The figures ran through our operation like a train past a no-stop station.
Now I'm able to adjust my method of operation accordingly.
This might be the adoption of commercial standards as well as the creation and operation of a civil court system and laws.
Was this a possible way to salvage our operation that otherwise was doomed to wreckage?
His health was ruined by his debaucheries, and a surgical operation became necessary.
Most Guardians did, including Dusty, who personally oversaw every operation in his hemisphere.
I guess if the operation fails, I'll die anyway, right?
"No. You're in charge of this operation," Dusty said with some effort.
The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.
Was it because of the operation — because of what they had been through?
The level of activity at Norfolk Police Headquarters made Parkside's much smaller operation look like the front porch of an old folk home.
Punishment may take forms varying from capital punishment, flogging and mutilation of the body to imprisonment, fines, and even deferred sentences which come into operation only if an offence is repeated within a specified time.
Her face wore the proud expression of a surgeon who has just performed a difficult operation and admits the public to appreciate his skill.
Lana stood in the silence outside the operation room, exhausted and worried.
Deidre didn't remember what this operation was supposed to do.
Our operation is unraveling in front of us.
Prince Andrew, seeing that his father insisted, began--at first reluctantly, but gradually with more and more animation, and from habit changing unconsciously from Russian to French as he went on--to explain the plan of operation for the coming campaign.
To make sure my … operation went well.
A'Ran was gone indefinitely for a surge operation in his war, leaving her alone with her thoughts.
On the question of how far the effects are due to conduction between the earth plates, and how far to true electromagnetic induction, authorities differ, some being of opinion that the two effects are in operation together.
The function of the " combiner " in each receiving instrument is so to group the received combination of positive and negative currents that they operate polarized relays in such a manner that the position of the tongues corresponds with the operation of the levers on the transmitter.
James Bowman Lindsay of Dundee, between 1845 and 1854, reinvented and even patented Morse's method, and practically put the plan into operation for experimental purposes across the river Tay.
In his old age he was blinded by cataract, but recovered his eyesight by the operation of couching.
Eventually the difficulty was overcome by the device of an educational test based on the provisions of an act in operation in Natal.
When the pressure on one side of the diaphragm thus becomes greater than that on the other, work may be done at the expense of heat in pushing the diaphragm, and the operation carried on with continual gain of work until the gases are uniformly diffused.
Every operation in which mind and matter are both concerned is an effect of neither, but the direct act of God.
My mind jingled with questions of recidivism of his souls, the operation he'd alleged to have personally endured and if others had followed suit, or, if he encouraged them to do so.
A slave bore an identification mark, which could only be removed by a surgical operation and which later consisted of his owner's name tattoed or branded on the arm.
This form of electric wave detector proved itself to be far more certain in operation and sensitive than anything previously invented.
The whole of this operation represents a dot and a dash or the letter " a."
For the first few days the operation proceeded satisfactorily, though slowly, but on the afternoon of the 11th, when 380 m.
The system was put into practical operation in 1887 on the Lehigh Valley railroad in the United States, and worked well, but was abandoned because it apparently fulfilled no real public want.
Any of our infrequent visitors or friends asking about the operation quickly developed a bleary look when we tried to explain what we did for a living.
When I informed him we were terminating our operation, he said he'd have suggested it if we hadn't already done so.
The dark product obtained is washed with water, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and finally calcined again with the oxide or with borax, being protected from air during the operation by a layer of charcoal.
This operation occupies about twelve seconds, giving a message written in column form ready for delivery.
The reforms which it was to bring about were eagerly and impatiently demanded by the public. This great operation had to be effected without interrupting the public service, and the department had immediately to reduce and to simplify the charges for transmission throughout the kingdom.
This operation occupies about twelve seconds, giving a message written in column form ready for delivery.
To comprehend the real position we are forced to the conviction that the world of facts is the field in which, and that laws are the means by which, those higher standards of moral and aesthetical value are being realized; and such a union can again only become intelligible through the idea of a personal Deity, who in the creation and preservation of a world has voluntarily chosen certain forms and laws, through the natural operation of which the ends of His work are gained.
These articles, however, never came into operation; and the decisions of the synod of Dort in 1578, which made the Church independent were equally fruitless.
Boole was one of the most eminent of those who perceived that the symbols of operation could be separated from those of quantity and treated as distinct objects of calculation.
Thus, 1 - x would represent the operation of selecting all things in the world except horned things, that is, all not horned things, and (1 - x) (1 - y) would give us all things neither horned nor sheep. By the use of such symbols propositions could be reduced to the form of equations, and the syllogistic conclusion from two premises was obtained by eliminating the middle term according to ordinary algebraic rules.
to the piston P. The newly coated wire is passed through a long trough T, containing cold water, until it is sufficiently cold to allow it to be safely wound on a bobbin B' This operation completed, the wire is wound from the bobbin B' on to another, and at the same time carefully examined for air-holes or other flaws, all of which are eliminated.
These articles, however, never came into operation; and the decisions of the synod of Dort in 1578, which made the Church independent were equally fruitless.
The restaurant hours change seasonally, so call for the most current hours of operation.
Ten years were spent in this operation, a full account of which was published by Bouguer in 17 4 9, Figure de la terre determinee.
I suppose there are some people who would consider it unthinkable to keep it in operation.
Is there a leak in you operation?
He and I agreed it would operate totally on its own, unaware of our operation.
I felt if Quinn learned that fact he would want to scrub the entire operation.
God knows, there are enough threats to our operation's survival without her coming on board.
I'm entrusting you with this operation.
He'd begun to think their recruitment standards were slipping until Jake mentioned the operation.
Charlie asked, mentioning the area's last major mining operation.
On paper, they had a ninety percent chance of surviving the operation.
Was that why Gabriel promised her the world if she survived the operation?
Each trip up the side of the mountain grew harder as chaos erupted along the East Coast and drove refugees through Brady's area of operation.
Is it because of the operation?
But these reforms were of necessity slow in their beneficial operation.
He urged on the bill by which Catholics were prohibited from sitting in either House of Parliament, and was bitter in his expressions of disappointment when the Commons passed a proviso excepting James, against whom the bill was especially aimed, from its operation.
So far this form of winning is chiefly carried on in New South Wales, where there are about fifty gold-dredging plants in successful operation.
He argued that, if heat be energy, then, when it is employed in doing work, as in a steam-engine, some of the heat must itself be consumed in the operation.
In the Wheatstone automatic apparatus three levers are placed side by side, each acting on a set of small punches and on mechanism for feeding the paper forward a step after each operation of the levers.
38 6), the insulated wires or plates being upheld by masts, its operation is as follows: - When the key in the primary circuit of the induction coil is pressed the transmitting antenna wire is alternately charged to a high potential and discharged with the production of high frequency oscillations in it.
The whole process is exactly analogous to the operation by which a violin string or organ pipe creates an air or sound wave.
It was found to be peculiarly adapted for communication between ships at sea and between ship and shore, and a system of regular supermarine communication was put into operation by two limited companies, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Company.
Lodge had previously described in 1897 a syntonic system of electric wave telegraphy, but it had not been publicly seen in operation prior to the exhibitions of Marconi and Slaby.'
At a later date a syntonic system comprising, as above stated, an antenna directly coupled to a resonant closed circuit was put into operation by Lodge and Muirhead, and much the same methods have been followed in the system known as the Telefunken system employed in Germany.
In France the scientific study of the subject was advanced by the work of Blondel, Tissot, Ducretet and others, and systems called the Ducretet and Rochefort set in operation.
In some cases when a magneto-generator is employed for calling purposes the coil of the machine is automatically cut out of circuit when it is not in action, and is brought into circuit when the handle is turned by the operation of a centrifugal or other arrangement.
A cord circuit, similar in many respects, including the method .y.^9 Jr '' of operation, but equipped with condensers and impedance coils, in place of the repeating coil, is shown in fig.
The operation of these meters is controlled by the operators.
Several schemes embodying this idea have been developed, and one of them has been put into extensive operation.
Each connexion involves the use of three switches, viz., a first selector, a connector switch, and a second selector which is brought into operation between the other two.
A law came into operation in February 1908, according to which a weekly day of rest (with few exceptions)was established on Sunday in every case in which it was possible, and otherwise upon some other day of the week.
The following table shows the operation of the law of 1875, with the figures of 1871 f or comparison:
No law of nature contains in itself a promise that it shall pass into operation.
A solution of I in 20 is used to sterilize instruments before an operation, and towels or lint to be used for the patient.
This or the biniodide of mercury is the last antiseptic applied to the surgeon's and assistants' hands before an operation begins.
Few can doubt that, if not the whole cause, it is a very important factor in that operation; and that it must play a great part in the sorting out of varieties into those which are transitory and those which are permanent.
Peculiar jurisdictions have been gradually taken away under the operation of the acts establishing the ecclesiastical commissioners.
c. 71, tithe has become, except in a few rare cases, tithe rent charge, and its recovery has been entirely an operation of secular law.
It has been decided in the law courts that a limited liability company is not a person in the eye of the law, and therefore does not come under the operation of the act of 1868.
But, in actual operation, these two processes are simultaneous; every member is developed as an organ for the performance of some special function.
But its operation was in great measure local.
of tramway in operation.
The operation consists in forcing down the 3-in.
The ordinary pleasures of life were for them not merely negligible but positively harmful inasmuch as they interrupted the operation of the will.
From this difference as to the nature of free-will followed by necessary consequence a difference with the Thomists as to the operation of divine grace.
The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
Hitherto the western terminus of this group of lines had been Salt Lake City, Utah; by the exceedingly bold construction of the Western Pacific from Salt Lake City to Oakland, Cal., opposite San Francisco, an additional line to the Pacific coast was provided, having low grades and being in all respects well adapted for cheap operation.
Table Ix.-Route-Mile Capital In Europe Statistical Study of Railway Operation.
- The study of railway operation through statistics has two distinct aspects.
Byers, Economics of Railway Operation (New York, 1908); E.
Private operation, subject only to judicial regulation, was exemplified most fully in the early railway history of the United States.
Most of the improvements in operation and in traffic management have had their origin in one of these two countries.
Operation by private companies, under specific provisions of the government authorities with regard to the method of its exercise, has been the policy consistently carried out in France, and less systematically and consistently in other countries under the domination of the Latin race.
It was believed by its advocates that this system of prescribing the conditions of construction and operation of lines could promote public safety, prevent waste of capital and secure passengers and shippers against extortionate rates.
State operation and ownership is a system which originated in Belgium at the beginning of railway enterprise, and has been consistently carried out by the Scandinavian countries and by Hungary.
In practice its operation is far more uncertain.
- On economics of construction and of operation, see Wellington, The Economic Theory of Railway Location (5th ed., New York, 1896).
state ownership and operation), see an article by Edgar Crammond in the Quarterly Review (London) for October 1909, which cites, among other works on the subject, Clement Edwards's Railway Nationalization (1898); Edwin A.
In cases where statutes did touch the question of regulation, they had to do with the operation of trains and with the provision of facilities for shippers and passengers, rather than with questions of rates.
They had been given power to require complete annual reports from carriers, with a consequent great increase in public knowledge concerning railway operation and practice.
The same operation is repeated with fresh batches of wagons, until the sidings contain a number of trains, each intended, it may be supposed, for a particular town or district.
It then runs back to the train to repeat the operation, but while it is doing so a second engine similarly equipped has poled away a batch of wagons on the opposite side.
In Hungary and Russia a zone-tariff system is in operation, whereby the charge per mile decreases progressively with the length of the journey, the traveller paying according to the number of zones he has passed through and not simply according to the distance traversed.
The Master Car Builders' Association, a great body of mechanical officers organized especially to being about improvement and uniformity in details of construction and operation, expressed its sense of the importance of " self-coupling " so far back as 1874, but no device of the kind that could be considered useful had then been invented.
(For the details of the shield and method of its operation, see Tunnel.) By means of the shield Greathead cut a circular hole at a depth ranging from 40 to 80 ft.
One pair of tracks is used for a local service with stations about one-quarter of a mile apart, following the general plan of operation in vogue on all other intra-urban railways.
This system has the advantage of the greatest convenience in operation, no lifts being required, since the distance from the street surface to the station platform is about 12 to 15 ft.; it has the disadvantages, however, of necessitating the tearing up of the street surface during construction, and the readjustment of sewer, water, gas and electric mains and other subsurface structures, and of having the gradients partially dependent on the surface topography.
In the operation of intra-urban railwa y s, steam locomotives, cables and electricity have severally been tried: the first having been used in the earlier examples of underground lines and in the various elevated systems in the United States.
in operation, and the total mileage authorized was 2603, while the construction of a considerable further mileage was under consideration.
Thury, professor of physics at Geneva, who was also convinced of the operation of an unknown force.
4 For a very complete exposition of the operation of valves in the horn, and of the mathematical proportions to be observed in construction, see Victor Mahillon's "Le Cor," also the article by Gottfried Weber in Caecilia (1835), to which reference was made above.
Another operation brought him some relief; but a relapse occurred during the night of the 15th, and on the following day he peacefully breathed his last.
In connexion with the operation of the Comstock mines was built (in 1869-1879) the Sutro Tunnel, named in honour of its engineer, Adolph Sutro (1830-1898), piercing the mountain horizontally far below the mouth of the mines, and at a distance of nearly 4 m.
It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
The sun is thus slowly contracting; but as it contracts it gains heat by the operation of the law just referred to, and thus the further cooling and further contraction of the sun is protracted until the additional heat obtained is radiated away.
Newcomb: "At the present time we can only say that the nebular hypothesis is indicated by the general tendencies of the laws of nature, that it has not been proved to be inconsistent with any fact, that it is almost a necessary consequence of the only theory by which we can account for the origin and conservation of the sun's heat, but that it rests on the assumption that this conservation is to be explained by the laws of nature as we now see them in operation.
The law against blasphemy has practically ceased to be put in active operation.
A cotton mill was erected in Lincoln county about 1813, and by 1840 about 25 small mills were in operation within the state.
Although the foregoing account of the temperatures of Asia supplies the main outline of the observed phenomena, a very important modifying cause, of which more will be said hereafter, comes into operation over the whole of the tropical region, namely, the periodical summer rains.
Although the succession of the periodical winds follows the progress of the seasons as just described, the changes in the wind's direction everywhere take place under the operation of special local influences which often disguise the more general law, and make it difficult to trace.
Among the industries of the men were printing (in both English and German), book binding, tanning, quarrying, and the operation of a saw milI,.
It was a difficult operation, for the French and Spaniards had in all 46 line-of-battle ships to his 33, and in the exhausted state of the country it was impossible to fit his ships properly or to supply them with good crews.
It is true that the dioptric apparatus was perfected independently by Fresnel, who had also the satisfaction of being the first to put it into operation.
It is also an important mining region, having a large number of silver mines in operation.
Of this operation, and of the forks and rakes and the haymaking there is a very good account.
In 1795, under the joint operation of a deficient harvest and the diminution in foreign supplies of grain owing to outbreak of war, the price of wheat, which, for the twenty preceding years, had been under 50s.
The fall in prices was aggravated, first by the unpropitious weather and deficient harvest of the years 1816, 1817, and still more by the passing in 181 9 of the bill restoring cash payments, which, coming into operation in 1821, caused serious embarrassment to all persons who had entered into engagements at a depreciated currency, which had now to be met with the lower prices of an enhanced one.
The legislative outcome of the findings of this royal commission was the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883, a measure which continued in force in its entirety till 1901, when a new act came into operation.
It was provided that the act should continue in force only till the 31st of March 1902, but a further act in 1901 extended the period by four years, and in 1905 its operation was extended to the 31st of March 1910.
The first step is to see whether there is a prima facie case for inquiry, for many acts of parliament have been passed which have never come into operation at all, or have been administered only for a short time on too limited a scale to have important or lasting results.
This is a perfectly simple and straightforward operation, involving nothing more than familiarity with records and industry in going through them.
If all the industries belong to one economic area over which, so far as we can tell from general statistics of wages and prices, and other information, fairly homogeneous conditions prevailed, we may be able to reach some useful conclusions as to the operation of the act.
But every genuine attempt to overcome its difficulties brings us into closer touch with the period we are examining; and though we may not be able to throw our conclusions into the form of large generalizations, we shall get to know something of the operation of the forces which determined the economic future of England; understand more clearly than our forefathers did, for we have more information than they could command, and a fuller appreciation of the issues, the broad features of English development, and be in a position to judge fairly well of the measures they adopted in their time.
If we go to Mill to discover what it is, we find that " it is not pretended that the law of diminishing return was operative from the beginning of society; and though some political economists may have believed it to come into operation earlier than it does, it begins quite early enough to support the conclusions they founded on it."
" It comes into operation at a certain and not very advanced stage in the progress of agriculture."
It is therefore extraordinarily difficult at present to know what happens, or rather what would happen if it were not prevented, when a country reaches " the stage of diminishing returns "; what precisely it is which comes into operation, for obviously the diminishing returns are the results, not the cause; or how commodities " obey " a law which is always " suspended."
The quantity obtained from each fir is very variable, depending on the vigour of the tree, and greatly lessens after it has been subjected to the operation for some years.
These changes are regarded as having been produced by the operation of heat, pressure and folding.
The same year which saw the promulgation of the crude scheme just described, as well as the publication of the final researches of Muller, witnessed also another attempt at the classification of birds, much more limited indeed in scope, but, so far as it went, regarded by most ornithologists of the time as almost final in its operation.
The relationship of landlord and tenant may be altered either voluntarily, by the act of the parties, or involuntarily, by the operation of law, and may also be dissolved.
The contract of tenancy may also be altered by operation of law.
The government of the Jurisdiction was of the strictest Puritan type, and although the forty-five "blue laws" which the Rev. Samuel Peters, in his General History of Connecticut, ascribed to New Haven were much confused with the laws of the other New England colonies and some were mere inventions, yet many of them, and others equally "blue," were actually in operation as enactments or as court decisions in New Haven.
This characteristic is of great economic importance, the natural twist facilitating the operation of spinning the fibres into thread or yarn.
Cotton-picking is at once the most difficult and most expensive operation in cotton production.
This comprises separating the fibre or lint from the seeds, the operation being known as " ginning."
Large baling presses are worked by hydraulic power; the operation needs no special description.
1 Its methods were stated to be: " To afford information to every country capable of producing cotton, both by the diffusion of printed directions for its cultivation, and sending competent teachers of cotton planting and cleaning, and by direct communication with Christian missionaries whose aid and co - operation it solicits; to supply, gratuitously, in the first instance, the best seeds to natives in every part of the world who are willing to receive them; to give prizes for the extended cultivation of cotton; and The Association published a weekly paper known as The Cotton Supply Reporter.
After the selection of the site, the first operation consists in the erection of the rig.
The operation of drilling is frequently interrupted by the occurrence of an accident, which necessitates the use of fishing tools.
If the fishing operation is unsuccessful the well has to be abandoned, often after months of labour, unless it is found possible to drill past the tools which have been lost.
Although petroleum wells in Russia have not the depth of many of those in the United States, the disturbed character of the strata, with consequent liability to caving, and the occurrence of hard concretions, render drilling a lengthy and expensive Drilling in operation.
Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.
The charge was distilled almost to dryness, though the operation was not carried far enough to cause the residue to " coke."
The operation was, however, completely revolutionized in the United States by the introduction of the " cracking process," and by the division of the distillation into two parts, one consisting in the removal of the more volatile constituents of the oil, and the other in the distillation (which is usually conducted in separate stills) of the residues from the first distillation, for the production of lubricating oils and paraffin.
Their first operation was the siege of Nicaea, defended by a Seljuk garrison, but eventually captured, with the aid of Alexius, after a month's siege (June 18).
In 1875, by the operation of the Judicature Acts of 1873 and 1875, the High Court of Admiralty was with the other great courts of England formed into the High Court of Justice.
Caustic soda is now obtained direct from the soda manufacturer, and one operation, causticizing the soda, is thus spared the soap-boiler.
There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
The doctors declared that the leg needed to be broken and set again; and the operation was borne without a sign of pain beyond a clenching of his fist.
In 1911 the Legislature adopted a new school code for the entire commonwealth, coming into operation Nov.
The constitution of Porto Rico is contained in an act of the Congress of the United States (the Foraker Act) which came into operation in May 1900.
On the one hand, it had been held that when a substance was burned or calcined, it combined with an " air "; on the other hand, the operation was supposed to be attended by the destruc tion or loss of the igneous principle.
The operation is repeated with the thread in the oxidizing flame.
(3) The operation of filtration and washing is very important.
The success of the operation depends upon the slow burning of the substance.
In this method the operation is carried out in a hard glass tube sealed at one end and packed as shown in fig.
This method rapidly came into favour on account of its simplicity, both of operation and apparatus.
Various substances other than potassium permanganate have been suggested for facilitating the operation; J.
10, p. 290); the operation is easier if the lime be mixed with sodium carbonate, or a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate be used.
38, p. 1 434) has devised a method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the halogens,phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation.
recovers from the primary shock of the operation, the disease may reappear in the stump, and lead to a fatal result.
The operation of the Spirit was in no way limited to time, or individual or place.
A notable event in the history of the protectorate was the co - operation of the Italian authorities in the campaigns against the Mullah Abdullah.
A freedman, unless he became such by operation of law, remained client of his master, and both were bound by the mutual obligations arising out of that relation.
This law came into operation on the 29th of April 1878, and the status of slavery was thenceforth illegal throughout the Portuguese possessions.
But the principal operation of (at least) the latter change was simply to transfer Northern slaves to Southern markets.
Public opinion strongly favoured the projected reform; and even the masters who were opposed to it saw that, if the operation became necessary, it would be more safely for their interests intrusted to the nobles than to the bureaucracy.
Romanes, taking up the inquiry where Darwin left it, came to the conclusion that some instinctive modes of behaviour which he termed "primary" are due to the operation of natural selection alone; that others, which he termed "secondary," and of which he could give few examples, were due to the inheritance of acquired modifications from which, in the phrase of G.
Halleck, with a greatly superior force, cautiously and slowly advanced upon the Confederate position, consuming more than a month in the operation.
q Y imam of Sana, necessitated the despatch of large and costly expeditions to Arabia, in which thousands of Turkish .troops have fallen in guerrilla warfare or through the inhospitable climate; in Albania disturbance became almost endemic, owing to the resistance offered by the intractable population to successive attempts of the central authorities to subject the country to regular taxation and the operation of the laws.
Napoleon's determination to undertake the invasion of England has often been disputed, but it is hard to imagine what other operation he contemplated, for the outbreak of hostilities with his continental enemies found him ill-supplied with intelligence as to the resources of the country he had then to traverse.
and Guard corps, together with a new cavalry reserve corps under Lannes, in all 147,000, stood ready for the operation, and with Murat and Soult as general advanced guard the whole moved forward, driving the Russian outposts before them.
There are six branch libraries, while a scheme of school libraries has been in operation since 1899.
The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.
of railway were completed and put in operation.
An entirely new project was an international survey of the Mediterranean and adjacent seas, from the fishery and oceanographical standpoints, by France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, but in 1921 no definite programme had been put in operation.
On the other hand, we may imagine the processes due to the electrical transfer to be reversed by an osmotic operation.
Solvent may be supposed to be squeezed out from the solution which has become more dilute through a semi-permeable wall, and through another such wall allowed to mix with the solution which in the electrical operation had become more concentrated.
Again, we may calculate the osmotic work done, and, if the whole cycle of operations be supposed to occur at the same temperature, the osmotic work must be equal and opposite to the electrical work of the first operation.
Such measures, which are now in operation in the French Sudan, the Congo and in German W.
Before commencing the mastication it is generally necessary to warm the apparatus by means of steam; but as the operation proceeds the heat produced requires to be moderated by streams of cold water flowing through channels provided for the purpose.
Rubber mixed in the usual way with about WA of sulphur is now softened by heat, forced into the mould, and retained there by pressure during the operation of curing, which is usually effected in an iron box heated over a gas burner to 140° C.
Grease must be removed by potash, whiting or other means, and tarnish by an acid or potassium cyanide, washing in plenty of water being resorted to after each operation.
Morse, who saw the animal perform the operation.
Operation of 'D.'
The whole theory of these forms is consequently contained implicitly in the operation S.
p. 493) that the operation 1 1 d P?
The partitions being taken as denoting symmetric functions we have complete correspondence between the algebras of quantity and operation, and from any algebraic formula we can at once write down an operation formula.
An important associated operation is a ?
Moreover, its operation upon any invariant form produces an invariant form.
It is essentially an operation performed upon the product of ï¿½two forms. If, then, we require the transvectants of the two forms f+Xf', 0+14', we take their product fc5+xf'95+,-ifct'+atif'cb', and the kth transvectant is simply obtained by operating upon each term separately, viz.
Operation upon J results as follows D AA J = wJ; D A J=0; D ï¿½A J =0;D ï¿½ï¿½ J = wJ.
The Aronhold process, given by the operation a as between any two of the forms, causes such an invariant to vanish.
(0')B Denotes A Seminvariant, If 0, 0', Be Neither Of Them Unity, For, After Operation, The Terms Destroy One Another In Pairs: When 0, Must Be Taken To Denote Ao And So For 0'.
These soon acquired extensive political and financial powers, which continued in operation till 1789.
At this stage as a rule some rich slags of a former operation are added and a quantity of quicklime is incorporated, the chief object of which is to diminish the fluidity of the mass in the next stage, which consists in this, that, with closed air-holes, the heat is raised so as to cause the oxide and sulphate on the one hand and the sulphide on the other to reduce each other to metal.
As a preliminary to the melting process, the "browse" left in the preceding operation (half-fused and imperfectly reduced ore) is introduced with some peat and coal, and heated with the help of the blast.
While he also prevents interruption of the operation by means of water-jackets, he uses hot-blast, and produces, besides metallic lead, large volumes of lead fumes which are drawn off by fans through long cooling tubes, and then forced through suspended bags which filter off the dust, called "blue powder."
In the beginning of the operation enough argentiferous lead is charged to fill the cavity of the test.
In skimming the crust from the surface of the lead some unalloyed lead is also drawn off, and has to be separated by an additional operation (liquation), as, running lower in silver than the crust, it would otherwise reduce its silver content and increase the amount of lead to be cupelled.
The operation is carried on in a reverberatory furnace or in a kettle.
No unnecessary force is permitted, and no stoppage must occur during the operation.
The older operation of magnetizing a steel bar by drawing a magnetic pole along it merely consists in exposing successive portions of the bar to the action of the strong field near the pole.
If the operation has been skilfully performed the ring will have no poles and will not attract iron filings.
One of the fragments may again be broken, and again two bipolar magnets will be produced; and the operation may be repeated, at least in imagination, till we arrive at molecular magnitudes and can go no farther.
This operation, besides being very troublesome, was open to the objection that it was almost sure to produce a material but uncertain change in the physical constitution of the metal, so that, in fact, the results of experiments made before and after the treatment were not comparable.
Grassot has devised a galvanometer, or " fluxmeter," which greatly alleviates the tedious operation of taking ballistic readings.2 The instrument is of the d'Arsonval type; its coil turns in a strong uniform field, and is suspended in such a manner that torsion is practically negligible, the swings of the coil being limited by damping influences, chiefly electromagnetic. The index therefore remains almost stationary at the limit of its deflection, and the deflection is approximately the same whether the change of induction occurs suddenly or gradually.
If the operation is again reversed, the upward course will be nearly, but not exactly, of the form shown by the line d c a, fig.
units in the case illustrated in the figure), an operation which is performed by simply reversing, the direction of the maximum magnetizing current a few times.
An experiment by Ewing showed that by the operation of stretching an annealed iron wire beyond the limits of elasticity the permeability under a magnetizing force of about 3 units was reduced by as much as 75%.
The method, though tedious in operation, is very accurate, and is largely employed for determining the magnetic quality of bars intended to serve .as standards.
24 was converted into an almost perfectly straight line passing through the origin, and lying below the horizontal axis; while the permeability of the metal was greatly diminished by the operation.
After this operation had been repeated a few times the iron was found to have acquired a stable condition, and the curves corresponding to the two temperatures became perfectly definite.
Although specially exempted from the operation of the decree of October 1 793, imposing banishment on foreign residents, he took alarm at the fate of J.
An inland parcel post was in operation long before the overthrow of the monarchy, and a similar service with Portugal has been successfully maintained for a number of years, notwithstanding the difficulties interposed by customs regulations.
National and international money order systems are also in operation.
The Ypanema mine and ironworks, near Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, which belong to the national government, have been in operation since 1810, and small charcoal forges were in operation in colonial times and supplied the mines with a considerable part of the iron needed by them.
There were 155 of these factories in 1895, but in 1905 only 108 were in operation, with 715,000 spindles, and about 37, 00 o operatives.
The scheme came into operation in June 1898, and not only was a complete suspension of payments avoided but the financial situation was greatly improved.
The discontent arising among Brazilians from this cause was heightened by a decree assigning a heavy tax on the chief Brazilian custom houses, to be in operation for forty years, for the benefit of the Portuguese noblemen who had suffered during the war with France.
The native laws were first codified in 1878, in 1887 a board was appointed for their revision, and the new code came into operation in 1901.
Provision is made whereby a native can obtain relief from the operation of native law and be subject to the colonial law (Law No.
But these Indians by reindenturing might come under the operation of the repatriation proposal.
But in many cases the patient prefers that the abdomen should be opened for exploration for a possible operation than that he should hopelessly give himself over to the disease.
And sometimes the surgeon is enabled by operation to give great relief, though the removal of the growth itself is impracticable.
This operation is called gastrostomy and may be the means of giving many weeks of comfort to the unhappy patient - provided that its performance is not too long postponed.
In some early cases of pyloric cancer resection of the disease may be performed, the upper end of the intestine being afterwards joined to the middle of the stomach by a kind of short-circuiting operation.
This ingenious operation widens the track at the expense of an unimportant fraction of its length.
Loreta's operation for dilatation of the outlet of the stomach is now rarely performed.
It was replied that Hungary was outside the operation of the treaty of Westphalia, and that the Protestants had been condemned not ex odio religionis but crimine rebellions.
(ii.) The above operation is performed with i lb as the unit of counting, and the process would be the same with any other unit; e.g.
(vi.) Any compound operation not coming under the above descriptions is to have its meaning made clear by brackets, the use of a pair of brackets indicating that the expression between them is to be treated as a whole.
processes which consist in obtaining an answer to the question " Upon what has a given operation to be performed in order to produce a given result?"
or to the question " What operation of a given kind has to be performed on a given quantity or number in order to produce a given result?"
(iii.) Where the direct operation is evolution, for which there is no commutative law, the two inverse operations are different in kind.
In the same way, a statement as to the result of an inverse operation is really, by the definition of the operation, a statement as to the result of a direct operation.
In the present section, however, we return from the inverse operation to the direct; i.e.
This states that the result of the operation of multiplying 3/b by 4 is 12 lb.
(iii.) The general statement of the laws of operation of fractions is perhaps best deferred until we come to fractional numbers, when letters can be used to express the laws of multiplication and division of such numbers.
(c) The fundamental properties of subtraction and of division are that A - B +B = A and m X m of A = A, since in each case the second operation restores the original quantity with which we started.
This is sometimes treated as a debt of 5s.; an alternative method is to recognize that our zero is really arbitrary, and that in fact we shift it with every operation of addition or subtraction.
In algebraical transformations, however, such as (x-a)2 = x 2 - 2ax+a 2, the arithmetical rule of signs enables us to combine the sign-with a number and to treat the result as a whole, subject to its own laws of operation.
We see first that any operation with 4a-3b can be regarded as an operation with (+)4a+(-)3b, subject to the conditions (I) that the signs (+) and (-) obey the laws (+)=(+),(+)(-)=(-)(+)= (-), (-) (-)=(+), and (2) that, when processes of multiplication are completed, a quantity is to be added or subtracted according as it has the sign (+) or (-) prefixed.
Theoretically, no limit can be assigned to the number of possible algebras; the varieties actually known use, for the most part, the same signs of operation, and differ among themselves principally by their rules of multiplication.
Even when the formal evolution of the science was fairly complete, it was taken for granted that its symbols of quantity invariably stood for numbers, and that its symbols of operation were restricted to their ordinary arithmetical meanings.
The symbol e 0 behaves exactly like i in ordinary algebra; Hamilton writes I, i, j, k instead of eo, el, e2, es, and in this notation all the special rules of operation may he summed up by the equalities = - I.
But when an algebra is used with a particular interpretation, or even in the course of its formal development, it frequently happens that new symbols of operation are, so to speak, superposed upon the algebra, and are found to obey certain formal laws of combination of their own.
Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.
Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.
It is to be noted that, whilst the zoological system took the form of a genealogical tree, with main stem and numerous diverging branches, the actual form of that tree, its limitation to a certain number of branches corresponding to a limited number of divergences in structure, came to be regarded as the necessary consequence of the operation of the physico-chemical laws of the universe, and it was recognized that the ultimate explanation of that limitation is to be found only in the constitution of matter itself.
The most instructive classification of the " variations " exhibited by fully formed organisms consists in the separation in the first place of those which arise from antecedent congenital, innate, constitutional or germinal variations from those which arise merely from the operation of variation of the environment or the food-supply upon normally constituted individuals.
Since the limitation of the width of the central band in the image of a luminous line depends upon discrepancies of phase among the secondary waves, and since the discrepancy is greatest for the waves which come from the edges of the aperture, the question arises how far the operation of the central parts of the aperture is advantageous.
By the operation of the object-glass LL' all the rays issuing from A arrive in the same phase at B.
Throughout the operation of increasing the focal length, the resolving power of the instrument, which depends only upon the aperture, remains unchanged; and we thus arrive at the rather startling conclusion that a telescope of any degree of resolving power might be constructed without an object-glass, if only there were no limit to the admissible focal length.
He was again minister of the treasury from November 1903 to March 1905 in Giolitti's second administration, and for the third time from February to May 1906, under Sonnino's premiership. During the latter term of office he achieved the conversion of the Italian 5% debt (reduced to 4% by the tax) to 31% to be eventually lowered to 32%, an operation which other ministers had attempted without success; although the actual conversion was not completed until after the fall of the cabinet of which he formed part the merit is entirely his.
Rose Innes as chief justice, was put into operation; in 1902 this was followed by the establishment of a supreme court.
It is the subject of the operation of certain forces in virtue of which it undergoes internal changes, modifies external objects, and is modified by them; and 4.
This operation is no doubt intended to remove the oxygen diffused throughout the metal as oxide, part of it perhaps chemically by reduction of the oxide to metal, the rest by conveying the finely diffused oxide to the surface and causing it to unite there with the oxide scum.
The tinning of a copper basin is an easy operation.
The most important form of the operation is making tinned from ordinary sheet iron (making what is called "sheet tin").
The acid is then slowly run out by an opening in the bottom of the pan in which the operation is conducted, and water distributed carefully over its surface displaces it in the interstices of the cotton, which is finally subjected to a course of boiling and washing with water.
In December General Castro left upon a visit to Europe, nominally for a surgical operation.
The mineral resources include gold, silver, copper and petroleum, but no mines were in operation in 1906.
A successful operation for cataract restored his eyesight in June 1900, and notwithstanding his 81 years he resumed to some extent his former political activity.
As during this operation the II.
The Army of the North, which had reached Olmutz on the 10th of July, now received orders to move by road and rail towards Vienna, and this operation brought them right across the front of the II.
Ether is manufactured by the distillation of 5 parts of 90% alcohol with 9 parts of concentrated sulphuric acid at a temperature of 140°-145° C., a constant stream of alcohol being caused to flow into the mixture during the operation.
Or again, in the case of paired organs, if one be removed by operation, or destroyed by disease, the other at once undertakes to carry on the functions of both.
In the wasting of the thyroid gland in myxoedema, or when the gland is completely removed by operation, myxomatous areas are found in the subcutaneous tissue of the skin, nerve-sheaths, &c.
According to its doctrines the normal as well as diseased actions of the body were to be referred to the operation of the pneuma or universal soul.
While it was being mixed, holy writings were read to those engaged in the operation.
The bill was thrown out on this occasion, but was revived and passed in 1904, and on the 17th of June 1905 the service was put into operation.
In 1903 the Education (London) Act was passed in pursuance of the general system, put into operation by the Education Act (1902) of bringing education within the scope of municipal government.
The bills were killed by the action of the Registration Act for England and Wales, which came into operation July 1, 1837.
The amending acts, while not interfering with the operation of the principal act, authorize the creation of highway districts on a larger scale.
When the development of a mine has advanced sufficiently the operation of working or extracting the mineral begins.
In deep mines the pillars may furnish the bulk of the product, and the control of the fall of the roof, so as to permit the successful extraction of the mineral, demands a well-schemed plan of operation.
At mines with vertical shafts this is a simple operation.
At a few mines special man-cages are operated in separate compartments by their own engines for handling part of the men, and for tools, supplies, &c. For inclined shafts, where the mineral is hoisted in skips, the operation of raising and lowering men may not be so simple.
Tanks operated by the main hoisting engines, and of capacities up to 50o gallons or more, are applicable under several conditions: (1) When the shaft is deep, the quantity of water insufficient to keep a pump in regular operation, and the hoisting engine not constantly employed in raising mineral, the tank is worked at intervals, being attached temporarily to the hoisting rope in place of the cage.
Occasionally, at very gassy and dangerous collieries, two fans and driving engines are erected at the same air shaft, and in case of accident to the fan in operation the other can be started within a few minutes.
This is an expensive operation as it entails the cost of pumping the water out again and repairing the resulting damage.
3, but the operation partook merely of the nature of a reconnaissance, and for some time hostilities were confined to a blockade of the Ottoman coasts,' defensive steps in Egypt, and the seizure of the Shat el Arab and Basrah.
The conclusion arrived at on that occasion had, however, been that, whether the campaign were to take the form of a purely naval operation or whether the task were to be performed by an amphibious expeditionary force, the enterprise was bound to prove most difficult.
2 1915 for help to relieve the existing situation in Armenia, and an operation directed against the Dardanelles was judged to be the best means of complying with the request; but there were no large bodies of troops available that could be used for such a purpose.
This operation took place on March 18, and it proved unsuccessful.
De Robeck felt himself obliged to inform the Admiralty that the offensive against the Straits ought not to be continued as a purely naval operation of war.
A tactical operation of that character demanded most careful prior organization, and it called for a distribution of the attacking force amongst the available shipping based on purely tactical considerations.
As it turned out, the actual disembarkations at " S," " X " and " Y " were carried out without any very great difficulty; but the troops detailed for " W " beach only gained a footing after incurring very heavy losses and by a display of indomitable resolution, while at " V " the operation went very near to failing altogether.
Then on the 21st the French, who were on the right next to the Straits, pushed their line forward as the result of a wellplanned local offensive, and this achievement was followed up on the 28th by a successful operation on the part of the British on the extreme left, by which the line at that end was advanced to nearly abreast of Krithia.
The object of this second operation was twofold - it would indirectly assist the offensive against Sari Bair, it would also furnish the Allies who were planted down on the outer coast of the peninsula with a much more sheltered landing place and base than Anzac Cove.
The secret had been well kept, and a difficult operation of war was in its opening stages most successfully carried out.
But after a sanguinary contest the assailants met with repulse, and from that date onwards no serious offensive operation was attempted by the Allies in the Dardanelles campaign.
Foreseeing that the British Government must ultimately resign itself to a withdrawal of the Dardanelles army from its dangerous situation on the Gallipoli Peninsula, Monro had already, some days before the permission to evacuate reached him from home, given instructions that certain preparations were to be made towards facilitating that operation.
The naval authorities had been busy assembling and organizing the available small craft in anticipation of the operation that appeared to be imminent, and jetties damaged in the Nov.
The final night was provisionally fixed as that of the 18th - 19th, and thanks to favourable weather and to the efficiency of the arrangements, the very critical operation was carried out with triumphant success, just as had been laid down by programme ten days before.
That night the troops still left at Helles were reduced by one-third, and, on the next day breaking fine, it was decided to complete the operation on the following night as intended at the start.
In this process, however, the entire operations of splitting and flattening are retained, and although the mechanical process is said to be in successful commercial operation, it has not as yet made itself felt as a formidable rival to hand-made sheet-glass.
The mechanical operation is quite successful for thick sheets, but it is not as yet available for the thinner sheets required for the ordinary purposes of sheet-glass, since with these excessive breakage occurs, while the sheets generally show grooves or lines derived from small irregularities of the drawing orifice.
This operation, like all the subsequent steps in the polishing of the glass, is carried out by powerful machinery.
The works continued in operation until 1641.
A few of these letters deal with the glass trade, and in one a list is given of the glass-works then in operation.
His most important military operation, how ever, was when in 1346 he successfully held out in Beauvais.
The process originally suggested by Mansfield is generally followed, the success of the operation being principally conditioned by the efficiency of the dephlegmator, in which various improvements have been made.
He was responsible, especially, for the great operation known as the opening of the Grand Livre (August 2 4), which was designed to consolidate the public debt by cancelling the stock issued under various conditions prior to the Revolution, and issuing new stock of a uniform character, so that all fund-holders should hold stock of the revolutionary government and thus be interested in its stability.
Conversely, a combination of increased pressure and lowering of temperature will, if carried far enough, reduce a gas to a liquid, and afterwards to the solid state; and nearly every gaseous substance has now undergone this operation.
ih shows also a modern form of the hydraulic press, applied to the operation of covering an electric cable with a lead coating.
Consider, for instance, the operation of casting a hemispherical bell, in fig.
Finally, Charlemagne, who took a keen interest in the ancient documents, had the law emended, the operation consisting in eliminating the Malberg glosses, which were no longer intelligible, correcting the Latinity of the ancient:text, omitting a certain number of interpolated chapters, and adding others which had obtained general sanction.
The second operation is the coagulation of the albumen, and the separation of it with other impurities from the Maceration or Imbibition.
When a sufficient number are not available for a two hours' defecation, it is the practice in some factories to skim off the scums that rise to the top, and then boil up the juice for a few minutes and skim again, and, after repeating the operation once or twice, to run off the juice to separators or subsiders of any of the kinds previously described.
Evaporation of the Juice to Syrup. - The third operation is the concentration of the approximately pure, but thin and watery, juice to syrup point, by driving off a portion of the water in vapour through some system of heating and evaporation.
The claying system involved the expense of large curing houses and the employment of many hands, and forty days at least were required for completing the operation and making the sugar fit for the market, whereas with centrifugals sugar cooked to-day can go to market to-morrow, and the labour employed is reduced to a minimum.
When the new cell comes into operation and becomes the head of the battery, the first or tail cell is thrown out, and number two becomes the tail cell, and so the rounds are repeated; one cell is always being emptied and one filled or charged with slices and heated up, the latter becoming the head of the battery as soon as it is ready.
The whole operation of thus changing a filter occupies about ten minutes, and there is no need for anyone to enter the hot cistern to detach the bags, which are removed in the open air above the mud tank.
Similar tribunals were also in operation in the provinces.
In the operation of ploughing the furrow slice is separated from the soil below, and although in humid soils this layer may be left to settle by degrees, in semi-arid regions this loosened layer becomes.
The operation consists of paring off the tough sward to a depth of I to 2 in.
The operation is best carried out in spring and summer.
No operation brings old turf into cultivation so rapidly.
The best time for the operation appears to be late summer and autumn.
They were indeed expressly exempted from its general operation.
This operation requires experienced judgment to decide when it should be done; the number of leaves to be left varies with the variety and vigour of the plant, the nature of the soil, climate, seasons and particular use for which the crop'is intended.
When fermentation is completed the tobacco is graded, an operation carried out very carefully in the case of the better cigar tobaccos, and packed for export, cigar tobaccos in bales, and other kinds in hogsheads.
If the zinc is present as blende, this operation offers considerable difficulties, because in the roasting process the zinc sulphide passes in the first instance into sulphate, which demands a high temperature for its conversion into oxide.
The modern processes may be primarily divided into two groups according to the nature of the vessel in which the operation is effected.
The charging operation being completed, the temperature is raised, and as a consequence an evolution of carbon monoxide soon begins, and becomes visible by the gas bursting out into the characteristic blue flame.
Chemical control of the metal purchased is not nearly as common as it should be, and the refining of zinc is at best an imperfect operation.
This operation, performed in the garden by means of the spade, is carried on in the field on a larger scale by the plough,' which breaks the soil and by inverting the furrow-slice, exposes fresh surfaces to the disintegrating influence of air, rain and frost.
In operation the coulter makes a perpendicular cut separating the furrow-slice which is divided from the "sole" of the furrow Crested Furrow.
In animal physiology he set himself to trace out the operation of determinate chemical and physical laws in the maintenance of life and health.
Thus for instance when any feudal institution (be it Gothic, Norman, or Anglo-Saxon) eludes our deciphering faculty from the imperfect records of its use and operation, then we endeavour conjecturally to amend our knowledge by watching the circumstances in which that institution arose."
But whereas, from its construction, the Siemens furnace was intermittent in operation, necessitating stoppage of the current while the contents of the crucible were poured out, many of the newer forms are specially designed either to minimize the time required in effecting the withdrawal of one charge and the introduction of the next, or to ensure absolute continuity of action, raw material being constantly charged in at the top and the finished substance and by-products (slag, &c.) withdrawn either continuously or at intervals, as sufficient quantity shall have accumulated.
The current, either continuous or alternating, is then started, and continued for about 1 to 12 hours, until the operation is complete, the carbon rods being gradually withdrawn as the action proceeds.
The crude anthracene cake is purified by treatment with the higher pyridine bases, the operation being carried out in large steam-jacketed boilers.
being in operation in 1906.
In 1876 new mining laws were enacted which gave better titles to mining properties and better regulations for their operation, but the outbreak of the war with Chile at the end of the decade and the succeeding years of disorganization and partisan strife defeated their purpose.
The curacas sorrowfully watched the gradual extinction of their people by the operation of the mita, protesting from time to time against the exactions and cruelty of the Spaniards.
distillare, more correctly destillare, to drop or trickle down), an operation consisting in the conversion of a substance or mixture of substances into vapours which are afterwards condensed to the liquid form; it has for its object the separation or purification of substances by taking advantage of differences in volatility.
If the substance operated upon be practically pure to start with, or the product of distillation be nearly of constant composition, the operation is termed "purification by distillation" or "rectification"; the latter term is particularly used in the spirit industry.
If a complex mixture be operated upon, and a separation effected by collecting the distillates in several portions, the operation is termed "fractional distillation."
The vaporization of a substance below its normal boiling-point can also be effected by blowing in steam or some other vapour; this operation is termed "distillation with steam."
nitrogen, carbon dioxide, &c., which is led in at the distilling flask before the process is started, and a slow current maintained during the operation.
The success of the operation depends upon two factors: (I) that the heating be careful, slow and steady, and (2) that the column attached to the flask be efficient to sort out, as it were, the most volatile vapour.
With substances prone to discolorization, as, for example, certain amino compounds, the operation may be conducted in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, or the water may be saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen.
Prior to 1830, little was known of the process other than that organic compounds generally yielded tarry and solid matters, but the discoveries of Liebig and Dumas (of acetone from acetates), of Mitscherlich (of benzene from benzoates) and of Persoz (of methane from acetates and lime) brought the operation into common laboratory practice.
For efficiency the operation must be conducted with small quantities; caking may be prevented by mixing the substance with sand or powdered pumice, or, better, with iron filings, which also renders the decomposition more regular by increasing the conductivity of the mass.
Sidney Young has suggested conducting the operation in a current of carbon dioxide which sweeps out the vapours as they are evolved, and also heating in a vapour bath, e.g.
In its more complete form a still has in addition the following fittings: - The dome is provided with openings to admit (I) the axis of the stirring gear (in some stills the stirring gear rotates on a horizontal axis which traverses the side and not the head of the still), (2) the inlet and outlet tubes of a closed steam coil, (3) a tube reaching to nearly the bottom of the still to carry live steam, (4) a tube to carry a thermometer, (5) one or more manholes for charging purposes, (6) sight-holes through which the operation can be watched, and (7) a safety valve.
The success of the operation chiefly depends upon the proper management of the cooler.
He attributed his father's pecuniary losses and his own to the operation of the corn laws.
Partly through restrictive local legislation and partly as a result of the operation of the Suffolk system of redemption in Boston, these institutions were always conservative.
The one process is a logical operation, the other a physical.
Great skill is shown in this operation, which achieves perhaps the finest facsimile reproduction of drawings ever known withotit the aid of photographic processes.
In color-printing, the colors, which are much the same as those in use in Europe, are mixed, with rice-paste as a medium, on the block for each operation, and the power of regulating the result given by this custom to an intelligent craftsman (who, again, is neither the artist nor the engraver) was productive in the best period of very beautiful and artistic effects, such as could never have been obtained by any mechanical device.
Several independent chisellings may be necessary before the lines of the (liaper emerge clearly, but throughout the whole operation no measurement of any kind is taken, the artist being guided entirely by his hand and eye.
Owing to the use of paper among the threads of the embroidery and sizing in the preparation of the stuff forming the ground, every operation of folding used to cause perceptible injury to a piece, so that after a few years it acquired a crumpled and dingy appearance.
The whole line is now in operation.
ways operation was impossible in such circumstances, and constant complaints were heard about delays in transit and undue expense.
Unfortunately he was attacked by cancer in the throat; he spent the winter of 1887-1888 at San Remo; in January 1888 the operation of tracheotomy had to be performed.
It arose from the fact that as early as May 1887 the German physicians recognized the presence of cancer in the throat, but Sir Morell Mackenzie, the English specialist who was also consulted, disputed the correctness of this diagnosis, and advised that the operation for removal of the larynx, which they had recommended, should not be undertaken.
The Lower Ganges canal, an extension of the original canal, has been in operation since 1878 and irrigates 830,000 acres.
In surgery his writings are important and interesting, but they do not bear the same character of caution as the treatises on medicine; for instance, in the essay On Injuries of the Head, he advocates the operation " of trephining " more strongly and in wider classes of cases than would be warranted by the experience of later times.
Characteristic of the Rand is the fine white dust arising from the crushing of the ore, and, close to the batteries, the incessant din caused by the stamps employed in that operation.
The simplest types of process or operation are: (I), heating or cooling at constant volume, represented by vertical lines such as Bb, called Isometrics, in which the pressure varies, but no ex ternal work is done.
It was proposed to utilize the money set free by this operation to indemnify by a milliard francs the emigres for the loss of their lands at the Revolution; it was also proposed to restore their former privileges to the religious congregations.
In 18 99, 57 62 stamps were in operation, crushing 7,331,446 tons of ore, and yielding £15,134,000, equivalent to 25.5% of the world's production.
Similar plates are often used to catch any particles of gold that may be thrown back, while the main operation is so conducted that the bulk of the gold may be reduced to the state of amalgam by bringing the two metals into intimate contact under the stamp head, and remain in the battery.
Henry Wurtz in America (1864) and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the mercury, the operation is much facilitated.
In the Transvaal the operation occupies 32 to 4 days for fine sands, and up to 14 days for coarse sands; the quantity of cyanide per ton of tailings varies from 0.26 to 0.28 lb, for electrolytic precipitation, and o 5 lb for zinc precipitation.
In addition to the separation of the silver the operation extends to the elimination of the last traces of lead, tin, arsenic, &c. which have resisted the preceding cupeilation.
It used to be called " quartation " or " inquartation," from the fact that the alloy best suited for the operation of refining contained 3 parts of.silver to I of gold.
The operation may be conducted in vessels of glass or platinum, and each pound of granulated metal is treated with a pound and a quarter of nitric acid of specific gravity 1.32.
They are provided with lids, made either of lead or of wood lined with lead, which have openings to serve for the introduction of the alloy and acid, and a vent tube to lead off the vapours evolved during the operation.
These elements will enable us to convert, by a simple arithmetical operation, any historical date, of which the chronological characters are given according to any era whatever, into the corresponding date in the Christian era.
The operation was carried out exactly as ordered.
The operation had been brilliant in the extreme, but the exploitation proved more difficult, as neither tank nor artillery support was available in sufficient strength.
was brought up into line for this operation on the left of the 17th, the 21st Div.
Rawlinson then proposed to undertake an operation on a large scale with the object of capturing the outer defences of the Hindenburg line along the whole front of the Fourth Army.
The capture of these defences, which would afford observation over the greater part of the main Hindenburg line proper, was of course an essential preliminary to any operation against the latter.
The crossing of the narrow defile over the canal between Inchy and Moeuvres was carried out according to programme, thanks in large measure to the intensity of the barrage covering the operation.
The whole operation, investing as it did a most complicated and yet perfect combined action, had been a most brilliant success.
Another effort was made on the morrow to complete the operation.
The right division, the 52nd, successfully carried out this operation with a portion of its forces, while other units crossed the canal on the right in conjunction with the 63rd Div., and met with severe resistance.
The completion of the operation therefore was deferred till Oct.
Want of wind prevented the operation.
The battle of the 31st of July was the last serious operation of the war, though peace was not formally made till some months later.
Solids may be directly admitted to the tube from a weighing bottle, while liquids are conveniently introduced by means of small stoppered bottles, or, in the case of exceptionally volatile liquids, by means of a bulb blown on a piece of thin capillary tube, the tube being sealed during the weighing operation, and the capillary broken just before transference to the apparatus.
The weighing is conducted in the usual way by vibrations, except when the weight be small; it is then advisable to bring the pointer to zero, an operation rendered necessary by the damping due to the adhesion of water to the fibre.
There was only one country where its ravages were long unimportant; that was its home in the United States, where the native vines had become, by the operation of natural selection, immune to its attacks.
This transaction has given rise to much discussion as to its trustworthiness and the extent of its operation.
The advantage of the new definition lies in the fact that the estimation of the chlorine (or rather of the total halogen expressed as chlorine) is sufficient to determine the salinity by a very simple operation.
As cause of our sensations and ground of our belief in externality, he substituted for an unintelligible material substance an equally unintelligible operation of divine power.
In driving levels it is necessary to cut grooves vertically parallel to the walls, a process known as shearing; but the most important operation is that known as holing or kirving, which consists in cutting a notch or groove in the floor of the seam to a depth of about 3 ft., measured back from the face, so as to leave the overhanging part unsupported, which then either falls of its own accord within a few hours, or is brought down either by driving wedges along the top, or by blasting.
The whole operation requires from 8 to io minutes, giving a cutting speed of 120 to 150 sq.
The cage is then lifted by the engine clear of the keeps, which are opened by a lever worked by hand, and the empty tubs start on the return trip. When the cage has several decks, it is necessary to repeat this operation for each, unless there is a special provision made for loading and discharging the tubs at different levels.
An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.
A special V-shaped tube is used in the operation, and the reaction commences between 400° C. and 500° C.
There are several state farms in successful operation.
of such railways were in operation.
If matter is extended and fills space, the same mental operation by which we recognize the divisibility of space may be applied, in imagination at least, to the matter which occupies space.
On this theory, all substances which could be burnt were composed of phlogiston and some other substance, and the operation of burning was simply equivalent to the liberation of the phlogiston.
Of in Jesus Christ the Saviour, who delivers from the bondage of sin by his life, doctrine and death; in the operation of the Holy Ghost; in a holy, universal, Christian church; in forgiveness of sins and the life everlasting.
In that city, however, there were new forces in operation which.
About the same time parliament passed an interesting and important statute, forbidding, unless the king should wish to suspend the operation of the law, the payment to the pope of the annates.
Woolcard machinery destined to revolutionize the industry was devised by Amos Whittemore (1759-1828) in 1 797; spinning jennies were in operation under water-power before 1815.
Through a growing acquiescence in the operation of the local option law, the relative importance of the vote of the Prohibition Party has diminished.
Beginning in 1892 various townships and cities, numbering 18 in 1903, adopted municipal ownership and operation of lighting works.
The commonwealth contributes to the support of textile schools in cities in which 450,000 spindles are in operation.
The English Benedictines never advanced farther along the path of centralization; up to their destruction this polity remained in operation among them, and proved itself by its results to be well adapted to the conditions of the Benedictine Rule and life.
In some cases the operation of filtration is performed for the sake of removing impurities from the filtrate or liquid filtered, as in the purification of water for drinking purposes; in others the aim is to recover and collect the solid matter, as when the chemist filters off a precipitate from the liquid in which it is suspended.
Various machines have been constructed to perform this operation, some of them specially designed for the use of troops in the field; those in which economy of fuel is studied have an exchange-heater, by means of which the incoming cold water receives heat from the outgoing hot water, which thus arrives at the point of outflow at a temperature nearly as low as that of the supply.
As no time had been fixed for this operation to cease, it amounted to an unlimited increase of a kind of currency that circulated at a nominal value much above its real value.
To assist this operation the reserve would move at first to Fleurus to reinforce Grouchy, should he need assistance in driving back Blucher's troops; but, once in possession of Sombreffe, the emperor would swing the reserve westwards and join Ney, who, it was supposed, would have in the meantime mastered Quatre Bras.
Ney had allowed the valuable hours to slip away when he could have stormed Quatre Bras with ease and ensured co operation with his master.
He could at least beat Blucher and render the Prussians unfit for any serious operation except retreat on June 17, although he could no longer expect to destroy the Prussian army.
With the increase of the city the operation grew in importance, and was followed by an official lustruni, or purificatory sacrifice, offered on behalf of the people by the censors or functionaries in charge of the classification.
In regard to the scope of the inquiry, it is recognized that much is practicable in a country where the agency of trained officials is employed throughout the operation which cannot be expected to be adequately recorded where the responsibility for the correctness of the replies is thrown upon the householder.
The first operation, however, called by the latter name, was the enumeration of 1828, when an act was passed providing for the enumeration of the whole population, the occupied area and the live-stock.
As it would be impossible for an enumerator to get through this task in the course of the census night for more than a comparatively small number of houses, the operation is divided into two processes.
The above is a particular case of a general principle that the obtaining of an expression such as Ih(uo+4u1+u2) or lk(vo-1-3v 1 +3v 2 +v 3) is an operation performed on uo or vo, and that this operation is the suns of a number of operations such as that which obtains 3huo or 1kvo.
The volume of the briquette for which u is a function of x and y is found by the operation of double integration, consisting of two successive operations, one being with regard to x, and the other with regard to y; and these operations may (in the cases with which we are concerned) be performed in either order.
The integration with regard to y may similarly (in the particular example) be replaced by the operation ak(I+3E'-+3E'2+E'3), where E' denotes the change of y into y + k.
The result of performipg both operations, in order to obtain the volume, is the result of the operation denoted by the product of these two expressions; and in this product the powers of E and of E' may be dealt with according to algebraical laws.
The Calcutta and Bombay mints are still in operation.
Other mints are now in operation at New Orleans, San Francisco and Denver.
No mints are in operation in Africa.
The crucible is then lifted out by circular tongs suspended in such a way that two men can take part in the; operation.
This operation is called marking, because originally the edges FIG.
The operation is called " blanching."
The object of the test is to discover the resistance of the insulator I, that is, to determine how much current flows through this insulator by leakage under a certain electromotive force or voltage which must not be less than that which will be employed in practice when the electric lights supplied through these wires are in operation.
On setting the dynamo in operation, a current passes through the shunt coil of the ohmmeter proportional to the voltage of the dynamo, and, if there is any sensible leakage through the insulator to earth, at the same time another current passes through the series coil proportional to the conductivity of the insulation of the wiring under the electromotive force used.
The first railway in the state and the second in operation in the United States was the Mohawk & Hudson, opened from Albany to Schenectady in 1831.
Hardly any schools remained in operation throughout the War of Independence.
In the administration of local affairs some of the Dutch settlements were little disturbed until ten years or more after the conquest, but the introduction of English institutions into settlements wholly or largely English was begun in 1665 by the erection of Long Island, Staten Island and Westchester into an English county under the name of Yorkshire, and by putting into operation in that county a code of laws known as the " Duke's Laws."
C. Morey, The Government of New York: Its History and Administration (New York, 1902) after tracing briefly the development of the governmental system describes its structure and operation.
The book's character results from the continuous operation of four great tendencies.
In carrying out this policy of government regulation and supervision of corporations he became involved in a great struggle with the powerful financial interests whose profits were threatened, and with those legislators who sincerely believed that government should solely concern itself with protecting life and property, and should leave questions of individual and social relations in trade and finance to be settled by the operation of so-called natural economic laws.
He strengthened the interstate commission for the regulation of railroads, inaugurated successful suits against monopolies - notably the Standard Oil Company and the so-called Sugar Trust, - and achieved distinct practical results in favour of a system of "industrial democracy" where all men shall have equal rights under the law and where there shall be no privileged interests exempt from the operation of the law.
There were, in 1907, 143 mines, including coal, in operation, employing 31,455 hands.
The increased salary came into operation in 1910, when a new president of.the board came into office.
a member of the royal family underwent the operation.
Folding of the rocks resulted from the operation of great compressive forces acting tangentially to the figure of the earth.
By the operation of the Judicature Act one supreme court with several divisions was constituted; each division could administer the whole law; the conflict of divergent systems of law was largely overcome by declaring that when they were at variance, the principles of equity should prevail over the doctrines of the common law.
It can be obtained in three different crystalline forms, the transition points of which are 35° C., 83° C. and 125° C. It is easily soluble in water, a considerable lowering of temperature taking place during the operation; on this account it is sometimes used in the preparation of freezing mixtures.
Mayer entirely ignored the grand fundamental principle laid down by Sadi Carnot - that nothing can be concluded as to the relation between heat and work from an experiment in which the working substance is left at the end of an operation in a different physical state from that in which it was at the commencement.
Newton himself, however, endeavoured to account for gravitation by differences of pressure in an aether; but he did not publish his theory, ` because he was not able from experiment and observation to give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner of its operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature.'
that it is doubled instead of being undone when the light retraces its path, requires the operation of some directed agency of a rotational kind, which must be related to the magnetic field.
There are three railway lines in operation in the state - one running from Victoria to Cachoeira do Itapemirim (50 m.), and thence, by another line, to Santo Eduardo in Rio de Janeiro (58 m.), where connexion is made with the Leopoldina system running into the national capital, and a third running northwesterly from Victoria to Diamantina, Minas Geraes, about 450m.
Thus encouraged, he took out a patent for his process, and leaving the College of Chemistry, a boy of eighteen, he proceeded, with the aid of his father and brother, to erect works at Greenford Green, near Harrow, for the manufacture of the newly discovered colouring matter, and by the end of 1857 the works were in operation.
Of a scepticism which professes to doubt the validity of every reasoning process and every operation of all our faculties it is, of course, as impossible as it would be absurd to offer any refutation.
A few months later he was obliged to grant the Privileges of Nieszawa, which confirmed and extended the operation of the Articles of Cerekwica.
Her brother, Louis XIII., only consented to the marriage on the condition that the English Roman Catholics were relieved from the operation of the penal laws.
Vaccination is common except in the cities, - the women often performing the operation themselves when medical assistance cannot be got.
Two men are employed at this operation - one splitting and the other dressing, performing their work in a sitting posture.
was built in1828-1830and which was one of the first steam railway lines in operation in the United States.
McDowell, instead of marching to join McClellan, was ordered to the Valley to assist in "trapping Jackson," an operation which, at one critical moment very near success, ended in the defeat of Fremont at Cross Keys and of McDowell's advanced troops at Port Republic (June 8-9) and the escape of the daring Confederates with trifling loss.
This was the solitary gain of the whole operation.
He began his campaign by cancelling McClellan's operation, and, his own plan being to strike at Richmond from Fredericksburg, he moved the now augmented army to Falmouth opposite that place, hoping to surprise the crossing of the Rappahannock.
The difficulties of coaling and the obligations of neutrality hampered these commerce-destroyers as much as the Federal vessels that were chasing them, but, in spite of drawbacks, the guerre de course was the most successful warlike operation undertaken by the Confederacy.
The latter operation furnishes an intimate mixture of the carbonate with charcoal, from which the carbonate is extracted by lixiviation with water and filtration.
The public interest in the ex-Speaker's later life centred entirely in his somewhat controversial connexion with the drink traffic. A royal commission was appointed in April 1896 to inquire into the operation and administration of the licensing laws, and Viscount Peel was appointed chairman.
Hill's division had been drawn again into the main operation and followed the Federal line of retreat to Malvern Hill with Huger and Magruder on their right.
The junction of the edges of the silver and copper-blend was treated with a flux of borax and the whole was submitted to the heat of a furnace until the silver was seen to be melting, when it was instantly removed, care being taken to avoid pressing upon the upper or lower surfaces, as the liquid silver in that case would have been squeezed out from between the two enclosing plates and the operation ruined.
Within fourteen years the following Bible societies were in active operation: the Basel Bible Society (founded at Nuremberg, 1804), the Prussian Bible Society (founded as the Berlin Bible Society, 1805), the Revel Bible Society (1807), the Swedish Evangelical Society (1808), the Dorpat Bible Society (1811), the Riga Bible Society (1812), the Finnish Bible Society (1812), the Hungarian Bible Institution (Pressburg, 1812), the Wurttemberg Bible Society (Stuttgart, 1812), the Swedish Bible Society (1814), the Danish Bible Society (1814), the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden, 1814), the Thuringian Bible Society (Erfurt, 1814), the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld, 1814), the Hanover Bible Society (1814), the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society (1814), the Lubeck Bible Society (1814), the Netherlands Bible Society (Amsterdam, 1814).
When once the system was in operation it was found that a deacon, by spending an hour a week among the families committed to his charge, could keep himself acquainted with their character and condition.
He had prepared a sustentation fund scheme for the support of the seceding ministers, and this was at once put into successful operation.
He was the first also to advance that argument in favour of religious establishments which meets upon its own ground the doctrine of Adam Smith, that religion like other things should be left to the operation of the natural law of supply and demand.
The essence of Waagen's law is orthogenesis, or evolution in a definite direction, and, if there does exist an internal hereditary principle controlling such orthogenetic evolution, there does not appear to be any essential contradiction between its gradual operation in the " mutations of Waagen " and its occasional hurried operation in the " mutations of de Vries," which are by their definition discontinuous or saltatory (Osborn, 1907).
in operation outside of Vera Cruz and military needs led to its immediate extension to Paso del Macho, at the foot of the sierras, about 35 m.
of railway in operation, of which 11,851 m.
Wireless telegraphy was represented in 1908 by a connexion between Mazatlan and Lower California, which was in successful operation.
In 1850 there were in operation 467 m.; this mileage had increased to 1015 in 1880 and to 1167.14 on the 1st of January 1909.
This was designed to be only temporary,' but was in operation from the 5th of January 1776 to the 2nd of June 1784.
Through the influence of Henry Clay an act of admission was finally passed, to come into operation as soon as the state legislature would pledge itself not to pass any legislation to enforce this clause.
PASSPORT, or safe-conduct in time of war, a document granted by a belligerent power to protect persons and property from the operation of hostilities.
The ten years from 1860 to 1870 witnessed the operation of the first great factor which reduced the rate of national increase, namely the Civil War.
About 1789 there were fourteen furnaces and thirty-four forges in operation in Pennsylvania.
of private canals of some importance were also reported as in operation in 1909.
In every one of the North American colonies there was in operation at that date a system of self-government, in seven colonies under a charter from the Crown.
All these three institutions are in operation in some Western states and are spreading to some of the Eastern cities.
While the new machinery of state was thus being put in operation other large questions presented themselves.
Although he was classed in Canada as a Liberal, his tendencies would in England have been considered strongly conservative; an individualist rather than a collectivist, he opposed the intrusion of the state into the sphere of private enterprise, and showed no sympathy with the movement for state operation of railways, telegraphs and telephones, or with any kindred proposal looking to the extension of the obligations of the central government.
A surgical operation is sometimes undertaken with success for enabling the engorged veins to empty themselves into the blood-stream in a manner so as to avoid the liver-route.
The difference in the cost of the operation is shown in the following tabular statement, both the cost in the aggregate on a year's imports and the cost per quarter: Quantity of Wheat and Wheaten Flour (as wheat) imported into the United Kingdom from various sources during the calendar year 1900, together with the average rate of freight.
The company possesses one of the finest electric stations in the world, and electrical apparatus for the working of train signals is in operation.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.