So what was the use of performing various operations on the French who were running away as fast as they possibly could?
The winter suspended operations, and both sides made exertions to increase their forces.
I locked out all the terminals, the emergency operations networks for the eastern part of the country, and re-routed the communications systems to my micro.
Heart pounding hard, she turned to face her destination: the command hub, where all emergency operations and critical infrastructure back-up networks and systems for the East Coast were routed in a time of crisis.
During exercises, the government's premier contingency operations compound in the Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee was populated only by maintenance crews and a few relaxed guards.
We must maintain East Coast operations from here.
Robots can perform thousands of operations flawlessly every minute.
The accident did a hell of a job and the long coma and operations further messed him up.
And as it always happens in contests of cunning that a stupid person gets the better of cleverer ones, Helene--having realized that the main object of all these words and all this trouble was, after converting her to Catholicism, to obtain money from her for Jesuit institutions (as to which she received indications)-before parting with her money insisted that the various operations necessary to free her from her husband should be performed.
The United Telephone Company confined its operations to London; subsidiary companies were formed to operate in the provinces.
Could the fact that Howie's brain waves are somehow different after his lengthy coma and all the operations he endured be effected by what you were doing?
At the end of the week the prince reappeared and resumed his former way of life, devoting himself with special activity to building operations and the arrangement of the gardens and completely breaking off his relations with Mademoiselle Bourienne.
To maintain our operations, three more.
When Denisov had come to Pokrovsk at the beginning of his operations and had as usual summoned the village elder and asked him what he knew about the French, the elder, as though shielding himself, had replied, as all village elders did, that he had neither seen nor heard anything of them.
Neat and comfortable, their station acted as their home as well as their hub for coordinating operations in LA.
Thus it seemed that this one hillside illustrated the principle of all the operations of Nature.
While Howie, between his brain damage, operations and lengthy coma created a rare combination of mental soup, could we say with any certainty that his ability was absolutely unique to him?
"The kid isn't going to push anyone," said Dusty, Damian's operations director for the Western Hemisphere.
Greene gassed everyone in the mountain and intended to take over the Peak and use it as a base of operations for his people to use as they took over the eastern half of the US.
"I could do something more useful, like help Toni plan operations," he allowed.
Damian issued few clean-up orders, for there was no way to maintain the discretion his Guardians needed to mask their shadow operations protecting humanity.
Sasha manages the operations for Dusty out of Miami and Levi for Jule in Europe, Damian explained.
By his energy, industry and sound judgment he gradually enlarged his operations, did business in all the fur markets of the world, and amassed an enormous fortune, - the largest up to that time made by any American.
He's suffered a bunch of operations, mostly on his brain.
Probably revealed your entire operations by now.
Operations were resumed next day.
The first operations on both sides took the form of attacks on trade.
Jessi hurried after the Black God, following him into a narrow hallway and what looked like an operations center of some sort.
Table Potential, Dissipation, Ioniz If we regard the potential gradient near the ground as representing a negative charge on the earth, then if the source of supply of that charge is unaffected the gradient will rise and become high when the operations by which discharge is promoted slacken their activity.
The industry is now a highly specialized one and comprises a large number of operations performed by separate hands.
He invaded Attica at the head of the Peloponnesian forces in the summers of 43 1, 430 and 428, and in 42 9 conducted operations against Plataea.
Having thus perfected the instrument, his next step was to apply it in such a way as to bring uniformity of method into the isolated and independent operations of geometry.
At Selinitza, near Avlona, there is a remarkable deposit of mineral pitch which was extensively worked in Roman times; mining operations are still carried on here, but in a somewhat primitive fashion.
The town had a considerable part in the operations of the Civil Wars, being held at the outset by the Parliamentarians, and captured by the Royalists in 1644, but soon retaken by Sir Thomas Fairfax.
Besides receiving taxes, they pay the creditors of the state in their departments, conduct all operations affecting departmental loans, buy and sell government stock (rentes) on behalf of individuals, and conduct certain banking operations.
The ministry of war is divided into branches for infantry, cavalry, &c.and services for special subjects such as military law, explosives, health, &c. The general staff (stat major de larme) has its functions classed as follows: personnel; material and finance; 1st bureau (organization and mobilization), 2nd (intelligence), 3rd (military operations and training) and 4th (communications and transport); and the famous historical section.
Turquoises have been found near Wangaratta, in Victoria, and mining operations are being carried on in that state.
Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is obtained.
Before the end of 1906 fifty-two separate trades in Victoria had obtained special boards, by whose determinations their operations were controlled.
By very dexterous military and diplomatic operations Vitellius succeeded completely.
In 1595 the first Dutch expedition sailed from the Texel, but it took a more southerly course than its predecessors and confined its operations to Java and the neighbouring islands.
It was the chief town of the Samnites, who took refuge here after their defeat by the Romans in 314 B.C. It appears not to have fallen into the hands of the latter until Pyrrhus's absence in Sicily, but served them as a base of operations in the last campaign against him in 275 B.C. A Latin colony was planted there in 268 B.C., and it was then that the name was changed for the sake of the omen, and probably then that the Via Appia was extended from Capua to Beneventum.
The grappling of the cable and raising it to the surface from a depth of 2000 fathoms seldom occupy less than twenty-four hours, and since any extra strain due to the pitching of the vessel must be avoided, it is clear that the state of the sea and weather is the predominating factor in the time necessary for effecting the long series of operations which, in the most favourable circumstances, are required for a repair.
Marconi's successes and the demonstrations he had given of the thoroughly practical character of this system of electric wave telegraphy stimulated other inventors to enter the same field of labour, whilst theorists began to study carefully the nature of the physical operations involved.
It is now generally recognized that Hertzian wave telegraphy, or radio-telegraphy, as it is sometimes called, has a special field of operations of its own, and that the anticipations which were at one time excited by uninformed persons that it would speedily annihilate all telegraphy conducted with wires have been dispersed by experience.
During the progress of these operations the A operator connects the originating subscriber to the junction circuit named by the B operator.
There are also directors of stores, of naval construction, of the medical service, and of the submarine defences (which are concerned with torpedoes, mines and torpedo-boats), as well as of naval ordnance and works, The prefect directs the operations of the arsenal, and is responsible for its efficiency and for that of the ships which are there in reserve.
Some delay was caused in beginning operations by Cromwell's dangerous illness, during which his life was despaired of; but in June he was confronting Leslie entrenched in the hills near Stirling, impregnable to attack and refusing an engagement.
The ship now returns to the position of original attack, and by similar operations brings on board the end which secures communication with the other shore.
In addition, the intervention of very heavy weather may mar all the work already accomplished, and require the whole series of operations to be undertaken de novo.
For some time it restricted its operations to constructing and maintaining railway telegraphs and was not commercially successful.
At the end of the Peloponnesian War Lysander restored the scattered remnants of the old inhabitants to the island, which was used by the Spartans as a base for operations against Athens in the Corinthian War.
He was wounded at Wagram, and distinguished during the operations in Italy in 1813 and 1814.
Large landlords are usually represented by ministri, or factors, who direct agricultural operations and manage the estates, but the estate is often let to a middleman, or mercante di campagna.
Immured in his castle at Pavia, accumulating wealth by systematic taxation and methodical economy, he organized the mercenary troops who eagerly took service under so good a paymaster; and, by directing their operations from his cabinet, he threatened the whole of Italy with conquest.
The Neapolitans were ignominiously beaten in May and retired to the frontier; on the 1st of June Oudinot declared that he would attack Rome on the 4th, but by beginning operations on the 3rd, when no attack was expected, he captured an important position in the Pamphili gardens.
On the 25th of February Crispi telegraphed to Baratieri, denouncing his operations as military phthisis, and urging him to decide upon some strategic plan.
have been set apart for regular forest operations which are carried on by convict labour.
During his operations in northern Romagna, Vitelli, Oliverotto, Paolo Orsini, and the duke of Gravina, to show their repentance, seized Senigallia, which still held for the duke of Urbino, in his name.
In 1138 David of Scotland made it a centre of military operations, and it was ravaged by Wallace in 1296, by Bruce in 1312, and by David II.
Two of these buildings were granaries, and indicate the importance of Corstopitum as a base of the northward operations of Antoninus Pius.
During his brief reign Decius was engaged in important operations against the Goths, who crossed the Danube and overran the districts of Moesia and Thrace.
From all centres the leading motives of exploration were probably the same - commercial intercourse, warlike operations, whether resulting in conquest or in flight, religious zeal expressed in pilgrimages or missionary journeys, or, from the other side, the avoidance of persecution, and, more particularly in later years, the advancement of knowledge for its own sake.
and the hope of gain, combined with motives of mere curiosity, induced several persons to travel by land into remote regions of the East, far beyond the countries to which the operations of the crusaders extended.
The eighth voyage, led by Captain Saris, extended the operations of the company to Japan; and in 1613 the Japanese government granted privileges to the company; but the British retired in 1623, giving up their factory.
From that time a fleet was despatched every year, and the company's operations greatly increased geographical knowledge of India and the Eastern Archipelago.
The operations were carried on during eight years on a plain to the south of Quito; and, in addition to his memoir on this memorable measurement, La Condamine collected much valuable geographical information during a voyage down the Amazon.
The Hudson Bay Company had been in- Arctic corporated in 1670, and its servants soon extended their operations over a wide area to the north and west of Canada.
Alexander Ivanovich (1769-1825) served with distinction under his relative Suvarov in the Turkish Wars, and took part as a general officer in the Italian and Swiss operations of 1799, and in the war against Napoleon in Poland in 1806-1807 (battle of Heilsberg).
By the aid of one front leg it places consecutive heaps of loosened particles upon its head, then with a smart jerk throws each little pile clear of the scene of operations.
Operations for removing the obstacles in the channel and for deepening and widening it were begun as long ago as 1838.
But in the operations before Port Arthur and in the Navy.
Finally, a great number of artels on the stock exchange, in the seaports, in the great cities, during the great fairs and on railways have grown up, and have acquired the confidence of tradespeople to such an extent that considerable sums of money and complicated banking operations are frequently handed over to an artelshik (member of an artel) without any receipt, his number or his name being accepted as sufficient guarantee.
By the treaty of Aigun (May 28, 1858), and without any military operations, the cession of a great part of the basin of the Amur was obtained from China.
A few weeks after his accession he sanctioned the annexation of the territory of the Tekke Turkomans, which had been conquered by General Skobelev, and in 1884 he formally annexed the Mer y oasis without military operations.
The guarantee for this activity may be illustrated by a single fact: the combined building operations, in 1908, of San Francisco, Seattle, Portland, Los Angeles, Spokane and Salt Lake City exceeded the combined building operations of Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Kansas City, Boston, Baltimore and Cincinnati during the same year.
By other accidents Item By accidents occurring during shunting operations, viz.
Passengers Servants Other accidents, due to railway operations Passengers and others Servants Other accidents, victim's own fault - Passengers and others.
In 1902 the king of Sweden, as arbitrator under a convention signed at Washington in 1899, decided that Great Britain and the United States were liable for injuries due to action taken by their representatives during the military operations of 1899.
It marked the close of the year's agricultural operations when the olives and grapes had been gathered [Ex.
It was the asiph or festival of ingathering, when the agricultural operations were brought to a close, which exhibited these genial features of CanaaniteHebrew life most vividly.
Returning to London early in November, he found it necessary to consult his physicians for a symptom which, neglected since 1761, had gradually become complicated with hydrocele, and was now imperatively demanding surgical aid; but the painful operations which had to be performed did not interfere with his customary cheerfulness, nor did they prevent him from paying a Christmas visit to Sheffield Place.
The cost of operations amounted to an initial expenditure of 6.25 francs, and an annual expenditure of about 2.3 francs per head of the population.
In Hong-Kong similar measures were carried out, with the result that the hospital admissions for malaria diminished from 1294 in 1901, the year when operations were begun, to 419 in 1905.
The early operations were crowned with success, and the governor-general received the title of earl of Auckland.
Acting on the queen's explicit instructions, Essex, after some ill-managed operations, had a meeting with Tyrone at a ford on the Lagan on th 7th of September 1599, when a truce was arranged; but Elizabeth was displeased by the favourable conditions allowed to the O'Neill and by Essex's treatment of him as an equal.
Since the intrinsic energy of a substance varies with the conditions under which the substance exists, it is necessary, before proceeding to the practical application of any of the laws mentioned above, accurately to specify the conditions of the initial and final systems, or at least to secure that they shall not vary in the operations considered.
Besides, he obtained a controlling interest in the Western Union Telegraph Company, and after 1881 in the elevated railways in New York City, and was intimately connected with many of the largest railway financial operations in the United States for the twenty years following 1868.
Operations ceased during the Civil War, and although resumed soon after its close, they became somewhat desultory.
No more valuable contribution to the illustration of western Chinese configuration has been given to the public than that of C. C. Manifold who explored and mapped the upper basin of the Yang-tsze river between the years 1900 and 1904, whilst our knowledge of the geography of the Russo-Chinese borderland on the north-east has been largely advanced by the operations attending the RussoJapanese war which terminated in 1905.
The other cereals may be seen occasionally, where artificial irrigation is practised, in all stages of progress at all seasons of the year, though the operations of agriculture are, as a general rule, limited to the rainy months, when alone is the requisite supply of water commonly forthcoming.
He succeeded his father, probably in 427 B.C., and from his first invasion of Attica in 425 down to the close of the Peloponnesian war was the chief leader of the Spartan operations on land.
Most of these were simple records of patient and laborious analytical operations, and it is perhaps surprising that among all the substances he analysed he only detected two new elements - beryllium (1798) in beryl and chromium (1797) in a red lead ore from Siberia.
The Logic, an eminently practical work, written from the point of view of Locke, is in five parts, dealing with (1) the nature of the human mind, its faculties and operations; (2) ideas and their kinds; (3) the true and the false, and the various degrees of knowledge; (4) reasoning and argumentation; (5) method and the ordering of our thoughts.
In 1790 he conducted the military operations on the Dniester and held his court at Jassy with more than Asiatic pomp. In 1791 he returned to St Petersburg where, along with his friend Bezborodko (q.v.), he made vain efforts to overthrow the new favourite, Zubov, and in four months spent 850,000 roubles in banquets and entertainments, a sum subsequently reimbursed to him from the treasury.
The application of these facts to surgical operations, in the able hands of Lord Lister, was productive of the most beneficent results, and has indeed revolutionized surgical practice.
Its nearness to Washington, the material and manufacturing resources concentrated in it, and the moral importance attached to its possession by both sides, caused it to be regarded as the centre of gravity of the military operations in the east to which the greatest leaders and the finest armies were devoted from 1861 to 1865.
The Book of Husbandry begins with a description of the plough and other implements, after which about a third part of it is occupied with the several operations as they succeed one another throughout the year.
Manual labour in farming operations began to be superseded by the use of drills, hay-makers and horse-rakes, chaff-cutters and root-pulpers.
The Highland Society having early extended its operations to the whole of Scotland, by and by made a corresponding addition to its title, and as the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland gradually extended its operations.
With a variety of crops, again, the mechanical operations of the farm, involving horse and hand labour, are better distributed over the year, and are therefore more economically performed.
In the years 1903 and 1904 petrol motors adapted for ploughing and other agricultural operations formed a prominent feature of the exhibits.
Accordingly, when a few days occur early in the season favourable to the working of the land, much of it can be got into a forward condition, whilst horses are set free for the lighter operations.
On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.
Leaving Edward, now his only brother in blood and almost his equal in arms, in Galloway, he suddenly transferred his own operations to Aberdeenshire.
It came in time to enable him to share in the operations of the French army against the Austrians that led to the battle of Dego, north of Savona (21st of September), a success largely due to his skilful combinations.
Thus Portugal in 1807, like Venice in 1797, was to provide the means for widely extending the operations of his statecraft.
Napoleon was then in the midst of operations against Sir John Moore, whose masterly march on Sahagun (near Valladolid) had thwarted the emperor's plans for a general "drive" on to Lisbon.
Thereafter he never entered Spain; and the French operations suffered incalculably from the want of one able commander-in-chief.
The operations consisted almost entirely of manoeuvres which had for their object the obtaining or the denial to the enemy of food-supplies.
The frost broke at the end of February 1709, and then the spring floods put an end to all active operations till May, when Charles began the siege of the fortress of Poltava, which he wished to make a base for subsequent operations while awaiting reinforcements from Sweden and Poland.
'While the necessary operations were in progress, the fleet occupied temporary bases in Skye and Mull and in the defended harbour of Lough Swilly in Ireland, and the absence of the fleet was successfully concealed.
Doria seized Chioggia as a base of operations and drew his fleet inside the lagoons.
As a natural result of this belief we find the view that the operations of nature are conducted by a multitude of more or less obedient subordinate deities; thus, in Portuguese West Africa the Kimbunda believe in Suku-Vakange, but hold that he has committed the government of the universe to innumerable kilulu good and bad; the latter kind are held to be far more numerous, but Suku-Vakange is said to keep them in order by occasionally smiting them with his thunderbolts; were it not for this, man's lot would be insupportable.
By an easy transition, she came to be regarded as the protectress of thieves, whose operations were associated with darkness.
Foote established at Mound City a naval depot, which was the basis of his operations on the Mississippi.
Catulus, who had been wounded at Drepanum, took no part in the operations, but on his return to Rome was accorded the honour of a triumph, which against his will he shared with Valerius.
The people, though remarkable for their intelligence whilst Europe was in a state of barbarism, made no approximation to the mechanical operations of modern times, nor was the cultivation of cotton either improved or considerably extended.
By 1876 " forward " operations had become so vast and complicated that a cotton-clearing house had to be established cottc?
1 We shall now enter upon a detailed analysis of " forward operations.
A question which has met with a good deal of attention is whether the speculation, which has been encouraged by the various arrangements made for facilitating operations in " futures," has steadied or unsteadied prices.
Many large-scale operations are entered into, not because prices are relatively high or low, but to make them high or low for ulterior purposes; i.e.
This series of operations proves the constitution of the acid.
The Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company was formed in 1854, but its operations were unsuccessful, and in 1858 certain of the members founded the Seneca Oil Company, under whose direction E.
Similarly, Burma, where the Burmah Oil Company have, since 1890, rapidly extended their operations, is rising to a position of importance.
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
to telescope the jars for the next blow coming up. A skilful driller never allows his jars to strike on the downstroke, they are only used to jar down when the tools stick on some obstruction in the well before reaching the bottom, and in fishing operations.
Thus was begun the Second Crusade, 1 under auspices still more favourable than those which attended the beginning of the First, seeing that kings now took the place of knights, while the new crusaders would no longer be penetrating into the wilds, but would find a friendly basis of operations ready to their hands in Frankish Syria.
A scheme of taxation - the Saladin tithe - was imposed on all who did not take the cross; and this taxation, while on the one hand it drove many to take the cross in order to escape its incidence, on the other hand provided a necessary financial basis for military operations.'
Richard soon followed; but while Philip sailed straight for Acre, Richard occupied himself by the way in conquering Cyprus - partly out of knight-errantry, and in order to avenge an insult offered to his betrothed wife Berengaria by the despot of the island, partly perhaps out of policy, and in order to provide a basis of supplies and of operations for the armies attempting to recover Palestine.
In the first place, Cyprus was a natural and excellent basis of operations; it sent provisions to the crusaders in 1191, and again at the siege of Damietta in 1219, while its advantages as a strategic basis were proved by the exploits of Peter of Cyprus in the 14th century.
The American government asked the Spanish authorities of East Florida to permit an American occupation of the country in order that it might not be seized by Great Britain and made a base of military operations.
In 1814 British troops landed at Pensacola to begin operations against the United States.
Soaps are also prepared in which large proportions of fine sharp sand, or of powdered pumice, are incorporated, and these substances, by their abrading action, powerfully assist the detergent influence of the soap on hands much begrimed by manufacturing operations.'
The operations, which were carried on at intervals till 1890, resulted in the discovery of the Dipylon Gate, the principal entrance of ancient Athens.
The peribolos, a large artificial platform supported by a retaining wall of squared Peiraic blocks with buttresses, was excavated in 1898 without important results; it is to be hoped that the stability of the columns has not been affected by the operations.
Serious illness followed the operations, and, his life being despaired of, he received the last sacraments on the 28th of June.
He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
His plan of operations was directed primarily to the seizure of the Decatur railway, by which the Confederate commander, General J.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
It must be mentioned here that the reactions of any particular substance are given under its own heading, and in this article we shall only collate the various operations and outline the general procedure.
There is no general procedure for these operations, and it is customary to test for the acids separately by special tests; these are given in the articles on the various acids.
(a) Gravimetric. - This method is made up of four operations: (I) a weighed quantity of the substance is dissolved in a suitable solvent; (2) a particular reagent is added which precipitates the substance it is desired to estimate; (3) the precipitate is filtered, washed and dried; (4) the filter paper containing the precipitate is weighed either as a tared filter, or incinerated and ignited either in air or in any other gas, and then weighed.
This method is made up of three operations: - (1) preparation of a standard solution.; (2) preparation of a solution of the substance; (3) titration, or the determination of what volume of the standard solution will occasion a known and definite reaction with a known volume of the test solution.
Prof. Petrie resumed operations in Middle Egypt after the war:, and made interesting discoveries (1921).
The Kachins have been the object of many police operations and two regular expeditions: (I) Expedition of 1892-93.
The resistance was insignificant, and the operations were completely successful.
But although military operations added to our knowledge of the world, scientific cartography was utterly neglected.
He may be said to have gained a world-wide reputation by his use of the phrase "blood is thicker than water" to justify his intervention on behalf of the British squadron engaged in the operations against the Peiho Forts.
Military operations during 1901-4 led to a more accurate knowledge of the.
It was then determined that in the further operations against the mullah the main advance should be from a base on the east coast of Italian Somaliland - the open roadstead of Obbia being chosen.
It was decided therefore to abandon offensive operations.
For the various protectorates, (I) British - the annual reports issued by the Colonial Office, London; Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-1904 (2 vols., London, 1907); War Office maps on the scale of I :1,000,000, also sketch map 1:3,000,000 (1907).
Besides the sale of slaves which took place as a result of the capture of cities or other military operations, there was a systematic slave trade.
Cato, Varro and Columella all agree that slave labour was to be preferred to free except in unhealthy regions and for large occasional operations, which probably transcended the capacity of the permanent familia rustica.
[Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's Egyptian expedition of 1798.
The councils of the conspirators were weakened by divided opinions as to the ultimate aim of their policy; and no clearly thought-out scheme of operations appears to have been arrived at when Emmet left Paris for Ireland in October 1802.
An elaborate plan of operations, which he described in detail in a letter to his brother after his arrest, had been prepared by Emmet, the leading feature of which was a simultaneous attack on the castle, the Pigeon House and the artillery barracks at Island bridge; while bodies of insurgents from the neighbouring counties were to march on the capital.
Also EGYPT: Military Operations.
In the same year building operations in the Via di Sant' Onofrio revealed the presence of catacombs beneath the foundations: examination of the loculi showed that no martyrs or illustrious persons were buried here.
In the Franco-German War it was seized by the Germans on the 21st of October 1870, and continued during the rest of the campaign an important centre of operations.
Wilberforce, Charles Grant, John Thornton and his son Henry, were among the philanthropists who contributed to his funds; in 1798 the Sunday School Society (established 1785) extended its operations to Wales, making him its agent, and Sunday Schools grew rapidly in number and favour.
The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field.
Butler occupied that city The navigation of the river being secured by this success and by later operations in the north ending in July 1863 with the capture of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the state was wholly at the mercy of the Union armies.
Plantations have increased greatly in size (and also diminished in number), greater capital is involved, bagasse furnaces have been introduced, double grinding mills have increased by more than a half the yield of juice from a given weight of cane, and extractive operations instead of being carried on on all plantations have been (since 1880) concentrated in comparatively few " centrals " (168 in Feb.
Other operations in Cuba were slight.
The operations of addition and multiplication of two given cardinal numbers can be defined by taking two classes a and 13, satisfying the conditions (1) that their cardinal numbers are respectively the given numbers, and (2) that they contain no member in common, and then by defining by reference to a and (3 two other suitable classes whose cardinal numbers are defined to be respectively the required sum and product of the cardinal numbers in question.
The arithmetic of rational numbers is now established by means of appropriate definitions, which indicate the entities meant by the operations of addition and multiplication.
The arithmetic of real numbers follows from appropriate definitions of the operations of addition and multiplication.
Functions, operations, transformations, substitutions, correspondences, are but names for various types of relations.
After 1881 the Mining Company of Bosnia began to develop the coal and iron fields; and from 1886 its operations were continued by the government.
Its converts nevertheless included many of the Bosnian nobles and the ban Kulin (1180-1204), whose reign was long proverbial for its prosperity, owing to the flourishing state of commerce and agriculture, and the extensive mining operations carried on by the Ragusans.
23 and 26), was not easily effected; and, owing to the difficulty of military operations among the mountains, it was necessary to employ a force of 200,000 men.
We cannot ignore the fact that this or that issue of the military operations will facilitate or render more difficult our work of liberation in Russia.
Suleiman was now free to resume operations against Persia.
For the subsequent operations in Egypt, which ended in its evacuation by the French after the British victory at Alexandria, see Egypt: History.
The main operations were confined to the Crimea, where the allied troops landed on the 14th of September 1854, and they were not concluded, in spite of the terrible exhaustion of Russia, till in December 1855 the threatened active intervention of Austria forced the emperor Alexander II.
On the 23rd of December operations were commenced, but the difficulties of securing information and maintaining communication between the respective columns, so unlike what any of the French had previously encountered, led to a very partial success.
Bernadotte, who was to have attacked Lestocq, again failed to receive his orders and took no part in the following operations.
The Peninsular War called for large forces of the old Grande Arsnee and for a brief period Napoleon directed operations in person; and the Austrians took advantage of the dissemination and weakness of the French forces in Germany to push forward their own preparations with renewed energy.
They counselled retreat, but having heard them all he replied, in substance: " If we leave here at all we may as well retire to Strassburg, for unless the enemy is held by the threat Sf further operations he will be free to strike at our communications and has a shorter distance to go.
We must remain here and renew operations as soon as possible."
But on the 4th of February Blucher, chafing at this inaction, obtained the permission of his own sovereign to transfer his line of operations to the valley of the Marne; Pahlen's corps of Cossacks were assigned to him to cover his left and maintain communication with the Austrians.
Naval Operations The French navy came under the direct and exclusive control of Napoleon after the 18th Brumaire.
(For the operations in the Baltic in 1801, see Copenhagen, Battle Of.) The Peace of Amiens proved to be only an uneasy truce, and it was succeeded by open war, on the 18th of May 1803.
In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
The operations of the British fleet were therefore divided between the work of patrolling the ocean roads and ancillary services to diplomacy, or to the armies serving in Italy, Denmark and, after 1808, in Spain.
All the operations connected with the successive invasion schemes are recorded, with exhaustive quotations of documentary evidence, in Projets et tentatives de debarquement aux Iles Britanniques, by Captain Desbriere (Paris, 1901).
The operations of the imperial police in regard to Mme de Stael are rather obscure.
In 1819 he returned to England, and published in the following year an account of his travels and discoveries entitled Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia, &c. He also exhibited during 1820-1821 facsimiles of the tomb of Seti I.
A new street car company began operations on the 1st of November 1906, charging a 3 cent fare.
The blossoms of the peach are formed the autumn previous to their expansion, and this fact, together with the peculiarities of their form and position, requires to be borne in mind by the gardener in his pruning and training operations.
As the conduct of this campaign was largely influenced by the operations of the Spanish forces, it is necessary to mention their positions, and also the fact that greater reliance had been placed, both in England and Spain, upon them than future events justified.
During the above operations, Victor, with Lapisse, had forced the passage of the Tagus at Alcantara but, on Wellesley returning to Abrantes, he retired.
Henceforth he resisted all proposals for joint operations, on any large scale, with Spanish armies not under his own direct command.
This practically closed Wellington's operations for the year 1810, his policy now being not to lose men in battle, but to reduce Massena by hunger and distress.
La Pena, who had in the battle itself failed to give proper support to Graham, would not pursue, and Graham declining to carry on further operations with him, re-entered Cadiz.
In the pursuit, Wellington adhered to his policy of husbanding his troops for future offensive operations, and let sickness and hunger do the work of the sword.
The key to the remaining operations of t811 lies in the importance attached by both Allies and French to the possession of the fortresses which guarded the two great roads from Portugal into Spain - Almeida and Ciudad Rodrigo on the northern, and Badajoz and Elvas on the southern road; all these except Elvas were in French hands.
Thus terminated the main operations of this year.
In this retreat, although military operations were skilfully conducted, the Allies lost 7000 men, and discipline, as in that to Corunna, became much relaxed.
For the operations of this campaign Wellington was created earl, and subsequently marquess of Wellington; duke of Ciudad Rodrigo by Spain, and marquis of Torres Vedras by Portugal.
For the operations of this campaign Wellington was created marquess of Douro and duke of Wellington, and peerages were conferred upon Beresford, Graham and Hill.
Butler, Wellington's Operations in the Peninsula, 1808-14 (London, 1904); Batty, Campaign of the Left Wing of the Allied Army in the Western Pyrenees and South of France, 1813-14 (London, 1823); Foy, Histoire de la guerre de la Peninsule, F&c., sous Napoleon (Paris and London, 1827); Lord Londonderry, Narrative of the Peninsular War, 1808-13 (London, 1829); R.
Hutchinson, Operations in the Peninsula, 1808-9 (London, 1905); The Dickson MSS., being Journals of Major-General Sir Alexander Dickson during the Peninsular War (Woolwich, 1907).
Manlius Vulso, who made it his headquarters in his operations against the tribe.
Again, we may calculate the osmotic work done, and, if the whole cycle of operations be supposed to occur at the same temperature, the osmotic work must be equal and opposite to the electrical work of the first operation.
Ulm is the basis of operations for the German army behind the Black Forest, and can easily shelter a force of ioo,000 men; its peace garrison is 5600.
The theories of determinants and of symmetric functions and of the algebra of differential operations have an important bearing upon this comparatively new branch of mathematics.
Clebsch, P. Gordon, &c. The year 1868 saw a considerable enlargement of the field of operations.
Further, if DA 1 DA 2 denote successive operations of DA 1 and DA2, DX1DA2(x1X2X2...) 2 1 + b l(1) + b (12) + b 2(2) +bi (13) + b 1b2(21) + b 3(3) +...
1 1 where laan and di denotes, not s successive operations of d1, but the operator of order s obtained by raising d l to the s th power symbolically as in Taylor's theorem in the Differential Calculus.
We have obtained the equivalent operations 1 +/lDi+ p2 D2+/ 13D 3 - F ...
di denotes, in fact, an operator of order s, but we may transform the right-hand side so that we are only concerned with the successive performance of linear operations.
1890, p. 490) that exp(mldl +m2d2+m3d3+...) = exp (Midi +M2d2+M3d3+...), where now the multiplications on the dexter denote successive operations, provided that pp t exp(MiE+M2 2+M3E3+...) +mlH+m2V+m3S3+..., being an undetermined algebraic quantity.
in terms of dl, d 2, d 3, ..., products denoting successive operations, by the same law which expresses the ele mentary function a s in terms of the sums of powers s l, s 2, s3,...
It is thus possible to study simultaneously all the theories which depend upon operations of the group. Symbolic Representation of Symmetric Functions.-Denote the s 8 s elementar symmetric function a s by al a 2 a3 ...at pleasure; then, Y y si,, si,...
7r2!...SPIQYP242..ï¿½ Dif f erential Operations.
From the above D p4 is an operator of order pq, but it is convenient for some purposes to obtain its expression in the form of a number of terms, each of which denotes pq successive linear operations: to accomplish this write d ars and note the general result exp (mlodlo+moldol +...
d d the last written relation having, in regard to each term on th right-hand side, to do with 17r successive linear operations.
Recalling the formulae above which connect s P4 and a m, we see that dP4 and Dp q are in co-relation with these quantities respectively, and may be said to be operations which correspond to the partitions (pq), (10 P 01 4) respectively.
We have seen that transvection is equivalent to the performance of partial differential operations upon the two forms, but, practically, we may regard the process as merely substituting (ab) k, (OW for azbx, 4x t ' respectively in the symbolic product subjected to transvection.
The process of transvection is connected with the operations 12; for?k (a m b n) = (ab)kam-kbn-k, (x y x y or S 2 k (a x by) x = 4))k; so also is the polar process, for since f k m-k k k n - k k y = a x by, 4)y = bx by, if we take the k th transvectant of f i x; over 4 k, regarding y,, y 2 as the variables, (f k, 4)y) k (ab) ka x -kb k (f, 15)k; or the k th transvectant of the k th polars, in regard to y, is equal to the kth transvectant of the forms. Moreover, the kth transvectant (ab) k a m-k b: -k is derivable from the kth polar of ax, viz.
The extraction of the metal from pure (or nearly pure) galena is the simplest of all metallurgical operations.
In Wales and the south of England the process is conducted in a reverberatory furnace, the sole of which is paved with slags from previous operations, and has a depression in the middle where the metal formed collects to be let off by a tap-hole.
In this way continuous working has been rendered possible, whereas formerly operations had to be stopped every twelve or fifteen hours to allow the over-heated blocks and furnace to cool down.
If the lead is to be liquated and then brought to a bright-red heat, both operations are carried on in the same reverberatory furnace.
But common-sense and conscience are quite as definite guides as logic or authority; and there seems no good reason for refusing to give the name of casuistry to their operations.
Formerly used in every fever, and even in the septic states that constantly followed surgical operations in the pre-Listerian epoch, aconite is now employed only in the earliest stage of the less serious fevers, such as acute tonsilitis, bronchitis and, notably, laryngitis.
The result of the operations consolidated the Latvian Government.
The latter, however, made it the base of his operations against the Romans in 89, 72 and 67 B.C. Pompey made it a free city in 65, after Mithradates' fall.
The rebellion of the Banda Oriental was followed by a declaration of war with Buenos Aires which had supported it, and operations by sea and land were conducted against that republic in a feeble way.
The extensive building operations engaged in by the town council in the early part of the, 9th century resulted in the insolvency of the city in 1833.
But the king himself worked hard in hearing lawsuits, in holding councils and ceremonious courts, in travelling between England and Normandy, and finally in conducting military operations.
As the London Convention had stipulated that there should be no trespassing on the part of the Boers over their specified boundaries, and as Natal had been the basis for those operations against the Zulus on the part of the British in 187 9, which alone made such an annexation of territory possible, a strong feeling was once more aroused in Natal.
It controlled the operations for improving the sea entrance until 1893, when on the establishment of responsible government it was abolished.
In 1906 municipal disabilities were imposed upon Asiatics, and in 1907 a Dealers' Licences Act was passed with the object, and effect, of restricting the trading operations of Indians.
Moreover, the ideas which are usually formed on these points at an early stage are incomplete; and, if the incompleteness of an idea is not realized, operations in which it is implied are apt to be purely formal and mechanical.
Order of Arithmetical Operations.
- It is important, before beginning the study of algebra, to have a clear idea as to the meanings of the symbols used to denote arithmetical operations.
- The equation exists, without being shown as an equation, in all those elementary arithmetical processes which come under the head of inverse operations; i.e.
(iii.) Where the direct operation is evolution, for which there is no commutative law, the two inverse operations are different in kind.
It is true that we obtain this result by subtracting 3 from io by means of a subtractiontable (concrete or ideal); but this table merely gives the generalized results of a number of operations of addition or subtraction performed with concrete units.
This is due to the fact that there are really two kinds of subtraction, respectively involving counting forwards (complementary addition) and counting backwards (ordinary subtraction); and it suggests that it may be wise not to use the one symbol - to represent the result of both operations until the commutative law for addition has been fully grasped.
There we proceeded from the direct to the inverse operations.
so far as the nature of arithmetical operations is concerned, we launched out on the unknown.
This states that the two operations give the same result; i.e.
and pay 5s., with a net result of +2s., the order of the operations is immaterial.
the idea of (-5) as a number with which we can perform such operations as multiplication comes later (ï¿½ 49)ï¿½ (ii.) On the other hand, the conception of a fractional number follows directly from the use of fractions, involving the subdivision of a unit.
But even so there are two distinct operations concerned in the-3, viz.
From this point of view, the function which, by algebraical operations on i+o.x+o.x2+..., produces the series, is called its generating function.
They are (a+b)-?-c=a+(b+c) (A) (aXb)Xc=aX(bXc) (A') a+b=b+a (c) aXb=bXa (c') a(b c) =ab-Fac (D) (a - b)+b=a (I) (a=b)Xb=a (I') These formulae express the associative and commutative laws of the operations + and X, the distributive law of X, and the definitions of the inverse symbols - and =, which are assumed to be unambiguous.
Evolution and involution are usually regarded as operations of ordinary algebra; this leads to a notation for powers and roots, and a theory of irrational algebraic quantities analogous to that of irrational numbers.
The operations + and X obey all the ordinary laws A, C, D (ï¿½ 3) .
From A Merely Formal Point Of View, We Have In The Barycentric Calculus A Set Of " Special Symbols Of Quantity " Or " Extraordinaries " A, B, C, &C., Which Combine With Each Other By Means Of Operations And Which Obey The Ordinary Rules, And With Ordinary Algebraic Quantities By Operations X And =, Also According To The Ordinary Rules, Except That Division By An Extraordinary Is Not Used.
The algebras discussed up to this point may be considered as independent in the sense that each of them deals with a class of symbols of quantity more or less homogeneous, and a set of operations applying to them all.
Sir Isaac Newton introduced the term Universal Arithmetic, since it is concerned with the doctrine of operations, not affected on numbers, but on general symbols.
Although this transition from the discontinuous to continuous is not truly scientific, yet it materially augmented the development of algebra, and Hankel affirms that if we define algebra as the application of arithmetical operations to both rational and irrational numbers or magnitudes, then the Brahmans are the real inventors of algebra.
Michael Stifel and Johann Scheubelius (Scheybl) (1494-1570) flourished in Germany, and although unacquainted with the work of Cardan and Tartalea, their writings are noteworthy for their perspicuity and the introduction of a more complete symbolism for quantities and operations.
The mining operations are chiefly centred in the Sierra Mojada, Sierra Carmen, and in the Santa Rosa valley.
On the other hand, the vast number of experiments in the cropping of the tails and ears of domestic animals, as well as of similar operations on man, are attended with negative results.
Having been appointed to the command of the operations against Jugurtha, he at first carried on the campaign energetically, but soon, having been heavily bribed, concluded a disgraceful peace.
Operations began in 1873 but in 1880 the machinery was destroyed by the Boers.
Fortunately, although the draft of an ultimatum was lying in the state secretary's office in Pretoria, the Boers, unprepared in departmental arrangements which are necessary in large military operations, were unable to take the field with the promptitude that the situation demanded.
The fifth, and last period - which, after all other expedients had failed, finally brought the residue of uncaptured and unsurrendered burghers to submission - was the final development of the blockhouse system, wedded to the institution of systematic. " driving " of given areas, which operations were in force until the 31st of May 1902, when peace was ratified at Pretoria.
But these were minor operations.
Against this force there advanced a Boer force under Lukas Meyer from the east, and, more slowly, the foremost portion of the main Boer army from the north, while at the same time other Transvaalers descended upon the railway between Glencoe and Ladysmith, and the Free Staters from the passes of the Drakensberg advanced towards Ladysmith, the British centre of - operations at which the reinforcements sent from India gathered.
The extent of the operations and the gravity of the situation now began to be felt in England; every available man was called up from the reserves, and the war office made what at the time appeared to be adequate provision for the waste which it was seen would occur.
Roberts began his operations on the 11th of February.
It was part of Roberts's purpose to relieve the pressure in Natal by his own operations.
Buller's operations, too, had cost at Colenso r roo men, at Spion Kop r 700, at Vaalkrantz 400, and now in the last long-drawn effort 16 oo more - over s000 in all.
As the British line of operations now extended eastward from Pretoria, the advance of these Boers to the Magaliesberg threatened their rearward communications, and as Buller had moved far more slowly than the main army there was not as yet an alternative line through Natal.
Most serious of all was the pressure between Bloemfontein and the Vaal, where the Free Staters, under De Wet and other commanders, had initiated the guerrilla as soon as Botha and the Transvaalers retired over the Vaal and ceased to defend them by regular operations.
From October the military operations were confined to attempts to reduce guerrilla commandos which had taken the field.
He determined to make the area of operations a waste, and instituted the concentration camps, into which he intended to bring the whole of the noncombatant inhabitants of the two republics.
About the same time, the force in front of De la Rey and Kemp in the west being depleted to find the troops for larger operations, the Boers made a fierce surprise attack on Colonel Kekewich's column at Moedville, in which Kekewich was wounded and his troops hard pressed for a time.
The consequent small gold output meant a serious decrease of revenue, which was not compensated for by the heavy tax levied on the output of the Premier diamond mine, where operations began in 1903.
It may be convenient to use the terms "vitality" and "vital force" to denote the causes of certain great groups of natural operations, as we employ the names of "electricity" and "electrical force" to denote others; but it ceases to be proper to do so, if such a name implies the absurd assumption that "electricity" and "vitality" are entities playing the part of efficient causes of electrical or vital phenomena.
upon its construction, and, on the other, upon the energy supplied to it; and to speak of "vitality" as anything but the name of a series of operations is as if one should talk of the "horologity" of a clock.
The operations in the metallurgy of tin may be enumerated as: (1) mining and dressing, (2) smelting, (3) refining.
in diameter, leaves the stamps in suspension in water, and passes through a series of troughs in which the heavier mineral is collected; this then passes through a series of washing operations, which leaves a mixture consisting chiefly of tinstone and arsenical pyrites, which is calcined and washed again, until finally black tin containing about 60 to 65% of metal is left.
He urged that history is not to be treated as an exact science, and that the effects of individual character and the operations of the human will necessarily render generalizations vague and consequently useless.
Both have suffered heavily from military operations, but still they have remained the basis of Venezuelan wealth and progress.
But his subordinate rank gave him no chance to impart a greater measure of energy to the naval operations.
2nd) then put an end to operations.
Small armies moving freely within a large theatre of war, the occupation of hostile territory as a primary object of operations, the absence of a decision-compelling spirit on either side, the hostile political "view" over-riding the hostile "feeling" - all these conditions remind the student of those of 17th and 18th century warfare.
For various reasons, however, poverty and personal inclination among others, he did not take a prominent part in the military operations of this period.
Gaines took a prominent part in the operations against the Seminoles in Florida in 1817 (when he was in command of the Southern Military District) and in 1836 and during the Mexican War commanded the department of the South-West, with headquarters at New Orleans.
Experimental pathology has benefited by the use of antiseptic surgery in operations upon animals, and by the adoption of exact methods of recording.
to Constance, Lady Despenser, in September 1403, but it was shortly afterwards taken by Owen Glyndwr, to whose mining operations tradition ascribes the leaning position of a large IV.
In the description of surgical operations the vagueness of the language seems sometimes to show that the author had not performed such himself; but in other parts, and especially in his historical introduction, he speaks with more confidence; and everywhere he compares and criticizes with learning and judgment.
Before Darwin - if the name of Darwin may be used to signify the transformation of thought of which he was the chief artificer - natural objects were regarded, not in medicine and pathology only, as a set of hidebound events; and natural operations as moving in fixed grooves, after a fashion which it is now difficult for us to realize.
In operations for diseases of the pelvis, ovarian dropsy, cancer of the uterus, and other grave diseases of the region, success has been stupendous.
The Roman general Paulinus Suetonius, after marching rapidly from Wales to put down a serious insurrection, found Londinium unfitted for a base of military operations, and therefore left the place to the mercy of Boadicea, who entirely destroyed it, and killed the inhabitants.
In the reign of Ã†thelred II., called the Unready (but more correctly the Redeless), the Danes were more successful in their operations against London, but the inhabitants resisted stoutly.
Early in the 18th century there was a considerable extension of building operations in the West End.
The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
Mining may be subdivided into the operations of prospecting or search for minerals, exploration and development, work preparatory to active operations, and working.
Finally, under the heads of administration, mine valuation, mining education, accidents, hygiene and mining law, will be discussed matters having important bearing on mining operations.
Work undertaken to secure this information must be distinguished from prospecting, which is the search for mineral deposits and from development, work undertaken to prepare for actual mining operations.
This is a recognized and legitimate business risk, differing only in degree from the risks attending all business operations.
By sinking additional pits or by extending the costeaning trenches and uncovering the outcrop of the deposit more fully it is sometimes possible to obtain all the information required for the most extensive and important mining operations.
In the case of such altered deposits surface exploration alone is likely to be misleading, and it is important to push the underground exploration far enough to reach the unaltered part of the deposit, or at least deep enough to make it certain that there is a sufficient quantity of altered or enriched ore to form the basis of profitable mining operations.
As soon as it appears reasonably certain that the property is workable the mine will be opened by one or more shafts, drifts or tunnels, and the underground passages for active mining operations will be started.
In irregular and uncertain deposits this work of development should be kept at all times so far in advance of mining operations as to ensure a regular and uniform output.
A mine, however, may be over-developed, which results in loss of interest on the capital unnecessarily locked up for years by excessive development, and involves additional cost for the maintenance of such openings until they are needed for active mining operations.
By the use of rock-filling it is even possible to dispense with pillars of mineral; or, if pillars are left, the use of rock-filling greatly facilitates subsequent robbing operations.
Taking into account the risk attending all mining operations, which make necessary large interest and amortization charges on the cost of a tunnel, it will in most cases be advisable to raise the water to the surface by mechanical means.
In mining operations explosives are used on a large scale and the powder gases contain large quantities of the very poisonous gas, carbon monoxide, a small percentage of which may cause death, and even a minute percentage of which in the air will seriously affect the health.
This has a serious effect on the health and efficiency of the workmen employed, and in extreme cases may even result in increased cost of mining operations.
The possibility of hoisting and pumping from great depths has been discussed, and it remains now to consider the other conditions which will tend to limit mining operations in depth - namely, increase of temperature and increase of rock pressure.
In the Comstock mines at Virginia City, Nevada, it is possible to continue mining operations at rock temperatures of 130° F.
When the deposit is exhausted the company must be wound up or its operations transferred to some other locality.
In addition mining operations are subject to interruption and added expense from explosions, mine fires, flooding, and the caving-in of the workings.
In order to determine the probable profit and life of the mine a definite scale of operations must be assumed, the money required for development and plant and for working capital must be estimated, the methods of mining and treating the ore determined, and their probable cost estimated.
The training of a mining engineer merely begins in the schools, and mining graduates should serve an apprenticeship before they accept responsibility for important mining operations.
To lessen the danger from blasting operations the use of special safety explosives is required in Great Britain and some European countries.
This seems to be due to the dust abundantly produced in mining operations, and especially by machine drills when boring " dry " (rising) blast holes.
Vertical interval British front /ine before authorities, an almost indispensable preliminary to the undertaking of warlike operations against Constantinople and the Bosporus by fighting forces coming from the west.
But the fleet also included two semidreadnoughts (" Lord Nelson," " Agamemnon "), the battlecruiser " Inflexible " and the newly completed " Queen Elizabeth," 1 On the naval operations, see also the article Naval History Of The War.
In view of what had occurred the Allied Governments decided that in further operations full use must be made of the gathering army, and from this time onwards the military began to assume the principal role in the effort of the Entente to secure command of the Dardanelles.
But Sir Ian Hamilton judged it to be inexpedient to initiate land operations at once.
At the time however when active operations began the 42nd Division and one of the French divisions could 1 The chief naval incidents of this month were: - a raid by the Turkish destroyer " Demir Hissar " which sank the British transport " Manitou " on March 16, but had to be blown up next day off Chios to avoid capture; an attempt of the British submarine E15 to enter the Straits, which led to her being forced ashore (April 16) and in the sequel to her destruction by a daring boat's crew from the " Majestic " (April 18); bombardments of the defences of Smyrna on March 28, April 6 and April 22; and operations at Gaza and El Arish on the Syrian coast by the French battleship " St.
From the Black Sea the Russian naval forces bombarded the Bosporus defences on March 28; some fruitless operations were then carried out against the "Goeben " and " Breslau " (in the course of which the Turkish cruiser " Medjidieh " was sunk off Odessa (April 3), and on April 25, the day of the landing in the Peninsula, and on May 2, the Bosporus defences were again shelled.
Hamilton contemplated two distinct major operations.
The beaches which had been selected were, enumerating from right to left, " S " in Morto Bay, " V " and " W " on either side of Cape Helles at the south-western end, and " X " and " Y " on the outer shore; " V " and " W " were regarded as of primary importance, as those two beaches offered suitable landing places from the point of view of subsequent operations.
The invaders of Helles had secured but a precarious foothold on Ottoman soil by the morning of the 26th, twenty-four hours after starting operations; but fair progress was made by them during the course of this second day.
The French had from the outset favoured operations on the further side of the Straits, and the expediency suggested itself of either throwing the whole Allied army in that direction, or else of diverting the reinforcements thither as a detached contingent.
of the Straits connoted disembarkation in face of opposition, and, even supposing the landing to be successful, the force would start work much further from the Narrows than were either Helles or Anzac. Then again, to plant down a portion of the Allied troops on one side of the Straits, while continuing operations on the other side, would mean voluntary dispersion of resources in place of concentration.
The scheme of operations for the capture of the Sari Bair mountain mass was that the force detailed for this enterprise should move out in several columns from the northern end of the Anzac position along the low ground near the shore, after dark on the evening of the 6th.
It is true that as a result of the operations the area in occupation of the Allies in this quarter had been greatly extended in a northerly direction, so much so indeed that little difficulty was experienced by Gen.
The carefully devised scheme of operations from which they had expected so much had come to naught in its most important features.
As had been the case at Helles and at Anzac ever since the first opening of land operations in April, only a restricted patch of Ottoman territory had been obtained by the new undertaking, and although the position at Anzac had been extended and improved it remained an extremely bad one.
Embarkation operations were carried on almost entirely at " V " and " W " beaches, at both of which there were provisional breakwaters in existence furnishing some shelter when there was an onshore breeze.
He held a brigade command in the war against Tippoo, and served under Cornwallis in the Seringapatam operations of 1792, being promoted colonel in 1795.
He arrived before Alexandria in time for the final operations.
Commodore Sir Home Popham persuaded Sir David to lend him troops for an expedition against Buenos Aires; the successive failures of operations against this place involved the recall of Baird, though on his return home he was quickly re-employed as a divisional general in the Copenhagen expedition of 1807.
Throughout most of the villages in the rural tracts men, women and children all take part in the agricultural operations, although in riverine villages whole families often support themselves from the sale of petty commodities and eatables.
The military operations, which will be found described under Burmese Wars, ended in the treaty of Yandaboo on the 24th of February 1826, which conceded the British terms and enabled their army to be withdrawn.
C. Rigby, History of the Operations in Northern Arakan and the Yawdwin Chin Hills (Rangoon, 1897); Sir J.
In this process, however, the entire operations of splitting and flattening are retained, and although the mechanical process is said to be in successful commercial operation, it has not as yet made itself felt as a formidable rival to hand-made sheet-glass.
In most modern works the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power and subsequently electrical power having been successfully applied to this purpose; the handling of the great weights of glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible without the aid of machinery.
The quality of plasticity is developed to very different degrees in different metals, and even in the same species it depends on temperature, and may be modified by mechanical or physical operations.
But all these operations render the metals harder, and detract from their plasticity.
It has in general one value for the powdery metal as obtained by reduction of the oxide in hydrogen below the melting point of the metal, another for the metal in the state which it assumes spontaneously on freezing, and this latter value, in general, is modified by hammering, rolling, drawing, &c. These mechanical operations do not necessarily add to the density; stamping, it is true, does so necessarily, but rolling or drawing occasionally causes a diminution of the density.
But of the rest the majority, when treated with boiling sufficiently strong alkali, are attacked at least superficially; of ordinary metals only gold, platinum, and silver are perfectly proof against the reagents under consideration, and these accordingly are used preferably for the construction of vessels intended for analytical operations involving the use of aqueous caustic alkalis.
Yet tons of caustic soda are fused daily in chemical works in iron pots without thereby suffering contamination, which seems to show that (clean) iron, like gold and silver, is attacked only by the joint action of fused alkali and air, the influence of the latter being of course minimized in large-scale operations.
A column of about 600 men cooperated with French forces in the operations in Cameroon and other units aided in the defence of northern Rhodesia.
The operations of the army were extended in 1880 to the United States, in 1881 to Australia, and spread to the European continent, to India, Ceylon and elsewhere, "General" Booth himself being an indefatigable traveller, organizer and speaker.
At the same time, it delights the pure theorist by the simplicity of the logic with which the fundamental theorems may be established, and by the elegance of its mathematical operations, insomuch that hydrostatics may be considered as the Euclidean pure geometry of mechanical science.
On his return he assisted his father in surveying the Stockton & Darlington and Liverpool && Manchester lines, but in 1824 he accepted an engagement in South America to take charge of the engineering operations of the Colombian Mining Association of London.
In the War of 1812 Whitehall was fortified and was a base of supplies for American operations against Canada.
The king disposed his men (the whole chapter is specially interesting for the full details it gives of the nature of ancient military operations), and after totally destroying Shechem, proceeded against Thebez, which had also revolted.
The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of sugar from beetroots differ, but there are five operations in the production of the sugar of commerce from either material which are common to both processes.
In places where work is carried on day and night throughout the week, the standard type of evaporator lends itself more readily to cleaning operations than any other.
In beetroot sugar manufacture the operations are washing, slicing, diffusing, saturating, sulphuring, evaporation, concentration and curing.
On this account deeper tillage than usual, which allows of easier penetration of roots, or the carrying out of operations which bring the subsoil to the surface, must always be carefully considered.
In practice, however, we never have to deal with pure zinc minerals, but with complex mixtures, which must first of all be subjected to mechanical operations, to remove at least part of the gangue, and if possible also of the heavy metallic impurities.
On a direct-fired furnace at least one man, the brigadier, must be an expert in all the operations involved; but with a gas furnace a division of labour is possible.
Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.
The choice was unexpected, but Meade justified it by his conduct of the operations, and in the famous three days' battle he inflicted a complete defeat on General Lee's army.
Manzoni in 1887 have led to a fairly complete knowledge of all that part of the province west of the capital Sana; while in 1902-1904 the operations of the Anglo-Turkish boundary commission permitted the execution of a systematic topographical survey of the British protectorate from the Red Sea to the Wadi Bana, 30 m.
Niebuhr did not go inland from Muscat; the operations by a British Indian force on the Pirate coast in 1810 gave no opportunities for visiting the interior, and it was not till 1835 that J.
The scale of the operations may be judged from the fact that the total number of troops mobilized up to the beginning of July 1905 amounted to 126 battalions, 8 squadrons and 15 batteries; the rebel leader Mahommed Yahiya had at this time a following of 50,000.
There is a third class of operations, exemplified by the manufacture of calcium carbide, in which electricity is employed.
Calcium carbide, graphite, phosphorus and carborundum are now extensively manufactured by the operations outlined above.
Of his purely historical works special mention must be made of his Memoire sur les actes d'Innocent III (1857), and his Memoire sur les operations financieres des Templiers (1889), a collection of documents of the highest value for economic history.
It seems very probable that the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for cutting timber did not confine their operations simply to what would now be termed cedars and fir-trees.
He also controlled, with consummate ability, the operations of the brand-new Russian diplomatists at the various foreign courts.
The Peruvians in the interior refused to recognize President Iglesias, and at once began active operations to overthrow his authority on the final departure of the Chilean troops.
A more general designation is "pyrogenic processes," which also includes such operations as leading vapours through red-hot tubes and condensing the products.
water free from salts and to some extent of the dissolved gases which are always present in natural waters, is of indispensable value in many operations both of scientific and industrial chemistry.
treat of the sea and the dry land: they discourse of the seas, the ocean and the great rivers, agricultural operations, metals, precious stones, plants, herbs, with their seeds, grains and juices, trees wild and cultivated, their fruits and their saps.
The terrible cost of these operations did not check him: only on one occasion of grave peril were any troops sent from his lines to serve elsewhere, and he drew to himself the bulk of the men whom the Union government was recruiting by thousands for the final effort.
Meanwhile all the other campaigns had been closely supervised by Grant, preoccupied though he was with the operations against his own adversary.
He took part in the operations about Saratoga, and for a short time in 1778 and again in 1781 he was commander of the northern department.
Making Calcutta the base of his operations, he at once identified himself with a policy which had far-reaching results.
The continuation of the same wall round its southern half has been in great measure obliterated by the operations of the modern vent, which has built a younger cone upon it, and is gradually filling up the hollow of the prehistoric crater.
In the year 1776, General Howe sent a detachment of his army under General Henry Clinton to seize Newport as a base of operations for reducing New England, and the city was occupied by the British on the 8th of December 1776.
In 1762, at the age of eighteen, he went up to Konigsberg with the intention of studying medicine, but finding himself unequal to the operations of the dissecting-room, he abandoned this object, and, by the help of one or two friends and his own self-supporting labours, followed out his earlier idea of the clerical profession by joining the university.
His health continued poor, and a fistula in the eye, from which he had suffered from early childhood, and to cure which he had undergone a number of painful operations, continued to trouble him.
It thus stands in sharp contrast to the anthropology of Kant, which opposes human development conceived as the gradual manifestation of a growing faculty of rational free will to the operations of physical nature.
This old factory has also played its part in the civil wars of the country since 1840, becoming a fortress whenever Queretaro became involved in military operations.
A grammar school was founded in 1713, the operations of which have been extended so as to embrace a trade school (1871) for boys, and a grammar school for girls.
Numerous operations of luting, sizing, lacquering, polishing, drying, rubbing down, and so on, are performed by the nurimono-shi, until, after many days treatment, the object emerges with a smooth, lustrelike dark-grey or colored surface, and is ready to pass into the hands of the makie-shi, or decorator.
The latter is an artist; those who have performed the preliminary operations are merely skilled artisans.
So fierce was the antagonism that the military authorities refused to permit operations of survey in the southern suburb of Tokyo, and the road had to be laid on an embankment constructed in the sea.
In 1874 he published a Narrative of Military Operations during the Civil War.
Use has been made of electrolysis in tanning operations, the current being passed through the tan-liquors containing the hides.
Under McClellan he commanded a division of infantry in the Peninsular campaign, and directed the Union siege operations against Yorktown, and he was soon afterwards placed in command of the V.
He showed symptoms of dropsy, and operations only procured him temporary relief.
During the campaign of 1866 he received the command of an army consisting of four army corps; he was assisted by General von Blumenthal, as chief of the staff, but took a very active part in directing the difficult operations by which his army fought its way through the mountains from Silesia to Bohemia, fighting four engagements in three days, and showed that he possessed genuine military capacity.
His business operations at this period appear to have been extensive and various.
Resuming operations in 354, Philip, in spite of temporary checks at the hands of Chares, and the spasmodic opposition of a VII.
But the actual doctrine taught by Massenbach, who was now a colonel, may be summarized as the doctrine of positions carried to a ludicrous excess; the claims put forward for the general staff, that it was to prepare cut-anddried plans of operations in peace which were to be imposed on the troop leaders in war, were derided by the responsible generals; and the memoirs on proposed plans of campaign to suit certain political combinations were worked out in quite unnecessary detail.
Massenbach's influence clouded all the Prussian operations.
He had already prepared for a further advance by making an expedition into the heart of Mississippi as far as Meridian, destroying railways and making impracticable, for a season, the transfer of military operations to that region; and on Grant becoming general-in-chief (March 1864) he was made commander of the military division of the Mississippi, including his Army of the Tennessee, now under McPherson, the Army of the Cumberland, under Thomas, and the Army of the Ohio, under Schofield.
Making detachments for garrisons and minor operations in a theatre of war over 500 m.
Various special keys have been invented for performing the electrical operations expeditiously.
In view of operations against Corinth, Mississippi, Grant's army had ascended the Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing and there disembarked, while the co-operating army under Buell moved across country from Nashville to join it.
He visited the Hotel-Dieu morning and evening, performing at each_ time several operations, lectured to vast throngs of students,.
In his operations he was remarkable for his skill and dexterity, and for his great readiness of resource.
Any closed path or figure, such as ABCD, represents a complete cycle or series of operations, in the course of which the substance is restored to its original state with respect to temperature, intrinsic energy and other properties.
The Thuggee and Dacoity department continued to exist until 1904, though its operations had long been confined to the suppression of organized robbery in native states.
The spiritual operations of the Army at once rapidly expanded in spite of much disorderly opposition in some places.
Statistics of Spiritual Operations (Compiled from the "S.A.
Summary of Social Operations throughout the World (Compiled from the "S.A.
Manson in The Salvation Army and the Public, a work which led to much public discussion of the Army's religious, social and financial operations and methods.
No doubt the later indigitamenta (" bidding-prayers") which give us detailed lists of the spirits which preside over the various actions of the infant, or the stages in the marriage ceremony, or the agricultural operations of the farmer, are due in a large measure to deliberate pontifical elaboration, but they are a true indication of the Roman attitude of mind, which reveals itself continually in the analysis of the cults of the household or the festivals of the agricultural year.
It is necessary to remember this when the somewhat erratic and irregular character of the operations which followed is judged.
This decrease was largely caused by the practical suspension for many years of the hydraulic mining operations, in preparation for which millions of dollars had been expended in deep tunnels, flumes, &c., and the active continuance of which might have been expected to yield some £2,000,000 of gold annually.
After September 1899 operations were suspended, almost entirely owing to the Boer War, but on the 2nd of May 1901 they were started again.
In all cases the quartz or other vein stuff must be reduced to a very fine powder as a preliminary to further operations.
The process embraces three operations: (1) Solution of the gold; (2) precipitation of the gold; (3) treatment of the precipitate.
The process embraces four operations: (1) the preparation of an alloy suitable for parting; (2) the treatment with sulphuric acid; (3) the treatment of the residue for gold; (4) the treatment of the solution for silver.
The acid treatment is generally carried out in cast iron pots; platinum vessels used to be employed, while porcelain vessels are only used for small operations, e.g.
For operations in special districts see J.
Kuprili's restless energy continued to the last, exhibiting itself on one side in wholesale executions, on the other in vast building operations.
On the irth of December following the French force withdrew, returning home via Abyssinia (see AFRICA, § 5, and EGYPT: History, and Military Operations).
But Kunze thinks that it was not used as a base of operations against Eutyches because there is some evidence that Monophysites were willing to accept it.
coexistent and coeternal with God, limiting His operations, and the cause of the evil and imperfection which, notwithstanding the benevolence of the Creator, is still to be found in His work.
(afterwards the first governor) to assume, on the 9th of February 1799, the provisional administration of Malta and to superintend operations on land.
A marine force was raised to stop smuggling; and the subtraction of coal during coaling operations was stopped by drastic legislation.
the fortress was strengthened by a circle of detached forts, which, after 1870, were modified and completed by the Germans, who treated the fortress as the principal pivot of offensive operations against France.
Marshal Bazaine had meanwhile arrived on the scene, and ordering forward fresh troops to relieve (not to reinforce) those already engaged, he rode forward with a horse artillery battery to watch the operations.
Again there was a lull in the operations.
Considerable confusion arose from the convergence of these three brigades upon one village, and more than an hour passed before the troops could be disentangled and massed for further operations.