lukewarm halting between two opinions.
These opinions are developed in his Principles of Morals and Legislation (pub.
When man has advanced so far as to be sensitive to the opinions of his fellow-men, their approbation and disapprobation reinforce the influence of natural selection.
In 1841 Thomas Wright of Borthwick (1785-18J5) was deposed for a series of heretical opinions, which he denied that he held, but which were said to be contained in a series of devotional works of a somewhat mystical order which he had published.
de la Rive and Faraday were ardent supporters of the chemical theory of the pile, and even at the present time opinions of physicists can hardly be said to be in entire accordance as to the source of the electromotive force in a voltaic couple or pile.2 Improvements in the form of the voltaic pile were almost immediately made